Slide 1 - ITU by xiaohuicaicai

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									Application of Space-Based Remote Sensing
                     to
     Climate Change & Disaster Relief

                       High Level Segment
                        ITU Council 2008

                       November 13, 2008


                          Badri Younes
Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Communications & Navigation
           National Aeronautics and Space Administration
                      United States of America
                                                                       1
               Societal Benefits of Remote Sensing



• Remote sensing provides critical data about the Earth’s environment.

• NASA, in cooperation with other US government agencies, and
  international partners, constantly monitors the state of our planet’s
  atmosphere, oceans, and land.

• This knowledge is freely shared so that all nations can benefit.

• Such knowledge may be used to help nations prepare for potential
  natural disasters as well as to recover from them after they occur.




                                                                          2
       NASA Participates in Two Response Environments
                   Regulatory & Operational

• Regulatory
   – ITU-D Study Group 2 Question 22/2
       • “Utilization of ICT for Disaster Management, Resources, and Active
         and Passive Space Based Sensing Systems As They Apply to
         Disaster and Emergency Relief Situations”
   – Space Frequency Coordination Group (SFCG)
       • Intersessional Working Group on Disaster Management
   – Increases Worldwide Awareness of Available Resources and of
     Need for Continued Regulatory Protection of Remote Sensing
     Bands
• Operational
   – Long History of Scientific Missions Focusing on Observation of
     Critical Earth and Atmospheric Parameters
   – Extensive International Scientific Cooperation

