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					1914-1918:
The World
 at War
  Differing Viewpoints
 “Family Feud”
 “Fall of the Eagles”
 “The War to End All Wars”
 “The War to „Make the
  World Safe for Democracy‟”
Causes
of the
 War
    1. The Alliance System
Triple Entente:     Triple Alliance:
       Two Armed Camps!
Allied Powers:     Central Powers:
 The Major Players: 1914-17
 Allied Powers:                     Central Powers:



Nicholas II
   [Rus]

                                                Wilhelm II [Ger]
              George V [Br]

                         Victor Emmanuel
                              II [It]




                                                    Enver Pasha
                                                     [Turkey]
          Pres. Poincare [Fr]
                                      Franz Josef [A-H]
Europe in 1914
2. Militarism & Arms Race
Total Defense Expenditures for the Great
 Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.]
            in millions of £s.
  1870    1880      1890   1900    1910   1914
   94     130       154    268     289    398


                    1910-1914 Increase in
                     Defense Expenditures
          France             10%
          Britain            13%
          Russia             39%
         Germany             73%
3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries
4. Aggressive Nationalism
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914



                       The
                  “Powder Keg”
                    of Europe
 The

“Spark”
Archduke Franz Ferdinand &
        His Family
The Assassination: Sarajevo
The Assassin:
                Gavrilo
                Princip
Who’s To Blame?
The Schlieffen Plan
Invade western front 1st.
After defeating France
concentrate on the
Eastern front
Avoid fighting a 2 front
war
         The Point of No Return:
The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Austria blamed Serbia for Ferdinand’s death and
declared war on Serbia.


Germany pledged their support for Austria -
Hungary.
· example of Pan-German nationalism


Russia pledged their support for Serbia.
· example of Pan-Slavic nationalism
         The Point of No Return:
The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Germany declares war on Russia.


France pledges their support for Russia.


Germany declares war on France.


Germany invades Belgium on the way to France.


Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on
Germany.
   The inevitability of war
 July 28, 1914 A-H declares war
  on Serbia
 July 29, 1914 Russia orders full
  mobilization of its troops
 August 1,1914 Germany
  declares war on Russia
 August 2, 1914 Germany
  demands Belgium declare
  access to German troops
 Japan entered the war on the
  side of Great Britain and
  France. Japan was motivated
  by a desire to gain German
  possessions in China and the
  Pacific.
“Belgium is a country, not a road”
 King Albert I of Belgium
  denied permission
 August 2, 1914 Germany
  declared war on France
 August 4, 1914 Great
  Britain declared war on
  Germany for violating
  Belgian neutrality
German Atrocities in Belgium
             Mobilization
 Home by Christmas!
 No major war
  in 50 years!
 Nationalism!
It's a long way to Tipperary,
     It's a long way to go;
     It's a long way to Tipperary,
     To the sweetest girl I know!
     Goodbye, Piccadilly,
     Farewell, Leicester Square,
     It's a long, long way to Tipperary,
     But my heart's right there!
Recruitment Posters
A Young Australian Recruit
    Recruits of the
    Central Powers
             A German Soldier
             Says Farewell to
                His Mother




 Austro-
Hungarians
New French Recruits
A German Boy Pretends to Be a
           Soldier
                     Soldiers Mobilized

           14

           12

           10
Millions




            8

            6

            4

            2

            0
                France   Germany   Russia   Britain
Women
and the
  War
 Effort
Financing the War
For Recruitment
Munitions Workers
French Women Factory
       Workers
German Women Factory Workers
Working in the Fields
A Woman Ambulance Driver
Red Cross Nurses
Women in the Army Auxiliary
Russian Women Soldiers
   Spies

 “Mata Hari”
 Real Name:
   Margareetha
   Geertruide
   Zelle
 German Spy!
 Posters:

  Wartime
Propaganda
Australian Poster
American Poster
Financing the War
German Poster




 Think of Your Children!
 What is the purpose of
  propaganda?
The Western
   Front:

  A “War of
   Attrition”
A Multi-Front War
The Western Front
          Trench Warfare

Trenches dug from
English Channel to
Switzerland
6,250 miles
6 to 8 feet deep
Immobilized both
sides for 4 years
       Life in the Trenches
 Elaborate systems
  of defense
   – barbed wire
   – Concrete
     machine gun
     nests
   – Mortar batteries
   – Troops lived in
     holes
     underground
        “Death is everywhere”
 “We all had on us the stench
  of dead bodies.” Death
  numbed the soldier’s minds.
 Shell shock
 Psychological devastation
        “Death is everywhere”
 Mustard gas
  – Carried by the wind
  – Burned out soldier’s lungs
  – Deadly in the trenches
    where it would
    sit at the bottom
Trench Warfare

