Remote Handling and Accelerators

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2138                                             IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. NS-30, No. 4, August 1983
                                                                        REMOTE HANDLING AND ACCELERATORS*

                                                                        Mahlon T. Wilson,     AT-DO, MS H811
                                                    LOS Alamos           National Laboratory,     Los Alamos,                   NM 87545

                                         Summary                                                                LAMPF operated                 for over a year (1974)                         at reduced
                                                                                                     intensities                 to permit            hands-on             maintenance             because
        The high-current               levels        of contemporary              and pro-           some of the main beamline                              components             and much of the
posed accelerator              facilities              induce      radiation          levels         shielding             had not yet been installed.                                    Another        year
into     components,         requiring            consideration             be given         to      (1975) was required                       to complete             equipment            and shield-
maintenance         techniques           that reduce personnel                   exposure.           ing installation.                        During that time,                   a second manipu-
Typical       components          involved            include        beamstops,          tar-        lative          system          was proposed               that        was more versatile
qets,     collimators,           windows,            and instrumentation                 that        for use in areas not requiring                                   the complete                shielded
intercepts         the direct            beam.         Also      included         are beam           handling              MERRIMAC provided.                           This          system,          named
extraction,         injection,           splitting,          and kicking           regions,          MONITOR.6g7                  and its offspring                   have become the                  prime
as well as ourposeful                 spill        areas where beam tails                   are      manipulative                 systems;         MERRIMAC has been scrapped,                              and
trimmed       and neutral           particles             are deposited.                Scat-        the complete                 shielding         requirement             has been waived.
tered     beam and secondary                particles          activate        components                      ~MONITOR began                   in 1976 as a hydraulic-powered
al? along        a beamline             such as vacuum pipes,                      magnets,          truck        self-loader               to which a switch-operated                            electric
 and     shielding.            Maintenance               techniques            vary       from       manipulator               (PaR 150) was attached.                              The boom of the
"hands-on"        to TV-viewed             operation           using state-of-the-                   self-loader                is capable            of placing               the small,            human-
art     servomanipulators.                    Bottom-       or side-entry               casks         arm sized,              manipulator              near the beamline                      components
are     used      with      thimble-type                tarqet        and diagnostic                  located          as far as 8 m below the top of the shielding.
 assemblies.            Long-handled-             tools      -are       operated          from       Viewing            is with            television.               A prototype                hydraulic
behind        shadow         shields.               Swinging           shield         doors,         master/slave                 manipulator            was obtained                from the Navy,
 unstacking         block,        and horizontally                    rolling         shield         modified             slightly,             and mounted                alongside            the       PaR.
roofs     are all used to provide                        access.        Common to all                This        arm was manufactured                          by the Remotion                    Company,
techniques         is the need to make operations                              simple       and      weighs 8 kg, and responds                             to the position                  of the mas-
to provide        a means of seeing and reaching                            the area.                ter        arm very                rapidly.'             The PaR 150 manipulator
                                                                                                       later        was replaced                  by the          PaR 3000 salvaged                       from
                                     Introduction                                                    MERRIMAC.               This equipment                  was used on several                       occa-
                                                                                                      sions        including             working        with       a beam exit                window        and
        A survey      paper was presented               at this       conference                     collimator               in a lo4 R/h environment.                               Great       increase
ir    1975 that       discussed       radiation         levels,       shielding,                       in manipulative                   speed was achieved                   through         the acqui-
radiation       damage, and remote handling                  at the then new                          sition         of two TOS Model 229 bilateral                                    servomanipula-
high-power         accelerator         facilities          of     LAMPF,       SIN,                   t&-s of lo-kg                 capacity.            These manipulators                     have been
TRIUMF,       and FERMILAB.'              The facility            descriptions                        used as a pair                   of arms or singly,                     paired        with either
given      have remained       fairly         constant      over     the inter-                       the Remotion                arm or one of the PaR manipulators.g~'O
vening       8 years;      however,       operational          experience        has                            LAMPF today has experienced                               the most remote han-
been gained,           and some changes                in     remote-handling                         dling       and the highest                   radiation            levels          of any accel-
equipment       have occurred.           This paper will           discuss       the                  erator.            The main proton                 line has radiation                     levels       of
additional       information.                                                                          1000 R/h in the first                          target         cell,         2000 R/h in the
                                                                                                      second,            800 R/h at the biomed target                               cell     and lo5 R/h
                                           LAMPF                                                       in the beamstop                    area.         All      operations              are performed
                                                                                                      remotely            using         TV viewing.                There         is absolutely               no
        Design of the LAMPF Line-A                         equipment            and facili-           direct          viewino           because        radiation             levels         from       10 to
ties      was based on a philosophy                            of providing               ready        25 R/h exist                "at the edge of the open shield                                    doors.
