# Gate_Syllabus

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```					     GATE 2011 Syllabus for Computer Science and Information Technology

Verbal Ability:

English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups,
instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.

Numerical Ability:

Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data
interpretation.

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS

Mathematical Logic:

Propositional Logic; First Order Logic.

Probability:

Conditional Probability; Mean, Median, Mode and Standard Deviation; Random
Variables; Distributions; uniform, normal, exponential, Poisson, Binomial.

Set Theory & Algebra:

Sets; Relations; Functions; Groups; Partial Orders; Lattice; Boolean Algebra.

Combinatorics:

Permutations; Combinations; Counting; Summation; generating functions;
recurrence relations; asymptotics.

Graph Theory:

Connectivity; spanning trees; Cut vertices & edges; covering; matching;
independent sets; Colouring; Planarity; Isomorphism.

Linear Algebra:

Algebra of matrices, determinants, systems of linear equations, Eigen values and
Eigen vectors.
Numerical Methods:

LU decomposition for systems of linear equations; numerical solutions of non-
linear algebraic equations by Secant, Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods;
Numerical integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules.

Calculus:

Limit, Continuity & differentiability, Mean value Theorems, Theorems of integral
calculus, evaluation of definite & improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total
derivatives, maxima & minima.

COMPUTER SCIENCE AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Digital Logic:

Logic functions, Minimization, Design and synthesis of combinational and
sequential circuits; Number representation and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating
point).

Computer Organization and Architecture:

Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU and data-path, CPU control
design, Memory interface, I/O interface (Interrupt and DMA mode), Instruction
pipelining, Cache and main memory, Secondary storage.

Programming and Data Structures:

Programming in C; Functions, Recursion, Parameter passing, Scope, Binding;
Abstract data types, Arrays, Stacks, Queues, Linked Lists, Trees, Binary search trees,
Binary heaps.

Algorithms:

Analysis, Asymptotic notation, Notions of space and time complexity, Worst and
average case analysis; Design: Greedy approach, Dynamic programming, Divide-and-
conquer; Tree and graph traversals, Connected components, Spanning trees, Shortest
paths; Hashing, Sorting, Searching. Asymptotic analysis (best, worst, average cases) of
time and space, upper and lower bounds, Basic concepts of complexity classes P, NP,
NP-hard, NP-complete.

Theory of Computation:

Regular languages and finite automata, Context free languages and Push-down
automata, Recursively enumerable sets and Turing machines, Undecidability.
Compiler Design:

Lexical analysis, Parsing, Syntax directed translation, Runtime environments,
Intermediate and target code generation, Basics of code optimization.

Operating System:

Processes, Threads, Inter-process communication, Concurrency, Synchronization,
Deadlock, CPU scheduling, Memory management and virtual memory, File systems, I/O
systems, Protection and security.

Databases:

ER-model, Relational model (relational algebra, tuple calculus), Database design
(integrity constraints, normal forms), Query languages (SQL), File structures (sequential
files, indexing, B and B+ trees), Transactions and concurrency control.

Information Systems and Software Engineering:

information gathering, requirement and feasibility analysis, data flow diagrams,
process specifications, input/output design, process life cycle, planning and managing the
project, design, coding, testing, implementation, maintenance.

Computer Networks:

ISO/OSI stack, LAN technologies (Ethernet, Token ring), Flow and error control
techniques, Routing algorithms, Congestion control, TCP/UDP and sockets, IP(v4),
Application layer protocols (icmp, dns, smtp, pop, ftp, http); Basic concepts of hubs,
switches, gateways, and routers. Network security basic concepts of public key and
private key cryptography, digital signature, firewalls.

Web technologies:

HTML, XML, basic concepts of client-server computing.
Mathematical Logic: Propositional Logic; First Order Logic, Set Theory & Algebra:
Sets; Relations; Functions; Groups; Partial Orders; Lattice; Boolean Algebra.
Textbook :
” Discrete Mathematics ” by Tremblay and Manohar .

Probability: Conditional Probability; Mean, Median, Mode and Standard Deviation;
Random Variables; Distributions; uniform, normal, exponential, Poisson, Binomial.
Textbook :
” Probability , statistics and queuing theory ” by S.C.Gupta & V.K.Kapoor

Combinatorics: Permutations; Combinations; Counting; Summation; generating
functions; recurrence relations; asymptotics.
Textbook :
” Intermediate Mathematics ” , S.Chand publications , authors : B.V.Sastry and
K.Venkateswarlu ( if i remember )
” Higher Engineering Mathematics ” by B.S.Grewal for generating functions and
recurrence relations . ( Bessel’s formula , Lagrangian Polynomial )
” Introduction to algorithms ” – Cormen etal ( CLRS ) for recurrence relations and
asymptotics

Graph Theory: Connectivity; spanning trees; Cut vertices & edges; covering; matching;
independent sets; Colouring; Planarity; Isomorphism
Textbook :
” Intoduction to Graph Theory ” by Narsing Deo

Linear Algebra: Algebra of matrices, determinants, systems of linear equations, Eigen
values and Eigen vectors.
Textbook :
” Higher Engineering Mathematics ” by B.S.Grewal

