Document Sample
            Of DEEN

Notes compiled from the following sources:
                 Ta’leemul Haqq – S. Desai, Dawatul Haqq
For Fiqh         Tasheelul Fiqh – Jamiatul Ulama, Lenasia, S. Africa
                 Kitabut Tahaarat – YMMA, Benoni, S.Africa
                 Kitabus Salat – YMMA, Benoni, S.Africa
                 Regulations of Zakah by Mufti M Rafee Uthmani
                 Ramadhaan to Hajj – Mufti M. Faruq
                 Hadiyaa E Khawaateen
                 Birgivi’s Manual Interpreted - Hidayah Hartford
                 Kitabul Imaan – YMMA, Benoni, S. Africa
For Aqaa-id      Tasheelul Aqaa-id – Jamaiatul Ulama, Lenasia, S. Africa
                 Eesaa (IDA)
                 Imaan & its Essentials - Jamiatul Muhammad Zakaria ( Publications no 6 )
                 Website of Mufti A H Elias
                  Muhammad s the Last Prophet – Sayyed Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
For Seerah        Seerat Khaataamul Ambiya s – Mufti Shafi
                  Muhammad s the Beloved Prophet – Iqbal Ahmed Azami
                  Magnanimity & Marraiges of Muhammad s - IDA
                  Sealed Necter

Further Reading:
What Islam Is – Mawlana Manzoor Nu’mani
Ashraf’s Noble Character
Ashraf’s Beautiful Muaasharat
Heavenly Ornaments by Shaykh Ashraf Ali Thanwi
Sunnats – Mufti E.M.H. Salejee

Description                                           Page

Sunnats of Majlis (gathering)                         1
A Muslim's Life (chart)                               2
Categories of Islamic Laws (chart)                    3
Types of Charity (chart)                              4
The Correct Aqeedah                                   5
     Tawheed & Risaalat                               6
     Beliefs in the Aakhirat (Hereafter)              6
     Other Beliefs                                    7
     The Big Bang / Evolution Theories                9
     The Israa & Mi'raaj                              9
     Qadr (fate)                                      9
     Minor & Major Sign of Qiyamah in Detail          9
     The Minor Signs of Qiyamah                       9
     The Major Signs of Qiyamah                       10
     Signs Preceding the Advent of Imam Mahdi         10
     Imam Mahdi                                       10
     The Appearance of Dajjaal                        10
     ‘Isa u (Jesus)                                   11
     The 40 Day Fog                                   12
     The Night of Three Nights                        12
     The Rising of the Sun from the West              12
     The Emergence of the Animal from the Ground      12
     The Breeze                                       12
     The Rules of the Abyssinians                     12
     The Fire                                         12
     Blowing of the Soor (Trumpet)                    13
     The Plains of Qiyamah                            13
Najaasat (impurity)                                   14
Water                                                 15
Ghusl (Compulsory Bath)                               16
     Sunnat Method of Performing Ghusl                16
Wudhu (Ablution)                                      17
     Sunnat Method of Performing Wudhu                17
Tayammum (Dry Ablution)                               18
     Method of Performing Tayammum                    18
Istinja                                               18
Mazoor (An Excused Person)                            19
Menstruation / Istihaadhah / After-birth           20
Salaat (chart)                                     38
     Conditions of Salaat                          38
     6 Faraa'idh of Salaat                         38
Sajdaa-e-Sahw                                      39
     Method of the Sajdaa-e-Sahw                   39
     When to Perform Sajdaa-e-Sahw                 39
     Fard Acts of Salaat                           39
     Wajid Acts of Salaat                          39
Some Examples of when Sajdaa-e-Sahw is performed   40
Remember Allah S At All Times                      41
The Islamic Calendar & Important Dates             42
Seerah of the Prophet s (The Makkan Phase)         43
The Madinise Phase (l0 Years)                      44
Wifes / Daughters of the Prophet s                 47
                   SUNNATS OF MAJLIS (GATHERING)
 •    To remember Allah S and to send Durud on our beloved Prophet s in every gathering
 •    To sit in any place and to sit close together and not far apart
 •    When any person comes in, then out of respect and to make the newcomer feel accepted, to
      move a bit making space (even if there is space)
 •    It is not permissible for a person to sit between two people without their permission
 •    It is incorrect to remove any person from their seat and take their place
 •    If there are three people together it is wrong for two of them to speak in another language
      which is foreign to the third
 •    When our Prophet s intended to leave any gathering in which he had participated, he would
      make Istighfaar 10-15 times. In one narration the following Istighfaar is reported: (Ibn Sunni)

                 ِ ْ ُ ْ َ ُ ْ ‫َ ْ َ ﱡ‬                                  ُ ْ ْ
                 ‫اَستَغفِر ﷲَ الﱠذي الاِلهَ اِالّ ھُو الحي القَيﱡم واَتُوب اِلَيه‬
 •    Our Prophet s has said the recital of the following du’a before standing up from any
      gathering is a means of forgiveness of the sins committed in it: (Tirmizi)

                      ‫سبْحانَ ﷲِ وبِحمده سبحانَك اللّھم وبِحمدك‬
                      َ ِْ َ َ ‫َ َ ِْ ُْ َ ُﱠ‬                               ُ
                    َ ْ ُ ْ َ َ ُ ْ ْ
                    ‫واَشھد اَنْ الّاِلهَ اِالّ اَنتَ اَستَغفِرك واَتُوب اِلَيك‬
                                                ْ                       َُ ْ َ
                                   ETTIQUETTES OF HALAQA
 •    Ikhlaas
 •    To start with praising & glorifying Allah S and Durud on our beloved
       Prophet s
 •    To sit in a position of Tashahhud
 •    To be in a state of wudhu
 •    To have intention of learning, practicing and propagating Deen
 •    To recite Durud upon our Prophet s on hearing him mentioned
 •    To listen attentively/ not to laugh at anyone / to show respect to everything to do with learning
 •    To ask questions at the end (referring questions of masaail to Ulama)
 •    To end with du’a

                                    DU’AA FOR KNOWLEDGE

   ْ ْ ُْ ْ ْ
  .‫رب اشْرح لى صدْرى. ويَسرلى اَمرى. واحلُل عقدةً منْ لﱢسانِى. يَفقَھوا قَولِى‬
                              ‫ّ ْ َ ﱢْ ْ ْ ِ ْ َ ْ ْ َُْ ﱢ‬            ْ َ   ‫َ ﱢ‬
     Rabbish rahlee sadree, wayassirlee amree, wahlul ‘uqdatam mil lisaanee, yafqahu qawlee
                       O my Lord! Expand for me my breast. Ease my task
             and remove the impediment from my speech, so that they understand me

                    ُِْ َ ْ ُْ َْ ْ َ                                 َِْ
                   .‫سبحانَك ال علم لَنا اِالﱠ ما علﱠمتَنا اِنﱠك اَنتَ العلِيم الحكيم‬
                                                   ْ َ َ                     َ ُْ
         Subhaanaka laa ‘ilma lanaa illaa maa ‘allamtanaa innaka antal ‘aleemul hakeem
          Glory be to You. We do not have any knowledge except what You let us know.
                           Verily, You are the All-Knowing, the Wise.

                                              ًِْ ْ ِْْ ‫َ ﱢ‬
                                             ‫رب زدني علما‬
                                        Rabbi zidnee ‘ilmaa
                                 O Allah! Increase me in knowledge

                             ‫اَللّھم انفَعنا بِما علﱠمتَنا وعلﱢمنا ما يَنفَعنا‬
                               ُ ْ         ْ َ َ ْ َ             ْ ْ ‫ُﱠ‬
             Allaahumman fa’naa bimaa ‘allamtanaa wa’allimnaa maa yanfa’unaa
       O Allah! Grant us benefit from what you teach us, and teach us what is good for us

                                  ٍ َْ ْ ْ‫َ ﱢ ﱢْ َ َ ﱢْ َ ﱢ‬
                                 .‫رب يَسر وال تُعسر وتَمم بِالخير‬
                        Rabbi yassir walaa tu’assir watammim bil khayr
               O Allah! Make it easy and do not make it hard and complete it well

                                     Du’a to be recited at the end:

. َ‫سبْحانَ ربﱢكَ رب العزة عما يَصفُونَ . وسالم عَلى المرسلِيْنَ . والحمد ِ ِ رب العلَميْن‬
      ِ ْ ‫َ ﱢ‬       ُْ َ ْ َ       َ ُْْ       ٌ َ َ          ِ ‫َ ﱢ ِْ ﱠ ِ َ ﱠ‬  َ       ُ
                             Subhaana rabbika rabbil ‘izzati ‘ammaa yasifoon.
                Wasalaamun ‘alal mursaleen. Walhamdu lillaahi rabbil ‘aalameen

                                                                    A MUSLIM’S LIFE
                                                            (The Shari’ah- a complete way of life)
            5 pillars of islam

    Aqaa-id                      ‘Ibaadaat                       Mu’amalaat                          Akhlaaq                            Husn e
    (Beliefs)                    (Worship)                   (Concerning rulings                  (Noble Character)                 Mu’aasharaat
in the following                                                 regarding any                                                     (Beautiful Social
                                                            agreement or dealings                                                Conduct i.e. to behave
                                                             between two parties,                                                in such a way that no
                   Salaat   Saum             Hajj   Zakat   be they monetary or by                                              inconvenience / burden
                                                                    way of             Good Qualities           Bad Qualities       or hurt is felt by
                                                                 duties/rights)                                                         anyone)
    Risaalat     Purity
    Angels       Method                                                                   Sincerity                 Pride
     Books        Time                                                                    Gratitude                Greed
   Prophets                                                      Borrowing                Patience                 Malice           Conduct with:
      Fate                                                         Lending                Humility                 Anger                Parents
Day of Judgment                                                    Buying                Repentance               Jealousy             Children
Life after Death                                                   Selling                  Etc.                    Etc.             Neighbours
      Isa u                                                        Renting                                                          Elders/Juniors
    Me’raaj                                                        Letting           ,,,,,                                              Guests
       Etc.                                                     Employment                                                               Etc.
                                                                Nikah/Talaaq                                                         Etiquettes of
                                                                 Inheritance                                                            Salaam
                                                              Duties to: spouse,                                                       Talking
                                                              children, parents,                                                         Gifts.
                                                               neighbours etc.                                                        Promises

                                                                     CATEGORIES OF ISLAMIC LAWS

             FARD                        WAAJIB                  SUNNAT                MUSTAHAB or                HARAAM                    MAKROOH                 MUBAH
          (compulsory)                 (compulsory)             (practice of                 NAFL                 (prohibited)               (disliked)           Act of which
        Law established               Law established           Prophet s)            (Liked or optional)      Law established                                  brings no reward
        through absolute              through a lesser                                 Act which brings        through absolute                                   if done & no
              proof                    strength proof                               reward if done, but no           proof.                                      punishment if
                                                                                         sin if omitted       Sinful to neglect &                                    omitted
                                                                                                               to deny it is kufr

                                     Sinful to neglect it
                                    without a valid reason

                                                                                                                  Makhrooh e Tahrimi                      Makhrooh e Tanzeehi
                                                 Sunnate Muakkadah               Sunnate ghair Muakkadah           (close to forbidden)                (disliked to a lesser degree)
                                                   Act of Prophet s             Act of Prophet s which he        Law established through                  Law that warrants no
   Fard e ‘Ain             Fard e Kifaaya
                                                 which he ALWAYS               performed most of the time &      proof of a lesser degree            punishment if acted on, but one
Compulsory upon         Waived from rest if
                                                  performed & never                 omitted some times.             Sinful to neglect it             will be rewarded for abstaining
  all individuals.     one or two people do
                                                       omitted.                   Not sinful if omitted but       without a valid reason                          from it
Sin to neglect & to       it, but if no-one
                                                 Extremely disliked to           earns great reward if done
  deny it is kufr       performs it, all will
                                                  neglect it without a
                               be sinful
                                                     valid reason

                                                      TYPES OF CHARITY (SADAQAH)

             FARDH                                                   SADAQAH-e-NAFL                                                    SADAQAH-e-WAAJIB
           (compulsory)                                 (Voluntary expenditure made for Allah for which                                    (compulsory)
                                                          the following two terms are generally used)                                    These are of 4 types

             ZAKAT                                                                                                                        SADAQAH-e- FITR
                                                      SADAQAH                                   LILLAH
 Is the obligation on a sane, adult                                                                                                 Is compulsory on every Muslim
Muslim to pay 2 ½ % of the wealth          This is charity given voluntarily       This is voluntary charity given for             who has sufficient basic needs for
 he owns if it reaches the value of         which is not of a waajib nature        the upliftment of humanity or the               himself and his dependants for the
  Nisaab or more ( in the form of          i.e. voluntary sadaqah given with                 Deen of Allah S                          day of ‘Eid-ul-Fitr and after
 cash/business shares, gold/silver,             intention of warding off            i.e. building Masjid, madrassah,                  deducting debts he possesses
 business assets etc) and is in his        difficulties, before a journey etc.       their maintenance, purchasing.                  wealth equivalent to nisaab for
possession for one complete lunar                                                     Islamic literature, payment of                            that day.
                year.                        Recipients: May be given to                salaries etc, digging wells,                    Recipients: Poor & needy
   Recipients: only to Muslims.              Muslims, non-Muslims, rich,                  building hospitals etc.                               Muslims.
    For details of recipients see          poor, friends or family and for the                                                      Not one’s parents, grandparents,
    Tasheelul Fiqh No. 8 p121.              Deen of Allah as described for                                                             children or grandchildren.
                                                          Lillah                                                                     Amount: 1.633 kg of wheat or
Nisaab for Zakat is 612.36 grams of                                                                                                 3.266kg of barley or the market
 silver or wealth equivalent to that                                                                                                   value of 1.633kg of wheat.
   value. (nisaab for gold is 87.48
 (See Mufti Rafee’s Zakat book pg
  8-11 for details & Mufti Faruq’s
  Ramadhaan to Hajj book pg17)

                 MANNAT                                         KAFFAARAH                                                                FIDYAH

     It is when a vow is taken to give a      Is a penalty to compensate for a fast of Ramadaan                 A permanently ill or old person who cannot fast has to give
        specific amount in charity if a      broken without a valid shar’ee reason. Penalty is to               fidyah as compensation for missed fasts. It is also given for
         certain task is accomplished.     fast for 60 consecutive days, but if unable to do so due                         missed salaat of a deceased person.
        Recipients: Same as for zakat.     to severe illness, to give two meals to 60 people OR to                             Recipients: Same as for zakat
                                                  give the equivalent thereof in cash or kind.                       Amount: Same as for Fitrah for each fast or salat
                                        THE CORRECT AQEEDAH
Aqeedah is belief, and for one to be a Muslim it is essential to have the correct beliefs as told by Allah S and His
Messenger s. Many a time a person can leave the fold of Islam by certain actions or beliefs.

The Structure of Islam is erected on five things (fundamentals / pillars):
    • Imaan
    • Salaat – the five obligatory prayers
    • Zakat – compulsory charity if one has enough wealth
    • Saum – fasting during the month of Ramadhaan
    • Hajj – to perform the pilgrimage if one has the means

*Note: Islam is not confined to these five obligatory acts only. Though they are of great importance, other branches of
Deen are just as important i.e. Honesty in monetary dealings, social conduct and mutual relations, noble character,
prohibiting evil and commanding good etc.

Imaan is faith. It is to accept with the heart and declare with the tongue and it is based on three fundamental principles,
i.e. beliefs in:
      • Tawheed – the oneness of Allah S
      • Risaalat – Prophethood of Muhammad s
      • Aakhirat – the Hereafter

The declaration of faith is, “I believe in Allah S, His Angles, His Books, His Messengers, the Day of Judgement, and
that good and evil is preordained by Allah S and life after death”

Islaam is to submit oneself to the will of Allah S, to act upon all His commandments and to refrain from all
disobedience. It is therefore an external (zaahiri) expression of the internal (baatini) condition.

In today’s climate of diverse personal opinions and the emergence of various fitnah, it is imperative to have knowledge
of the basic tenets of our Beliefs. The following is the Aqeedah of the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah (i.e. the followers
of the Sunnah of the Prophet s and his illustrious Companions) which is the mainstream, majority Sunni group and
which constitutes 99% of the Ummah.

It was the Companions of the Prophet s who saw and heard his every action and word and who were his direct students.
The Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah accept the Companions as the sole authorities on Islam and any opinion, reason or
logic presented by anyone which is in conflict with their interpretation is cast aside. It is their meticulously recorded and
narrated Islam which has come down to us through those who succeeded them.

