The Cultural Landscape_ Introduction to Human Geography_ 9e .._3_

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					The Cultural Landscape: Introduction to Human Geography, 9e (Rubenstein)
Chapter 6 Religion

     1) With respect to the relationship between culture, religion, and the physical environment
         A) few religions derive meaningful events from the physical environment.
          B) religious ideas may be responsible for some of the changes people make in the physical
             environment.
         C) religion is no longer an important source of identification for a distinct cultural group.
         D) all religions appeal primarily to people living in their land of origin.
          E) All of the above are true.
       Diff: 3

     2) A large and fundamental division within a religion is a
          A) branch.
          B) denomination.
          C) sect.
          D) dialect.
          E) family.
       Diff: 2

     3) A relatively small group that has broken away from an established church is a
          A) branch.
          B) denomination.
          C) sect.
          D) dialect.
          E) family.
       Diff: 2

     4) A universalizing religion
          A) is based on the physical characteristics of a particular location on Earth.
          B) appeals to people living in a wide variety of locations.
          C) is rarely transmitted through missionaries.
          D) has celebrations based on seasonal changes.
          E) is less likely to be used as a reason for violence than ethnic religions.
       Diff: 2

     5) The world's largest universalizing religion is
          A) Buddhism.
          B) Christianity.
          C) Hinduism.
          D) Islam.
          E) Shintoism.
       Diff: 1




                                                   1
 6) The world's largest ethnic religion is
      A) Confucianism.
      B) Daoism.
      C) Hinduism.
      D) Shintoism.
      E) Islam.
   Diff: 2

 7) Christianity first diffused from its hearth through
     A) contagious diffusion.
      B) hierarchical diffusion.
      C) relocation diffusion.
      D) expansion diffusion.
      E) all of the above
   Diff: 2

 8) Which is a branch of Christianity?
     A) Druze
     B) Eastern Orthodox
     C) Shiite
     D) Theravadist
     E) Judaism
   Diff: 1

 9) Protestants in Ireland are
      A) dispersed throughout the island.
      B) recent immigrants from Great Britain.
      C) highly clustered in one part of the island.
      D) highly integrated with the Roman Catholic population.
      E) A and B
   Diff: 2

10) The goal of the majority of people living in Northern Ireland is to
      A) remain part of the United Kingdom.
      B) migrate to the Republic of Ireland.
      C) become part of the Republic of Ireland.
      D) join the Irish Republican Army.
      E) establish an independent republic.
   Diff: 2




                                               2
11) Roman Catholics are clustered in the U.S. southwest primarily because of migration of
      A) Roman Catholics from Latin America.
      B) Roman Catholics from the northeast United States.
      C) Roman Catholics from Ireland.
      D) Protestants to the north.
      E) Protestants to the east.
   Diff: 2

12) The people of Quebec are distinguished from residents of neighboring Canadian provinces
    and the United States because they
      A) don't speak an Indo-European language.
      B) are not predominantly Christian.
      C) frequently use religious toponyms.
      D) want to become part of France again.
      E) practice religious tolerance.
   Diff: 2

13) Which of the following is not a universalizing religion?
     A) Buddhism
     B) Sikhism
     C) Islam
     D) Judaism
     E) Christianity
   Diff: 2

14) Eastern Orthodoxy is an example of a Christian
      A) branch.
      B) denomination.
      C) religion.
      D) sect.
      E) family.
   Diff: 2

15) Lutheranism is an example of a Christian
      A) branch.
      B) denomination.
      C) religion.
      D) sect.
      E) family.
   Diff: 2




                                               3
16) Muslims are clustered in
     A) Sub-Saharan Africa.
     B) South America
     C) Eastern Europe.
     D) East Asia.
     E) the Middle East.
   Diff: 2

17) The dominant branch of Islam is
      A) Druze.
      B) Eastern Orthodoxy.
      C) Sikh.
      D) Sunni.
      E) Shiite.
   Diff: 2

18) The dominant branch of Islam in Iran is
      A) Druze.
      B) Eastern Orthodoxy.
      C) Sikh.
      D) Sunni.
      E) Shiite.
   Diff: 2

19) Adherents of which religion controlled much of present-day Spain until 1492, but not since
    then?
      A) Buddhism
       B) Christianity
      C) Hinduism
      D) Islam
       E) Druze
   Diff: 1

20) What is the holiest book in Hinduism?
     A) the Bible
     B) the Old Testament
     C) the Quran
     D) the Amrit
     E) none of the above
   Diff: 1




                                              4
21) Which of the following is currently the most important religion in the homeland of the man
    who founded it?
     A) Buddhism
      B) Christianity
     C) Hinduism
     D) Islam
      E) Shintoism
   Diff: 2

22) Unlike other universalizing religions, Buddhism
     A) remained concentrated in one region of the world.
      B) was not begun by an individual founder.
     C) was founded in China.
     D) worships more than one god.
      E) diffused primarily by colonization.
   Diff: 1

23) Mahayanists, in contrast to Theravadists, emphasize Buddha's
     A) life of self-help.
     B) compassion.
     C) renouncing of worldly goods.
     D) wisdom.
     E) practice of meditation.
   Diff: 3