                                                                              3
                           International Cooperation in Sensor Development

 Acronym/                         Name/Title                           MISSION   COUNTRY       Acronym/                             Name/Title                        MISSION     COUNTRY
Abbreviation                                                                                  Abbreviation
ADEOS        Advanced Earth Observation Satellite(s)                         JAPAN            MTZA                                                                   METEOR   CSR
ALT          Altimeter                                             TOPEX/    USA/             MWR            Microwave Radiometer                                    ENVISAT  ESA
                                                                   POSEIDON FRANCE            NASA           National Aeronautics and Space Administration                    USA
ALOS         Advanced Land Observing Satellite                               JAPAN            NOAA           National Oceans and Atmospheres Administration                   USA
AMI          Active Microwave Instrument                           ERS-1, -2 ESA              NSCAT(US)      NASA Scatterometer                                      ADEOS    JAPAN
AMR          Altimetry Microwave Radiometer                        JASON-1   USA              PR             Precipitation Radar                                     TRMM     JAPAN
AMSR         Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer                ADEOS-2 JAPAN              R-225          2.25 cm radiometer (?)                                  OKEAN-O CSR
AMSR-E       Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS            EOS-PM    JAPAN/           R-400          4 cm radiometer (?)                                     PRIRODA CSR
                                                                             USA              R-600          6 cm radiometer (?)                                     OKEAN-O CSR
AMSU         Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit                      AQUA      USA
                                                                                              RA             Radar Altimeter                                         ERS-1,-2 ESA
AMSU-A       Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit - A                  NOAA K+ USA
                                                                                              RA-2           Radar Altimeter                                         ENVISAT  ESA
                                                                   METOP1    ESA
                                                                                              RADIOMTR       Radiometer                                              ODIN     SWEDEN
AMSU-B       Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit - B                  NOAA-K+ USA
                                                                                              RLSBO          Imager                                                  OKEAN-O, CSR
AQUARIUS     Radar + radiometer                                    AQUARIUS USA
                                                                                                                                                                     SICH-1
ASAR         Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar                     ENVISAT   ESA
                                                                                              RM-0.8         0.8 cm imaging radiometer                               SICH     CSR
ASCAT        Advanced Scatterometer                                METOP     ESA
                                                                                              SAR            Synthetic Aperture Radar                                RADARSAT CANADA
ATMS         Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder                 Bridge,   NASA,
                                                                                              SAR            Synthetic Aperture Radar                                JERS-1   JAPAN
                                                                   NPOESS-C NPOESS
ATSR, -2     Along Track Scanning Radiometer (& Microwave Sounder) ERS-1, -2 ESA              SAR            Synthetic Aperture Radar                                SICH     CSR
CLOUD        Cloud radar                                           FUTURE    ESA              SAR-10         Synthetic Aperture Radar - 9.6 cm                       ALMAZ    CSR
RADAR                                                                                         SAR-3          Synthetic Aperture Radar - 3.5 cm                       ALMAZ    CSR
CSR          Commonwealth of Soviet Republics                                                 SAR-70         Synthetic Aperture Radar - 70 cm                        ALMAZX   CSR
DELTA-2                                                               OKEAN    CSR            SIRC/ XSAR     Shuttle Imaging Radar -C, X- Synthetic Aperture Radar   Shuttle  USA
DORIS        Doppler Orbitography & Radio Positioning Integrated by   TOPEX/   USA/           SMR            Scanning Microwave Radiometer                           SICH     CSR
             Satellite                                                POSEIDON FRANCE         SEAWINDS       Scatterometer                                           ADEOS-2 JAPAN
ENVISAT      Environmental Satellite                                           ESA            (USA)
EOS          Earth Observing System (-AM, morning equator crossing;            USA            SLR-3          Side Looking Radar                                        ALMAZX     CSR
             -PM afternoon crossing; -CHEM afternoon crossing)                                SOPRANO        Sub-millimeter Observation of Processes in the Absorption FUTURE     ESA
ERS          Earth Resource Satellite(s)                                         ESA                         Noteworthy for Ozone
ESA          European Space Agency                                                            SSALT          Solid State Altimeter                                     TPX/POS,   USA,
ETM          Enhanced Thematic Mapper                                 LANDSAT    USA                                                                                   JASON      FRANCE
HSB          Humidity Sounder, Brazil                                 AQUA       USA/Brazil   TDRSS          Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System                             USA
HYDROS       Radar + radiometer                                       HYDROS     USA          TMI (USA)      TRMM Microwave Imager                                     TRMM       JAPAN
IKAR                                                                  PRIRODA    CSR          TMR            TOPEX Microwave Radiometer                                TPX/POS,   USA,
JERS         Japanese Earth Resources Satellite                                  JAPAN                                                                                 JASON      FRANCE
MASTER                                                                FUTURE     ESA          TPX/POS        TOPEX/POSEIDON                                                       USA,
MHS          Microwave Humidity Sounder                               AQUA       USA
                                                                                                                                                                                  FRANCE
                                                                      NOAA-N     USA          TRMM      Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission                                     USA, JAPAN
                                                                      METOP      ESA          TRVRS SAR Trans verse-Synthetic Aperture Radar                         PRIRODA      CSR
MIMR         Multifrequency Imaging Microwave Radiometer              METOP      ESA          TT&C      Tracking, Telemetry, and Command
MIRAS        Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis     MIRAS      ESA          UARS      Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite                                       USA
MIVZA        (humidity sounder)                                       METEOR     CSR          USA       United States of America
MLS          Microwave Limb Sounder                                   UARS,      USA          VSAR      ? Synthetic Aperture Radar                                   ALOS         JAPAN
                                                                      AURA
MSR          Microwave Scanning Radiometer                            MOS-1B    JAPAN
MSU          Microwave Sounding Unit                                  NOAA-9-14 USA



                                                                                                                                                                                          4
Application of Space-Based Remote Sensing


                 Tsunamis
                 Droughts
               Earthquakes
                  Floods
                Landslides
                 Pollution
                  Sea Ice
                Volcanoes

                                            5
Assessing Tsunami Damage




                           6
           Drought in Australia




Soil moisture distribution in Australia during October 2005 and 2006.

  This data acquired by AMSR-E on Aqua. Red indicates low soil
  moisture (dry), while blue indicates higher soil moisture (wet). A
  drought occurred in south east Australia (Granary area) in 2006.

                                                                        7
                  Earthquake Near Sumatra




ASTER                                        ASTER




        ASTER data showed that Coral reefs off Nias Island, Indonesia were
             uplifted following earthquakes near Sumatra, Indonesia
                        in December 2004 and March, 2005.