                    “Follow and obey Allah and obey the Rasul, and those in authority amongst you”
                                                     (Nisaa 89)

    •    In Aqaa-id the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah follow Imam Abul Hasan al-Ash’ari and Imam Abu Mansoor al-

    •    Fiqh: is the science of extracting or deriving rulings of the Shari’at from firstly, the Qur’an and Sunnah which
         are the primary sources, and then from Ijmaa (consensus of the Companions), and Qiyaas (analogical
         deduction), which are the secondary sources.

         Taqleed is to follow the teachings of one of the Imams in all matters pertaining to the Shari’ah without
         demanding proof, with the belief and conviction that his teachings are in harmony with the Qur’an and Sunnah.

         In Fiqh the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah make Taqleed of the four Madhaahib, (Schools of thought) of
         Imam Abu Haneefah, Imam Shaafi’ee, Imam Maalik and Imam Ahmed ibn Hambal.
         In other words the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah follow the Qur’an and Sunnah through the illustrious
         Imams of Fiqh.

PART 1: Tawheed & Risaalat

                                               ‫آلاِله اِالّ ﷲُ محمد رسول ﷲ‬
                                                 ٌ ُ ‫ُ َ ﱠٌ ﱠ‬
                                  “Laa-ilaaha illallaah Muhammadur rasoolullaah”
                       There is no deity (who is worthy of worship & obedience) except Allah S
                                      and Muhammad s is Allah’s S messenger

The kalimah consists of two parts, the first of which is an affirmation of Tawheed (the oneness of Allah S) and the other
of the Risaalat of Prophet Muhammad s.
This means to believe without doubt and accept with full understanding everything taught by Prophet Muhammad s and
to lead one’s life in total adherence to the complete Shari’at brought by him.

Beliefs in Allah S:
A Muslim believes that Allah S is One and He has no partner. He created the universe. He is the Sustainer and the
Nourisher and He has power over everything. He is the Protector and He has Knowledge of every atom in His creation.
There is none like Him and He begets not, nor is He begotten. He is eternal with no beginning or ending to His existence.
Comprehension does not encompass Him, and thought cannot understand Him. He is the All Hearing and Seeing. He is
free of all weaknesses and defects. He created man and predestined their lot and fixed their life span. He knows what
they will do before their creation. He orders them to be obedient to Him, and prohibits disobedience. Whatever He
wills for his creatures, it will be, and whatever He does not, will not be. He guides to the right way whomever He
pleases. He is Exalted above opposites or equals
* Ponder over His creation and His attributes

Beliefs in Prophet Muhammad s:
A Muslim believes that Prophet Muhammad s is Allah’s servant and messenger, the seal and last of all Prophets and
Messengers. Every claim to Prophethood after him is false. He was sent as a guide to all mankind. He is the noblest and
highest of rank in the entire creation.

A Muslim believes in Israa and the Mi'raaj and that the Mi'raaj (ascension to the heavens), was in body and soul.

A Muslim believes that Wahi (Revelation from Allah S) came to him.
* Love him and follow his way to acquire the love of Allah S

PART 2: Beliefs in The Aakhirat (Hereafter)
Beliefs in events preceding the Day of Qiyamat:
A Muslim believes in the Minor and Major signs preceding the Day of Judgement as predicted by Muhammad s

A Muslim believes in the Major signs, such as the appearance of Mahdi, the appearance of Dajjal; the appearance of
Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj (Gog and Magog); the rising of the sun from the West; the appearance of a talking beast; the breeze
and the spreading of the fire

Beliefs in the Day of Qiyamat and the Hereafter:
A Muslim believes in the Day of Qiyamat when the trumpet will be blown and everything in the universe will be
destroyed, when mountains will fly like cotton, stars will break down and the heavens will be split asunder.

A Muslim believes that the trumpet will be blown a second time when everything will be resurrected and human beings
and the Jinn will be assembled before their Creator to be accounted

A Muslim believes in the Mizaan (the scales)

A Muslim believes in the Big Shafa'ah i.e., the intercession of Nabi s to Allah on the Day of Judgement, which will
relieve mankind from the torment and anguish of waiting for requital.

A Muslim also believes in the smaller Shafa'ah of the Prophet s on behalf of some sinners so that they may receive the
forgiveness of Allah S.

A Muslim believes in the physical nature of Jannat (Paradise), and Jahannum (Hell) and that they have already been

A Muslim believes in the Aa'raaf (place between Jannah and Jahannum) which is the place where the dwellers of Jannah
and Jahannum will converse and which will eventually cease to exist.

A Muslim believes in the Siraat

A Muslim believes in al-Hawd or the Blessed Reservoir which removes thirst forever from the blessed ones according to
the authentic books of Hadith.

A Muslim believes in the deedaar (sighting) of Allah S in Jannah

PART 3: Other Beliefs
A Muslim believes in the Angels who were created from light and who are sinless and obey every order of Allah S; that
Jibraeel was a messenger to the Prophets, Mikaeel is in charge of rain, food etc, Izraeel is the Angel of death and Israfeel
will blow the trumpet and Munkar and Nakeer who will question us in the grave.

A Muslim believes in the Jinn who were created from smokeless fire

A Muslim believes that al-Qur'an is the Word of Allah S revealed to the Prophet s. It is not created like the speech of

A Muslim believes that wahi - Divine Revelation - terminated with the passing away of Muhammad s

A Muslim believes that no new Rasul or Nabi is to come after Muhammad s and ‘Isa u (Jesus) will come as an
Ummati (follower) of Muhammad s without losing his previous status of Prophethood.

A Muslim believes in the virgin birth of ‘Isa u and in all his miracles that are mentioned in the Qur'an and that Allah
saved him from crucifixion and raised him to heaven.

A Muslim believes that Allah revealed the Injil to ‘Isa u and the Tawrah to Musa u and Suhoof to Ibrahim u and the
Zabur to Dawud u

A Muslim believes that these Divine Books were the Word of Allah as is the Qur'an.

A Muslim believes in all the miracles of the Ambiyaa (Prophets) and Messengers that are mentioned in the Noble

A Muslim believes that Allah S referred to Ibrahim u as a "friend" and that He talked to Musa u in an audible voice.

A Muslim believes in the covenant with Allah which He drew from the children of Adam

A Muslim believes in al-Lawh, the "Slate" or the eternal record concerning everything in the seen and unseen worlds.

A Muslim believes in al-Qalam, the "Pen", which refers to the recording of everything.

A Muslim believes that none can interfere with or change that which is recorded in the al-Lawh. Thus a Muslim believes
that Allah S has foreknown everything.

A Muslim believes in al-Arsh, "Throne" (it is beyond description, it encompasses the universe, it is the centre of control
from where all Commands originate and it is borne by 8 powerful Malaaikah) and al-Kursi which is a physical object
and which cannot be comprehended by our minds

A Muslim believes in the Sidratul Muntaha, the final limit of the Malaaikah beyond which they are not permitted.
Prophet s is the only person among the creation who was honoured to go beyond this point on the night of Mi’raaj

A Muslim believes in the Baitul Ma’moor, the qiblah of the Malaaikah and around which they are perpetually engaged
in Tawaaf. The Ka’bah is directly below it
A Muslim loves all the companions of the Prophet s and does not speak of anyone of them except with reverence and
respect. Love for them is a sign of good faith and hatred for anyone of them is a mark of hypocrisy.

A Muslim believes that the Khilaafat or succession of the administration of Islam after the Prophet s went to Abu Bakr,
Umar, Uthman and Ali (RadhiAllaahu-anhum) in this order and in justice.

A Muslim believes that the Blessed Ten about whom the Prophet s was inspired by Allah S to promise Paradise to are
also deserving of our testimony as such. They are Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali (RadhiAllaahu-anhum), Addur-
Rahmaan bin Auf, Talha bin Ubaidullah, Zubair bin al Awwaam, Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas, Sa'id bin Zaid, and Abu 'Ubaida
bin al Jarrah. May Allah S be pleased with them all.

A Muslim believes that all scholars from the past generation of Islam (the al-Tabi-een), down to the present generation
of scholars and pious learned people of Islam cannot be mentioned except with praise and appreciation. Whoever
mentions one of them with contempt is astray from the right way.

A Muslim does not separate from, or differentiate between the generality of the Muslim community. We see in the
jama'ah (the general community of Islam) the truth, and consider division in Islam as misguidance and an evil temptation
of the Shaytaan.

A Muslim does not consult or believe in an astrologer or soothsayer.

A Muslim believes in Taqdeer, that all things that happen and will happen are in the knowledge of Allah S and will
take place according to His will and command. In any loss or grief one must not think that it could have been avoided if
one had acted differently.

A Muslim believes that those who commit major sins among Muslims are not doomed to eternal punishment in Hell, if
they died believing in the Oneness of Allah S, even if they did not repent. Such sinners are under the judgement of
Allah S alone. He may forgive whoever He pleases as stated in His Divine Words

A Muslim believes in the Aalamul Barzakh (the phase of life after death) and that in the Barzakh there is reward and
punishment, comfort and hardship

A Muslim believes that supplication and charity given by the living Muslim on behalf of a dead Muslim is beneficial to
the dead.

A Muslim offers prayer for every dead Muslim but He does not judge or declare by His Judgement that a particular one
is deserving of Paradise or Hell.

A Muslim does not draw any weapon to threaten the life of any Muslim except in justice according to the Law of Islam.

A Muslim obeys Muslim leaders so long as they rule and act according to the Law of Allah S and His Messenger s.

A Muslim follows the generality of Muslims and does not follow the excesses, nor divisions, nor does he follow any
innovations in Islam. Muslims love the people of justice and faithfulness and dislike the people of injustice and deceit.

A Muslim believes that Allah S does not put a burden on His servants beyond their ability to bear, because of His
Mercy and Kindness, without being under any obligation to do so.

A Muslim believes that the Religion with Allah S from the beginning of the world until its end is Islam

A Muslim believes that Allah S created man, the first man being Adam u and then Hawwa from the rib of Adam. Each
creation of Allah’s has been designed by Him. It is kufr to believe that this universe came into existence incidentally or
due to a “Big Bang” alone and not by Allah’s creation. It is also kufr to believe that man started out as apes and
eventually became human through evolution. Allah S granted man intelligence and understanding and sent him to this
world with a definite purpose.

The Prophet s was taken by Jibra-eel u to Baitul Maqdis where he met all the previous Ambiya u and led them in
Salaah. From there he was raised to the first heaven where he met Adam u and thereafter on to the second heaven where
he met Yahya u and ‘Isa u. On the third heaven he met Yusuf u, on the fourth, Idris u, on the fifth Haaroon u, on the
sixth he met Musa u and on the seventh heaven he met Ibraaheem u. After this he was made to go forth (on his own)
beyond the Sidratul Muntaha beyond which no one has gone before. His meeting with Allah S took place and Salaat
was enjoined upon him on this occasion. Many things were shown to him the details of which will be covered during
lesson. For one to be a Muslim, belief in the Israa and Mi’raaj is essential.

Qadr is among the mysteries of Allah S. Man’s understanding is limited and therefore it is not fully comprehensible to
man nor can it be fully explained. Discussions on this matter have been prohibited by our Prophet s. People who
disregard this prohibition end up being confused and Shaytaan creates doubts in the minds and hearts. It is kufr to
disbelieve in Qadr

To doubt, reject, scorn or find faults, to mock or to make fun of any aspects of Islam can take one out of the fold of
Islam. To reject the clear meanings of the Qur’an or Hadith, or to twist their meanings by applying ones own
interpretation amounts to disbelief. To prostrate to anyone, to sacrifice an animal or to fast in the name of anyone
other than Allah is shirk (polytheism). For more detail refer to “Bahishti Zewar, part 1”

The Prophet s prophesised many events that are to occur prior to Qiyamah. These signs of Qiyamat are of two types:
the minor signs and the major signs.

The minor signs are those which began with the death of the Prophet s and will end with the birth of Imaam Mahdi. The
major signs are those that will begin with the emergence of Imaam Mahdi and end with the blowing of the trumpet.

The first minor sign of Qiyamat was the death of the Prophet s. The next sign was that many people would turn back to
disbelief and this prophesy was realised immediately after the death of the Prophet s, when many turned back to idol
worship and some started to follow false prophets. Another sign was the conquest of Baytul Muqaddas which happened
during the reign of Umar t. Next was the discord and disunity amongst the Ummah which occurred during the time of
Uthmaan t and 'Ali t. Many other signs of Qiyamat have also been mentioned in the Ahaadeeth, amongst which are:

1. Knowledge will be raised and ignorance will become widespread.
2. Adultery and alcohol abuse will become widespread.
3. The population of women will increase and that of men will decrease, so much so that a time will come when one
    man will be the guardian of 50 women.
4. Music, musical instruments and singing women will be common.
5. Falsehood will be common.
6. People will begin disobeying their mothers and obeying their wives.
7. People will begin to show affection towards their friends and have hatred for their fathers.
8. People in power will regard the property of people as their own.
9. Abuse of trust will be widespread.
10. Ignorant and unworthy people will become leaders.
11. People of low status and fussaaq (evil doers) will become the leaders of tribes.
12. Modesty and shame will become non-existent.
13. Oppression and tyranny will become widespread.

There are many other signs of Qiyamah. They are all true and will occur before the last day. Most of the minor signs
have already become apparent and will continue to do so as time goes on.
The Major signs will appear very close to Qiyamah. The first among them will be the advent of Imam Mahdi.

There are many signs that will precede his appearance; generally there will be great confusion, disputes and violent
deaths. Calamities will befall people so much so that there will be no shelter for them. There will be many battles and
fitnah, earthquakes, widespread adultery, erection of tall buildings, imitation of non Believers etc. Some specific signs
before his advent are that (according to some Ulama) the River Euphrates will disclose a mountain of gold over which
people will fight and die. There will be two eclipses, a lunar eclipse on the first night of Ramadhaan and a solar eclipse
in the middle of Ramadhaan. In the same year a battle will take place in Mina where many people will die and Hajjis
will be looted. There are many other signs, i.e. the earth will swallow a village near Damascus; an army with black
banners will come from the East etc.

The Muslim Ummah will be encircled by the domination of non Muslim forces from all sides and the Muslims will be at
their weakest. Yearning for Imam Mahdi will be strong.

Imam Mahdi will be from the progeny of Fatimah, the beloved daughter of the Prophet s. His name will be Muhammad.
His father's name will be 'Abdullah. He will resemble the Prophet s in character. He will be a slender man of medium
built with a broad forehead and a high bridged nose. He will speak with a slight stutter.

He will be a resident of Madinah from where he will flee in fear of being caught up in a dispute and made the new
Khalifah. He will flee to Makkah where some Makkans will bring him out of his house against his will, take him to the
Haram and pledge allegiance to him between the corner of the Ka’bah with the Hajare Aswad and the Maqaame
Ibraaheem. As news will spread an army will be sent from Syria to fight him, however the earth will swallow up this
army in a flat piece of land between Makkah and Madinah. On seeing this the pious saints of Syria and Iraq will pledge
allegiance to him. He will have to fight many battles (details in “Major signs before the Day of Judgement” – Mawlana
Ahmed Ali). He will first rule over the Arabs and then the entire world will be under his leadership. He will restore
peace and justice throughout the world. He will rule in complete accordance with the Shari'at of the Prophet s. Islam
will flourish during his reign and people will be happy and at peace.

During his lifetime Dajjal will appear and ‘Isa u will descend from Heaven.

The majority group among the Shi'a believe that the Mahdi was born in the year 256 AH. He then went into hiding in the
year 260 AH/872CE. They believe he is alive and will make his appearance when Allah S wills. This belief is baseless.

The word Dajjaal is derived from the Arabic word 'dajl' which means to deceive, dupe, cheat etc. hence Dajjaal means
imposter, swindler, cheat. (Story of Tamim Daari – in “Major signs before the Day of Judgement” page 21, by Mawlana
Ahmed Ali)

He will appear during the time of Imam Mahdi and ‘Isa u will descend from heaven and slay him. The Dajjaal
mentioned in the Hadeeth will be from a Jewish tribe. He will be known as maseeh. He will be one eyed. His hair will be
curly. On his forehead will be the letters (kaaf, faa, raa) which true believers will be able to read. He will appear between
Syria and Iraq and claim to be a prophet. He will thereafter go to Isfahaan where 70 000 Jews will become his followers.
Here he will make a claim of being God and begin to spread mischief throughout the world.