Numerical Methods: LU decomposition for systems of linear equations; numerical
solutions of non linear algebraic equations by Secant, Bisection and Newton-Raphson
Methods; Numerical integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules.
Textbook :
” Numerical Methods ” – by S.S.Sastry

Calculus: Limit, Continuity & differentiability, Mean value Theorems, Theorems of
integral calculus, evaluation of definite & improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total
derivatives, maxima & minima.
Textbook :
” Intermediate Mathematics ” , S.chand publications , authors : B.V.Sastry ,
K.Venkateswarlu ( if i remember )

Formal Languages and Automata Theory: Regular languages and finite automata,
Context free languages and Push-down automata, Recursively enumerable sets and
Turing machines, Un-decidability;
Textbook :
” Formal Languages and Automata theory ” , J.D.Ullman etal

Analysis of Algorithms and Computational Complexity: Asymptotic analysis (best,
worst, average case) of time and space, Upper and lower bounds on the complexity of
specific problems, NP-completeness.
Textbook :
” Introduction to algorithms ” – Cormen etal ( CLRS )
” Computer Algorithms ” – Horowitz and Sahani
A very good textbook on “Algorithms ” coming soon from Dr.M.N.Seetaramanth ( Tata
Mc Graw Hill publications )

Digital Logic: Logic functions, Minimization, Design and synthesis of Combinational
and Sequential circuits; Number representation and Computer Arithmetic (fixed and
floating point);
Textbook :
” Digital Logic circuits and Design ” by Morris Mano

Computer Organization: Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU and Data-
path, hardwired and micro-programmed control, Memory interface, I/O interface
(Interrupt and DMA mode), Serial communication interface, Instruction pipelining,
Cache, main and secondary storage.
Textbook :
” Computer Organisation ” by Morris Mano
” Computer Architecture ” by Briggs and 2 chinese authors ( blue cover pad ) { for
pipelining }

Data structures: Notion of abstract data types, Stack, Queue, List, Set, String, Tree,
Binary search tree, Heap, Graph;
Textbook :
” Data structures ” Schaumm’s outline series
” Data structures in PASCAL ” by Horowitz and Sahani
” Data structures and Algorithms ” by Weiss etal
” Introduction to algorithms ” – Cormen etal ( CLRS )

Programming Methodology: C programming, Program control (iteration, recursion,
Functions), Scope, Binding, Parameter passing, Elementary concepts of Object oriented,
Functional and Logic Programming

Textbook :
” Programming with C ” – Byron Gottfried , Schaumm’s outline series
” Principles of Programming Languages ” by Robert W Sebesta , Addison Wesley
” Programming with C++ ” – Balaguruswamy

Algorithms for problem solving: Tree and graph traversals, Connected components,
Spanning trees, Shortest paths; Hashing, Sorting, Searching; Design techniques (Greedy,
Dynamic Programming, Divide-and-conquer);
Textbook :
” Data structures ” Schaumm’s outline series
” Data structures in PASCAL ” by Horowitz and Sahani
” Computer Algorithms ” – Horowitz and Sahani
” Data structures and Algorithms ” by Weiss etal
” Introduction to algorithms ” – Cormen etal ( CLRS )

Compiler Design: Lexical analysis, Parsing, Syntax directed translation, Runtime
environment, Code generation, Linking (static and dynamic);
Textbook :
” Principles of Compiler Design ” , Aho , Ullman etal .
” Systems Programming ” by John . J . Donovan

Operating Systems: Classical concepts (concurrency, synchronization, deadlock),
Processes, threads and Inter-process communication, CPU scheduling, Memory
management, File systems, I/O systems, Protection and security.

Textbook :
” Operating system concepts ” by Abraham Silberschatz and Peter Galvin
” Advanced Unix Programming ” by W. Richard . Stevens
” Advanced Unix Programming ” by N.B.Venkateswarlu , BPB publications

Databases: Relational model (ER-model, relational algebra, tuple calculus), Database
design (integrity constraints, normal forms), Query languages (SQL), File structures
(sequential files, indexing, B+ trees), Transactions and concurrency control;

Textbook :
” Database Management systems ” – Raghu RamaKrishnan
” Database system concepts ” – Silberschatz , Korth , Sudarshan
” Database systems ” – C.J.Date { normalisation is very lucidly written }
” Principles of Database Systems ” – J.D.Ullman { This is a very good book }

Computer Networks: ISO/OSI stack, sliding window protocol, LAN Technologies
(Ethernet, Token ring), TCP/UDP, IP, Basic concepts of switches, gateways, and routers.
Textbook :
” Computer Networks ” – Tenenbaum
” Data communications and Networking ” – William Stallings

Some more important books :
” Multiple choice questions ” – Timothy . J . Williams , TMH publications
” Gate Question Papers ” – G.K.Publishers { follow it only for questions , answers are all
wrong in it }
“Aptitude Test” -D R Choudhary
” Multiple choice questions ” – Timothy . J . Williams , TMH publications
” Gate Question Papers ” – G.K.Publishers

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