removal       of equipment         expected           to require           routine        main-       Shadow shields                  and distance             are used to keep radiation
tenance       (position       monitors           and targets),             while       provid-          levels      within          limits        where people must work on top of                                I
 ing general           access      to all            other         components.'               The     the shielding.
position       monitors        and targets            are mounted on shielding                                  The remote-handling                     crew consists                 of 3 engineers,
stalks      that     are inserted            into       vacuum-tight              enclosures          4 draftsmen,                 and approximately                   15 technicians,                  under
that penetrate            to the surface                  of the bulk              shielding           the direction                 of Donald           L. Grisham.                  They can field
from the beamline.                The drives,              utilities,             and vacuum          three       crews for continuous                         operation.                A fourth         crew
seals      are,     therefore,           in an accessible                    location         for      builds        tooling,            and components              to support             the manipu-
hands-on-connection                  and           service.3y4                  Access          to      lating       crews.            When not operating,                      they are continu-
the beamline            components           is provided                by horizontallv                allv      maintaininq               and upqradinq               the manipulative                   sys-
opening        shield       doors      that         weigh         hundreds          of tons:          terns and building                      new systems,                They are             assembling
This is accomplished                bv insertinq                roller        trucks      under         -
                                                                                                       a third           MONITOR to utilize                      the third              TOS Model 229
the doors and'transferrinq                      the weight             of the door on;o               manipulator              that they have acquired.                             They have a good
the     trucks        by hydraulically                   expanding             the     trucks,         operating           history           because of their                  preventative             main-
which are then oushed or Dulled                             with        a pair       of hori-         tenance          program.              An example being a 5-month stint                                of
zontal       cylinders.5            The 'original                  requirements             that       operating           24 h/day,            7 days/week             (minus 3 days to rest
the radiation            emanating         from the beamline                      components           people)         with        only 24 h of downtime                        to repair           manipu-
be shielded          and that        all      components              removed from the                 lator       problems.               The first          two TOS arms have clocked
beamline         be transported               in a cask resulted                        in the       210 000 h each in practice,                                    tune-up,             and operation
construction           of a portable               hot cell            dubbed MERRIMAC.               with about 6000 of this                          being actual              working         hours.
The shield           doors,      shielding             configuration,                 and hot                   The LAMPF main beamline                              has been plagued                     with
cells      of Area A were all                     designed           to be compatible                 water and vacuum leaks resulting                                   in an awesome assort-
with      the MERRIMAC concept,                      which          put     rather        tight       ment of tasks                 that range from the replacement                                 of five
constraints          on the configuration                   of the shield              doors.          of the 17-ton                  target-cell            triplets,             through        welding,

*Work      supported         by the       IJS Department           of    Energy.

