Focus on composites expertise

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					Focus on
composites expertise

creating tomorrow’s soLutions

are registered trademarks of Wacker Chemie AG.
                                            Take Advantage of the Power of Synergy                                                   3
                                            Benefit from Interdisciplinary Commitment                                                4
                                            The Success Factor: Controlling and Optimizing Processes                                 6
                                            VINNAPAS®: The Low-Profile Additive for Class-A Surfaces                                10
                                            HDK®: The Specialist for Rheological Control                                            12
                                            High-Quality Thixotropic Properties                                                     14
                                            GENIOSIL®: The Bridge to New Markets                                                    16
                                            ELASTOSIL® C: System Solutions for Greater Ease and Efficiency                          18
                                            Product Overview                                                                        20
                                            Now It’s up to You                                                                      22
                                            WACKER at a Glance                                                                      23

As requirements become more com-
plex, individual solutions are less
helpful. That is why the composites
industry places increasing value on
comprehensive responses and
synergies. WACKER offers you a new
overarching solution for this sector:
with highly specialized products and
focused expertise in your industry.

Composites are special materials in
which thermoset resins, such as unsat-
urated polyesters, epoxies, melamine or
vinyl esters are combined with carbon,
glass or mineral reinforcing fibers.

The resulting materials have a wide
range of superior properties:
– Light weight                                and easy to handle.                         – Formulation advice to innovative
– High mechanical strength                  – GENIOSIL® silanes improve the strength         logistics development
– High fatigue resistance                     of composites by bonding together           – High quality consultancy based on
– Very high corrosion resistance              organic and inorganic materials.              many years of market experience
– Excellent impact properties               – ELASTOSIL® C silicone rubber grades         – Local support from application
– High design flexibility                     enable the manufacture of reusable,           laboratories throughout the world
– Excellent acoustic properties combined      precision-fit, fabric-reinforced silicone   – High uniformity of quality and reliability
  with high stiffness                         vacuum bags, thus ensuring cost-              of delivery
– Properties can be individually tailored     effective and efficient production of       – Optimum raw materials supply thanks
  to customers’ requirements                  fiber-composite articles.                     to vertical integration
                                                                                          – Global availability thanks to local
As a leader in composites ingredients,      One Partner with a Host of                      warehouses throughout the world
WACKER helps to ensure that these           Advantages                                    – Market-oriented developments from
materials can be produced in better         This fourfold capability gives you many         our in-house research facilities and
quality than ever. WACKER as a partner      advantages:                                     cooperation with universities
will allow you to access all these prod-    – Expertise focused on your challenges
ucts from a single source.                  – All encompassing competence and             Talk to us. We look forward to develop-
                                              technical support with formulations         ing tomorrow’s solutions in partnership
Four Groups of Products with One            – A fresh impetus thanks to interdisci-       with you.
Goal: High-Quality Composites                 plinary research activities
– VINNAPAS® (polyvinyl acetate) solid
  resins are low-profile additives which    You also profit from the strengths of a
  prevent shrinkage and thus guarantee      leading, innovative and globally active
  an optimum surface of the molded part.    partner to the composites industry:
– HDK® pyrogenic silica controls the        – Comprehensive support throughout
  viscoelastic flow behavior. The thix-       your supply chain
  otropic effect makes systems stable

BeneFit From
interDiscipLinarY commitment

                                      Many Years of Practical Experience          Interdisciplinary R&D
                                      WACKER has been developing solutions        With our market focus and our custo-
                                      for the composites industry for many        mized product portfolio, we offer you a
                                      years. During this time, we have always     range of advantages which allow you to
                                      seen ourselves as partners closely          profit not only from reduced administra-
                                      cooperating with the formulator to form     tion efforts, but also from the wealth of
                                      a solid partnership. As a result, we un-    expertise that is brought to bear. Our
                                      derstand the industry’s challenges first    researchers, applications engineers
                                      hand and can precisely focus our portfo-    and technical advisers are continually
                                      lio to meet our customer’s needs.           exchanging information and discussing
                                                                                  market’s requirements, so they can
                                      Sophisticated Products                      develop a better solution.
                                      One result is a highly specialized prod-
                                      uct portfolio that is continually being     The Innovative Strength to Develop
                                      improved. Pyrogenic silica is an example.   New Applications
                                      We have developed a range of products       WACKER has always been a research-
                                      which perform several different functions   focused company. We maintain our own
Knowledge and experience become       at once in our customers’ systems.          basic-research institute and a variety of
more valuable when they are shared.   This saves the customer the overhead        applications-oriented research facilities.
WACKER’s strong commitment to         of purchasing, managing and handling        As a result, we can test ideas under
R&D, both in-house and with custom-   different products.                         the conditions experienced by our cus-
ers in various areas of the compos-                                               tomers – and our customer’s customers,
ites sector, makes us a valuable      Innovations that Go beyond the              giving us greater application confidence
partner.                              Product                                     and a crucial edge in time-to-market.
                                      With respect to logistics, our close        We can reproduce our customers’
                                      communication with customers continu-       problem, and take them into account at
                                      ally leads to innovative solutions. We      an early stage in new developments.
                                      can now offer alternative forms of
                                      packaging or transport systems for
                                      almost all our products to adapt to your
                                      workflows. From thermally insulated
                                      containers that maintain the blocking
                                      resistance of our VINNAPAS® solid
                                      resins, even in tropical environments,
                                      to new Big-Bag and Mega Bag systems
                                      that allow HDK® to be easily pumped
                                      without spillage.