Two years before his appearance there will be a severe drought. To test the believers, Allah S will allow Dajjaal to
demonstrate many supernatural feats. He will cause rain to fall, plants to grow and raise the dead. He will burn a large
fire and call it Jahannam and he will also have a garden and call it Jannah.

With a great following he will move around the world spreading mischief and causing destruction. He will try to enter
the blessed lands of Makkah and Madeenah but he will be stopped by the Angels who will be standing guard at every
entrance of the city. He will then travel towards Damascus where Imam Mahdi will be living. Upon this Imam Mahdi
will make preparations for an army to fight him. After arranging his army he will go to the Masjid to perform Asr salaat
when suddenly, ‘Isa u, resting his hands on the shoulders of two Angels will descend from the sky on the eastern
minaret of the Jam'e Masjid of Damascus. From there he will come down by a ladder and Imam Mahdi will request him
to lead the salaat which he will refuse to do. After salaat, Imam Mahdi will offer to hand over total responsibility to ‘Isa
u but he will refuse saying his special mission is to kill Dajjaal.
The descent of ‘Isa u and consequent slaying of Dajjaal is the third major sign of Qiyamah.

‘Isa u is a Messenger from among the Messengers of Allah S. He had a miraculous birth i.e. without the agency of a
father, and his mother Maryam was a virgin and she was a chaste woman. Allah had chosen Maryam for a great miracle.
He wanted to show men that He could create a child without a father just as He created Adam u without a father or a
mother. Maryam’s mother had dedicated her to the worship of Allah S and Zakariyyah u was her guardian. She resided
in a chamber where no one was allowed to enter and so Zakariyyah u was surprised to see food whenever he entered.
On being questioned she replied that Allah S provided her with the food.

When an Angel appeared and gave her glad tidings of a child she was shocked and exclaimed that no man had touched
her. She was given the good news of an immaculate birth. This should not come as a surprise for those who believe, as
Allah S has power to do whatever He wills. After the birth people accused her of being unchaste. Maryam remained
quiet and merely pointed at the baby and ‘Isa u spoke to the people telling them he was the slave of Allah S and he
had been sent as a Messenger to the Children of Israel. He also stated that he had been sent to confirm the Law of the
Torah which was given to Musa u (Moses) and that he was given a scripture, the Injeel.

By the time he grew up the Israelites had forgotten the message brought to them by Musa u. They practiced every evil
to the extent that they even killed the Prophets sent to them by Allah S. In these circumstances he was ordered to
announce his Prophethood . The people mocked and jeered at him, made fun of his teachings and spread rumours about
his mother. He continued his preaching and when they demanded that he perform miracles to prove himself, he did so by
the will of Allah S. He made a clay bird and breathed life into it, he cured the blind and the lepers and brought the dead
back to life. The Qur’an also describes the incident where his disciples requested a meal and miraculously Allah S
provided them with a meal which descended from heaven.

As his popularity grew amongst the people the Jews conspired to kill him. They told the Roman governor that ‘Isa u
was a threat to the government and upon this falsehood his arrest was ordered. Roman soldiers surrounded the house he
was living in and Allah S sent an Angel to raise ‘Isa u physically up to the heavens i.e. bodily, while he was alive. The
soldiers sent in one of their men to find ‘Isa u and Allah S transformed his appearance to that of Isa u. When he did
not come out of the house the soldiers entered and arrested him thinking he was ‘Isa u. He screamed and shouted that he
was not who they thought but they ignored him and he was eventually crucified on the cross. Thus, ‘Isa u did not die,
but was raised physically to the heavens while he was alive and where he remains to this day. Our Prophet s met ‘Isa u
during his journey through the Heavens on the night of Me’raaj.

As mentioned before he will descend during the time of Imam Mahdi. Imam Mahdi will propose to hand over complete
control to ‘Isa u but he will decline saying that he has come with a special duty which is to kill Dajjaal. ‘Isa u will
pursue Dajjaal and kill him and thus the evil and corruption of Dajjaal will come to an end. Isa u will abolish the tax
and order the destruction of the cross and the killing of pigs.

The world will once again be filled with peace and justice and there will not be any disbelievers left as all the Christians,
Jews and idolators will embrace Islam After some time Imam Mahdi will die and ‘Isa u will become the ruler. He will
not reign as a Prophet but as a follower of the way shown by our Prophet Muhammad s. He will marry and have
children and will die a natural death.

Ya’jooj and Ma'jooj are two tribes who have been imprisoned behind a mountain range by Zul Qarnayn. They are a
powerful and wild people. When they emerge during the reign of ‘Isa u (after the death of Imam Mahdi) they will
wreak havoc on earth. ‘Isa u will ask Allah S to destroy them. A plague will be sent which will kill all of them. Allah
S will then send some birds, the likes of which have never been seen before who will eat some of them and throw the
remains in the ocean. Then there will be torrential rain that will cleanse the earth from the smell and diseases caused by
their dead bodies.

After this there will be great bounties and blessings in the world. Honesty, trust, goodness etc will spread on earth. Lions
will graze with camels and wolves with goats; children will play with snakes without being harmed and hatred and
jealousy will disappear. ‘Isa u will live for a period of time after which he will die and be buried next to the Prophet s.
After his death a person named Jahjaj of Yemen from the tribe of Quhtaan will be Ameerul Mu’mineen and he will rule
with justice and piety. After him will follow several rulers, however slowly evil will once again start to set in.
During this time a dense fog will cover the earth for 40 days. The result will be that people will begin to suffocate. The
Muslims will develop symptoms of a cold and the non believers will lapse into a state of unconsciousness. Some will
recover within a day, others after two or three days.

After the Fog clears suddenly after the 10th of Zul Hijjah, a night will become extended, which will instil restlessness
and fear in people and animals. This night will be as long as three nights.

One of the greatest signs of Qiyamat will be the rising of the sun from the west. This will occur after the ending of the
long night mentioned previously. The sun will rise from the west but it will have no brilliance. It will be very dim and
dull and will only rise to a hand span, thereafter, it will begin to set. Then it will resume its normal habit of rising from
the east and setting in the west. Every person alive at the time will witness these phenomena. After this no Imaan will be
accepted from any Disbeliever or repentance from any Muslim.

The books of Hadeeth confirm that this sign is the rising of the sun from the west. When the sun rises from the west
one’s Imaan or repentance will not be accepted as this will herald the end of creation. The Hereafter which until now
was hidden from sight will now be clear and apparent. Imaan in only accepted when brought in the state when one
believes in the unseen.

This will follow the rising of the sun from the west. Allah S mentions in the Qur’an:

 "And when the promise of Qiyamat unfolds on them; We will take out an animal from the ground that will talk to them.
                                  Indeed the people do not believe in our signs."

An earthquake will grip Mount Safa which will split open and this strange and wonderful animal will emerge from it. It
will talk to the people and travel around the world at great speed. With the Asaa (staff) of Musa u it will place a
luminous sign on the faces of the Believers which will make their faces glitter. With the ring of Sulaymaan u it will put
a stamp on the noses or necks of the Disbelievers which will cause their faces to become dark. After this it will disappear
(Kitaabul Imaan – S Africa, page 58)

After a short while a cool breeze will blow from the south. It will result in the death of all the Believers. Even if a
Believer was hiding in a cave or on top of a mountain the breeze will reach him and he will die. There will now be
nobody on earth who would differentiate between good and evil.

The world will now be filled with Disbelievers and they will come under the rule of a group of Abyssinians. Oppression
and tyranny will become very common. The world will be plunged into immodesty, evil and indecency. Along with
moral degeneration technology will reach its zenith. The Ka’bah will be destroyed brick by brick and Hajj will no longer
take place. The words of the Holy Qur’an will disappear from its pages and not a single person will be left to take the
name of Allah S. Many years will pass in this state until the sounding of the Soor.

The final sign of Qiyamat is a fire, starting from the centre of Yemen from which people will flee but the fire will follow
them driving them towards the plains of resurrection.

Imam Muslim reports a Hadeeth in which he mentions 10 of the major signs of Qiyamah. The last of which is:
                "A fire will emerge from Yemen and take the people to their place of resurrection."

Now Allah S will command Israafeel u to blow the soor. The soor is a gigantic horn shaped trumpet, a real material
object created by Allah S and rejection of its reality is kufr. The effect of its sound will bring about the destruction of
the entire universe – mountains will fly like flakes of cotton, stars will breakdown, the heavens will be split asunder –
and all creatures will be annihilated. A long period of time will pass in this condition of total silence and inactivity.
Thereafter, Israafeel u will again be commanded to blow the soor which will result in all the dead being resurrected (the
souls will return to their bodies). The first to rise will be our beloved Prophet s, followed by ‘Isa u, the Ambiyaa, the
Siddiqeen, the pious, the sinners and lastly the Disbelievers. They will proceed toward the Plain of Qiyamah.

This day of Qiyamat will be the length of fifty thousand years. On this day the sun will be brought very close. Each
person will be drowning in his own sweat in accordance with how sinful he had been in the world. Fear will be
overwhelming and the people in desperation will seek out different Prophets asking them to intercede. Each will excuse
himself from this duty. In the end the Prophet s will intercede on behalf of the entire creation, this first intercession
being for the actual commencement of judgement. This will be accepted and the reckoning will begin. The Mizaan
(scales) will be set up and good and bad will be weighed. After the reckoning the record of deeds of the righteous (the
successful ones) will be given in their right hands while the records of the evil will be given in their left hands signifying
their failure. The Siraat, (the bridge which is finer than a hair and sharper than a sword) will then have to be crossed. The
people of Jannat will safely cross it with varying degrees of speed and comfort depending on their righteousness in the
world, while those doomed to Jahannam will slip and fall into the fire.

This day will be very severe on those who were disobedient. Only those who led lives of piety will be saved.

Jannat and Jahannam are real with Jannat being an abode of luxury, comfort and everlasting pleasure while Jahannam is
an abode of hardship, misery and punishment. They are not figurative expressions as interpreted by those who have
strayed from the correct Path.


Abu Hurayrah t relates a Hadeeth that the Prophet s mentioned that there are seven categories of people who will be
given shade by Allah S on the day when there will be no shade but the shade of Allah S. They are:

         A Just ruler
         The young person who spent his youth in the worship of Allah S
         The person whose heart is always connected with the Masjid
         Those people who loved one another for the sake of Allah S
         The person who when approached by a young beautiful woman replies by saying that I fear Allah S
         The person who spends so secretly that his left hand does not know what his right hand spends.
         The person who remembers Allah S whilst alone, in a manner that brings tears to his eyes.

Allah S mentions the behaviour of people on this day:

  'The day one will flee from his brother, and from his mother and father, and his wife and sons. Everyone will be too
                             engaged with his own affairs to care about others. (80:34-38)

Ibne Mas’ood t reports that the Prophet s said:

The feet of the son of Adam will not move until they have been asked in regards to 5 things:

    1.   How he spent his life.
    2.   How he spent his youthful years.
    3.   From where did he acquire his wealth?
    4.   Where did he append this wealth?
    5.   How he utilised the knowledge that Allah S had granted him.

                       May Allah S, through His Grace, have mercy on us all on that day, aameen.

                   “Tahaarat is half of Imaan” &“Allah loves clean and pure people”

                                                NAJAASAT- IMPURITY
                                                            Is of two types

                      Najaasate Haqeeqee                                                            Najaasate Hukmi
               Physical impurity which can be seen.                                             A state of unseen impurity,
                         It is of two types                                                     which is also of two types

          Khafeefah                            Ghaleezah                               Hadath                           Hadath
                                                                                         e                                e
i.e. -urine of halal animals        i.e. -urine, blood, stool,                         Akbar                            Asghar
     -droppings of all                    pus, of humans
       haram birds                       -urine, blood, stool,
                                          flesh of all haram
                                          animals i.e. lions,                 An impurity which                  An impurity which
                                          cats, dogs                          can only be removed                can be removed by
                                         -stool of halal animals              by ghusl (shar’ee                  wudhu, i.e.
                                         -dead flesh of halal or              bath), i.e.                            - Passing of
                                           haram animals                          - haidh                                urine, stool,
                                         -every part of a pig                     - nifaas                               or wind
                                         -saliva of dogs and                      - janaabat
                                           haram animals
                                         -fat of haram animals
                                         -all intoxicants i.e.
                                          wine etc
                                         -droppings of fowls
                                           and ducks

                      Najaasate Ghaleezah and Khafeefah are
                             further divided into two

             Najaasat-e                                      Najaasat-e
             Mar’eeyah                                     Ghair Mar’eeyah

    Impurity which can be seen                   Impurity which cannot be seen after
         after it dries up                                     it dries up
         i.e. stool, blood                                i.e. impure water

                                   Najaasat-e-Haqeeqee (both ghaleezah and khafeefah) is cleaned
                                    by washing soiled part of body or clothes 3 times with water.
                                            After every wash clothes need to be wringed.
                Clean (taahir) water is required to clean all impurities and to perform wudhu and ghusl

 Water which is pure and permissible for                              Water which is impure and therefore
         purifying impurities                                           impermissible for purification

NATURAL                                                            Water is rendered impure if any impurity
Rain water, ocean or sea water, river water,                       falls in it which alters its colour, taste, smell
well water, melted snow or hail water, spring                      or fluidity (by fluidity it means its natural
water.                                                             flowing nature)

STAGNANT                                                                •     Stagnant water in a small quantity
   • Water stored in a big dam or pool                                        becomes impure and unfit for
     (approx. 6.5m x 6.5m or bigger and                                       cleaning impurities (whether colour,
     deep enough so that if a person                                          taste & smell changes or not) when:
     scoops out water with his hands the                                (a)   something impure falls in it
     ground at the bottom does not                                      (b)   an animal falls in it and dies
     become momentarily exposed)                                        (c)   dogs, pigs, flesh-eating animals or a
   • Water stored in a small pool                                             cat which has just eaten a mouse or
     (less than 6.5m x 6.5m in size)                                          a rat drinks from it
   • Water stored in a container i.e.                                   (d)   an animal which has flowing blood
     bucket, drum, tank etc                                                   i.e. birds, fowls, pigeons cats etc
                                                                              falls in and dies

*Ghusl should not be made in a small                                    •     Running water remains pure even
quantity of stagnant water i.e. bathing in a                                  when dead things fall in it. However
bath tub filled with water                                                    if impurity falls in it and the colour,
                                                                              smell or taste changes, it becomes
*It is disliked to use water which is in a small                              impure. If no trace of the impurity is
quantity and a cat or similar animal has                                      apparent, it is permitted for
drunk from it                                                                 performing wudhu.

Note: for a more detailed study of the types                            •     If something impure falls in a large
of water an rules regarding water refer to                                    quantity of water i.e. dam or big
“Noorul Idhaa” or “Tasheelul Fiqh”                                            pool and the water changes colour,
                                                                              taste or smell, it will be incorrect to
                                                                              use such water for cleaning

                                                                        •      Well water becomes impure when:
                                                                            (a) najaasate ghaleeza or khafeefah
                                                                                 falls in it
                                                                            (b) an animal which has flowing blood
                                                                                 falls in it and dies and
                                                                            (c) an animal whose saliva is unclean
                                                                                or which has najaasat on its body,
                                                                                falls in it.

                                                                        •     Water used to remove minor
                                                                              impurities or that which is used to
                                                                              perform wudhu cannot be used to
                                                                              purify impurities
                        “Verily Allah S loves those who purify (themselves)” (Qur’an)

                                     GHUSL (COMPULSORY BATH)
3 Faraaidh of Ghusl
         To gargle the mouth up to the throat. If fasting one should ensure that no water goes down into the stomach
         otherwise the fast will be nullified
         To wash the fleshy part inside the nose
         To wash the whole body making sure that not a single hair is left dry, taking special care that the private parts
         are thoroughly wet, especially when one stands and takes a bath. (a woman should take particular care so as to
         ensure that the water reaches into the foreskin of the private part. Ghusl will not be valid if water does not reach
         this area)

5 Sunnats of Ghusl
         To wash both hands up to the wrist
         To wash the private parts and to remove impurities from the body
         To make intention
         To perform Wudhu
         To pour water over the entire body thrice

4 occasions when Ghusl becomes fardh
         After ejaculation, whether one is awake or in a dream (wet dream)
         After penetration, whether there has been discharge of sperm or not
         For a woman after haidh
         For a woman after child birth when the bleeding stops

4 occasions when Ghusl is Sunnat
         To make ghusl for Friday
         To make ghusl for the two ‘eids
         To make ghusl when coming into the state of ihram for Umrah or Hajj
         To make ghusl after midday on the plains of Arafat for the Hajji

Occasions when Ghusl is Mustahab
         After giving ghusl to a dead body
         When a non Muslim accepts Islam and he is not in a state of impurity (note that if he is in need of a Fardh ghusl
         then ghusl is Waajib)
         After unconsciousness and insanity
         Upon entry into Madeenah
         During Fajr time at the stopover in Muzdalifah during Hajj
         For the occasion of Rami of the Jamaraat during Hajj
         For Salaatul Istisqaa, Salaatul Khawf, Salaatul Haajat, Salaatut Taubah
         Upon returning from a journey
         On the occasion of the eclipse of the sun and the moon

Wash both hand up to the wrists 3 times with the intention of cleaning oneself of impurity-wash off filth found on any
part of the body-wash both private parts-perform Wudhu according to the sunnat method (feet should be washed at the
end if used water does not flow away)-pour water over the head thrice-then pour water over the right shoulder thrice and
then the left shoulders thrice. Rub the body while pouring the water to ensure water reaches every part of the body and
not a single spot remains dry.