                                                                         OOlS-9499/83/0800-2138$01.00@1983 IEEE
  soldering,      polishing    flanges,       to making up electrical                                              diameter,         45-cm-high             vacuum chamber by jacking                             the top
  connectors.          A time-consuming            task     has     been     the                                  half      of the cyclotron                      upward            by 1.2 m.                A service
  removal       of the close-in          shielding        that     is fitted                                       bridge       is inserted                into        the opened                vacuum chamber,
  around      the    beamline     components         within      the    target                                    with the inner                 end supported                  on the cyclotron                     center
  cells.       They have been reducing            the number of pieces                                            post and the outer                     end supported                   on wheels           that        ride
  by welding      them together      into larger        sections.                                                 on the cyclotron                  periphery.                A drive           system positions
                                                                                                                  the bridge             at any radial                   location             desired.            Various
                                                   -                                                              specialized             trolleys           can be mounted                       on the service
                                                                                                                  bridge          to       accomplish                inspection                 and       maintenance
           The main proton                  beamline,            two target             assemblies,               functions.
    and the beam dump are located                                within          a vault        that       is              Personnel            access into the vacuum chamber requires
   approximately              40 m long,            5 m wide,             and 3 m high.                 rhe       the remote placement                       of ~10 tons of 5-cm-thick                                   lead
    roof slabs are removable                       to provide               access from above.                    shields         over the vacuum chamber walls                                    'where neutral-
   Convenient            personnel          access          is provided.                 The target               ized beam particles                      have impinged                    at the beam plane
    assemblies           are surrounded                by close-in               shielding          and a          level.      It requires               220 h to install                        or remove these
    side-entry          cask is used to transport                             the target           assem-          lead shields             remotely           with         the service               bridgetrolley
   blies     to hot cells                for maintenance.                        Maintenance            was       system.          Four copper blocks                      located           at places          of known
    intended        to be accomplished                    by hand or with the use of                              high beam spill                 also are removed.                         This shielding                 and
   shadow shields                and long tongs.                     A manipulator                system          removing           procedure             reduces             the         general          background
   called       MINIMAC"             was assembled                  to handle             unforeseen              within      the chamber to the lD- to 15-mR/h level.
   events       that        involve        radiation              levels          high enough to                           A goal of 300 uA by 1986 will                                         require          replac-
  preclude         the use of people.                                                                             ing the 80 resonator                      panels          whose drooping                 has been a
           MINIMAC consists                    of one PaR Model 3000 switch-                                      continuous           problem.             The present                resonator           panels          are
  controlled           manipulator             mounted on a trolly                      system that              x0.8 m wide                by 3 m long                       and weigh               275 kg each.
   rurs on a 4- by 6-m frame.                               Suspended from the frame                              There are specialized                       trolleys            for remotely                replacing
  are television                cameras and a tool                      board.         A 3-D tele-                both upper and lower resonator                                   panels         of the current
   vision       camera          is mounted              on the manipulator.                           This        design.
  camera        also may be used as a Z-D camera to reduce                                                                 Beamline-component                     maintenance                 requires          urstack-
  operator         eye fatigue             when the nature                     of the manipula-                   ing the covering                    concrete           blocks           to expose            the com-
  tion does not require                     depth preception.                        A bent Quasar               ponent.            A platform,              having          a 5-cm-thick                lead floor,
  telescope           allows         an observer                to peer over                 a shadow             is placed            over       the opening                  and an operator                     on the
  shield       for additional                viewing          capability.                                        platform          performs           manipulations                 3 to 5 m below,                    using
           Although           MINIMAC was conceived                         for emergency               use       long-handled              tools.           Television                 is used to provide
  only,       exoerience             showed it              could          be used for               many        viewing.             Radiation            levels           of 10 to 15 R/h at the
  operations            that      oriqinally             were planned                to be accom-                beamline           are attenuated                 to the lo-mR/h                     range at the
  plished        with        shadow-shields                and long tongs.                     MINIMAC           operator          by this          system.            The beamline                vacuum connec-
  has had approximately                      a month's             usage each year since                         tions       use double                 indium          seals,             which        on occasion
  1979, doinq modifications                         or repairs               to the main beam-                   develop         leaks.          Repair         requires            four        to six hours to
   line     production-target                    enclosures.                   Radiation          levels         unstack        shielding,             one hour to set up the platform                                    and
  in the lOOO- to 2000-R/h                          level         were measured                on com-           actually          change out the seals,                         and another             four to six
  ponents        removed by MINIMAC.                                                                             hours to replace                    the shielding.                     All      beamline           compo-
           SIN has two engineers                       and four technicians,                        under        nents other            than the target                   chambers are maintained                           in
 the direction                  of Eyke Wagner,                    that         are responsible                  this fashion.