Worldwide Support through Local           Reliable Deliveries Thanks to an               A Partner for Active Market
Regional Representatives                  Independent Raw Materials Base                 Development
Our know-how is conveyed to you via       WACKER’s products are vertically inte-         Success doesn’t come by chance:
laboratories, technical centers and       grated to a high degree. Thus making           we have always actively shaped the
qualified sales managers throughout the   us largely independent of the raw mate-        composites market together with our
world. This means you have fast and       rials markets. It provides high availability   customers. We invite you to join us in
easy access to experience in special      for our customers worldwide. Tried-and-        this. Together we can explore new
processing methods, raw materials         tested local logistics systems and ware-       applications, optimize processes and
or formulations – adapted to local        houses provide an extra degree of as-          strengthen your competitiveness.
conditions.                               surance.

tHe success Factor: controLLing
anD optimiZing processes

Most composite materials used in the         esters (VE), phenolics, epoxies (EP),     WACKER supplies additives and process
world are thermosets. Thermoset com-         melamines and polyurethanes (PU).         auxiliaries for high and low-temperature
posites are principally based on six re-     They are processed by a number of         processes, and is ideally placed to offer
sins: unsaturated polyesters (UP), vinyl     techniques.                               comprehensive advice.



                       Closed Mold                                                    Open Mold

          Hot Temperature              Hot Temperature                               Room Temperature
            (80 – 170 °C)                (80 – 170 °C)                                   (< 50 °C)

      •   SMC
      •   BMC                                                                        • • Hand Lay Up
      •   RTM/RIM                                                                    • • Spray Up
                                     • Composite Stone
      •   Pultrusion                                                                 • Infusion
                                     • Prepreg
      •   Prepreg                                                                    • Prepreg

            VINNAPAS®                      GENIOSIL®                                         HDK®
          solid resins as             for bonding organic                                for optimum
       low-profile additives             and inorganic                                 rheology control
       for Class-A surfaces               components
                                                                                     co-catalyst as non-
          ELASTOSIL® C
                                                                                     yellowing promoter
       forreusable vacuum

                                                                                                                  Raw materials
                        Rotary cutter                                                                UP-resin     LPA     Filler   ... etc

                                                                             Glass fiber rovings
  Doctor box

                                                                                    Doctor box
     Carrier film
                                                                                                                                       Glass fiber

                                                                                    Carrier film
                                                                                                                                   Cutter        Roving

                                                     Resin paste

                                        Compaction rollers
                                                                                                                BMC compounding
                                                                                                                                     ∞         Kneader

Like BMC, the SMC process is mainly                                                                BMC and SMC processes have more or
used in the transportation, electrical and                                                         less the same characteristics. However
construction sectors.                                                                              BMCs contain shorter glass fibers which
                                                                                                   allow the resin to flow easily into extreme-
                                                                                                   ly small spaces.

Sheet molding compound and bulk                   Sheet Molding Compound                           reinforcing fibers to flow in the mold.
molding compound processing are the               SMC resin mats are produced from                 The thermoset is then cured with the
two most widely used manufacturing                a highly-viscous fiber/resin compound.           mold closed.
techniques in closed compression                  When the fiber/resin compound is
molding. VINNAPAS® from WACKER is                 processed in a closed mold under heat            Bulk Molding Compound
an effective low-profile additive for both        and pressure (approx. 70 bar), its vis-          BMC is a doughy mass that can be pro-
processes.                                        cosity decreases. That allows the resin          duced from any conventional thermoset
                                                  containing the isotropically distributed         matrix system and is processed by
                                                                                                   reaction injection molding. The BMC part
                                                                                                   can be produced as soon as the BMC
The Main Differences between SMC and BMC                                                           compound has been mixed. The main
                           BMC                               SMC                                   difference from SMC is the fiber length
Glass fiber content        Lower                             Higher                                and content.
Pressure                   110 to 150 bar                    50 to 100 bar
Glass fiber length         6 – 12 mm                         25 – 50 mm

               Resin                                                                                 Saw
             injection   Vent
               port      port   Female mold


                                                                         Heated die

                                                            Preform plates
                                   Male mold

                                                           Fiber Creel

RTM: used in the transportation, wind power
and construction sectors. It is particularly
suitable for producing complex three-
dimensional forms.

RTM (resin transfer molding) involves                                                                      Resin bath
the injection of a low-viscosity thermoset
into the closed mold under moderate
pressure (usually 3.5 – 7 bar) via one or
more injection ports. The injected resin
fills all the voids in the mold, impregnating
and wetting out the entire surface of the
reinforcing material.                                  Pultrusion: used for consumer articles and
                                                       in the electrical and construction sectors.
The reinforcement can comprise a var-
iety of fiber types and forms, such as                 Pultrusion
fiber tows, mats or woven structures.                  In the pultrusion of thermosets, the
A vacuum is sometimes applied to                       reinforcing fibers are impregnated by
enhance resin flow and reduce void for-                passing them through a resin bath.
mation. The composite part is typically                The resin-impregnated fiber strand is
heat cured.                                            then brought to the near net shape at a
                                                       number of preform stations and shaped
                                                       and cured in a heated mold.