24) Hinduism's caste system
      A) assigns everyone to a distinct class.
      B) decrees the pilgrimages which should be taken.
      C) is a substitute for the lack of a holy book.
      D) identifies a family's important deities.
      E) is the basis for seasonal celebrations.
   Diff: 1

25) Adherents of which religion are also likely to believe in other religions simultaneously?
     A) Judaism
      B) Christianity
     C) Hinduism
     D) Islam
      E) Buddhism
   Diff: 2




                                              5
26) Animists believe that
     A) people should complete God's creation of the Earth.
      B) inanimate objects and natural events have spirits.
     C) people should make complete use of the Earth's resources.
     D) natural disasters are preventable.
      E) enlightenment can be achieved by all people.
   Diff: 1

27) The agricultural calendar is relatively unimportant to which type of religions?
      A) animist
      B) ethnic
      C) pagan
      D) universalizing
      E) all of the above
   Diff: 2

28) Which is not an ethnic Asian religion?
     A) Buddhism
     B) Confucianism
     C) Shintoism
     D) Daoism
     E) Hinduism
   Diff: 2

29) Especially important in Confucianism is to
      A) perform public service.
      B) reflect on the mystical and magical aspects of life.
      C) respect forces of nature as divine.
      D) believe in one all-powerful God.
      E) read the holy texts daily.
   Diff: 2

30) Especially important in Daoism is to
      A) perform public service.
      B) reflect on the mystical and magical aspects of life.
      C) respect forces of nature as divine.
      D) believe in one all-powerful God.
      E) read the holy texts daily.
   Diff: 2




                                               6
31) The belief in the existence of only one god is
      A) animism.
      B) cosmogony.
      C) monotheism.
      D) polytheism.
      E) pagan.
   Diff: 1

32) Followers of which religious branch do not trace their origin to Abraham?
      A) Eastern Orthodox
      B) Mahayana
      C) Shiite
      D) Sunni
      E) Judaism
   Diff: 2

33) For most of the past 2,000 years, most Jews have been
      A) highly clustered in present-day Israel.
      B) dispersed around the world.
      C) concentrated in the United States.
      D) forced to live in ghettos.
      E) nomads herding sheep.
   Diff: 1

34) The concept of a ghetto originally referred to the area of a city
      A) inside the walls.
      B) inhabited by the lowest-income people.
      C) where Jews were forced to live.
      D) where most blacks lived.
      E) where the untouchable caste lived.
   Diff: 2

35) Judaism is classified as an ethnic rather than a universalizing religion, primarily because
      A) its main holidays relate to events in the life of its founder, Abraham.
      B) it uses a lunar calendar.
      C) its rituals derive from the agricultural cycle in Israel.
      D) it commemorates the Exodus from Egypt.
      E) the holy text is the foundation of the religion.
   Diff: 2




                                                7
36) Beliefs concerning the origin of the universe are
      A) animism.
      B) cosmogony.
      C) monotheism.
      D) astronomy.
      E) polytheism.
   Diff: 2

37) Which is not a characteristic of a hierarchical religion?
     A) It has a well-defined hierarchical structure.
     B) It encourages each congregation to be self-sufficient.
     C) It organizes territory into local administrative units.
     D) It fosters interaction among different congregations.
     E) Regional administration is located in large cities.
   Diff: 2

38) Which ethnic religion follows a lunar calendar?
     A) Hinduism
     B) Islam
     C) Judaism
     D) Sikhism
     E) all of the above
   Diff: 2

39) A mosque differs from a church, because a mosque
      A) is not a sanctified place.
      B) is not a place of worship.
      C) displays a variety of architectural styles.
      D) contains relics of the founder.
      E) is decorated with scenes from the life of the founder.
   Diff: 2

40) Worship in Hinduism is most likely to take place
     A) in a holy shrine.
     B) as part of a pilgrimage.
     C) at home.
     D) in a pagoda.
     E) in a monastery.
   Diff: 2




                                               8
41) Cremation is more important than burial in which religion?
      A) Buddhism
      B) Christianity
      C) Hinduism
      D) Islam
      E) Judaism
   Diff: 2

42) The United Nations partition plan dividing Palestine placed Jerusalem under
      A) a British Mandate
      B) Palestenian administration.
      C) Israeli administration.
      D) divided administration.
      E) United Nations administration.
   Diff: 2

43) The situation in Northern Ireland is the result of
      A) counties in Northern Ireland voting to remain in the United Kingdom.
      B) Catholic protest against discrimination by Protestants.
      C) British colonial control which contributed to poor economic conditions.
      D) violence committed by extreme partisans on both sides.
      E) all of the above
   Diff: 2

44) Palestinians include all but which of the following groups?
      A) residents of refugee camps
      B) residents of territories occupied by Israel
      C) citizens of other states calling themselves Palestinians
      D) Jewish citizens of Israel
      E) Muslim citizens of Israel
   Diff: 1