 for the remote-handling                         effort.             Five individuals                  are                The target             systems corsist                   of shielding              thimbles,
 capable         of operating             the manipulator.                                                       below which are suspended                            ladder         targets         that can con-
          Wagner has developed                      a clever            method of disposing                      sist      of Be, Cu, H20, and C.                                   Typically,              these         are
 of activated                 components.               He has designed                      concrete            run until           a water          leak develops                 somewhere in the lad-
 blocks        whose outside                dimensions              are the same as SIN                          der, which is attached                         to the thimble                    with       Swagelock
 standard           shielding           blocks          but contain                 a large          void       fittings.               Routine           replacement                 of       a target             ladder
  into which an activated                       component             is lowered           remotely.             requires          about a half               day.           The thimble               is withdrawn
A lid covers               the component,                and the remaining                   void may           vertically             into       a bottom-entry                   cask that              is hoisted
 be filled            with        grout,        completing               the encapsulation.                      into      a hot'cell                for      reolacement                  using       master/slave
The activated                 component           and its           surrounding             concrete            manipulators.                 A bellows           associated                with the vertical-
thus serve as a shield                         block for the remainder                           of the         motion       portion           of the target                  system has a lifetime                         of
 life      of SIN, by which                     time the component                        will       have       about a year.                  A full         day is required                     to change this
decayed to manageable                       levels.                                                             bellows        remotely.
          Future          plans       include           changing              the thin           target                   TRIUMF has acquired                       a Unimate              programmable               robot
system         in 1984 and the thick                           target          and beamstop               in     in cooperation                with       the University                    of British             Colum-
1988.         The beamline              vault       will        be filled            with      shield-          bia Engineering                   Department.                  The robot            will        be used
ing.        Vertical           shield      plugs will              provide          access to the               for welding             operations            within          the vacuum chamber.
beamline           components.                The electrical                    and water            ser-                 The remote-handling                        section             at TRIUMF consists
vices for the components                          will       rise through              the shield-              of one engineer,                   four designers,                    two electronic                  tech-
ing for manual maintenance.                                The beamline                vacuum con-              nicians,          two mechanical                 technicians,                  ard one hot-cell
nections           will        consist          of inflated                  bellows        attached            technician,              under the direction                           of William              Cameron.
between pairs                of flanges           similar          to the system used on                        Of this         group,         two are familiar                     with        hot cell           opera-
their       cyclotron            vacuum chamber.                    A shielded            area will             tions,       three         with       beamline            remote handling,                    and five
be assembled                from standard                blocks           and equipped               with       with service             bridge-trolley                  handling.'3,14
lead-glass             windows          and master/slave                       manipulators              to
allow       performance              of more on-site                     work on activated                                                                       CERN
                                                                                                                        For over a dozen years,            Roger A. Horne at CERN
                                              TRIIJMF                                                           has been promoting       the use of remote           handling     using
                                                                                                                 servomanipulators    to reduce personnel          dosage.     At that
     TRIUMF routinely        produces     a 450-MeV proton                                         beam         time he acquired       a pair      of Mascot     servomanipulators
with  a l!lO-PA   intensity.         Cyclotron    maintenance                                         is         that   were manufactured        by Selenia      in Italy."          The
based upon the ability         to gain access      into   the                                      18-m         various      CERN groups      historically       preferred      to    do

hands-on             maintenance;                   however,              because            of       growing                                                 FERMILAB
radiation             levels        and a stable                   work force,               the dosages
of the maintenance                          workers            is approaching                     the CERN                      The final         beam-transport             magnets and the produc-
limit       of 1.5 R/yr.                    The decision                 to build           LEP with no               tion       tarqets       for      the neutrino             area at FERMILAB are
increase             in personnel                    or relaxation                   of the              dosage       mounted on bedplates,                    which are picked                up and carried
limit        has increased                      interest            considerably                  in doing            bv a railroad                svstem.17            Various         train        assemblies.
