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The Next Air Monitoring Strategy Linking Agencies_ Disciplines

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The Next Air Monitoring Strategy Linking Agencies_ Disciplines Powered By Docstoc
					The Next Air Monitoring Strategy: Linking Agencies,
  Disciplines, Media and Global Communities…and the
  National Academy of Sciences, accountability and world peace.




      Rich Scheffe, EPA; Rudy Husar, Washington University;
        Jim Szykeman, EPA, Fred Dimmick, EPA; Steve Fine,
                     NOAA, Steve Young, EPA
How Encompassing?
http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/                National Ambient Air                                   L1              CENR/AQRS
                                             Monitoring Strategy                                  L2
                                             Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
                                             Research Triangle Park, NC                      NCORE L3
                                             December 2005

                                                   http://www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/monstratdoc.html

                aeronet

GEOSS
                                                       GAW
                                                                                        EMEP                       http://www.al.noaa.gov/AQRS/
                                                                                                                   reports/monitoring.html
                                    http://www.empa.ch/gaw/gawsis/                      http://www.emep.int/




                                                                                                                                              NOAA CMDL
http://earthobservations.org/
                                                                                                                                 Barrow




                                                                                                                              Trinidad Head




                                                                                                                               Mauna Loa




                                                                                                                               A. Samoa




                                                                                                                                 S. Pole
                                http://www.fz-juelich.de/icg/icg-ii/mozaic/home        NOAA                    NESDIS    http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/
                                             http://www.fz-juelich.de/icg/icg-ii/iagos/
http://www.igospartners.org/                                                                         http://www.nesdis.noaa.gov/
              Sequence
• Context, rationale setting
• Examples
• Strategic elements
             Context Setting
• Charged by CASAC monitoring subcommittee that
  endorsed National Ambient Air Monitoring Strategy
  (NAAMS), and recommended expansion to integrate
  across multiple organizations and disciplines (e.g.,
  atmospheric research, ecosystems)

• Air Quality Research Subcommittee (AQRS) of the
  Committee for Environment Natural Resources
  (CENR) request to develop a broad inter-agency
  observation strategy
                         Linking Themes
                (or air quality assessment future)
• Spatial scales
   – Hemispherical-Continental-national/regional-urban-local
      {global(1000km) –synoptic (100km) – meso 10km)}
   – Increasing importance of Global and local (near roadway phenomena)
• Climate-AQ-long range transport interactions and C balances
• Multiple Media
   – air – land/soil – water
   – deposition, ecosystem and environmental welfare needs elevated
       • Facilitates integration of observations
• Composition…Multiple pollutant
   – chemical (compounds, aggregate groupings)
   – physical (size distribution)
   – Builds a MP assessment focus and links with transport and MM
     needs
• Time
   – Current (forecasting, problem definition, strategy development
     basis)
   – Retrospective
                              Accountability assessments
   – Prospective
                      Challenge’ How to accommodate global and local scales?

                                    Next AQ challenges: Near Roadway and International Transport

24-h Average PM10 Mass and Chemical Composition in Downey (Source Site)




                                                                        Concentration (
 Metals
 OC                                                                  14




                                                                              g/m3)
 EC                           MMD ~                                  12
 (NH4)2OS4
 NH4NO3
                              0.35 um                                10




                                                                             m
                                                                     8
                                                                     6
                                                                     4
                                                                     2
     < 0.1       0.1 - 0.35 0.35 - 1.0        1 - 2.5       2.5 - 10 0
                   Riverside-Rubidoux (Receptor Sites)
     metals
                                                                   14
     OC                                                                 concentration (m g/m3)
     EC                                                            12
     (NH4)2SO4
                                                                   10
     NH4NO3
                  MMD ~
                                                                   8
                  0.7 um
                                                                   6

                                                                   4

                                                                   2

                                                                   0
      < 0.1      0.1 - 0.35   0.35 - 1.0   1 - 2.5      2.5 - 10
                       Size range, microns
                            Stars aligned?

                                 Observation technologies
                                      {e.g., satellites}


       Collaboration (culture)                                  Computational power
       empire building?