                Fiberglass reinforcements

 Release film                                                                                      Chopper    Resin and promoter
                                            Hand roller
 Mold       Gel coat                                                                                                  Roller
                                                                                      Resin and catalyst

                                                                                                                        lay up


Hand lay up is by far the most widely used                              Spray up processes are used to manufac-                    A high production quality and low emis-
process and is used in a range of different                             ture of acrylic shell backings.                            sions are major features of the infusion
industries.                                                                                                                        method.

Hand Lay Up                                                             Spray Up                                                   Infusion and Prepreg Methods
Following the liquid release agent (PVA,                                Spray up methods are usually classified                    The infusion method involves draping a
liquid wax or PTFE/silicone spray), a                                   as contact molding. Chopped fibers and                     dry fiber material over a mold coated
gel coat is applied. This is a resin coat                               resins are charged into an open mold.                      with release agent. The fiber material is
that may contain fillers or pigments, or                                In the process, the rovings are fed into                   covered with peel ply and a resin distri-
be reinforced with glass tissue or a fine                               a chopper and then blown into a pre-                       bution mesh that helps the resin to flow
synthetic fabric. The following layers are                              cured resin. The advantage is the high                     more evenly. A silicone vacuum bag is
then produced by applying resin to the                                  speed at which the material can be                         used to form a tight seal between this
surface followed by a reinforcing agent.                                applied. However, only relatively small                    structure and the mold. The part is then
The resin is forced through the rein-                                   volumes of reinforcing agent can be                        evacuated by means of a vacuum pump.
forcing material to remove air and                                      achieved. After application, the material                  The air pressure presses the inserted
achieve complete impregnation. Spray                                    is usually consolidated with a hand roller                 parts together and holds them in place.
up and hand lay up are the most widely                                  in the same way as with hand lay up.                       The thermostated liquid resin impregates
used open-mold processes.                                                                                                          the fiber material. Once the fibers have
                                                                                                                                   become fully saturated, the supply of
Among other functions, WACKER’s                                                                                                    resin is stopped. Having cured, the im-
HDK® serves as a highly specialized                                                                                                pregnated fiber composite material can
thixotropic agent for controlling flow                                                                                             then be demolded.
                                                                                                                                   The only difference between this and the
                                                                                                                                   prepreg method is that the latter uses
                                                                                                                                   fabric pre-impregnated with resin.

                                                                                                                                   To meet the needs of these methods,
                                                                                                                                   WACKER supplies silicone elastomers
                                                                                                                                   for reusable vacuum bags and additives
                                                                                                                                   for resins.

Vinnapas ® : tHe Low proFiLe aDDitiVe
For cLass-a surFaces

                                                                                            Low Profile – Low Shrink
                                                                                            The effectiveness of an antishrink addi-
                                                                                            tive is measured by the reduced degree
                                                                                            of shrinkage. This expresses the differ-
                                                                                            ence between the mold dimensions and
                                                                                            the dimensions of the cured part (in per-
                                                                                            cent, measured at room temperature in
                                                                                            each case):
                                                                                            Low shrink = shrinkage 0.15 %.
                                                                                            Low profile = shrinkage 0.05 %.
                                                                                            VINNAPAS® solid resins, when used as
                                                                                            low profile additives, reach these values
                                                                                            while also offering a range of other cru-
                                                                                            cial benefits.

                                                                                            Class-A Surfaces
                                                                                            Many applications, especially in the
Perfect surfaces with no shrinkage:           The Challenge: Shrinkage                      automotive sector, require Class-A sur-
VINNAPAS® solid resins (PVAc) help            A critical stage in this process is shrink-   faces. UP resins shrink during curing
to ensure that your products will             age. When unsaturated polyester resin         in all three dimensions. If no antishrink
reliably and consistently meet your           reacts with monomeric styrene, the vol-       additives are added, this leads to sink
customers’ specifications.                    ume generally shrinks by 6 – 10 %.            marks, which mar the surface appear-
                                              This shrinkage can result in a number         ance.
UP resins are dissolved in a monomer,         of defects, such as                           VINNAPAS® reduces shrinkage to 0.05 %
usually styrene. This is the only way to      – Cracking or warping of the                  at most. The Class-A surfaces obtained
give the UP resin the consistency to            molded parts                                with this low shrinkage meet the strictest
allow easy processing. Then, fillers,         – Poor dimensional stability and              OEM quality specifications for smoothness
release agents and catalysts are added        – Poor surface appearance                     and homogeneity.
to produce composites. The catalyst             e. g. orange peel
initiates the curing of styrene with the                                                    High Mechanical Strength
polymer to yield a highly complex three-      Antishrink additives are therefore an im-     Most low profile additives reduce
dimensional network, which together           portant ingredient in composite molding       mechanical strength. VINNAPAS® is a
with the reinforcing fibers (glass, carbon,   compounds. WACKER’s VINNAPAS®                 polymer that is solid at room tempera-
etc.) determines the properties of the        solid resins offer an excellent solution in   ture, and remains solid, though finely
composite part.                               the form of homogeneous, odorless and         distributed, in the final product. As a
                                              tasteless resins, with no known harm-         result, it confers desirable physical
                                              ful effects.                                  properties on the part. The mechanical
                                                                                            strength of the product is therefore far
                                                                                            better than with other additives with
                                                                                            comparable volume shrinkage control.