                                                                             8
         Hurricane Dean – August 2007



                                          QuikSCAT produces wind
                                            speed and direction.


                                   GOES




GOES imagery shows the character
  and motion of the hurricane.

                                                               QuikSCAT



                                                                   9
              Flooding in Germany




Landsat 7, Circa 2000     ASTER, August 20, 2002


                                                   10
       Landslide in Canada




RADARSAT-1 InSar Displacement Maps Cover 2000 - 2004
                                                       11
  Red Tide Off West Coast of Florida




SeaWiFS Observed a Red Tide on November 21, 2004
                                                   12
Antarctic Sea Ice Thickness




         Weddell Sea Ice Thickness from
 Multichannel Observations made by SIR-C/X-SAR
                                                 13
      Hawaiian Volcano Activity




                                                Note: Ground motion indicates
                                                      dangerous underground
                                                      volcanic activity
Interferometric SAR Image of the Mauna Loa Caldera in Hawaii
                                                                                14
       Indonesian Volcanic Hazard




Landsat and SRTM combine to of the Mauna Loa Caldera in Hawaii
Interferometric SAR Image identify vulnerable areas and populations
                                                                    15
                Wildfires




Fires in Southern California, October 25, 2003
       Observed with MODIS on TERRA.
                                           SERVIR
                     The Regional Visualization and Monitoring System




Enabling the use of earth observations and models for timely
             decision making to benefit society




                                                               • Data and Models
                                                               • Online Maps
                                                               • Visualization
                                                               • Decision Support
                                                               • Training
                                                               • Partnerships
                                                                                 17
                                 SERVIR Applications



•   Disaster Analysis
•   Environmental Monitoring
•   Air Quality Assessment
•   Climate Change and Biodiversity
•   Short Term Weather Prediction




 Study on Potential Impacts of   Fires in Guatemala and Mexico   Flooding Change Analysis in Haiti
Climate Change on Biodiversity                                           September 2008 18
          South-South, Cross- Continental Geospatial Collaboration




• Equipment installed and training conducted for initial setup of SERVIR-East Africa node
• Integrated system development underway for both regional centers
• Continued advances in data acquisition:
     -RCMRD & CATHALAC tasking requests of EO-1 satellite
• Enhancement of visualization capabilities
     - Beta version of the SERVIR Climate Mapper tool
• Prototyping and development of new products/applications
     - Flood potential product (using multiple NASA sensors and/adapting existing NASA
                                                                                        19
models)
                        SERVIR Countries Represented


Mesoamerica/Caribbean              East Africa
    –   Guatemala                     – Kenya
    –   Belize                        – Tanzania
    –   El Salvador                   – Uganda
    –   Honduras                      – Rwanda
    –   Nicaragua                     – Ethiopia
    –   Costa Rica
    –   Panama
    –   Dominican Republic
    –   Southern Mexico




                                     Dan Irwin’s Presentation of SERVIR
                               to the Presidents of Central America and Mexico   20
                                      SERVIR.net

For More Information
•   Dan Irwin – SERVIR Director    daniel.irwin@nasa.gov


•   Emilio Sempris – SERVIR Mesoamerica
     Emilio.sempris@cathalac.org


•   Kate Lance – SERVIR Africa
          Kate.lance@nasa.gov




                                                           21
                              Summary
• Space-Based Remote Sensing Provides Critical Information
    – Near Real Time Data for Disaster Relief
    – Long Term Trends for Assessing Climate Change
• Remote Sensing Data is Freely Available
    – Often via Internet
• International Organizations Can Assist Administrations with Remote
  Sensing Data Access and Application
    – Climate Change Assessments
    – Disaster Management
• Spectrum is a Key Enabler
    – Critical Need for Interference-Free Spectrum for Sensing and Communications
• NASA Will Continue its Long History of International Cooperation
    – Application of NASA Spaceborne Capabilities to Mitigate Disasters and
      Combat Adverse Climate Change                                            22

								
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