                                                               Science, talent
                                            Alignment          {embodied in AQ models
Budgets, agency collaboration
 resource/program accountability                                and young geniuses}




                                                        Information technologies
        Accountability, ↓ regulatory                    {e.g., data sharing protocols}
        assessments {e.g., NAS, CASAC}
                                Example User Client Missions
                                Apparent divergences?

                                       NPS
                                       Protect ecosystems,               NASA
                                       AQ WQ                      Explore fundamental
USDA
Protect/optimize Ag                                               Earth System Properties
and forest resources


                         EPA (Protect human health and environment)
                         Improve air, water, ecosystem health



                                                               CDC
      NOAA                                                     To promote health and
      To understand and predict changes in the
      Earth’s environment and conserve and                     quality of life by preventing
      manage coastal and marine resources to                   and controlling disease,
      meet our nation’s economic, social and
                                                               injury, and disability.
      environmental needs”
Or substantial convergence and optimization potential?


                  Client Data Overlaps




                    Common data
                          For instance,
•   Health
     – effects/outcomes associations (PHASE)
     – Public health warnings/forecasting
•   Air program support
     – defining attainment/nonattainment areas
                                                           Benefit from
       (and projection, current practice)
     – developing emission strategies
                                                           Air quality
     – accountability                                      characterizations
•   Environmental
     – Ecosystem deposition assessments/support
     – AQ trends in National Parks
     – Regional haze assessments
•   Atmospheric science
     – Diagnosing emissions and models            And benefit even more
                                                  from rich (t,s,c)
                                                  AQ characterizations
            Consequently
• A simple overarching goal or vision,

  – Strive for maximum and efficient AQ
    characterization in time, space and
    compositional terms
Examples
                                      National Ambient Air                                   L1              CENR/AQRS
    GEOSS                             Monitoring Strategy                                  L2
                                      Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
                                      Research Triangle Park, NC                      NCORE L3
                                      December 2005

                                            http://www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/monstratdoc.html




                                                GAW
http://earthobservations.org/                                                    EMEP                       http://www.al.noaa.gov/AQRS/
                                                                                                            reports/monitoring.html
                             http://www.empa.ch/gaw/gawsis/                      http://www.emep.int/




                                                                                                                                       NOAA CMDL
                                                                                                                          Barrow




                                                                                                                       Trinidad Head




                                                                                                                        Mauna Loa




                                                                                                                        A. Samoa




                                                                                                                          S. Pole
                         http://www.fz-juelich.de/icg/icg-ii/mozaic/home        NOAA                    NESDIS    http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/
                                      http://www.fz-juelich.de/icg/icg-ii/iagos/
http://www.igospartners.org/                                                                  http://www.nesdis.noaa.gov/
       Coordinating Earth Observing Systems
                Vantage Points                              Capabilities
                                                             L1/HEO/GEO
Permanent


                  Far-                                       TDRSS &
                Space                                        Commercial
                                                             Satellites
                                                            LEO/MEO
              Near-                                         Commercial
             Space                                          Satellites
                                                            and Manned
                                                            Spacecraft

              Airborne                                     Aircraft/Balloon
                                                           Event Tracking
Deployable




                                                           and Campaigns



             Terrestrial



                                 Forecasts & Predictions                    User
                                                                          Community
Demonstrating the Power of Integrating Air
 Quality Information through Partnerships




 Monitoring      Modeling       Satellite
        Air Quality/Public Health NTO Integrated Observed-Modeled Air Quality Fields




                                            GEOS-12                                                        AQUA MODIS                                TERRA MODIS
                                      CONUS every 30 minutes                                            ~1:30 local overpass                         ~10:30 local overpass




                                                 Products                                                               Products
                                                 Aerosol Optical Depth                                                   Aerosol Optical Depth
                                                 (GASP)                                                                  (MOD04_L2)