Excellent Phase Separation                   Reliability from the Market Leader             Viscosity Ranges of the VINNAPAS®
VINNAPAS® solid resins can be homo-          With its VINNAPAS® solid resins, WACKER        Grades in Styrene
geneously mixed in by dissolving them        has a leading market position. The tried-               100.000

in styrene. They are quickly and uniformly   and-tested portfolio of specialty products
incorporated into the compound using,        includes solid resins with different                     10.000
for example, magnesium oxide to control      molecular weights, resulting in various
thickening. During molding, VINNAPAS®        solution viscosities.                                     1.000
undergoes controlled phase separation,
which is responsible for the desirable       Besides the VINNAPAS® B and UW                             100
appearance of the part.                      homopolymer grades, WACKER also
                                             manufactures copolymers. Carboxylated                       10
A Wide Product Portfolio –                   VINNAPAS® C grades are based on vinyl
Good Solubility in Styrene                   acetate and crotonic acid. VINNAPAS® VL                      1
VINNAPAS® grades are available in a          grades are copolymers of vinyl acetate                            20           25    30        35     40 min
                                                                                                           Parameter: Brookfield viscosity, 23 °C / 20 rpm
wide range of viscosities and dissolve       and vinyl laurate.
readily in styrene. Because of this solu-                                                                           UW 10        UW 1            B 60 sp

bility, solutions can even be produced                                                                              UW 4         B 100           C 341

at room temperature.                                                                                                C 501        C 305           B 1.5 sp

VINNAPAS® can therefore be used in
a wide variety of formulations and pro-
cesses.                                      SMC/BMC-Composition with VINNAPAS® Solid Resin as LPA
Typical values for VINNAPAS® LPA sol-        pph       Parts        Raw Material
utions in styrene are:                       9.2       60.0         UP-resin 65 % in styrene          ➞	 Thermoset matrix
VINNAPAS® C Grades: 40 %                     6.2       40.0         VINNAPAS® solid resin solution    ➞	 Low profile additive
VINNAPAS® B Grades: 40 – 45 %                1.1       7.0          Styrene 5 – 10 parts              ➞		 Adjust viscosity
VINNAPAS® UW Grades: 30 – 40 %               0.2       1.5          Peroxide (tert. butylperbenzoate) ➞		 Initiator
                                             0.8       5.0          Ca-stearate / Zn-stearate 				    ➞		 Internal mold release agent
Suitable for a Variety of Processes          25        162          CaCO3                             ➞		 Filler
VINNAPAS® can be used in SMC, BMC,           15        97           Al(OH)3                           ➞		 Fire retardant
RTM and pultrusion.                          0.5       3.0          MgO paste 35 % (CaO, Mg(OH)2) ➞		 Thickener maturation
In all these processes, VINNAPAS® is         75.0      486.5
used as a low-profile additive to produce    25.0      162.5        Chopped glass fiber               ➞		 Mechanical strength
– Class-A surfaces                           100.0     648.7
   – with high mechanical performance
   – and excellent phase separation for
     controlled processing

HDK ® : tHe speciaList
For rHeoLogicaL controL

                                                                                                     They ensure viscosity characteristics
Reactor            Molecules     Protoparticles   Primary     Aggregates       Agglomerates          with good shelf life and optimum anti-
                                                                                                     sedimentation and anti-separation effects.

                                                                                                     Gel Coats
                                                                                                     To achieve a smooth surface on parts,
                   SiO2   SiO2
                                                                                                     with a decorative effect (covering of
                   SiO2   SiO2                                                                       fiber material in the laminate), and
                                                                                                     guarantee weathering and chemical
                                                                                                     resistance, coatings with a high resin
                                                                                                     content, usually containing pigment
                                           >1,500 °C                                                 (pigment pastes), are generally applied
SiCl 4+ 2H2 + O2                                                                      SiO2 + 4HCl
                                                                                                     in thicknesses of 300 µm and up to
HDK pyrogenic silica
                                                                                                     900 µm in extreme cases. The thixotro-
Formation in a flame
                                                                                                     pic property of HDK® permits the appli-
                                                                                                     cation of these coatings without flow
                                                                                                     defects or run-off on inclined surfaces.
HDK® pyrogenic silica has the all-impor-                Principal Applications of HDK®               At the same time, sedimentation and
tant job of controlling flow behavior –                 HDK® is used to prepare laminating           separation during storage are prevented.
an essential task in the manufacture                    resins, gel coats and topcoats. Other        In gelcoat formulations, 2 to 3 % HDK®
of composites by hand lay up and                        applications include fillers, unreinforced   is used; greater in exceptional cases.
spray techniques.                                       parts such as buttons (resin rods or         The preferred dispersion method is the
WACKER, with its highly developed                       sheet), bonding pastes and synthetic         use of a dissolver.
product range, is the technological                     marble.
and market leader here.                                                                              Topcoats
                                                        Laminating Resins                            The topcoat is the final decorative
Unsaturated polyester resins and polar                  According to the application, HDK®           coating on the rough laminate surface.
resin systems, such as vinyl ester, epoxy               controls the rheological behavior to in-     Topcoats are rendered thixotropic with
and polyurethane-based formulations, are                sure that the resin optimally wets and       about 1 % HDK®.
used in large amounts in fiberreinforced                penetrates the reinforcement. At the
polymers. The purpose of HDK® is to pre-                same time, it is prevented from seeping
cisely adjust the flow behavior of the resin            out and sagging on inclined surfaces.
formulations, particularly for hand lay up              The thixotropic rheological profile re-
and spray techniques. Although the res-                 quired for this is usually adjusted using
ins are available in various viscosities,               HDK® in amounts from 0.8 to 1.5 per-
they lack thixotropic properties which re-              cent by weight based on the total for-
sult in undesirable effects during storage              mulation. The recommended method is
and processing. As a rheological additive               to use a combination of dissolver and
with a thixotropic effect, HDK® prevents                ultrasonic dispersion.
the resin from seeping out of the fiber                 Dispersers based on a rotor/stator prin-
material. At the same time, good fiber                  ciple also have a good track record.
wetting and impregnation are retained.                  These methods are paramount in order
HDK® also prevents sedimentation of                     to reduce the size of the HDK® agglom-
pigments and fillers.                                   erates as well as to disperse them.