more work remotely.                                                                                                   which are dozens-of                    meters      long,      exist       to provide             an
          Horne has assembled                             a remote-handling                          vehicle,         assortment          of target          and beam geometries.                     Trains        may
named MANTIS after                        the insect                it resembles,                   that      has     be driven          between         locations         in an evacuatable                   target
become           so in            demand to                  handle           modifications                   and     tube for          producing          mesons,        in shielded             storage         tun-
repairs           that        management                has provided                funds          to build           nels,        and in a service                 building          for      maintenance             or
additional              upgraded           systems and new manipulators.                                              equipment          change out.             The service             building          contains
          MANTIS consists                         of      a self-propelled                        hydraulic            bridge-mounted                servomanipulators.'e                       One       pair         of
truck          loader           that          carries             the       Mascot            manipulator              servomanipulators                  are     the      prototype            Mark IV units
arms.16             In the traveling                       modes, it folds                      up into           a   developed           by the           Remote        Control          Division          of      the
compact package 1 m wide,                                  2.2 m high and 4.5 m long,                                 Argonne          National          Laboratory.             The second               pair       are
weighing               6 tons.                  The        compact             configuration                    is     slightly        modified        CRL Model M manipulators,                       which look
required            to enable               it to thread                   among the equipment                         somewhat like            the prototypes             but with one arm having a
in the accelerator                       tunnels.               A quarter-ton                  of spooled              higher        capacity.           All     viewing        uses television.                    The
cable        mounted on a trailer                             allows          MANTIS to maneuver                       control        room for          remote       operations            is 130 m outside
80 m in its                    manipulations;                    another            250 m of cable                    the shielded             area.         Hot items requiring                   remote main-
connect           the trailer                  to the master                     control             station.          tenance        are moved to the service                    building.
Before          beginning            work,            either         MANTIS or an operator                                      The train           system       provides          a very         fast       way to
runs into the work area,                                 unrolling            a black          rubber         mat      change        out a large             number of complicated                       and heavy
upon which a white                         line         is drawn.              MANTIS then auto-                       components.            The just-removed               train       may be stored               for
matically              follows         the white                 line        in and out of the                         future       use or modified.                Since 1975, three                trains        have
area.          This is a clever                        and quick way to deliver                              com-      been scrapped,               requiring          ~500 h of remote-handling
ponents           and pick up tools                       without           the risk           of collid-              operations.            The average           hottest        item is 30-50 R/h at
 inq with            shield         blocks            or accelerator                  apparatus.                It     36 cm and remote-handling                       crews have worked on items
was observed                  that       a white            line        painted           on the floor                 as hot as 200 R/h.                     They prefer            to do as much dis-
was auicklv                eroded away because people                                tended            to fol-         assembly         and reassembly             Remotely,           as time allows,                 to
 low 'it           when walking,-                     and equipment                   configurations                   reduce       dosage,        using      local      shielding           of hot areas to
changed so frequently                             that       no path remained                       the same           permit        some hands-on              work.        Early        trains        that       were
 for any length                  of time.                                                                              hastily        assembled          proved       to be difficult                 to work on
          Upon arriving                     at the work area MANTIS unfolds                                            remotely.           The later          trains       had more attention                    qiven
 itself         and an operator                     can position                the MASCOT manip-                      to remote maintainability,                       which has permitted                  moge to
 ulators          anywhere within                     an 8-m radius,                  including              over      be done at lower dosaqes.                          Jack Lindberg              directs         the
  shielding           walls.                                                                                           remote-handling              effort-at         FERMILAB.