NOTE: If the hair of a woman is plaited she is excused from loosening her plait but it is compulsory for her to wet the
base of each and every hair. IF A SINGLE HAIR IS LEFT DRY, GHUSL WILL NOT BE VALID. If she is unable to
wet the very bottom of her plaited hair, then it is necessary for her to unplait and wash her entire hair.

* It is not necessary to repeat the entire ghusl if, after ghusl, one recalls that a certain portion of the body was left dry.
Merely washing the dry portion will suffice.
                                             WUDHU (ABLUTION)
There are certain factors in Wudhu which are necessary without which, wudhu will not be valid. These are the Faraaidh.
Some factors do not nullify wudhu if they are omitted, however wudhu reward will be decreased. These are called
Sunnats. Then there are some factors which increase reward if done but no harm done if omitted and they are known as

4 Faraaidh of Wudhu
          To wash the face from the hairline on the forehead to below the chin and from one ear to the other, once
          To wash both arms including the elbows, once
          To make Masah of at least a quarter of the head
          To wash both feet including the ankles, once

12 Sunnats of Wudhu
          To make intention for wudhu
          To recite Bismillah
          To wash both hands up to the wrists thrice
          To rinse the mouth thrice
          Applying water into the nostrils thrice
          Using a miswaak
          Making Masah of the whole head once
          Washing each part thrice
          Masah of the ears
          Khilaal of the fingers, toes (and beard for men)
          Observing Tarteeb, making wudhu in the correct order
          Washing the various parts in quick succession – before the previous part dries

5 Mustahabbaat of Wudhu
          To begin washing from the right side
          Masah of the nape of the neck
          To perform wudhu without taking assistance
          To face the qiblah
          To sit on a clean raised place while performing wudhu

8 Factors which break Wudhu
          Emergence of urine, stool or any matter (worms etc) from the front and hind private parts
          Passing wind
          Flowing of blood or puss from any part of the body
          Vomiting a mouthful
          Sleeping while lying down or while leaning against something
          Laughing aloud in salaat

Sitting in an elevated position facing the qiblah, make intention and recite Bismillah-thereafter wash both hands up to the
wrists thrice beginning with the right hand-rinse mouth thrice and use the Miswaak (or rub fingers over teeth)-if not
fasting gargle-apply water into the nose thrice (use right hand to take water up the nose and clean with the left hand-wash
the face thrice-wash both arms including the elbows thrice and then make khilal of the fingers of both hands -with wet
hands make Masah of the whole head once, then the ears (place forefingers at the entrance of ear-holes and rotate over
whole interior area; then pass thumbs over back of earlobes starting from the bottom moving upward), thereafter the nape
of the neck (pass back of last three fingers of the right hand over right side of neck, then the left hand for the left side of
neck)-wash each foot including the ankles thrice (right foot first) and make khilal of the toes (pass little finger of left hand
between toes of both feet starting from little toe of right foot and ending with little toe of left foot).
                                     TAYAMMUM (DRY ABLUTION)
If water is not available within the radius of one shar’ee mile or being unable to use water due to an illness or if there is
definite possibility of an illness increasing, then Tayammum may be performed in place of Ghusl and Wudhu.

3 Faraaidh of Tayammum
         To make intention
         To strike both hands on soil and rubbing over the entire face (as for wudhu) once
         To strike hands a second time and rubbing the hands over both arms including the elbows once

First make intention of obtaining purification-strike both hands on clean soil, blow off excess dust and rub both hands
over the entire face as for wudhu-strike both hands again and blowing off excess dust rub hands over both arms including
the elbows-follow up by doing khilal of the fingers.

Method of rubbing over the arms:
After placing the four fingers of the left hand under the finger tips of the right hand, pull them towards the elbow (of the
right arm). In like manner, beginning from the elbow, rub over the inner part of the right arm up to the fingers ending up
by passing the inner part of the left thumb over the outer portion of the right thumb. Do exactly the same for the left arm

* If a person performs Tayammum due to illness or non availability of water, it will be binding on him to use water and
perform Ghusl or Wudhu (whichever is applicable) when water is found or when excuse of illness ends.

*Items which can be used to perform tayammum are:
         clean earth
         stone and limestone
         walls of mud, stone or brick
         all items that have thick dust on them
         unglazed baked earthenware pots

*Factors which break wudhu also break tayammum


Means to clean the private parts after passing urine or stool using clean water and earth

         Istinja is a sunnah
         One should not face or have the back towards the Ka’bah while relieving oneself
         Use the left hand only for istinja
         It is permissible to use dry earth for istinja
         Toilet paper can be used for istinja, however not paper that was made for the purpose of writing and printing
         Use the left foot to enter the toilet and the right foot to leave
         Recite du’a before entering and after leaving toilet
                                 MAAZOOR (AN EXCUSED PERSON)
A Maazoor is one who is excused from the normal masaail being applied due to excusable circumstances. Many people
suffer from certain illnesses whereby they continuously remain in the state of impurity (i.e. continuous or intermittent
flow of vaginal discharge, not being able to control the bladder, bleeding from a wound, passing wind etc). In other words
they are not able to remain pure long enough to perform Salaat. This causes much anxiety because the masaail pertaining
to validity of ablution in certain conditions are not clearly understood.

This anxiety can easily be alleviated if one is able to determine for his or her self on whether or not he or she falls under
the category of a “maazoor-excused person”.

There are three points which one needs to bear in mind to be able to determine for oneself if one is a maazoor or not, and
if so, until when.

    1.   For a person to come under the category of a maazoor he/she must suffer from the problem (bleeding, discharge
         etc) incessantly for a whole prayer time (this means the whole prayer time of one particular salaat i.e. the time
         for zuhr salaat is from after zawal time till the beginning time of asr salaat). Even if the problem stops in this
         period for a brief time, but NOT enough to enable one to perform minimum ablution (to wash only the faraaidh
         parts) and offer a brief Fardh or Waajib salaat, the person will be considered a maazoor.

    2.   Once a person comes under the category of a maazoor, it is not a condition that this state continues incessantly in
         the next prayer time also. In fact to remain a maazoor all that is required is that the problem by which he/she
         became counted as maazoor be found in the next prayer time even if it is not incessant. This may even mean one
         has enough time to perform ablution and pray the fardh salaat.

    3.   The maazoor will cease to be counted as such if a single prayer time elapses without that specific problem being
         found at all. In this case one may pray the current prayer and the one that follows with the normal ablution. (see
         Bahishti Zewar-urdu-pg 74-75 part 1 and Fatawa Rahimiyyah vol 4 pg 273)

Using the above guideline a person can determine for his or her self whether or not he or she falls under the category of a
maazoor, and rulings regarding ablution may be applied depending on the result.

          Rule: It is sufficient for a Maazoor to perform ablution once in any particular Salaat time and even
          though the ailment continues, the excused person can perform Salaat, recite the Qur’an and perform any
          worship during that Salaat time.
          Rule: Ablution will be nullified with the expiry of that particular Salaat time and it will have to be
          Rule: Ablution will become invalid in a particular Salaat time by other factors besides the excuse which
          nullify ablution in normal circumstances i.e. passing wind, nose bleed etc. In this case a new ablution will
          have to be performed.

It is important to understand that if ablution was made due to the excuse then it will not be nullified by the repeated
occurrence of that excuse. It will only be nullified by other factors that nullify ablution. However if ablution was not
made due to the excuse but was made for other reasons besides the excuse, then if the excuse surfaces thereafter, ablution
will be nullified.

Note: Ablution made for Fajr salaat will remain valid until sunrise. If ablution was made after sunrise then it will be
permissible to perform Zuhr salaat with this ablution. When Asr time enters then fresh ablution will have to be made for
that particular prayer time because ablution of a mazoor is nullified with the expiry of a salaat time and not with the entry
of it.

* Where clothes getting soiled are concerned, if there is confidence that after washing, the clothes will NOT get soiled
again before the completion of Salaat, then it is unanimously held that the clothes have to be washed before performing
Salaat. However, if it is felt that they will get soiled again before completion of Salaat, then there is no need to wash them.
                                                ‫ - حيض‬MENSTRUATION
‫حيض‬       Haidh, (menstruation/ period) is the bleeding a woman experiences every month. It is blood thrown out by the
          uterus and which exits through the vagina periodically each month, for a number of days. During this time
          bleeding does not have to be excessive or continuous. During the days of haidh a woman cannot perform salaat,
          recite the Qur’an, fast, enter a masjid or have sexual intercourse with her husband as she is considered ritually

‫ استحاضه‬Istihaadhah is chronic or dysfunctional uterine or vaginal bleeding outside of the normal habitual bleeding, i.e.
          bleeding due to illness. It comes from either burst veins or other parts of the body and the outlet is the vagina. This
          blood is not considered to be menstrual; therefore the rules of haidh will not apply. Things forbidden in haidh and
          nifaas (after-birth bleeding), are allowed during istihaadhah as the woman is not ritually impure.

In Islam a woman experiencing haidh is not physically impure, i.e. her body, saliva, sweat etc are not impure. She is only
ritually impure and therefore she cannot perform salaat, recite the Qur’an, fast, enter the masjid or have sexual intercourse
with her husband. Christians and Jews went to opposite extremes regarding women in haidh. To the Christians there was
absolutely no change and to the Jews the women in haidh were regarded as physically impure, so much so that they were
segregated from the husband and the family. She was not allowed to sit or eat with others. Some communities even regarded
women in haidh as evil and were locked up.


To differentiate between the bleeding of haidh and istihaadhah, it is necessary for a woman to have knowledge of the
following basic principles / laws by which the rulings of haidh are determined.




                     Bleeding occurs after more then 15 days of purity

                    tue   W    TH fri ST        S     M    T      W      TH fri
                    8pm           8pm                                       8pm

                     72 Hours / 3full days

                                       240 Hours / 10 full days

* Bleeding of less than 72 hours or more than 240 hours will be regarded as istihaadhah. After bleeding commences on
Tuesday 8pm, if it continues up to, and over 8pm on the first Friday, and stops at or before 8pm of the second Friday, and
there is no bleeding for the next 15 days, then it is a VALID BLEEDING (i.e. haidh). Note that bleeding does not have to
flow continuously throughout these days. It may stop and reoccur or it may be just spotting. The first and last show of blood
is what will determine the ruling.


1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

           bleeding                                                                          bleeding
     after 20 days of purity

Both courses of bleeding are of haidh as;
    a) both beyond 3 days and 3 nights (72 hours)
    b) more then 15 days of purity in between.


1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

       bleeding                                                          bleeding
after 17 days of purity

First course of bleeding is haidh as beyond 72 hours and after more than 15 days of purity, but second course of bleeding is
istihaadhah as it is less than 72 hours even though 15 days of purity have passed in between.


1    2 3 4 5         6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

     bleeding                                                                  bleeding

Though more than 15 days of purity have passed in between, both courses of bleeding are istihaadhah, as both under 72 hours.
As soon as bleeding stops within 3 days, wudhu should be made and salaat commenced (at the end part of the mustahab time,
in case bleeding reoccurs).

* From the above principles we understand that a HAIDH (VALID BLEEDING) is one which continues for 3 DAYS OR
OVER and DOES NOT EXCEED 10 DAYS with a TUHR (PURITY) of 15 DAYS OR MORE after it.

RULE: Once bleeding is observed after 15 or more days of purity (in the days of her usual haidh habit), the woman will stop
salaat and fasting of Ramadhaan; however if bleeding stops within 72 hours, she will continue salaat with wudhu as ghusl is
not necessary, and on realising in retrospect that it was not haidh, she has to observe qadha of the missed salaat or fasts of

    ‫طھر تام‬   is a purity which lasts for 15 days or more – (COMPLETE TUHR which separates two courses of bleeding)

‫ طھر صحيح‬is when a Tuhr Taam is not mixed with bleeding of Istihaadhah in the beginning, the middle or at the end of it
  ِ َ
              – (VALID TUHR which can be used as a habit)

  ‫ طھر ناقص‬is purity of less than 15 days – INCOMPLETE TUHR

  ‫ طھر فاسد‬is purity of less than 15 days (i.e. Tuhr Naaqis) or a purity of 15 days or more but mixed with days of bleeding
              (i.e. a Tuhr Taam which has blood of Istihaadhah in its beginning, middle or at its end) – INVALID TUHR
              (which cannot be used as a habit)

It is a misconception that any and all bleeding causes the state of impurity. Sometimes bleeding occurs, but according to the
laws of the Shari’at it is not classified as a state of impurity. The woman will continue performing salaat and fasting of
Ramadhaan despite the bleeding. Similarly, there are times when a woman is not bleeding yet according to the Shari’at she is
in a state of impurity. Remember that when one does what is according to the Shari’at, one is actually worshipping Allah S.
The following is an explanation of the two different types of the state of purity and impurity

                                              TUHR / PURITY / PAAKI
                                                  is of two types

                                    HUKMI PURITY                   HAQEEQEE PURITY
                                      (Legal)                         (Actual/Real)

                                Bleeding occurs but the      ACTUAL PURITY is where
                                Shari’at regards it as a     there is no bleeding (there is no
                                state of purity              trace or visibility of blood) and
                                                             the Shari’at regards it as a state
                                                             of purity

                                                   is also of two types

                                          HUKMI                         HAQEEQEE
                                         IMPURITY                       IMPURITY

                                  No bleeding has              ACTUAL BLEEDING
                                  occurred but the             occurs and the shari’at
                                  Shari’at regards it as a     regards it as a state of
                                  state of impurity            impurity

* Colours of fluid which is yellowish, brownish, greenish, red, black etc – and even if only a SPOT, will be regarded as haidh
in the days of a woman’s habit of haidh

BEGINNING OF HAIDH, (during the possible days of haidh):
The beginning of a bleeding is the time when the blood flows out and reaches the edge of the vagina or if a tampon or cotton
wool was placed inside the vagina in the state of purity, and on removal, traces of blood were seen on it or if the kursuf - if
placed correctly - becomes wet with blood. Even if the woman feels the blood coming down, but it does not flow out of the
internal vagina, then haidh will not be considered to have begun.

Note: On the immediate inside of a woman’s vagina, where there is an opening, from the start of this opening until the
inside is regarded as the internal vagina. The skin at the immediate front of this opening is regarded as the external vagina
(lip of the vagina). When blood flows out from the internal vagina then haidh is said to have begun, whether the blood flows
out of the vagina lip or not, does not matter. Therefore if a woman uses cotton wool or tampon to block the blood from
exiting, then as long as the blood remains on the inside of the internal vagina and it hasn’t leaked through the material used
for blocking, then haidh will not be considered as having begun.
(Hadiya e khawaateen)

The ending of a bleeding is when the discharge is white or clear or if there is no discharge at all. If a kursuf is used, the
colour of the discharge is determined while the discharge is fresh immediately after removal of the kursuf and not after it has

If a woman in her haidh places a kursuf correctly at night and wakes up to find it clean, her haidh is said to have ended at the
time she placed it and not in the morning, while if a woman in tuhr placed a kursuf and later sees the blood, then haidh is said
to have begun when she sees the blood and not when she placed the kursuf.