45) Israel has controlled all of Jerusalem since
       A) partition of Palestine by the United Nations in 1947.
       B) the withdrawal of British rule in 1948.
       C) the Arab-Israeli armistice of 1949.
       D) the Six-Day War in 1967.
       E) the Egyptian and Israeli peace treaty of 1979.
   Diff: 1




                                               9
46) Adherents of which religion have controlled the Holy Land for most of the past 1,500 years?
     A) Sikhism
      B) Judaism
     C) Hinduism
     D) Islam
      E) Christianity
   Diff: 1

47) Which religion is one of the three most important in Lebanon?
     A) Daoism
     B) Druze
     C) Hinduism
     D) Judaism
     E) Sikhism
   Diff: 2

48) Which of these penalties were imposed by the Taliban in Afghanistan?
     A) Men were beaten for shaving their beards.
     B) Homosexuals were buried alive.
     C) Prostitutes were hanged in public, and men were stoned for committing adultery.
     D) Thieves' hands were cut off, and women with nail polish had their fingers cut off.
     E) all of the above
   Diff: 2

49) What policy did the British follow in India?
     A) They divided India into two countries.
     B) They forced all of the Hindus to migrate.
     C) They turned the problem over to the United Nations.
     D) They encouraged the abolishment of the caste system.
     E) They required all education to be conducted in English.
   Diff: 2

50) From the Russian Revolution to the fall of the communist government, what was the policy
    of the government towards religion?
      A) All churches were closed.
       B) The old church was replaced by Eastern Orthodoxy.
       C) Churches remained open but played a limited role.
      D) Youth were encouraged to attend so that they could be indoctrinated into communism.
       E) All marriages were performed by clergy.
   Diff: 2




                                             10
51) Individual ethnic religions have more concentrated geographic distributions than
    universalizing religions.
    Answer:     True        False
   Diff: 1

52) Christianity has the most widespread geographic distribution of any religion.
    Answer:     True       False
   Diff: 1

53) The most troublesome religious boundary in Western Europe is in Ireland.
    Answer:    True       False
   Diff: 1

54) The Ganges is the most holy river for Muslims.
    Answer:   True         False
   Diff: 1

55) Lutherans in the United States are concentrated in the southeast.
    Answer:    True        False
   Diff: 1

56) Catholics in the United States are concentrated in the northeast and southwest.
    Answer:     True        False
   Diff: 1

57) Jerusalem is a holy city to all three major universalizing religions.
    Answer:     True         False
   Diff: 3

58) Buddhism is the most important religion in India.
    Answer:   True        False
   Diff: 2

59) Natural landscape features are the holiest places in Islam.
    Answer:    True        False
   Diff: 2

60) The majority of people in Lebanon are Jewish.
    Answer:    True         False
   Diff: 1

61) The largest concentration of Eastern Orthodox Christians is in Eastern Europe.
    Answer:     True        False
   Diff: 2

62) Pilgrimages play a significant role in ethnic religions but not in universalizing religions.
    Answer:    True        False
   Diff: 2




                                               11
63) Islam is a less hierarchical religion than Christianity.
    Answer:      True        False
   Diff: 2

64) Like churches, mosques are consecrated as holy places.
    Answer:    True       False
   Diff: 2

65) After the 1917 Revolution, the communists closed all churches in the Soviet Union.
    Answer:     True       False
   Diff: 2

66) Describe the main difference in the most important holidays between a universalizing and
    an ethnic religion.
    Answer:
   Diff: 2

67) What is the world's largest ethnic religion? In what country do 99 percent of the adherents of
    this religion live?
    Answer:
   Diff: 2

68) What major universalizing religion originated in present-day India?
    Answer:
   Diff: 1

69) Most Europeans adhere to which of the three major universalizing religions?
    Which is the most important branch of this religion in the following regions of Europe?
    a. northwestern
    b. southwestern
    c. eastern

   Diff: 2

70) Name the two main branches of Islam.
   Diff: 2

71) Which branch of Islam is the largest in Iran and Lebanon?
   Diff: 2




                                                12
72) Match the religion to the region of the United States:
    ________ Baptist                         a. Arizona
    ________ Roman Catholic                  b. Utah
    ________ Lutheran                        c. Alabama
    ________ Mormon                          d. Minnesota
   Diff: 1

73) Most people in the Republic of Ireland are adherents of which branch of Christianity?
    A slight majority of people in Northern Ireland are adherents of which branch of
    Christianity?
   Diff: 2

74) Wars were fought in 1948, 1956, 1967, and 1973 in the land once known as Palestine. What
    country won all four of these wars?
    What three countries fought against this country in all four wars?
    Which one of these three countries signed a peace treaty with the first country named?
   Diff: 2

75) Name the four religions dominant in East Asia.
    How is religious adherence different in East Asia than in the United States?
   Diff: 3

76) Compare the impact of Christianity and Islam on the landscape.
   Diff: 3

77) In what ways is Judaism an ethnic religion?
   Diff: 3

78) How do different religions incorporate natural features into their cosmogony?
   Diff: 3

79) How has religion been a source of territorial conflict among people?
   Diff: 3

80) How has the concept of pilgrimage changed in the modern world?

   Diff: 3




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