          The 13-yr-old                  Mascot servomanipulators                               have oper-
 ated over 2500 h.                            They use glass-tube                           electronics,                                                           SLAC
 and as only a half-dozen                               arms were manufactured,                            parts
 must be custom constructed.                                       Prototype            work has been                         The SLAC switchyard          was provided         with    long tool-
 completed             at CERN on a new generation                                  of compact ser-                   maintenance      capability.         However,      equipment         reliabil-
  vomanipulators                 using some of the concepts                                   advanced           by   ity has been very good, and the activation                          is more a
 Kentner           Wilson's              hydraulic                 arm.'           A complete                  arm    nuisance     than a problem.           SLAC beam powers of 200 to
 will      weigh 20 kg and can handle 25 kg.                                            It is intended                300 kW are only           half    of those       of a few years                ago
 to build            six of these force-reflecting                                    hydraulic              ser-     because     of changing         experimental        emphasis.            Targets
  vomanipulators                  within             the       next        year.            The remote-               and beam dumps are activated                 to the 15 R/h range on
 handling            community             is watching                this        development                with     contact    after    a day of cooling.           Additional        coolinq        is
  interest           because         the power,                 speed,          and simplicity                  of    allowed    to permit maintenance           work to be done by hand.
 hydraulic              manipulators                  is appreciated;                      however,           the     Dieter    Walz. having        been responsible         for the desion4 of
  risk     of spraying               oil        around a hot cell                      and the tradi-                 the components        that     absorb    power,      is the most know-
 tional        use of electrical                        motor power manipulators                             have     ledgeable      at SLAC about radiation             levels      and how they
  restricted             use within              the reactor               fuel community.                            design to accommodate them.
           Under the direction                          of Roger Horne, the permanent
 remote-handling                   team consists                   of an engineer,                      a tech-                                             Manipulators
 nician,,         and a mechanic.                         Operations              require            two peo-
 ple,       one of which concentrates                                    on the manipulations                                Manipulative             equipment           originated          within           the
 while       the other             observes,              plans,          and helps make deci-                        National       Laboratories           in support         of the needs of fis-
  sions.          After         a half-day               of work, the operator                            leaves      sion reactor         fuel     development.             These original            designs
 because of fatigue,                        the observer                 becomes the operator,                        were developed             into      commercial          products         by private
  and the third                person becomes the new observer.                                                       industry,        and for the past generation                     PaR and CRL have
           The remote-handling                            group         prides           themselves              on   been household              acronyms         within       the      remote-handling
  being able to go anywhere                                and do any job quickly.                               To   community.           Essentially,            every       established            hot-cell
 do this           may require                 a few months preparation                                to do a        Laboratory         in the country           has through          or over-the-wall
  few weeks of work,                          esoecially              if special                tooling          is   master/slave           manipulators             manufactured             by      Central
  required          or access is particularly                                difficult.                 Most of       Research         Laboratories           (now       a division            of      Sargent
  the areas of CERN were built                                     without          regard           for ease         Industries)."               The heavier             manipulations             are han-
  of     remote            maintenance.                     The remote-handling                             group     dled by rate-controlled                    (switch-operated             motors        with
  insists         that        a senior            technician              who really              knows the           no feedback)             Programmed           and Remote              Systems         (now
  nuts and bolts                  be their             only interface                 with the group                  GCA/PaR Svstems)"                 manipulators           that      are mounted   .__- on   _.
  controlling               the area where work is to be done,                                                 and    telescopi;g          tubes       supported          by trolleys             riding         on
 that      he be with them for guidance                                      when they are doing                      bridges       within      the hot cell.               A few other             companies
  the remote work.                        As the necessity                        of remote               opera-      have been involved               intermittently            with     the production
 tions        increases,             more groups                   are asking              for guidance               of manipulators,               but the          market        is     declining           and
   in equipment              design to facilitate                          remote maintenance.                        development           costs       are     so high           that      new-equipment
     introductions            are infrequent                 and usually           are either             7.    J. J. Burgerjon,      E. L. Ekberg,     D. C. Grisham,       R.