THE KURSUF: a piece of cotton cloth, cotton wool, toilet paper or a tissue is folded so that it is a rectangular shape, the
dimension of which is about 1” by 3” or 2.5 cm by 9 cm

The kursuf is placed at the opening of the vagina (between the labia minora at the opening of the vagina secured between the
lips-Birgivi manual)

NOTE: Sanitary pads, panty liners etc are not considered kursufs as they are placed far from the opening of the vagina. If the
kursuf is placed correctly it can be used to determine the beginning and ending of haidh
*Continuous bleeding is not necessary. If bleeding occurred for a while or a few days then stopped and then reoccurred, all
WITHIN 10 DAYS and bleeding does not exceed 10 days, then all those days will be regarded as haidh provided there is a
Tuhr Saheeh (valid tuhr) after it.

In the example below on the days when there was no bleeding it will be said that they were days of Hukmi Impurity i.e. even
though there was no bleeding, the Sharia’t regards it as a state of impurity.

                              3- Bleeding… day 1
                              4- Bleeding… day 2
                              5- Bleeding… day 3
                              6- Bleeding… day 4               All 9 days are of haidh,
                              7- Bleeding… day 5               (days 6 & 7 are of
                              8- No bleeding… day 6            Hukmi Impurity)
                              9- No bleeding… day 7
                              10- Bleeding… day 8
                              11- Bleeding… day 9
                              12- No Bleeding.. day 10

Therefore if a woman bleeds for more than her usual habit then she should observe caution and see if the bleeding stops
within 10 days. If it does stop, then all those days were of haidh and it will be said that the number of days of her haidh habit
have changed. If the bleeding continues beyond 10 days then rule No. 7 will apply.

If a woman bleeds for less than her usual habit then toward the end of the mustahab time but before the makrooh time of
salaat she should perform ghusl and commence salaat. However, if bleeding reoccurs within 10 days then salaat should be
stopped as these are still days of haidh.

Note that a Habit is formed only as long as the bleeding continues for 3 days or more and does not exceed 10 days and it is
followed by a Tuhr Saheeh. A “Habit” is also formed in the number of the days of Tuhr / purity in between two bleedings of

                     * keeping a record is absolutely essential because there are many instances where
              rulings have to be revised later as the status of the bleeding or tuhr are established in retrospect,
                              and qadhaa of salaat and fasts of Ramadhaan have to be made up

Since many rulings depend on these habits it is extremely important to keep a record of the exact time and date when
bleeding occurs and stops. The following table is an example of keeping a record.

                Time &       Date bleeding        Time &           date bleeding          Total no. of      Total no. of
                              commenced                               stopped               days of        days of purity
                8:00 am      3 Muharram           5:00 pm       8 muharram 1404            5D 9Hrs               24
               10:00 am      6 Saffar 1404        8:00 pm            10 Saffar             4D 10Hrs              25

Fluctuating habits of haidh and tuhr are normal as long as they occur within the legal boundaries, i.e. the bleeding is
within the maximum 10 days followed by a valid tuhr of over 15 days.

The changes in a woman’s habit of haidh and tuhr can either be:

    1.     ‘adadi (number of days / duration) – the days of haidh are more or less than her usual habit. If this change is
           WITHIN the maximum 10 days followed by a VALID TUHR, then this is not a problem as all of it is haidh i.e. a
           woman usually bleeds for 6 days, however this month bleeding continued for 2 more days followed by a tuhr saheeh.
           Her habit is said to have changed to 8 days

    2.      or zamani (time / place where it usually occurs) – the days of haidh occur at a different time of the month then it
           usually does. In this case the habit of tuhr is said to have changedas well. A woman has a habit of 8 days haidh
           followed by 20 days of tuhr, then the habit changes and an 8 day haidh occurs after 25 days. So now the place where
           haidh usually occurred is said to have changed and the tuhr habit has changed from 20 days to 25 days.

Sometimes the habit can change in both respects (number and place), i.e. a woman’s usual habit is from the 1st to the 5th (4
days), then she bleeds from the 6th to the 11th (5 days), so now her habit has changed in regard to number and place.

                                         *Problems occur when bleeding exceeds the maximum limit
                               or when the tuhr in between bleedings is less than the minimum limit of 15 days.

         If bleeding exceeds the maximum 10 days, refer to Rule no. 7, and if the Tuhr is of less than 15 days, then refer to
                            Rule no. 8 – however it should be under the guidance of a competent Mufti
(as long as the duration of 15 or more days of purity have passed since the last bleeding)

(a) In the case of a woman with a previous habit (a Mu’taadah):

If bleeding continues beyond her usual habit she should wait until the maximum duration of 10 days and 10 nights (240 hours)
and if bleeding continues beyond this length of time, it will be regarded as istihaadhah. Now it is established that the bleeding
in excess of her habit was Istihaadhah. She will perform ghusl after reaching the maximum limit (241st hour) and commence
salaat and fasts of Ramadhaan. Now her previous habit will be considered and the ruling will vary depending on her situation.
The place and number of habit will be taken into account according to the following 3 Laws.

Example: a woman usually bleeds from the 1st to the 5th of each month (her place & number of habit), and contrary to her
usual habit she bleeds for more than ten days after a Tuhr Saheeh. To establish her days of haidh the following laws will be

i) If she bleeds for the entire period of the 1st to the 5th and then continues beyond 10 days, then the first five days will be of
haidh and the rest will be of Istihaadhah and qaza of salaat and fasts of Ramadhaan will have to be made up of the 6th to the
10th, therefore her habit in place and number remains the same.

ii) If she did not bleed for the entire period of her usual haidh days (1st to the 5th), but she did bleed for at least three days out
of those five days (i.e. she started on the 3rd and continued till the 14th), then those three days (3rd to the 5th) will be of haidh
and the rest will be of Istihaadhah and her habit in number will be said to have changed to three days, from the 3rd to the 5th.

iii) If the bleeding was less than three days in her usual days of haidh or the entire bleeding did not fall at all in her usual
days of haidh, then her haidh will be according to her normal habit of 5 days but it will be said that the habit of its place has
changed, i.e. she bled from the 4th for 11 days. The bleeding of the 4th and the 5th was on her usual habit days, which is less
than 3 days, so the ruling will be that her haidh will be for the first 5 days and the rest will be Istihaadhah. Her habit will now
be said to be from the 4th to the 8th - still 5 days but the place has changed. Her future conditions will be considered with this
new habit.

(b) In the case of a girl bleeding for the first time, the first 10 days will be regarded as haidh and the days beyond that as

                               2- Bleeding…    day 1
                               3- Bleeding…    day 2
                               4- Bleeding…    day 3
                               5- Bleeding…    day 4
                               6- Bleeding… day 5                         10 days are of haidh,
                               7- Bleeding…    day 6                      (day 11 is of
                               8- No bleeding… day 7                      Hukmi Purity & days
                               9- No bleeding… day 8                      7 & 8 are of Hukmi
                               10- Bleeding… day 9                        Impurity)
                               11- Bleeding… day 10
                               12- Bleeding… day 11

If the duration of purity between two bleedings is 15 days or more, then it will be said that the two bleedings are separate
from each other, i.e. there is no connection between the two bleedings.

However, if the duration of purity between two bleedings is of less than 15 days (even by an hour), then it will regarded as
one continuous bleeding from the first bleeding to the second one

Example 1

1       2        3 4       5       6       7       8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

bleeding                                                                              bleeding

First bleeding is of istihaadhah as less than 72 hours, then as 15 clean days have passed, second bleeding NOT JOINED to
first one. Both bleedings are separate to each other with no connection between them.

Example 2

    1       2     3    4       5       6       7       8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

                bleeding                                                                   bleeding

Second bleeding occurs on the 15th day itself without 15 FULL days (360 hours) of purity passing, and therefore the second
bleeding WILL BE JOINED TO THE FIRST ONE and from the 2nd to the 22nd it will be regarded as continuous bleeding
which has exceeded the maximum 10 days.

For a woman with an established habit her previous haidh habit will be considered. The woman’s usual days of haidh are
from day 2 to day 8, i.e. 6 days followed by a tuhr of 24 days. Bleeding has exceeded the maximum 10 days and according to
the laws in Rule number 7, there was bleeding of less than three days in her usual days of haidh, therefore her haidh will be
according to her normal habit of 6 days i.e. day 2 to day 8 will be regarded as haidh and thereafter, from day 9 till day 22 will
be regarded as istihaadhah.

It has now been established that haidh was from day 2 till day 8. Since ghusl was not made on day 9, qadhaa salaat will have
to be performed for the days established in retrospect as days of istihaadhah, (day 9 till day 22), and if fasts of Ramadhaan
were observed on the days which are now established as haidh, they will have to be repeated as qadhaa. If after day 22 there
is a tuhr of 15 days or over then there will be no connection between this bleeding and the new one after the tuhr.

For a girl who has no previous habit, the first 10 days will be regarded as haidh and then the rest of the above method will be

RULE: If a woman commences bleeding before the minimum 15 day tuhr has passed, she should regard it as istihaadhah
and continue performing salaat and fasts of Ramadhaan until she reaches her “place of habit” (i.e. her usual time of the
month). Now she stops salaat and fasts and adopts caution. If the bleeding continues thereafter for the minimum 3 days and
clears before the maximum 10 days, she will perform ghusl and commence salaat and fasts of Ramadhaan. However if the
bleeding continues over 10 days, she will refer to her previous habit and regard only those number of days as haidh which
fall in her place of habit (according to the Laws in Rule number7), and the rest as istihaadhah (and make up qadhaa salaat and
fasts of those days).
If a girl under the age of 9 lunar years (8 solar years and 8 months and 3 weeks) experiences bleeding, it will be regarded as
istihaadhah. Note: a girl reaches puberty after the age of 9 years if:

a. menstruation begins
b. she experiences a wet dream
c. becomes pregnant
d. and if none of the above occur, then at the age of 15 lunar years (14 solar years, 6 months and 2 weeks)

A menopausal woman beyond the age of 55 lunar years (53 solar years and 4 months) may still experience haidh i.e. if
bleeding is over 72 hours and under 240 hours with a complete tuhr before and after it and the colour of the blood is bright
red or black, then it will be regarded as haidh. Any coloured discharge that is unlike her previous menses is Istihaadhah.


Please note that only the very basic information has been included in these notes to make it easy to understand and
apply practically. Therefore note the following points:

    •    In the case of numbers 7 & 8, a competent Mufti should be consulted for clarification and advice

    •    In case of continuous or intermittent bleeding without a minimum tuhr of 15 days occurring, it is vital to consult
         a competent Mufti and give him details of previous habits

    •    It is very important for a woman who experiences continuous bleeding and has forgotten her habits to consult a
         competent Mufti

further reading & study recommended:
Al-hadiyato lin nisa
Bahishti Zewar, chapter on haidh
Tasheelul Fiqh, number 9
Birgivi’s Manual Interpreted – Hedaya Hartford
Hadiya-e-Khawaateen (urdu)
There are various rules pertaining to Haidh i.e. the do’s and don’ts of salaat, fasts, sexual relations, travel, iddat, masjid, hajj,
tawaaf etc. during the days of haidh. They will be covered during lessons and are not included in the notes except for the


* It is not permissible to perform any salaat in the state of haidh

* If a woman begins haidh during salaat, it should not be completed. If it was a fard salaat, then it need not be repeated on
attaining purity as it is forgiven. However if it was a sunnat or nafl salaat, then on attaining purity it will have to be repeated
as qadhaa.

* If haidh begins during a particular salaat time and that salaat had not yet been performed, it is forgiven and it need not be
repeated as qadhaa on attaining purity. If haidh (of less than 10 days) has ended toward the end of a particular salaat time,
and there is just enough time left to perform ghusl and say Takbire Tahrima, then that salaat becomes obligatory on her and
she will have to repeat it as qadhaa. However if the time left was less than this then that particular salaat will be forgiven.

* If haidh ends at the end of the tenth day and she has only enough time to say Takbire Tahrimah and nothing else (not even
to take a bath), then too that particular salaat becomes obligatory on her and she will have to make up qadhaa of it.

* If after the end of haidh a woman performs ghusl and begins salaat by saying Takbire Tahrima and the time for salaat
expires, then she must continue and complete the salaat and it need not be repeated as qadhaa. However, if it was a Fajr
salaat then she must wait till after sunrise and offer it as qadhaa.

* If a woman stops bleeding before her normal habit she must not wait till the makrooh time of that particular salaat time
before performing ghusl. She must perform ghusl and the salaat before the end of the Mustahab time of that salaat. However
if the bleeding continues again within TEN days then she must stop Salaat.

Sawm (Fasting)

* It is not permissible to fast in the state of haidh

* During the month of Ramadhaan a woman commences her fast in the state of purity, however haidh begins during the day.
The fast becomes null and void (even if haidh commences just before fast ends) and qadha becomes necessary (even in the
case of a nafl fast). She may eat and drink though she should not do so in front of other people.
It is a misconception that in the month of Ramadhaan if a woman’s haidh commences after mid-morning, she cannot eat or drink for the rest of the day.
Once haidh begins the fast is nullified and she may eat and drink but not in front of other people

* During the month of Ramadhaan if haidh ends during the day, it is preferable for the woman to refrain from eating and
drinking for the rest of the day and qaza will be necessary. Even if bleeding stops just after Subh- Saadiq and she doesn’t
eat or drink the fast is not valid as she was unclean for a certain portion of the day and qaza will be necessary.

* If a woman’s bleeding stopped in Ramadhaan after a full 10 days and nights in the morning just before Subh-Saadiq, and
she did not even have enough time to say Takbire Tahrima, then too the fast of that day is binding upon her and qaza will be
necessary. In this case she should make intention and keep the fast. It doesn’t matter if she performs the ghusl later.

* If bleeding stops within 10 days and there is time for a quick ghusl before Subh-Saadiq, then the fast will be compulsory
upon her; but if there is no time for a ghusl then that day’s fast is not compulsory on her.


* If a woman commences a journey in the state of menstruation and travels 48 miles or more in this state, she is not
considered a Shar’ee traveller. She will perform full salaat upon gaining purity at her destination and not Qasr, regardless
of the duration of her stay at the destination.

* If a woman commences a journey in the state of menstruation, but gains purity during the journey when there are 48 miles
or more remaining to the destination, then she will perform Qasr at her destination even if her stay there is less than 15 days.
However if she gains purity during the journey when there are less than 48 miles remaining to the destination, then she will
not be considered a Shar’ee traveller and she will perform full salaat at her destination.
Qur’an and Zikr

* It is not permissible to touch or read the Qur’an during the state of haidh, nor is it permissible to touch any utensil, cloth
etc on which only a verse of the Qur’an is written. It is however permissible to hold the Qur’an with a cloth that is not sewn
on to the Qur’an or with a cloth which is not worn.

* If a menstruating woman hears a Qur’anic verse with Sajda-e-tilaawat, sajda is not compulsory on her

* It is allowed to touch those books in which the verses of the Qur’an are less than the actual subject matter of the book.

* During haidh though one is not allowed to touch the Qur’an it is allowed to recite Qur’anic duas, Suratul Faatihah, 4 Quls,
Ayatul kursi etc with the intention of du’a.