In highly filled grouts, 0.15 – 1.0 %
HDK® prevents the separation of pig-
ments, fillers and binders.

HDK® Optimizes Rheology in the
Most Important Phases of a Resin-
based Formulation
In practical use, resins are subject to a
wide range of shear conditions during
production, storage and application.
As a thixotropic agent, HDK® allows
custom fine-tuning throughout all the
processing phases. Very low shear rates
prevail during storage and shipping.
Here, HDK® prevents sedimentation of
pigments and fillers. In the application,
HDK® provides excellent flow on the         Sag resistance test of 1% HDK® in a topcoat
surface, but prevents dripping.             formulation.

                                            How HDK® Works in a Resin System

                                                                                                                                                     Coating material production


                                                                                                                                                      Coating material production
                                                                                                                                                           Coating material production
                                                                                                        Applied material                            Application

                                                                                            Fließkurve                                   Packaging

                                                                                            eines mit HDK gefüllten flüssigen Systems Packaging
                                                                                            ohne Schubspannung vs. Scherrate
                                                                                                  Storage             Transportation                                           Controlled by by
                                                                                                        Storage        Transportation



                                                                                                                                                                               pigments and and
                                                                                               Controlled          Controlled
                                                                                                                  Controlled                      Controlled
                                                                                                                                                 Controlled                   Dominated by
                                            Viscosity  [Pa·s]

                                                                  Viscosity  [Pa·s]
                                            Viscosity [Pa·s]

                                                                                                with HDK®
                                                                                               with HDK® HDK
                                                                                                     with     ®    with HDK®
                                                                                                                  with HDK® HDK
                                                                                                                        with     ®                with HDK®
                                                                                                                                                 with HDK® HDK
                                                                                                                                                                              binders, pigments
                                                                  103 103                                                                                                     and solvents
                                                                  102 102

                                                                    10                 10

                                                                           1           1
                                                                        Viskosität �


                                                                  0.1 0.1
                                                                  0.1                                              Free-flowing
                                                                                                                  Free-flowing                     Consistency
                                                                                               Settling            Settling
                                                                                                                  Settling                         in drum
                                                                                                                                                 in drum drum                  Application
                                                                 0.01 0.01
                                                                         0.001Scherrate �
                                                                                     0.01      0.1 0.1
                                                                        0.001 0.001 0.01 0.01 0.1                           11    1        10
                                                                                                                                          10    10     10
                                                                                                                                                      102 2 102    10
                                                                                                                                                                  103 3 103    10
                                                                                                                                                                              104 4 104    10
                                                                                                                                                                                          105 5 105
                                                                                                                                                                                          Shear 
                                                                                                                                                                                            rate rate 
                                                                                                                                                                                      ShearShearrate 

tHixotropic properties

The Competent Response to              Table 1: Factors which Dominate the Rheology
a Complex Challenge                    A. Coating Material                          B. HDK®
Rheology control is a highly complex   – Viscosity of resins                          – HDK® Incorporated surface
task. Many factors have already been
                                       – Solvent quantity                             – HDK® Primary particle size
determined by the customer’s system.
                                       – Molecular weight/polarity of resin           – HDK® Aggregate fractality
HDK® offers a number of variables to
                                         (interfacial enegery situation)              – HDK® Aggregate/Agglomerate size
help find the optimum solution for a
                                       – Polarity of solvents                           distribution (quality of dispersion step)
particular system (see Table 1).
                                       – Surface active additives                     – HDK® Hydrophobization level
                                                                                        (surface energy situation)
                                       – Application conditions (temperature,
                                         loss of solvents)                            – HDK® Hydrophobization kind
                                       – Curing conditions (temperature, increasing     (surface energy situation)
                                         molecular weight of resins)

                                       The rheology is adjusted by varying A
                                       and B to ensure optimum impregnation of
                                       the reinforcing fibers and good non-sag
                                       properties with high coating thicknesses.