        “No Man‟s
          Land”
Verdun – February, 1916




   German offensive.
   Each side had 500,000 casualties.
The Somme – July, 1916




 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
 Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
War Is HELL !!
Sacrifices in War
Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
  The
Eastern
 Front
The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915
            The Eastern Front

 Russian army moved into
  Eastern Germany on August
  30, 1914
 The Austrians kicked out of
  Serbia
 Italians attacked Austria in
  1915
 G. came to Austrian aid and
  pushed Russians back 300
  miles into own territory
            The Eastern Front
 Much more mobile
  more than the West
   – But loss of life still very
     high
   – 1915: 2.5 million
     Russians killed,
     captured, or wounded
 Germany and Austria
  Hungary joined by
  Bulgaria in Sept. 1915
   – Attacked and eliminated
     Serbia from war
Turkish Cavalry in Palestine
       T. E. Lawrence
& the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18
  T. E. Lawrence & Prince
Faisal at Versailles, 1918-19
The Tsar with General Brusilov
         The Home Front
 Women took war
  factory jobs
 Received lower wages
  than males
 Food shortages made
  running a household
  difficult
   The
“Colonial”
  Fronts
Sikh British Soldiers in India
        Fighting in Africa



                    Black Soldiers in the
                   German Schutztruppen
                     [German E. Africa]
  British Sikh
Mountain Gunners
     Fighting in Africa




3rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
         The Home Front
 Censorship
  – Not told about high death
    toll
  – Romanticized the
    battlefields
  “soldiers have died a
    beautiful death, in noble
    battle, we shall
    rediscover poetry…epic
    and chivalrous”
              The Home Front
 Censorship
“Newspapers described troops
   as itching to go over the
   top.”

“Government reported to the
  press that life in the
  trenches promoted good
  health and clear air”
          The Home Front
 Impossible to hide
  death
   – Women in
     mourning
   – Badly wounded
     soldiers returned
     home
   – Opposition to the
     war began to
     emerge
Fighting in Salonika, Greece




  French colonial marine infantry from
         Cochin, China - 1916
America
 Joins
  the
 Allies
  The Sinking
of the Lusitania
The Zimmerman Telegram
The Yanks
Are Coming!
Americans in the Trenches
The War of
    the
 Industrial
Revolution:
    New
 Technology
French Renault Tank
British Tank at Ypres
U-Boats
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
  The Airplane




“Squadron Over the Brenta”
Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
The Flying Aces of World War I




     Eddie         Francesco        Eddie “Mick”
Rickenbacher, US   Barraco, It.     Mannoch, Br.




                   Rene Pauk         Manfred von
Willy Coppens de
                   Fonck, Fr.       Richtoffen, Ger.
 Holthust, Belg.
                                  [The “Red Baron”]
   Curtis-Martin
U. S. Aircraft Plant
Looking for the “Red Baron?”
The Zeppelin
             Flame
            Throwers




 Grenade
Launchers
              Poison Gas




Machine Gun
“Art”
 of
World
War I
   “A Street in Arras”
John Singer Sargent, 1918
“Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917
“Those Who Have Lost Their Names”
      Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914
“Gassed and Wounded”
Eric Kennington, 1918
    “Paths of Glory”
C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917
       German Cartoon:
“Fit for active service!”, 1918
     1918 Flu Pandemic:
     Depletes All Armies




  50,000,000 –
100,000,000 died
11 a.m., November 11, 1918




 The Armistice is Signed!
9,000,000 Dead
The Somme American
 Cemetary, France




 116,516 Americans Died
  World War I Casualties

10,000,000
 9,000,000       Russia
 8,000,000       Germany
 7,000,000       Austria-Hungary
 6,000,000       France
 5,000,000
 4,000,000       Great Britain
 3,000,000       Italy
 2,000,000       Turkey
 1,000,000       US
         0
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians




  A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians
 Districts & Vilayets of Western
                                      1914       1922
 Armenia in Turkey
 Erzerum                             215,000     1,500
 Van                                 197,000       500
 Kharbert                            204,000    35,000
 Diarbekir                           124,000     3,000
 Bitlis                              220,000    56,000
 Sivas                               225,000    16,800


 Other Armenian-populated Sites
 in Turkey
 Western Anatolia                    371,800    27,000
 Cilicia and Northern Syria          309,000    70,000
 European Turkey                     194,000   163,000
 Trapizond District                   73,390    15,000
 Total                             2,133,190   387,800

				
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posted:10/28/2011
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