* Durud and all forms of zikr is allowed during menstruation

* At salaat times one should, with wudhu, sit on the prayer mat and do zikr

It is a misconception that a menstruating woman cannot sit on a prayer mat or recite any form of zikr

                           RULES APPLICABLE AT THE END OF HAIDH
                   (Bleeding of OVER 3 days/72 hours, and UNDER 10 days/240 hours)
                       End of bleeding is the time when there are no traces of blood
                    and the discharge is white or clear or if there is no discharge at all

        Haidh ends BEFORE                                                  Haidh ends AT the
        the maximum 10 days                                                maximum 10 days

GHUSL will be made at the end of bleeding                GHUSL will be made at the end of bleeding

SALAAT:                                                  SALAAT:
     a. If bleeding ends toward the end of a salaat      If bleeding ends toward the end time of a salaat time,
         time and there is just enough time to           and there is only enough time left to say Takbire
         perform ghusl, start the salaat and say the     Tahrima and not even enough time to perform ghusl,
         Takbire Tahrima, then that particular salaat    then that salaat still has to be compulsorily made up
         has to be made up. Note that if after ghusl a   after ghusl
         woman actually begins her salaat and says
         the Takbire Tahrima and the salaat time          If haidh ends before Fajr but there is not enough
         expires, she must continue the salaat and       time to perform ghusl, then it is not compulsory to
         qadha will not have to be made up               perform the Isha salaat
         afterwards (unless its during Fajr salaat, in
         which case it will have to be made up as
         qadha after sunrise).
     b. However if there is NOT enough time left
         to perform ghusl and say Takbire Tahrima
         then that salaat is forgiven.
     c. If haidh ends before Fajr but there is not
         enough time to perform ghusl, then it is not
         compulsory to perform the Isha salaat
NOTE: If bleeding ends within 10 days but
BEFORE THE USUAL HABIT, then the woman
should not perform ghusl immediately. She should
observe caution in case bleeding reoccurs. Ghusl
should be performed and salaat offered toward the
end of the salaat time. (End of salaat time means
there should be enough time to perform minimal
ghusl and perform the salaat in the mustahab time
and before the makrooh time)
FASTS OF RAMADHAAN:                                      FASTS OF RAMADHAAN:
If bleeding ends before Subh Saadiq and there is         If bleeding ends just before Subh Saadiq, whether
enough time to perform ghusl then that day’s fast        there was enough time for ghusl or not and whether
becomes compulsory. However if there is NOT              ghusl is made or not, that day’s fast has to be
enough time to perform ghusl and say Takbire             compulsorily kept. Intention should be made and the
Tahrima before Fajr, then that day’s fast will have to   fast commenced and the ghusl can be performed
be made up as qadha even though the woman cannot         later
eat and drink for the rest of the day
SEXUAL RELATIONS:                                        SEXUAL RELATIONS:
     a. if bleeding ends BEFORE THE NORMAL               is permissible BEFORE performing the ghusl
         HABIT sexual relations is UNLAWFUL.             though it is disliked
         i.e. a woman’s habit is 5 days and this
         month bleeding ends after 4 days, so sexual
         relations is unlawful until the 5 days are
     b. if bleeding ends AT THE HABIT or
         AFTER THE HABIT sexual relations is
         permissible only AFTER PERFORMING
                                                     SALAAT TIMES

It is necessary for a woman to have knowledge of the beginning, ending, mustahab and makrooh times of each Salaat, since
this knowledge is necessary when bleeding ends within 10 days but BEFORE THE USUAL HABIT. In this case the woman
should not perform ghusl immediately. She should observe caution in case bleeding reoccurs. Ghusl should be performed and
salaat offered toward the end of the salaat time. (End of salaat time means there should be enough time to perform minimal
ghusl and perform the salaat in the mustahab time and before the makrooh time)

Using a salaat timetable for the beginning times is advised. Below is a chart showing how to work out the ending, mustahab
and makrooh times of each salaah.

                       Beginning & Ending                        Mustahab / Preferable          Makrooh /
                        times of Salaat                          Time                           Disliked Time
       FAJR            time begins after Subh Saadiq and         This entire time is valid      there is no Makrooh time
                       ends a little before sunrise (i.e. just
                       as the edge of the sun appears
                       above the horizon)
       DHUHR           time begins at Zawwaal (5 minutes         This entire time is valid      there is no Makrooh time
                       after Istiwaa i.e. when the sun is at
                       its peak) and ends when the
                       shadow of an object is double its
                       actual size plus the length of the
                       shadow when the sun is at its peak
       ‘ASR            time begins when the time of              From the beginning time        Makrooh time for Asr is
                       Dhuhr ends (as explained above)           of ‘Asr until the sun goes     from the time the sunlight
                       and lasts till a little before sunset     pale which is about 20         turns pale till the sun sets
                                                                 minutes before sunset          i.e. from about 20 minutes
                                                                 (Birgivi page 34)              before sunset
       MAGHRIB         time begins after the sun sets and        It is mustahab to perform      Maghrib time becomes
                       lasts right up to the time the white      Maghrib immediately and        makrooh when the stars
                       glow of twilight remains.                 mubaah to delay until the      appear and it ends when
                                                                 stars appear                   the whiteness in the
                                                                                                horizon disappears
       ‘ISHAA          time begins after the expiry of           Preferable time for ‘Ishaa     ‘Ishaa time becomes
                       Maghrib time i.e. immediately             is toward the end of one       makrooh after half the
                       after the white glow of twilight          third of the night (take the   night (total hours from
                       disappears. (about an hour & a half       total hours from the           beginning time of
                       after sunset) and lasts through the       beginning time of              Maghrib up till Subh
                       night till Subh Saadiq                    Maghrib up till Subh           Saadiq divided by 2)
                                                                 Saadiq and divide by 3).
                                                                 Therefore ghusl and
                                                                 ‘Ishaa salaat should be
                                                                 performed before the end
                                                                 of one third of the night.
                                 ‫ - استحاضه‬BLEEDING DUE TO ILLNESS

Istihaadhah is chronic or dysfunctional uterine or vaginal bleeding outside of the normal habitual bleeding of menstruation.
This is bleeding due to illness, i.e. blood which flows from burst veins or other parts of the body and the outlet is the vagina,
and the bleeding maybe constant (non-stop), intermittent or just spotting.

     ْ ُ      A Mustahaadhah is a woman who is experiencing Istihaadhah.

The bleeding of a mustahaadhah is “excused” and she is considered ritually clean (paak), and therefore she must perform
salaat, keep fasts etc and entering the masjid, intercourse with her husband etc is also allowed.

Types of Istihaadhah:
   • Bleeding of less than 72 hours or beyond 240 hours
   • Bleeding during pregnancy and before half of the child is delivered
   • Bleeding beyond 40 days + 40 nights after childbirth
   • Bleeding of a girl under the age of 9 lunar years
   • Bleeding of a woman over the age of 55 years (53 solar years and 4 months). Note: it will be haidh i.e. if bleeding is
        over 72 hours and under 240 hours with a complete tuhr before and after it and the colour of the blood is bright red
        or black. If the colour is yellow, green or brown, it will be regarded as istihaadhah unless her bleeding used to be
        this colour before the age of 55 – then it will be regarded as haidh.
   • Continuous or intermittent bleeding without a minimum tuhr of 15 days occurring. The method of determining
        Haidh and Istihaadhah in this case is not included in the notes. Therefore if continuous bleeding occurs it is vital
        to consult a competent Mufti and give him details of previous habits so that he may work out days of Haidh and
        days of Istihaadhah.

RULE: it is waajib for a mustahhadhah to visit the toilet, change pad/clothing which is soiled and perform fresh wudhu at the
time of every salaah. However it should be determined whether or not the mustahaadhah falls under the category of a
Maazoor, as rules of purity will depend on this. It should be remembered that quite often a woman can be a mustahaadhah
and yet not be a maazoor.

There are three points which one needs to bear in mind to be able to determine for oneself if one is a maazoor or not, and if
so, until when.
     1. For a person to come under the category of a maazoor he/she must suffer from the problem (bleeding, discharge etc)
          incessantly for a whole prayer time (this means the whole prayer time of one particular salaat i.e. the time for zuhr
          salaat is from after zawal time till the beginning time of asr salaat). Even if the problem stops in this period for a
          brief time, but NOT enough to enable one to perform a minimum ablution and offer a brief Fard or Waajib salaat,
          the person will still be considered a maazoor.
     2. Once a person comes under the category of a maazoor it is not a condition that this state continues incessantly in the
          next prayer time also. In fact to remain a maazoor all that is required is that the problem by which he/she became
          counted as maazoor be found in the next prayer time even if it is not incessant. This may even mean one has enough
          time to perform ablution and pray the fard salaat.
     3. The maazoor will cease to be counted as such if a single prayer time elapses without that specific problem being
          found at all. In this case one must pray the current prayer and the one that follows with the normal ablution.

If a mustahaadhah does fall under the category of a Mazoor, then the wudhu she performs in one salaat time due to the
Istihaadhah will remain intact till the end of that particular salaat time whether bleeding is continuous or not. However, it
should be noted that the ablution will become invalid in that particular prayer time by other factors which nullify ablution i.e.
passing wind, nose bleed etc. In this case a new ablution will have to be performed.

It is important to understand that if wudhu was made due to the excuse then it will not be nullified by the repeated
occurrence of that excuse. It will only be nullified by other factors that nullify wudhu. If wudhu was not made due to the
excuse but was made for other reasons besides the excuse, then if the excuse surfaces thereafter, wudhu will be nullified.
Note: ablution made for Fajr salaat will remain valid until sunrise. If ablution was made after sunrise then it will be
permissible to perform Zuhr salaat with this ablution. When Asr time enters then fresh ablution will have to be made for that
particular prayer time because wudhu of a mazoor breaks with the expiry of a salaat time and not with the entry of it.

If a mustahaadhah does not fall under the category of a Mazoor, then when bleeding occurs, wudhu will break (though there
will be no need for ghusl).

For such a woman to overcome the problem of wudhu breaking so often, a cotton wool or tampon may be inserted to prevent
the blood from leaving the vagina. As long as the wetness from it does not come on the outside, wudhu will not break - even
if the next salaat time begins, wudhu will remain intact. Wudhu will only break when the material inserted is removed and it
is stained, or if the blood seeps through and comes on the outside of the material inserted.

“Time it takes to make GHUSL” – toward the end of salaat time- means to have a quick compulsory bath (to discharge only
the faraaid of ghusl) and get dressed, and not spending an hour or so in the bathroom.

Faraaid (compulsory) acts of ghusl: to gargle up to the throat, to wash the nose up to the soft bone and to pour water over
the entire body

Sunnat method of performing Ghusl:

Firstly, with the intention of purifying oneself from najaasat, wash both hands up to the wrists three times and then wash the
private parts irrespective of whether there’s any impurity on them or not and even if one has not been to the toilet. Thereafter
wash off any impurity found on the body, followed by wudhu in accordance with the sunnat. The feet may be left till last if
bathing in a place where water accumulates. Water should then be poured over the head three times followed by pouring
water over the right and left shoulder three times each ensuring that water reaches every part of the body by rubbing the skin
with the hands. Care should be taken that water reaches into the naval.

The Prophet s instructed women to take a small cloth or use cotton wool dabbed in perfume (musk or other fragrance) and
rub thoroughly all traces of blood.

                                      ‫ - نِفاس‬POST-NATAL BLEEDING
Nifaas is post natal bleeding which is blood thrown out by the womb after the birth of a child

1. BEGINNING OF NIFAAS is when bleeding occurs after at least half of the baby has emerged. The bleeding before this is
of Istihaadhah and salaat of that particular time remains compulsory. In the case of the birth of twins, nifaas begins with the
bleeding that takes place after the birth of the first child – as long as the period in between the births is not more than 6 lunar
months. In the case of a caesarean birth, only the bleeding through the vagina is nifaas. If no bleeding occurred through the
vagina, then there will be no nifaas

*Beyond which is bleeding of istihaadhah.

*A woman may bleed for a day or a few days or sometimes not at all (in which case ghusl should be performed as soon as
time of the next salaat begins and if it is harmful for the woman to do so, then tayammum must be performed and salaat

i.e. during the days of Nifaas, if bleeding occurs, then stops and then reoccurs within 40 days, then all that period will be
regarded as Nifaas, as long as there is a Tuhr Saheeh after it (valid tuhr)

* However salaat should be commenced after performing ghusl when bleeding stops and if it re-occurs, salaat should be
stopped to avoid qadhaa. Fasts of Ramadhan kept on days of purity which are later established as Nifaas, (within 40 days)
will have to be kept as qadhaa.

* it is a misconception that a woman must wait the full 40 days before performing ghusl even when bleeding has stopped


* If a woman experiences nifaas for the first time and bleeding continues beyond 40 days, then the first 40 days will be of
nifaas and the rest istihaadhah. Ghusl should be performed on the 41st day and salaat and fasts of Ramadhaan commenced.

* In the case of a woman who has experienced nifaas previously and bleeding continues beyond 40 days, then her previous
habit will be considered and the bleeding beyond that habit will be of Istihaadhah


* After bleeding of Nifaas ends any subsequent bleeding that occurs after a tuhr of less than 15 days is bleeding of
Istihaadhah and salaat and fasts of Ramadhaan must be continued.

* If bleeding stops at the end of 40 days with so little time left for salaat that only Takbir Tahreema could be said, then that
particular salaat will become compulsory and will have to be made up after ghusl

* If bleeding stops before 40 days and there is time for ghusl and say Takbir Tahrima, then that salaat becomes compulsory.
However if there is no time to do even this, then that salaat is forgiven

     A competent Mufti must be contacted for advice in case of complications where bleeding is continuous after 40 days
             have passed or a valid tuhr does not occur for months and previous haidh habits are forgotten

1. Birth of first child

      Birth of
  1   child          8    bleeding   15   bleeding   22   clean       29   clean       36    bleeding
  2   bleeding       9    bleeding   16   bleeding   23   clean       30   clean       37    clean
  3   bleeding      10    bleeding   17   bleeding   24   clean       31   clean       38    clean
  4   bleeding      11    clean      18   bleeding   25   clean       32   clean       39    clean
  5   bleeding      12    clean      19   bleeding   26   clean       33   bleeding    40    bleeding
  6   bleeding      13    clean      20   bleeding   27   clean       34   bleeding    41    clean
  7   bleeding      14    clean      21   clean      28   clean       35   bleeding    42    clean


2. Birth of second child: bleeding continued up to 30 days and then stopped and did not reoccur within 40 days. Therefore a
NEW HABIT of 30 days is formed.

      Birth of
  1   child          8    bleeding   15   bleeding   22   bleeding    29    bleeding    36   clean
  2   bleeding       9    bleeding   16   bleeding   23   bleeding    30    bleeding    37   clean
  3   bleeding      10    bleeding   17   bleeding   24   bleeding    31    clean       38   clean
  4   bleeding      11    bleeding   18   bleeding   25   bleeding    32    clean       39   clean
  5   bleeding      12    bleeding   19   bleeding   26   bleeding    33    clean       40   clean
  6   bleeding      13    bleeding   20   bleeding   27   bleeding    34    clean       41   clean
  7   bleeding      14    bleeding   21   bleeding   28   bleeding    35    clean       42   clean

3. At the birth of the third child, bleeding occurred for a while, then stopped, then re-occurred on day 35 but CONTINUED
BEYOND 40 DAYS. Now the previous habit will be considered, which is 30 days. Therefore 30 days is nifaas, ghusl will be
made on the 41st day and salaat commenced. Qadha will be made up for the 31st to the 40th.

NOTE: The Rules regarding Salaat, Sawm, Sexual relations, entering the Masjid, Qur’an and Zikr are the same as for the
menstruating woman.

It is very important to keep a detailed record of your haidh habits. Record your details diligently in the chart below
because when things go wrong, many laws will depend upon this information.

In case of doubts or confusion if the pattern of your bleeding changes, consult a competent ‘Aalim or Mufti.

            DATE                  TIME        NUMBER                  DATE                TIME          HABIT:
        bleeding begins          bleeding     of clean days       bleeding ends           bleeding     Total number
          (note Islamic           begins      passed since          (note Islamic           ends        of days of
          dates as well)                      last bleeding         dates as well)                     bleeding this
                                                 SALAAT CHART
 Names of     Number      Total    Sunnat         Fard     Sunnat          Nafl     Witr       Nafl   Times of Salaat
 the five     of Rakat    made                                                      Wajib
 Salaat       in each     up of.
                                   2                                                                  From subh-saadiq up to a
 FAJR         4                                   2        -               -        -          -
                                   MU-AQQADA                                                          little before sunrise
                                                                                                      Time begins at zawaal up to
                                                                                                      when the shadow of an object
                                   4                       2
 DHUHR        12                                  4                        2        -          -      becomes twice it’s length,
                                   MU-AQQADA               MU-AQQADA
                                                                                                      plus the original shadow at
                                   4                                                                  From where dhuhr time ends
 ASR          8                    GHAIR          4        -               -        -          -      up to a little before sunset.
                                                                                                      From immediately after
              7                    -              3                        2        -          -      sunset until the redness fades
 MAGHRIB                                                   MU-AQQADA
                                                                                                      on the horizon
                                                                                                      From when the redness
                                                           2                                          disappears ( about 1 and a
 ISHAA        17                   GHAIR          4                        2        3          2
                                                           MU-AQQADA                                  half hours after sunset) upto a
                                                                                                      little before subh-saadiq.

* It is not permissible to perform any salaat at SUNRISE, ISTIWAA (when the sun is at its peak) and SUNSET. Salaat can
be performed about 15 minutes after sunrise, 5 minutes after Istiwaa (i.e. at Zawaal) and immediately after sunset.

* It is not permissible to perform any Nafl (optional) salaat during the time of Fajr and after the Fard of Asr has been
performed. However qadhaa salaat may be performed at these times.