    funded by the first                   customer         or are an entrepreneural                             A. Horne,      R. E. Meyer,    C. R. Flatau,      K. B. Wil-
    spin-off        of a device               developed          at a Laboratory.                  An           son, "A Solution      for Remote Handling        in Acceler-
    example       is the creation                 of TOS, TeleOperator                    Systems               ator  Installations,"       IEEE Trans.    Nucl.    Sci. 2,
    Corp.,*'         by Carl             Flatau         whose       first        product        was             No. 3, p. 1580 (June 1977).
    produced        on an order              by LAMPF and is a descendent                          of
    servomanipulators                 he developed             at Brookhaven            National         8.     Kentner      B. Wilson,      "SERVOARM-A Water           Hydraulic
    Laboratory          as a proposed               solution         to the maintenance                         Master-Slave       Manipulator,"     Proc.    23         Conf.     on
    problems        associated            with      increasing           the intensity             of           Remote       Systems    Technology,     American           Nuclear
    the AGS in the midsixties."                                                                                 Society,     p. 233 (1975).
            A very expensive                   and slowly           acquired         legacy        of
   experience          within        the remote-handlinq                  machining        indus-        9.     D. L. Grisham,  E. L. Ekberg,    J. E. Lambert,    R.
   try could well wither                     away from lack of adequate                        mar-             E. Meyer,    P. J.   Stroik,   and M. D. Wickham,
    kets to support             the skilled             teams necessary             to produce                  "MONITOR 1979,"    IEEE Trans.     Nucl. Sci.   3,
   these items.             The sale of one or two servomanipulators                                            No. 3, p. 3376 (June 1979).
   a year         by CRL or TOS is inadequate                                to keep these
   products        alive.                                                                                10.    D. L. Grisham,     E. L. Ekberg,       J. E. Lambert,       R.
            "Why not send a robot                      in to do the work?"                  is an               E. Meyer,    P. J.     Stroik,      and M. 0. Wickham,
   often       asked        question.             There         are 23000           industrial                  "MONITOR Update-1979,"         Proc 27 Conf.     on Remote
   robots       at work in the United                      States        today.        Most are                 Systems   Technology,      American      Nuclear   Society,
  quite       primitive,           with       no capacity           to see or feel                or            p. 268 (1979).
   respond       to their           environment            in any significant                  way.
  Poor mechanical               accuracy         and repeatability,                along with            11.    Eyke     Wagner      and   Albin      Janett,     "MINIMAC-The
   inadequate          control         and cumbersome teaching,                    will     delay               Remote-Controlled        Manipulator      with  Stereo       Tele-
  robot       entry      into the delicate                  and often          unpredictable                    vision    Viewing    at the SIN Accelerator         Facility,"
  realm of accelerator                    remote handling.                 The most likely                      Proc.    26 Conf.       on Remote       Systems    Technology,
  scenario          would       be the adding                  of intelligence               to a               American     Nuclear   Society,     p. 62 (1978).
  specific         operation,             like      Roger Horne has done with
 MANTIS in havinq                 it follow           a white      line.                                 12.    Eyke Wagner, SIN,         CH-5234     Villigen,      Switzerland,
           Approximately               500 people          involved         in all       aspects                011-41-56-99-3574.
 of remote            handlinq          constitute            the membership              of the
 Remote Systems                 Technology             Division          of the American                 13.    William    Cameron,        TRIUMF,  4004          Wesbrook   Mall,
 Nuclear        Society.            The yearly           publication,           "Proceedings                    Vancouver,   B. C.,       Canada V6T 2A3,         (604) 228-4711.
 of the Conference                  on Remote Systems Technology,"                            is a
 compilation            of the complete                papers presented               at their           14.   Clive       Mark,  TRIUMF,     4004 Wesbrook           Mall,    Van-
 conferences            durinq        the year.            The dozen senior               people               couver,      6. C., Canada     V6T 2A3, (604)         228-4711.
  involved            with       -the         -accelerator              remote         handling
 described           in this          paoer       are reaular             oarticipants           in      15.   R. A. Horne         and     M. Ellefsplass,         "Long-Range,
 the activities               of this          Division:           A buyer's          guide      is            High-Speed     Remote       Handling    at the CERN 26-GeV
 published          annually          by the America Nuclear                    Society       that             Proton    Synchrotron,"        Proc.    23 Conf.       on Remote
 lists       suppliers         that cater            to the nuclear             industry.                      Systems    Technology,         America1     Nuclear      Society,
                                                                                                               p. 247 (1975).