                              NOAA                                                       `                   NASA                                       NASA
                                                                          NOAA
                           NESDIS/ORA &                                                                      GFSC                                       GFSC
                                                                         NESDIS
                          CREST Institutes                                                                   DACC                                   Science Team
                                  Products                                                                                                               Products
                                Algorithms/QA                                                                                                            Algorithms/QA
                                                                                             US EPA
                                       ?                                                  OAQPS/ORD/OEI
                               UMBC                                                        RSI Gateway                                           US EPA
                            CREST Institute                                                                                                       AQS
                                                                               Products
                                                                         Spatial surface Predictions                                                     Products
       REALM                                                             Satellite/Model/Surface Data                                                   SLAMS/NAMS SURACE
 Continuous Vertical                          HHS                        Fusion                                                                         PM2.5 Data
 Resolution Data                           CDC-EPHTN                                                                   EPA
                                                                                                 NOAA
*Note: Regional East                                                                                                                             State & Local
                                                                                                 NWS                OAR & ORD
Atmospheric Lidar Mesonet
                                                          State Public                                                                             Canadian
(REALM) is university led
                                    Products                 Health                               Products              Products                  Providences
federated network by UMBC        Studies and Impacts to                                      CMAQ Forecast Data     CMAQ Assessment Data
and is identified as a NTO in    human health
                                                          Departments
the implementation plan.
Future Air Quality Predictions Will Likely Benefit from Assimilation
 of Satellite Observations to provide Modeling Constraints and
  Merging of Global and Regional Chemical Transport Models
                                                             Public
                                                             Impact


                                           CMAQ
                                           Regional
                                           Prediction

                        Global
                      Assimilation
                                                           Scientific
                                                         Understanding
     Satellite Data
       Products




                                     Current research is being conducted with a
                                     nested global- to regional-scale
                                     meteorological and chemical modeling system
                                     for assimilating and predicting the chemical
                                     state of the atmosphere (air quality).
   We Take Advantage of the Strengths of Each Data
        Type by Analyzing the Data Together




  All of the data combined indicate that the increased levels of fine particles
measured on July 21, 2004 in North Carolina were due to the Alaskan fire event.
                                                  Improved Emissions
                                                  Inventory
                                                                                                Reduced exposure
                                                                                                  (near term)
                                                           Improved forecasting
           Total column depth                              system
           (through Satellites)
                                                                                                  Air program
                                                                                                  accountability

                                                                        Optimized PM2.5, O3

                                                                                                Health research
           AQ model results

                                                                         Characterizations
                                                                                                 Emission strategy
                                                                                                 development
                              Vertical Profiles        Improved Transport
Land (Pt) AQ Monitors
                                                       Assessments

Integrated Observation- Modeling
                                                  Air Quality Process
                                                  Assessments




                                          Products                                            Benefits
         Arithmetic injustice

• Greater than 95% of air pollutant mass
  is located above 100m,
  yet we focus 95 % of our
  characterization on the bottom 10
  meters
 {compromises both predictive and current
 characterization phenomena}
      Why is this important?
• Competing demands of representativeness
  (t,s,c) and truth require complimentary use of
  predictive and observational tools
The Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation
             (PHASE) Project

• Collaboration between the US EPA and the Centers
  for Disease Control (CDC)
• Fusion application: Develop and evaluate
  alternative air quality characterization methods for
  environmental public health tracking
   – Air Pollutants
       • Ozone and Particulate Matter
   – Health Endpoints
       • Asthma and Cardio Vascular Disease
• Working with 3 CDC State Partners
   – Maine
   – New York
   – Wisconsin
• Much broader spin off applications
Daily PM2.5 Concentration (ug/m3) Sept. 12, 2001
    EPA FRM Monitoring Data and CMAQ
                   Strategy Elements
• Inventory/cataloguing of what we have
   – Existing strategies (NAAMS, IGACOS, GEOSS,…)
   – Existing networks/obs. systems
       • How expansive?

• Stating objectives, goals questions

• Identification of integration drivers
   – Identification of critical information gaps
       • e.g., vertical profiles, rural sites
   – Information technology solutions
   – Roles of existing structures
       • GEOSS, CENR, EPA/STAPPA/Tribal, …., CASAC, NPS
   – AQ forecasting

• Implementation plan
   – Recommendations
   – Schedules
   – roles
                        Preliminary Suggestions
•   Strengthen horizontal, ground based connections
     – Work through CENR/AQRS to integrate across agencies and media?
•   Start connecting ground and total column
     – Build on NAAMS and IGACO structures
         • Similarity in key species (Level 2)
     – Enhance vertical profile resolution
         • Integrating ground based lidars, sondes
         • Routine aircraft (MOZAIC/IAGOS)
              –   Additional species?
•   Develop data-model fusion protocols
     – Build on PHASE success
     – Incorporating routine AQ model forecasting results
     – Advance to true chemical data assimilation
•   Expand to International/hemispherical integration
     – NARSTO to LRTAP?
         • Common challenges and information sources
•   Organize Information Technology infrastructure
     – Deal with massive data quantities
     – Facillitate access and interpretabilit
     – Data-Fed, Fed. Architecure, ESIP, RSIG
•   Uphold positive cultural change
     – Up with collaboration
     – Down with empire building
Common parameters linking column totals and surface measurements