CONDITIONS OF SALAAT (Acts without which Salaat will not be valid)
         Cleanliness of body from impurity (wudhu / ghusl)
         Cleanliness of clothes
         Cleanliness of place of Salaat
         Covering of the Satar
         Performing Salaat in it’s proper time
         Facing the Qiblah
         Intention of Salaat

         Takbeer Tahrimah – to say Allaahu akbar
         Qiyaam – standing position
         Qiraat – recitation of one long verse or at least three short ones
         Ruku – bowing
         Both Sajdahs – prostrations
         Qa’dah Aakhirah – to sit long enough at the end of the last rakat to read Tashahhud

* Besides the Faraa’idh and the Waajibaat (which are covered separately in “Sajda Sahw”) all other parts of Salaat are
Sunnat and Mustahabbaat factors which should be strictly adhered to and not be omitted. However no Sajda Sahw is
necessary if they are omitted. Read through them and the “Breakers & Disliked” acts of Salaat in Ta’leemul Haqq or
Tasheelul Fiqh
                                                SAJDAA – E – SAHW

They are two Sajdaa performed to compensate for an unintentional mistake. Shaitaan tries his best to take away our
concentration during Salaat and we make mistakes. So we have been allowed to perform two extra Sajdaa as compensation
which causes anger and humiliation to Shaitaan.

In the last rakat, recite Tashahhud and make Salaam towards the right only. Thereafter perform two Sajdaa as normal and
complete the salaat as normal with Tashahhud, Durud, Dua and Salaam.

This Sajdaa-e-sahw compensates for one or several mistakes.

Sajdaa-e-sahw is obligatory when:
    a) Any WAAJIB act is OMITTED; DISPLACED (observed before or after the time it should be observed);
       DELAYED (to the extent of the time it takes to say “Subhaanallah” 3 times); or REPEATED.

NOTE: OMITTING a FARD act will nullify Salaat and it will have to be repeated.

It is therefore important to be aware of the FARAAIDH and WAAJIBAAT of Salaat.

    1.   To say “Allahu Akbar” at the beginning of Salaat after making intention (Takbire-tahreema)
    2.   To stand. (Qiyaam)
    3.   To recite a surah or 1 long verse or 3 short verses of the Qur’an. (Qiraat)
    4.   To make ruku
    5.   To make two sajdaa
    6.   To sit at the end of salaat long enough to pray Tashahud. (Qa’dah Akhira)

    1. To recite Surah Faatiha in every rakat (But in the 3rd and 4th rakat of a fard salaat it is sunnat and not
    2. To recite the required portion of the Qur’an after Surah Faatiha (in all rakaat except the 3rd and 4th rakaat
       of fard)
    3. Performing acts of salaat in the correct order (Tarteeb)
    4. Performing all acts with patience and without rushing. (Ta’deel-e-Arkaan)
    5. To stand erect after ruku. (Qaumah)
    6. To sit between two Sajdaas. (Jalsa)
    7. Qa’dah Ulaa i.e. to sit to the extent of saying tashahud after 2 rakaats in a 3 or 4 rakaat salaat
    8. To recite Tashahud in both Qa’das
    9. To say Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) and thereafter to recite Dua-e-Qunoot in witr salaat.
    10. To end salaat by performing salaam

There are three more waajibaat for males in Jam’at.
1.   Sajdaa-Sahw (SS) will compensate if one forgets to recite Surah Faatiha in any rakat of any salaat- except in the third
     and fourth of the fard salaat (in which case it is not necessary to perform SS – (see “Note” in number 2). eg of WAAJIB

2.   SS will compensate if one, by mistake, recites the required portion of the Qur’an BEFORE reciting Surah Faatiha. eg of
     WAAJIB DISPLACED. eg of FARD OMITTED: However, to recite 1 long verse or 3 short verses of the Qur’an is a
     fard of salaat, so if anyone left out Qiraat altogether or recited less than this then salaat would have to be repeated and
     SS would not compensate.

     Note: In the third and fourth rakat of any fard salaat, only surah Faatiha is recited and its a sunnat of salaat, so if anyone
     omitted it, then SS will not be necessary. Also, if a person added Qirat after surah Fatiha deliberately or forgetfully in
     the third and fourth rakat of a fard salaat, then again SS will not be necessary. eg of FARD DELAYED: If after reciting
     surah Fatiha, one could not think of a surah to add, and the pause was equal to one rukn (time it takes one to recite
     “Subhaana Rabbiyal ‘A’laa” 3 times) or more, then SS is necessary.

3.   eg of FARD DISPLACED: The correct sequence (Tarteeb) of the acts of salaat have to be maintained; therefore to
     make sajdah before having made ruku would make SS necessary.

4.   Each act must be performed calmly (Ta’deel-e-Arkaan) without rushing. Each part of the body must be allowed to
     come to rest before the next move is made.

5.   The sitting in both qa’das has to be long enough to recite Tashahhud. Omission of even a portion of Tashahhud will
     necessitate SS. Note: omitting Qa’dah Akhira renders the Salaat nullified and SS will not compensate. *In the first
     sitting of a 3 or 4 rakat salaat (Qa’dah Ulaa), if a person forgetfully starts reciting Durud after Tashahhud instead of
     standing up for the third rakat, then SS will be necessary if one recites the Durud beyond “Allahumma salle’alaa”. If
     Durud is recited up to “Allahumma salle’alaa” and one remembers and stands up, then SS is not necessary. *It should
     be remembered that when one forgets the first sitting and starts to stand up, then as long as he is closer to the sitting
     position or even exactly halfway between sitting and standing when he realises his error, then he must return to the
     sitting position and SS will not have to be performed. However if he is closer to the standing position or has already
     stood up when he realises his error, then he must remain standing up, continue the third and fourth rakat and perform SS
     at the end.

6.   When one forgets to recite Takbeer and dua-e-Qunoot in witr salaat and goes into ruku after reciting a surah, on
     realising the error one has two choices:

i) return to the standing posture, recite takbeer and dua-e-qunoot, then go straight into sajdah
ii) continue salaat as normal without reciting dua-e-qunoot (this is the recommended option)

     In both cases Sajda-e-Sahw will become obligatory

7.   To end salaat by performing Salaam is waajib. If one forgets to do Salaam, then as long as nothing is done against
     salaat, e.g. chest moving away from the qiblah, then SS will compensate, otherwise salaat will be repeated.

     **If SS has become necessary but one forgets to perform it after Tashahhud, then it can be performed any time before
     the Salaam. If one forgets it completely and the Salaam is done, then SS can still be performed if nothing is done against
     Salaat, i.e. chest moving away from the qiblah or talking to anyone. In this case perform the two Sajdaa and not the
     Tashahhud, Durud, Dua and Salaam.

8.   eg of FARD REPEATED: two Rukus done instead of one, or three Sajdaas instead of two.
9.   eg of WAAJIB REPEATED: Surah Faatiha repeated in the first and second rakat of a Fard salaat, or in any rakat of
     Sunnat or Nafl salaat.
10. eg of WAAJIB DELAYED: If before any waajib act, one pauses and the pause was equal to one rukn or more, then SS
    will be necessary.
                           REMEMBER ALLAH AT ALL TIMES
When greeting someone
                                 ِ‫اَسالم علَيكم ورحمةُ ﷲ‬
                                      َ ْ َ َ ُْْ َ ُ ‫ﱠ‬            Assalaamu ‘alaykum
                                                                   warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh-
                                                   َ               May peace be upon you and
                                                                   Allah’s mercy and His blessings
In reply to a greeting
                                 ِ‫وعلَيكم اسالم ورحمةُ ﷲ‬
                                      َ ْ َ َ        ‫َ َ ُُْ ﱠ‬     Wa ‘alaykumussalaam
                                                                   warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh
                                           ‫وبَراكاتُه‬    َ
When starting to do something              ‫بِسم ﷲ‬                  Bismillaah-in the name of Allah
When ascending                              ْ ْ َ
                                            ‫ﷲُ اَكبَر‬              Allaahu akbar-Allah is Great
When descending                          ‫سبْحانَ ﷲ‬     ُ           Subhaanallaah-Glory be to
In praise of Allah                              ُْ َ ْ
                                              ِ ‫اَلحمد‬             Alhamdulillaah-Praise be to
When intending to do something
                                               َ ْ
                                          ‫اِنشاء ﷲ‬                 Insha allah-if Allah wills
To praise                                 ‫سبْحانَ ﷲ‬ ُ              Subhaanallaah-glory be to Allah
In appreciation                           ‫ماشاء ﷲ‬                  Maa shaa allah-what Allah likes
When in pain or distress                    ‫يا ﷲ‬                   Yaa allah-O Allah
When thanking someone                     ‫جزاك ﷲ‬َ َ                Jazaakallaah-may Allah reward
When sneezing say                              ُْ ْ
                                           ِ ‫الحمد‬                 Alhamdulillaah-praise be to
The hearer should say                     ‫يَرحمك ﷲ‬
                                            َ ُ َ ْ                Yarhamukallaah-may Allah
                                                                   have mercy on you
The sneezer should then reply    ‫يَھديكم ﷲُ ويُصلِح بالَكم‬
                                 ُْ ْ ْ َ          ُُِْْ           Yahdikumullaah wayuslih
                                                                   baalakum-may Allah guide you
                                                                   to righteousness and adorn your
When repenting                              ُ ْ ْ
                                          ‫اَستَغفِر ﷲ‬              Astaghfirullaah-o Allah forgive
When having love for someone               ‫لِحب ﷲ‬
                                             ‫ُ ﱢ‬                   Lihubbillaah-for the love of
When parting from someone                ‫فِي اَمان ﷲ‬
                                           ِ                       Fee amaanillaah-in the
                                                                   protection of Allah
When placed in an unpleasant                      ُْ َ ْ
                                  ‫اَلحمد ِ ِ عَلى كل حال‬
                                  ٍ ‫ُ ﱢ‬                            Alhamdulillaahi ‘alaa kulli haal-
situation                                                          praise be to Allah in all
When unpleasantness occurs                     ُ ُْ
                                          ‫نَعوذ بِاﷲ‬               Na’oothubillaah-we seek refuge
                                                                   in Allah
When pleasantness occurs                  ‫فَتَبارك ﷲ‬
                                            َ َ                    Fatabaarakallaah-so Glorious
                                                                   (exalted) is Allah
When participating in Du’a               ‫آمين‬
                                            ِْ                     Aameen
On hearing of shocking news or    ‫اِنّا ِ ِ واِنّا اِلَيه راجعون‬
                                    ُ ِ ِ ْ          َ             Innaa lillaahi wainnaa ilayhi
death                                                              raaji’oon-to Allah we belong
                                                                   and to Him we return
Following are the Islamic months with their important dates. One must ensure that the Sunnats are adhered to and the
Bid’aat/Customs avoided from all occasions.

First month of the Islamic calendar. 10th of Muharram is a day of virtue; he who spends more lavishly on his family on this
day will have blessings bestowed in his sustenance. To keep two fasts is sunnat (either 9th and 10th, or 10th and 11th)


Our beloved Prophet s was born in this month and he also departed from this world in this month 63 years later. Muslims
do not celebrate birthdays




RAJAB With the commencement of the month of Rajab, our Prophet s used to make the following du’a:

                                   َ َ َْ َ ْ َ
                                ‫اللّھم باركْ لَنا في رجب و شعْبانَ و بَلﱢغنا شھر رمضان‬
                                                          َ َ َ َ َ         ِ ُّ
                            Allaahumma baarik lanaa fee rajaba wa sha’baana wa ballighnaa shahra ramadhaan
                                “O Allah, bless us in Rajab and Sha’baan and make us reach Ramaadhaan”
Beginning of numerous blessings being showered upon us, progressively escalating toward Ramadhaan and reaching their
peak by the end of Ramadhaan

 “A blessing” from Allah S. The month of fasting and attaining Taqwaa. This is the month of mercy, forgiveness and
safety from the fire. One must be aware of Dos and Donts of fasting. Recommended reading: “Virtues of Ramadhaan” by
Mawlana Zakaria – “Ashraf’s Blessings of Ramadhaan”

The first of this month is ‘Eid ul Fitr (* Sadaqaatul Fitr is obligatory on one who owns the Nisaab). After fasting in
Ramadhaan it is Sunnat to observe 6 fasts during this month. It will be as though one has fasted for the whole year.

Is a month among the months of Hajj

The Hajj is performed in this month. The first 10 days of this month are full of virtue when one should engage in worship
of Allah S. Observing the fasts of the first 9 days is equivalent to fasting throughout the year and to engage in worship
through any of these nights is equal to worship of Laylatul Qadr. To fast on the day of Arafah will get all of ones previous
year’s and the preceding year’s sins forgiven.

QURBAANI (sacrifice) is obligatory on every sane, mature Muslim who is not a traveller and who possesses 612.36
grammes of silver or wealth equivalent to that value which is in excess to one’s basic needs and which is in his possession
for the 3 days of Qurbani (i.e. it doesn’t have to be in one’s possession for a full year).