                                                                                                         16.   R. A. Horne,       "MANTIS-A     Compact Mobile   Remote-
 1.      Mahlon     T.   Wilson,   "Radioactivity,         Shielding,                                          Handling    System for     Accelerator   Halls  and Tun-
         Radiation      Damage,  and Remote        Handling,"       IEEE                                       nels,"   Proc.    26 Conf.    on Remote Systems     Tech-
         Trans.    Nucl. Sci. 2,   No. 3, p. 1042 (June 1975).                                                 nology,  American    Nuclear    Society, p. 55 (1978).

2.       Mahlon  T. Wilson,    "Remote Maintenance       Concepts                                       17.    J. Lindberg,    J. Grimson,    J. Simon, and D. Theri-
         for The Los Alamos Meson Physics     Facility,"      IEEE                                             ot, "FERMILAB Target     Areas and Target    Train    Sys-
         Trans. Nucl. Sci. fi,    No. 3, p. 588 (June 1969).                                                   tems,"   Proc.   23 Conf.    on Remote Systems     Tech-
                                                                                                               nology,  American Nuclear     Society,  p. 24 (1975).
3.       Mahlon T. Wilson,     L. L. Thorn,   L. 0. Linquist,
         0. L. Grisham,    "The Evolution   of the LAMPF High                                           18.    J. Lindberg,    J. Grimson,    S. Mori, J. Simon, and
         Power Pion Production      Target  Mechanisms,"    IEEE                                               H. Stredde,    "Operating    Experience at FERMILAB,"
         Trans. Nucl. Sci. 4,     No. 3, p. 1574 (June 1977).                                                  Proc.  26 Conf. Remote Systems Technology,      Ameri-
                                                                                                               can Nuclear  Society,     p. 65 (1978).
4.      L. Agnew, T. S. Baldwin,       D. L. Grisham,      R. C.
        Holmberg,     J. E. Lambert, L. 0. Lindquist,      R. D.                                        19.    Sargent     Industries,     Central  Research Laboratories
        Reiswig,   and L. L. Thorn,    "Graphite   Targets    for                                              Division,      Red Wing,    MN 55066, (612) 388-3565.
        Use in High       Intensity  Beams at    LAMPF,"     IEEE
        Trans.   Nucl. Sci. 26, No. 3, p. 4143 (June 1979).                                             20.    GCA/PaR      Systems,   3460         Lexington       Avenue     No.,
                                                                                                               St. Paul,     MN 55112, (612)        484-7261.
5.      Mahlon         T.     Wilson,      "Kiloton       Shield   Doors   at
        LAMPF,"         Proc.     22 Conf.      on Remote Systems Tech-                                 21.    TOS, TeleOperator     Systems Corp.,  45 Knickerbocker
        nology,        American      Nuclear     Society,    p. 43 (1974).                                     Ave, Bohemia,     NY 11716, (516) 567-8787.

6.      R. A. Horne and E. L. Ekberg,                             "MONITOR-A Versa-                     22.    C. R. Flatau,    "General Purpose Servo-Manipulator
        tile    Remote Handling     System,"                     Proc.  23 Conf.    on                         for    Remote Maintenance   of Accelerators,"       IEEE
        Remote     Systems     Technology,                       American    Nuclear                           Trans.   Nucl. Sci. 16, No. 3, p. 594 (June 1969).
        Society,    p. 242 (1975).

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