                                       It’s Your Choice: Hydrophilic or               The special, highly optimized particle
                                       Hydrophobic?                                   structure of HDK® N20, together with
                                       Unsaturated polyester resins are               the pronounced thixotropic behavior and
                                       generally a mixture of a more polar            maintenance of good dispersibility, make
                                       polymer and the non-polar monomer              this a good general purpose product for
                                       styrene. Hydrophilic grades such as            hydrophilic grades, and it can readily
                                       HDK® N20 (laminating resins) as well           be used as a substitute for grades with
                                       as HDK® T30 (transparent gelcoats and          larger surface area.
                                       topcoats) are used where the system
                                       tends to be less polar in character (con-      In vinyl ester resins and special polyester
                                       ventional resins, high styrene content).       resins that strongly interact (low molecular
                                       Under optimum dispersion conditions,           weights, polar character) with hydrophilic
                                       the viscosity can be seen to increase as       HDK®, hydrophobic HDK® grades are
                                       the HDK® surface area increases – for          recommended to ensure control over
                                       the same amount added.                         viscosity. The hydrophobic HDK® H15
                                                                                      and HDK® H13, and extremely more
                                                                                      hydrophobic HDK® H17 and HDK® H18
                                                                                      grades have a good track record here.
                                                                                      The same applies to epoxy and polyure-
                                                                                      thane resin formulations.

HDK® is not only impressive for            Environmentally Compatible                     material safety data sheets. Detailed
product performance. As partner to         Big Bags                                       information on handling can be found
our customers, we also offer exem-         Special HDK® grades are available in           in the product data sheets.
plary technical support and logistics      Big Bags. These textile containers are
packages.                                  delivered singly on an individual pallet.      Service by Specialists
                                           The Big Bags are also shrink-wrapped           You will receive in-depth support for your
Customized Packaging:                      in polyethylene film as reliable moisture      particular applications from acknow-
Multilayer Bags                            protection and to ensure stability             ledged experts, in the form of technical
The standard form of delivery of HDK®      during transport. Another advantage            and applications lab support to optimize
is in multilayer valve bags that prevent   of this form of container is the possibility   products and formulations. If you want
the ingress of moisture. In these bags,    of dust-free HDK® processing.                  more technical data about HDK®, ask for
the product can be stored for several                                                     our product leaflets and brochures, or
months in dry conditions. The bags         Silo Road Tankers                              call us directly.
have conventional capacities and are       For large volumes of HDK®, we offer
delivered on shrink-wrapped pallets in     delivery in silo road tankers. Since only
PE film. The data sheet indicates which    a full load can be accepted, this form of
form of packaging is used for a particu-   delivery presupposes that the customer
lar product.                               has a storage silo big enough to receive
                                           the entire delivery.

                                           Handling and Product Safety
                                           HDK® is not classified as a hazardous
                                           substance as defined by the German
                                           chemicals law (Chem G) and the law
                                           on the transport of hazardous goods
                                           (GG BefG). Further information on prod-
                                           uct safety is given in the appropriate

geniosiL ® : tHe BriDge
to new marKets

Some of the most attractive applica-        The Secret of Success: Silanes                                      the mineral and resin will separate under
tions cannot be so easily reproduced        The critical stage in the manufacture of                            load and the material breaks.
with other materials. An interesting        such slabs is the coupling between the                              WACKER silanes create a chemical bond
example is composite stone, which is        organic resin and inorganic mineral. If                             that renders the composite stone signifi-
made possible with WACKER silanes.          the coupling is only physical in nature,                            cantly harder even than the original.

Composite stone is increasingly the         Chemical Processes in the Manufacture of Composite Stone
choice for marbled surfaces. Specific
                                              1,2-Propanediol                                 1,2-Ethanediol Phthalic acid                        Styrene
examples are engineered stone solid                                    O

surfaces or quartz surfaces, which
came onto the market some 30 years
                                                                           O                     O
ago. Its characteristic is a high content                                                                       O

of inorganic minerals, which are bound                   Maleic acid
                                                                               O          O                     O

with polyester or polyacrylate resin and                                                                            O
formed into large slabs.
                                                                                O                    Si (OR)3                       HO
The major advantage of this material                                       O       GENIOSIL® CS 2
is that it combines the appearance
of natural stone with some novel
– High resource-productivity                Chemical Processes in the Manufacture of Composite Stone
– Large variety of shapes (because
   it is given the required shape
   during manufacture)

– Harder than natural stone                                                    Network formed by                                                  O
– Greater scratch resistance                                                   GENIOSIL® CS 2
– Improved dirt repellency                                                                                              O

– Excellent mechanical properties                 Curing by                                                                     O

                                                  radical reaction

Composite stone has therefore been
used as flooring or wall cladding in                                           Polyester resin
                                                                                                                O                   O

high-traffic areas such as airports or                                                                                                            O

shopping malls for a long time. There                                                                               O       O                     O

has also been a recent boom in such                                                                                                                        O

materials for use as kitchen counter-
tops, bathroom furniture and vanity

GENIOSIL® CS 2 is a methacrylicfunctional
alkoxysilane. As a bifunctional, unsaturated
organic compound, GENIOSIL® CS 2 can
be incorporated into organic polymers by
free radical addition, where it acts as a
molecular bridge between inorganic and
organic substrates.