Hajj is one of the fundamentals of Islam and it is compulsory on those who can afford it. When one is given the opportunity
it should be valued and preparations should begin by studying and learning about Hajj and to aid in this, good books should
be read well in advance and one should attend programmes organised by Ulama for this purpose.
Recommended reading: Virtues of Hajj by Mawlana Zakaria - Hajj/Umrah/Ziyaarat booklets by Shaykh M.S. Dhorat IDA - Women’s
guide to Hajj & Umrah by Mufti M Faruq, Blackburn
Age     Year             Event                                          Details
      570 CE    Birth - in the year of   Father (‘Abdullah)-Bani Hashim-passed away before birth-mother
                the Elephant-Abraha      (Aaminah) witnessed many miraculous events during pregnancy:
                from Yemen sets out      fragrance emanated from her
                to destroy Ka’bah        At birth light issued from mother, lit up palaces in Syria-14 balconies
                                         of Kisra’s palace cracked-Magian’s fire died out-churches on Lake
                                         Sawa sank.
                Sent to healthy          Halima-foster mother-miracles due to his blessings.
                surroundings in          At age 2 returned to mother but she requests Halima to continue
                desert                   looking after him
                                         At age 4 Jibra’eel opens chest, heart taken out, blood clot removed
                                         from it, washed in zamzam & replaced
4     574 CE    Return to Mother
6     576 CE    Mother’s death           Comes under care of ‘Abdul Muttalib, his grand father
8     578 CE    Grandfather’s death      Comes under care of Abu Taalib, his uncle-becomes youth, no
                                         particular job but did work as shepherd-went on business trips with
                                         uncle-monk Buhayra in Syria recognised him, stones, trees prostrated
                                         & by seal of prophethood-beautiful character, honest, trustworthy-
                                         rebuilding Ka’bah episode
24    594 CE    Khadeejah                Went on business trip for Khadeejah, she proposed marriage, he
                                         accepted-she was 40-very happy- children, Ruqayya, Zaynab, ummi
                                         Kulthum, Faatimah,’Abdullah, Qaasim, both sons died early
40    609 CE    Prophethood              Often meditated in cave of Hira-Jibra’eel appeared, said “Read”-goes
                                         home scared at enormous responsibility, Khadeejah consoles, accepts
                                         Islam. Abu Bakr, Ali, Zaid accept. Da’wah in secrecy for 3 years-
                                         darul Arqam used as base.
43    612 CE    Open Da’wah              Message of Tawheed & Risaalat declared openly - speech on Mt
                                         Safa- Abu Lahab, his uncle, open enemy-Uncle Abu Taalib protects
                                         & supports though doesn’t accept Islam- persecution of Muslims
                                         begin-story of Bilal, Sumayyah, Mus’ab (wealthy mother finds out,
                                         imprisons son) etc-they remain steadfast-Prophet s attacked in
                                         Haram, Abu Bakr saved him-while in sujud, innards of animal throw
                                         over him, Fatimah came & helped-Uqbah tried to throttle him & Abu
                                         Bakr saved him-he is called magician, insulted & abused
                Hamzah & ‘Umar           Uncle Hamzah gave Abu Jahl head wound for insulting his nephew-
                accept Islam             afterwards accepts Islam-‘Umar story- now open worship in Haram-
                                         great boost to Muslims.
                                         Prophet s is offered bribe of wealth, kingship, most beautiful woman
45    614 CE    First Migration          Due to persecution 16 people migrated to Abyssinia (Ethiopia)-
                                         Uthman & wife Ruqayya among them-sujud of idolaters incident
                                         took place & misreported to Muslims in Ethiopia, they came back
      616CE     Second Migration         persecution increased-intolerable for many- second group leave for
                                         Ethiopia-Quraysh furious-send envoy to king-Ja’far defines Islam,
                                         king accepts, lets Muslims stay
                Social Boycott           Quraysh have no business dealings, social relations etc with
                                         Muslims-they move to small valley where they endure much
                                         hardship-boycott lifted after 3 years
50    619 CE    Year of grief            Biggest supporters, Abu Taalib & Khadeejah die-persecution
                Marriage to Sawdah       increases-Prophet s continues da’wah- Taif- Da’wah to Madinites
                Mi’raaj                  during hajj season
52    621CE     1st Aqabah pledge        1st Aqabah pledge by 12 Madinites - Aisha 6 yrs old, marriage not
                                         consummated till she was 9-only virgin he married-most learned of
                Marriage to ‘Aisha       all wives
53    623CE     2nd Aqabah pledge        Over 70 converts from Madinah (tribes of Khazraj & Aws) during
                                         Hajj-secret night meeting with Prophet s
                Plot to kill Prophet s   Quraysh stunned at Muslim success-meeting held- decision to
                                         assassinate Prophet s-
                            THE MADINISE PHASE (10 YEARS)
 Age     Year             Event                                           Details
53     1AH/623   Hijrah to Madinah        Quraysh laid siege to his house-Ali left inside while Prophet s &
       CE        Start of Islamic         Abu Bakr leave secretly-Quraysh follow-hide in cave-story of
                 calendar                 horseman who follows-safely reach Quba, then Madinah where
                                          friends await!
                 Position in Madinah      *Madinise Polytheists: most accepted Islam, but some
                 on arrival                 only outwardly i.e. the HYPOCRITES
                                          *JEWS who had migrated from other places & settled in Madinah i.e.
                                          Bani Qainuqa, Bani Nadir & Bani Quraizah-sowed seeds of discord
                                          between tribes
                                          *enemy from outside i.e. the QURAISH who were angry & mortified
                                          at Prophet’s s escape
                 Strategy                 *established Islamic code of life
                                          *created brotherhood between Muhaajireen & Ansaar
                                          *pact with Jews: full freedom in faith & wealth-both sides boycott
                                          Quraysh commercially-both sides would defend each other when
                                          *patrols sent out as guards & to explore geographical features
                                          surrounding Madinah
                                          *alliances with nearby tribes for sake of peace
                                          *intercept caravans to control commercial routes-Peace & security
                                          had to be established so Islamic da’wah could continue & to impress
                                          on Jews & Polytheists that Muslims no longer weak
                 The Quraysh              Persecution of Muslims in Makkah continued-threats made to people
                                          going for Umrah-Quraish afraid of losing status in Arabia-Quraish
                                          chief raided grazing ground of Prophet s, Muslims pursued &
                                          retrieved animals
       2AH       First serious skirmish   Delegation sent to Nakhla, near Makkah-skirmish occurs with
                                          Quraysh trading caravan-1 Quraysh killed, 2 taken prisoners with
                                          goods. Prophet s NOT HAPPY- released prisoners & returned
                                          Quraysh realised growing power of Muslims & danger to economy-
                                          declare war-trade caravan sent to Syria for armour & weapons, Abu
                                          Sufyan in charge
54     2AH/624   Battle of Badr           Muslims go out to intercept the returning caravan to make up for
       CE        First decisive battle    property left behind in Makkah-fighting NOT planned so ill
                 in history of Islam.     equipped- 313 men only
                 Muslims a power to       Abu Sufyan alert-scouts report Muslim activities-sends message to
                 be reckoned with in      Makkah for help-1300 well equipped men set out-Abu Sufyan
                 Arabia.                  escaped, sent message but Abu Jahal continued
                 “a conflict between      Muslim victory-Abu Jahal & many chiefs killed-Abu Lahab in
                 forces of good &         Makkah furious, beats Muslim, a woman cracked his head with log,
                 evil”                    died 7 days later-prisoners of war ransomed for money- or set free if
                                          they taught 10 children to read & write-“Umar’s idea preferred”-
                 *Change of Qiblah        Ka’b bin Ashraf, most resentful of Muslims, extremely frustrated at
                 *Fast of Ramadhaan       news of Badr, wrote poems slandering Prophet s & enticing Quraysh
                  obligatory              against him-started campaign of obscene songs to defame Muslim
                 *zakat imposition        women
                                          Series of jeering & intimidation-Jew provoked Muslim woman-
       2AH       Bani Qainuqa             Muslim man who happened to be there killed Jew so he was killed by
                 banished                 other Jews-siege laid on Jewish forts for 15 days-finally left leaving
                                          wealth behind
55     3AH/625   Marriage to Hafsah       Defeat at Badr, economy threatened as caravans intercepted,
       CE        bint ‘Umar               Makkans wanted revenge-3,000 men, well equipped, set out-1,000
                                          Muslims set out of which 300 hypocrites turn back-Archers-1st phase
                                          to Muslims-Archers mistake- Khalid bin Waleed-2nd phase to
                 Battle of Uhud           Polytheists-rumour of Prophet’s death-heavy losses on Muslims-
                                          neither victorious nor vanquished-Hamzah speared by Wahshi-
                                          mutilated by Hind-70 Muslims martyred, 22 Polytheists killed

                 Bani Nadir banished      Ambush of 70 Qurra’- surviver killed 2 people of Bani Kilab who
                                       were given pledge of protection by Prophet s as revenge of ambush-
                                       blood money had to be paid & prophet s went to seek help from
                                       Bani Nadir who plotted to kill him with big stone-Jibra’eel informed
                                       him-got away-Jews told to evacuate Madinah, hypocrite urge Jews to
                                       fight-siege for few nights-Bani Nadir left taking what they could
                                       carry-some went to Khaibar, others to Syria
     4AH/626   Marriage to Zainab      She died 2-3 months later
     CE        Marriage to Ummi
57   5AH/627   Battle of Ahzaab        Hypocrites silenced after mischief with Bani Nadir -promise of Badr
     CE                                2nd not kept by Makkans-power shifts to Muslims-other aggressive
                                       raiding tribes around Madinah disciplined-Muslims now awe
                                       inspiring presence in Arabia!
                                       Jews exiled to Khaibar in disgrace sent delegation to Makkah & other
                                       tribes to form alliance to finish off Muslims-Quraysh seize opp &
                                       other tribes join-total army 10,000 set out toward Madinah-Salman
                                       Farsi’s idea, TRENCH dug on northern side as other sides
                                       surrounded by mountains & orchards-pact with Bani Quraiza, their
                                       houses on the south side-Jewish betrayal-Hypocrites taunts-Secret
                                       Muslim Nu’aym offers help & incites mistrust among confederates-
                                       wind, rain, cold sent down-confederates evacuate-DECISIVE WIN
                                       FOR MUSLIMS!
     5AH       Bani Quraiza            Jibraeel tells Prophet s to fight the Jews as even Angels ready-siege
               punished for betrayal   (25 Days)-Abu Lubaba story-Sa’d ibn Muadh, injured, to give
                                       judgement, Jews agree-resulted in 600+ men beheaded & women
                                       /children prisoners-Sa’d died-no Jews left in Madinah
               Ghazwah of Banu al      News of them mobilising to attack Madinah reason for this battle-
               Mustaliq                some fighting-Muslim victory-story of Abdullah ibn Ubai -slander on
               Marriage to Zainab      Aisha on return journey-many other expeditions to subdue & deter
               bint Jahsh              enemies-skirmishes rather than major fighting
               Marriage to
     6AH       Hudaybiyyah             Wanting peace Quraysh withdrew from war arena-Prophet s dreamt
                                       of Umrah-1500 Muslims set out with no intention of fighting-road to
                                       Makkah blocked by huge army-Khalid sent for surprise attack, but
                                       Muslims take other route & reach Hudaybiyyah-envoys back & forth
                                       for negotiations-Uthman sent to Makkah-rumour of his death-bay’ah-
                                       finally peace treaty, all in favour of Quraysh but wisdom behind it-
                                       ihram broken (wife’s advice)-return to Madinah-peace prevails-
                                       propagation to kings outside Arabia begin-Khalid bin Waleed &
                                       other big names accept Islam
59   7AH/628   Conquest of             Khaybar was a hotbed of conspiracy-Jews banished from Madinah
     CE        Khaybar                 hostile-incited others-peace settlement offered by Prophet s rejected-
                                       military campaign, 1400 men-Hypocrite Abdullah ibn Ubai sent news
               Marriage to Umm         to Jews who called the Ghaftaan for help-Prophet s halted at a place
               Habibah                 between Khaibar & the Ghaftaan so that help did not reach-siege of
                                       forts one after another-some surrendered, some conquered-
               Marriage to Saffiyyah   agreement, booty
               on the way back
               Bedoins                 Bedoin tribes looted & plundered-army penetrated deep into their
                                       land-no fighting-agreements-victory to Muslims-great impact on
                                       Arabs-peace prevailed
               Umrah                   Prophet s with 2000 Muslims perform Umrah during which
               Marriage to             marriage to Maimoonah took place- after 4 days Muslims told to
               Maimoonah               leave so they do
60   8AH/629   Battle of Muta          Near Syria-envoy killed-3000 men sent to invite to Islam or fight-
     CE                                faced army of 100,000 of Arab tribes allied to Byzantines-Khalid’s
                                       strategy of withdrawal-
                                       Zaid, Ja’far stories -battle not won but reputation enhanced-many
                                       Arab tribes accept Islam-
61   9AH/630   Conquest of             After some peace hostility broke out between 2 Arab tribes-one allied
     CE        Makkah                  to Quraysh attacked the one allied to Prophet s-Quraysh joined in so
                                       breaking treaty of Hudaybiyyah-Prophet s demanded redress for
                                   violating treaty & blood money for slain men-Quraysh feared
                                   consequences-Abu Sufyan sent to Madinah to renew treaty, his
                                   daughter umm Habibah wife of Prophet s, no help-Prophet s
                                   prepared for war with news blackout- 10,000 men left Madinah-
                                   Quraysh unaware of Muslim intentions & waited uncertainly- no
                                   killing except 9, of which 4 killed-Prophet’s s mercy, (Wahshi,
                                   Hind, Ikrimah)-purifying of Haram- key of Ka’bah-Bilal’s azan-
             Battle of Hunayn      Conquest of Makkah had tremendous impact on Arabs-masses
                                   convert, except fierce, proud tribe of Hawazin, who with help of the
                                   Thaqif advanced to Hunain with women, children & wealth-hid in
                                   ravines-Prophet s with initial 10,000 + 2,000 Makkans advance-
                                   boasting by some-Muslims taken by surprise & many fled-Prophet s
                                   stayed firm, dust at enemy who are blinded/confused-Muslim victory
                                   Soldiers of Thaqif escaped to Taif-siege with heavy fighting for 20
                                   days-Prophet s made du’a for them & left-eventually all accepted
             Expedition to Taif    Islam-after performing umrah Prophet s returned to Madinah
                                   (Ansar’s wish)
                                   Byzantines (Romans) preparation to fight & crush Muslims made
                                   Prophet s led army of 30,000-Enemy had withdrawn-treaties with
             Battle of Tabuk
                                   Arab tribes which made borders safe-Muslims return- Ka’b ibn Malik
                                   story-12 Hypocrites tried to kill Prophet s on return journey (pg430
                                   Sealed Necter)
     9AH     First Hajj in Islam   Hajj made obligatory-Abu Bakr as amir lead Muslims for first Hajj-
                                   Ali sent to announce “no Disbeliever to perform Hajj after this year”
                                   Farewell Hajj of Prophet s with masses of Muslims-khutbah at
     10AH    Farewell Hajj         Arafat-returned to Madinah
63   11AH/   Death                 After short illness, in Aisha’s house, his head in her lap, the Prophet
     632CE                         of Allah s died...from poisoned meat given to him by a Jewess at
                                   “Innaa lillaahi wa innaa ilahi raaji-oon”
                                                WIVES OF THE PROPHET s
     1. Khadijah            older by 15 years-had 6 children--did not marry anyone else while with her
     2. Saudah              Older in age, her people came in close contact with Prophet s, accepted Islam
     3. Aishah              daughter of Abu Bakr-6yrs old at time of marriage but marriage not consummated till she
                            was 9-only virgin he married-most beloved-most learned of all wives
     4. Hafsah              daughter of ‘Umar bin alKhattab -widow of martyr of Uhud
     5. Zaynab bint         Prophet s married her after her husband was martyred in Badr, she died after 2-3 months
     6. Ummi                Refused Abu Bakr’s & ‘Umar’s proposal after her husband died - accepted Prophet s.
        Salamah             Touching migration story (women’s courage pg178 Fazaile amal & pg 133 Com of P no1)
     7. Zaynab bint         previously married to Zaid who was considered son of Prophet s-Zaid divorced her & verses
        Jahsh               came down discussing adoption in Islam & giving her in marriage to Prophet s (she took
                            great pride in this)
     8. Juwayriyyah         daughter of head of Bani Mustaliq-she was among booty-negotiated her release-Prophet s
                            offered her choice of release or marriage, she accepted marriage-Companions released all her
                            relatives who were captives- her tribe seeing this generosity accepted Islam
     9. Umm Habibah         daughter of Abu Sufyan-previously married & had migrated to Abyssinia where her husband
        (Ramlah)            became Christian-Prophet s sent letter to king for her hand
     10. Safiyyah           from the children of Israil (Harun u)-she was part of booty from Khaibar-given choice of
                            release or marriage, she chose marriage-noble lineage elevated
     11. Maimoonah          daughter of al Harith, aunt of Khalid- marriage during Umrah
     Mariyah                a present from vicegerent of Egypt-gave birth to son, Ibrahim who died in infancy
     Qibtiyyah              some say he married her – 3 other slave women mentioned in books

 Polygamy in Islam:        The Prophet s is often the victim of unjust charges regarding his having a number of wives. He was given freedom regarding
 the number of wives he could take over other Muslims in order to achieve noble and honourable purposes. The following are points worth pondering over.
 We all know the results of Western monogamy and the so called freedom for women, i.e. indecency, rape, unwanted pregnancies, abortion, suffering, etc.

          Ponder over his youth which was chaste and pure and then the best part of his life spent with one wife who was
          much older and with whom he had children; a devoted happy family. His second wife also being much older rules
          out a motive of lustful desire
          The tendency of the Prophet s was toward establishing relationships by marriage, i.e. Aisha & Hafsa daughters of
          Abu Bakr & ‘Umar respectively being his wives and his daughter Fatima to Ali while Ruqayyah & ummi Kulthum
          to Uthman
          Some marriages took place specifically to demolish enmity to Islam: his marriage to Saudah was a means of most
          of her tribe accepting Islam – Ummi Salamah was from the clan of Abu Jahl & Khalid bin Waleed which produced
          good results besides which her orphaned children were taken care of – Ummi Habibah was Abu Sufyan’s daughter
          – Juwayriyyah’s tribe stopped provocation after her marriage to Prophet s and in fact she turned out to be very
          blessed for her people as most of her tribe entered Islam. As for Safiyyah, she was of noble blood with her lineage
          to Harun u which was preserved & elevated.
          His marriages brought comfort to widows & orphans i.e. Saudah, Ummi Salamah
          His marriages were a means of educating women of different ages & cultures. His wives learnt & conveyed his
          message and his sunnah regarding family life. They played a very important role.
          An example was set against a deep rooted custom regarding adoption with his marriage to Zaynab who was
          previously married to his adopted son Zayd. Adoption was abolished and Allah S Himself gave Zaynab in
          marriage to the Prophet.

                                                         DAUGHTERS of the Prophet s
1.    Ruqayyah – married to Utbah, Abu Lahab’s son – on the day of Ruksati verses of Suratul Masad revealed & his
      parents instructed him to divorce her – Uthman had accepted Islam on that day & the Prophet s gave her to him in
      marriage – died in Madinah
2.    Ummi Kulthum - Uthman grieved at not being son in law of Prophet s anymore & he gave him in marriage his
      second daughter. She was previously married to Abu Lahab’s other son, Utaybah. She hadn’t gone to live with him yet
      when Suratul Masad was revealed and she too was divorced on the instruction of his parents. Utaybah was very
      offensive to the Prophet s & he cursed him which became true-story Fazaile Amal pg 217
3.    Zaynab – was wife of Abdul ‘As bin Rabi-he refused to divorce her as he loved her- he fought against Muslims in
      Battle of Badr and was taken prisoner. She sent her necklace as ransom & Prophet s recognised it as Khadija’s.
      Muslims released her husband (gave back necklace) on the condition that he let her migrate to Madinah, which he did.
      She sheltered him when fugitive, he later accepted Islam too (full story, pg 215 Companions of Prophet s)
4.    Faatimah – marriage to Ali, sons Hasan & Husayn – Sayyeds in the world from her family

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