                                                         NCORE
                                                         Level 2
                                                         species


                                                           +
                                                           +




                                                               +
                                                               +
                                                               +
                        Issues
• Accommodating bottom –up and top-down
  approaches
  – E.g., importance of local scales for near roadway
    and HAPs related exposures and hemispherical
    scales for regional transport impacts
• Stovepipes..Breaking the single project, single
  agency focus
  – Difficult to develop ownership of elements that
    enable substantial synergistic benefits for multiple
    clients
     • IT support; vertical chemical profiling, fusion
• Complexity due to enormous scope and
  numerous entities
              NAS, CAAAC
              CASAC, OMB       NOAA                                                        GEOSS
       EPA                                                               PM research
                                        NASA                                                         Eco-informatic
 CDC                                                             PHASE                               Test beds

NPS
             Organizations                  Private
                                            Sector
                                                            Risk/exposure
                                                            assessments
                                                                                   Programs             AQ
                                                                                                        forecasting
                                  States/Tribes/RPO’s
USDA
                                  Interstate orgs.
                                                                                                Accountability/
                                                                   NAAQS
                                                                   setting                      indicators
   DOE                         NARSTO
                                               Coordination
             Enviros                                                              SIPs, nat. rules
                       Academia                Cluster
                                               Mess                               designations


                                            NADP      Satellite data

                           IMPROVE, NCore                     Intensive studies
                           PM monit, PAMS
                                                                         PM centers
                           Supersites

                        Health/mort.
                                            Data sources                    CASTNET
                        records
                                                                   Other networks:
                                                                   SEARCH, IADN..
                               Lidar
                               systems                     Emissions
                                            CMAQ           Meteorology
                                            GEOS-CHEM
I think we need an IT solution to
    glue this mess together…
  Information Landscape: Info System Data
               Access, Processing and Products


                   Uniform
   Providers       Access         Data Processing      Info Products          Users
                                   Web Service Chain   Reports, Websites
                                         SciFlo
       EPA                                               Forecasting           Public
     AIRNow

                                         DataFed
     EPA R&D                                             Compliance           Manager
      Model

      NASA
      DAACs                                              Sci. Reports
                                   Custom Processing                          Scientist


     others                                                 Other              other



• The info system transforms the data into info products for each user
• In the first stage the heterogeneous data are prepared for uniform access

• The second stage performs filtering, aggregation, fusion and other operations
• The third stage prepares and delivers the needed info products
     Or does the IT world create
          their own mess?
•   Data Fed
•   RSIG
•   ESIP
•   Federation Architecture
•   AQS
•   AIRNOW
•   Data Mart
•   Data Warehouse
•   VIEWS
                   Accountabilty
                for the AQ Manager
                Is the air is cleaner and
                    safer to breath?

             Can an integrated monitoring-modeling
                    approach measure this?


Accountability as a program vehicle to accommodate enhanced assessment change?
           Accountability and Indicators Pipeline

               Source emissions
               Direct NO, SO2, VOC,                  Increasing influence in
               CO, metals,                           confounding factors and
                                                     perceived value to public policy


      Ambient precursors and intermediates
      NO, NOy, CO, VOC, SO2, metals,
      radicals, peroxides

          Ambient target species
          O3, PM, HAPs

      Secondary and deposition loads
      Visibility, acidification,
      eutrophication, metals

   Exposures
   Inhalation, digestion
                                                                    Increasing confidence
                           Ecosystem + effects
Health effects                                                      In characterization
                           Defoliation, Visibility
Asthma,
cardio-pulmonary ↓,        ↓ biodiversity,
Cancer, death              Metals concentration

            Perceived (measured?)
            Life quality                                                Feedback/correction
      What it amounts to…
• Communication, connectivity, synergism

				
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