The Crucial Amount
A typical composite stone formulation
contains a very high proportion of filler
(> 90 %), a relatively small amount of
unsaturated polyester resin (< 5 %) and
1 % – 2 % silane coupling agent (based
on the resin content). The silane is the
key component here, since silanes act
as the chemical bond. However, just            Silanes Improve the                                                          Silanes Know-How
1 % GENIOSIL® CS 2 is enough.                  Mechanical Properties                                                        As a leading manufacturer of silicones,
                                                                         65                                                 WACKER is vertically integrated in
                                                Tensile strength [MPa]

Better Mechanical Properties                                             60                                                 both the Mueller-Rochow synthesis of
Silanes improve the mechanical proper-                                   55                                                 methylchlorosilane and trichlorosilane
ties considerably. In a comparison of                                    50                                                 via reaction of silicon metal with hydro-
various composite systems containing                                     45                                                 gen chloride. Starting with these raw
1 % silane, the flexural strength can be                                 40                                                 materials and with access to a variety of
seen to increase considerably.                                           35                                                 chemical syntheses, WACKER produces
                                                                         30                                                 a wide range of standard and specialty
                                                                         25                                                 silanes. That makes WACKER one of
                                                                         20                                                 the most important silane manufacturers
                                                                         15                                                 in the world, with a fund of expertise in
                                                                         10                                                 this field – both in standard and special-
                                                                          5                                                 ty silanes. For example, WACKER has
                                                                          0                                                 a globally unique, patented process for
                                                                                Filler A   Filler B   Filler C   Filler D   the manufacture of alpha-silanes.
                                                                              No silane                                     WACKER experts not only have a
                                                                              1% silane = GENIOSIL® CS 2                    detailed knowledge of their own prod-
                                                                              Standard deviation                            ucts and the corresponding chemistry;
                                                                                                                            WACKER is also an expert contact and
                                                                                                                            reliable partner for application questions.

                                               Silane_Gra k5f.eps
                                               Jetzt doch 1spaltig.

                                               Und mit den 9 Farben und der Legende dazu,

                                               konnte ich noch näher am CD bleiben.

                                               Ich ho e, es passt so!
eLastosiL ® c: sYstem soLutions
For greater ease anD eFFiciencY

Silicone rubber grades from WACKER      WACKER’s ELASTOSIL® C product line            Fewer Work Steps,
SILICONES help simplify your work       offers an innovative system solution for      Reusable Products
processes and boost their efficiency.   manufacturing fiber composite materials       Only a few simple working steps are
Reusable silicone vacuum bags           economically using an infusion or prepreg     needed to manufacture silicone vacuum
eliminate time-consuming sealing with   method. Our rapid-curing, two-part            bags – and no major investment in
vacuum film and sealing tape during     ELASTOSIL® C silicone rubber permits          materials, equipment or resources is
the evacuation of composites molds.     fast production of reusable, precision-fit,   required. Thanks to silicone rubber’s
This significantly reduces costs for    fabric-reinforced silicone vacuum bags        heat stability, the silicone bags have
disposal, labor and material.           in a spray-up or lay-up method. Vacuum        constant properties over a wide temper-
                                        bags make it much easier to evacuate          ature range and are therefore suitable
                                        the composites mold.                          for multiple reuse. Once made, these
                                                                                      bags can be placed quickly and securely
                                                                                      over the mold before each part is
                                                                                      produced. Repeated, time-consuming
                                                                                      sealing with conventional vacuum film
                                                                                      is no longer necessary. This makes the
                                                                                      production process quicker and simpler.

proDuct oVerView

    Products                Applications
    VINNAPAS       ®
                            SMC          BMC         Pultrusion      RTM          RIM        Hand          Gel          Top      Putties        Bonding        Lamination           Composite
                                                                                             Lay Up        Coat         Coat                    Pastes                              Stone
    C 341                   ●            ●	          ❍	              ❍	           ❍

    C 501                   ●	           ●	          ❍	              ❍	           ❍

    B 60 sp                 ❍	           ❍	          ●	              ❍	           ●

    B 100                   ❍            ●		         ●	              ❍	           ●

    UW 1                    ❍	           ●	          ●	              ❍	           ❍

    UW 4                    ❍	           ●
    UW 10                   ❍		          ●

    N 20                                                                                     ●	            ●	           ●	       ●	             ●

    T 30                                                                                                   ●	           ●

    H13/H15                                                                                                             ●	       ●

    H17/18                                                                                   ●	            ●	           ●	       	              	              ●

    Acetylacetone                                                                                          ●	           	        	              	              ●

    CS 2                                                                                                                                                                            ●

●	Recommended            ❍	Suitable

    VINNAPAS® Low-Profile Additives
    Grade                         Type                           Solid        Appearance           Acid1            Viscosity2       Molecular               Viscosity in styrene4         Tg (C°)
                                                                 content                           mgKOH/g          mPas             weight3 MW              40 % in mPas
    VINNAPAS®          C 341      Copolymer PVAC5                100 %        Flakes               6–8              3.5 – 3.8        55 – 65 x 103           ~ 800                         42   ±   1
    VINNAPAS®          C 501      Copolymer PVAC5                100 %        Flakes               6–9              7.5 – 9.5        140 – 200 x 103         ~ 6 000                       43   ±   1
    VINNAPAS®          B 60 sp    PVAC                           100 %        Pellets              < 0.5            3.5 – 5.0        55 – 70 x 103           ~ 1 000                       42   ±   1
    VINNAPAS®          B 100      PVAC                           100 %        Pellets              < 0.5            5.0 – 6.5        80 – 100 x 103          ~ 1 500                       42   ±   1
    VINNAPAS®          UW 1       PVAC                           100 %        Beads                < 0.5            8.0 – 11.0       110 – 150 x 103         ~ 4 000                       43   ±   1
    VINNAPAS®          UW 4       PVAC                           100 %        Beads                < 0.5            23 – 30          270 – 310 x 103         ~ 44 000                      44   ±   1
    VINNAPAS®          UW 10      PVAC                           100 %        Beads                < 0.5            35 – 55          330 – 430 x 103         ~ 100 000                     44   ±   1
    Acid number: number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide          2
                                                                          Viscosity-conditions: 10 % solution of VINNAPAS® LP           3
                                                                                                                                            SEC conditions: PS standard; THF; 60 °C; weight average
    required to neutralize the alkali-reactive groups in 1 gram of        additive in ethyl acetate, Hoeppler equipment; 20 °C          4
                                                                                                                                            Brookfield PHL 002/23 °C
    VINNAPAS® LP Additive                                                                                                               5
                                                                                                                                            acid modified

    Co-Catalysts that Can Be Used as Accelerators
    Type                                                                                          Minimum             Boiling point/           Density at             Mol.              CAS-No.
                                                                                                  assay (%)           range (°C)               20 °C (g/ml)           weight
    Acetylacetone (2,4-Pentanedione)                                                              99.5                138 – 140                0.971                  100.12            123-54-6

 HDK® Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Grades – Physicochemical Properties
 HDK®                                                           N20                        T30                           H15                    H17            H18
 Surface area (BET)                               [m2/g]        200 ± 30                   300 ± 30                      150 ± 20               150 ± 20       200 ± 30
 of hydrophilic HDK®
 DIN EN ISO 9277/DIN 66132
 pH                                                             3.8 – 4.3                  3.8 – 4.3                     3.8 – 4.8              4.0 – 6.8      4.0 – 6.8
 DIN EN ISO 787-9
 in 4 % H2O dispersion3
 Apparent density                                 [g/l]         ca. 40                     ca. 40                        ca. 50                 ca. 50         ca. 50
 DIN EN ISO 787-11
 Loss on drying1                                  [wt %]        < 1.5                      < 1.5                         < 0.6                  < 0.6          < 0.6
 DIN EN ISO 787-2
 2 h at 105 °C
 Sieve residue                                    [wt %]        < 0.04                     < 0.04                        < 0.05                 < 0.2          < 0.2
 DIN EN ISO 787-18
 (acc. to Mocker > 40μm)
 Carbon content                                   [wt %]                                                                 ca. 0.8                ca. 4.5        ca. 4.5
 Surface modification                                                                                                    -O-Si(CH3)2-           -O-Si(CH3)2-   -O-Si(CH3)2-

These figures are intended as a guide and should not be     1
                                                                On leaving the factory                                                  Hydrophilic
used in preparing specifications.                           3
                                                                In case of hydrophobic Silica: in water, methanol: 1:1                  Hydrophobic

 GENIOSIL® CS 2 – Silane Suitable for Use in Composite Stone
 Product Data
 Boiling point                                                                                 °C (1013 mbar)                    163
 Flash point                                    DIN 51755                                      °C                                50
 Ignition temperature                           DIN 51794                                      °C                                255
 Density                                        DIN 51757                                      g/cm3 (20 °C)                     0.99
 APHA color index                               ISO 6271                                                                         < 30

These figures are intended as a guide and should not be
used in preparing specifications.

 ELASTOSIL® C – Silicone Rubber for Reusable Vacuum Bags
 Property                                       ELASTOSIL® C 150 A/B                                                     ELASTOSIL® C 1200 A/B
 Product data (catalyzed A+B)
 Pot life                                                                  [s]                       150                                        [min]          20
 Demolding properties                                                      [min]                     25                                         [min]          60
 Product data (cured)
 Hardness, Shore A                              ISO 868                                              25                  ISO 868                               25
 Tensile strength                               ISO 37                     [N/mm2]                   5.0                 ISO 37                 [N/mm2]        5.0
 Elongation at break                            ISO 37                     [%]                       500                 ISO 37                 [%]            500
 Tear strength                                  ASTM D 624 B               [N/mm2]                   25                  ASTM D 624 B           [N/mm2]        25
 Max. processing temperature                                               [° C]                     220                                        [° C]          220
 Vulcanizate after 24 h at 23 °C

These figures are intended as a guide and should not be
used in preparing specifications.

now it’s up to You

Take the opportunity to discuss your      You can find more information
concerns with our experts. Just give us   and make contact with experts
a call. We look forward to shaping the    at
future together with you.

                                                                                     6241e/07.08 supersedes 6241e/12.06
wacker chemie ag         wacker chemicals trading      wacker chemical corporation
Hanns-seidel-platz 4     (shanghai) co. Ltd.           3301 sutton road,
81737 münchen, germany   31 F., Bank of china tower    adrian, mi 49221-9397, usa
tel. +49 89 6279-0       200 Yin cheng road central    tel. +1 517 264-8500
                         pudong                        Fax +1 517 264-8246           shanghai 200 120
                         p.r. china          
                         tel. +86 21 6100-3400
                         Fax +86 21 6100-3500


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