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					IT: The Great Empowerment
          Engine
                  V S Arunachalam
              Carnegie Mellon University
                   Pittsburgh, USA

     UN World Summit on Sustainable Development
             Johannesburg, South Africa
                  August 29, 2002
     What is new about ICT?
• Exploding technology and continual growth

• Information (hence knowledge) as products

• Enticing applications in all areas of human
  empowerment and economic growth

      Breaking space and time barrier
            V S Arunachalam, Carnegie Mellon University
                                         IT Takes Off
                                   Years to reach 50M users:
                                          Radio       = 38
Users (Millions)




                   120                    TV          = 13
                                          Cable        = 10
                   90
                                           Internet      =5
                   60
                              Radio                                               Cable            Internet
                   30                                                 TV

                    0
                          ‘22      ‘30     ‘38     ‘46        ‘54   ‘62    ‘70    ‘78     ‘86   ‘94 ‘02
                         Source: Morgan Stanley.


                                    V S Arunachalam, Carnegie Mellon University
             IT: The New Organism




Source: Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA)
                        V S Arunachalam, Carnegie Mellon University
                         The Southern Stars
                  Internet Users In China                                            Cellular Phone Connections
                                                                               140
          50                                                                            1990
                                                                                        2000
                                                                               120

          40




                                                        per 1,000 population
                                                                               100


          30                                                                    80
Million




                                                                                60
          20
                                                                                40

          10                                                                    20


           0                                                                     0
               1999    2001    2002        2003                                      Zambia    Botswana   Morocco

                              V S Arunachalam, Carnegie Mellon University
            India:
How Rich is My Silicon Valley?
                15

                12
                                                                             Projections for 2008
Billion US $$




                9                           Total                            Total     $ 87 Billion
                                                                             Exports   $ 62 Billion

                6

                                            Exports
                3

                0
                 1995         1997                  1999              2001

                        V S Arunachalam, Carnegie Mellon University
   IT: The Great Democratizer
• Empowerment
   – Right to information, access
     and knowledge
       • Example 1: Nigeria
       • Example 2: India
• Universal Health
   – Diagnosis, directions and
     treatment
• Education
   – Realizing millennium
     declaration
   – Universal literacy
   – Anytime, anywhere and any
     level

                 V S Arunachalam, Carnegie Mellon University
              Educating India
•   200 Million children in school going age
•   160 Million presently enrolled
•   40 Million more to be educated
•   Need at least 1 Million additional teachers
    – Annual expenditure: US $ 0.4 billion
• Computers and connectivity
    – Annual expenditure: US $ 0.2 billion

        Access, number and quality
              V S Arunachalam, Carnegie Mellon University
   The Road Ahead and the
    Machines are Making It
• Breaking away from Gutenberg prison

• Speech, pattern recognition,
  information, knowledge and discovery

• Overcoming language barriers


          V S Arunachalam, Carnegie Mellon University
     Machines are Making It
• Processing speed, storage capacity and
  broad band connectivity

• AI is back, this time to work for all
  countries



           V S Arunachalam, Carnegie Mellon University
   Growth of Wireless/Satellite
          Technology
• Satellites
   – Global reach already
   – New “Low Earth Orbit” (LEO) Satellites coming


• Wireless

   – Leapfrog option for low/medium densities
       • Witness Cell phone growth

   – CMU has a project to prototype inexpensive wireless links for
     schools and villages
       • Can give blanket coverage for 10,000 sq. mile area for ~ 10
         million dollars
                  V S Arunachalam, Carnegie Mellon University
          And, Now the Costs
• Cheap, universal and
  broadband
  connections

• Affordable hardware
  and connectivity




             V S Arunachalam, Carnegie Mellon University
    From Science to Sustainability

                                      Science


                                                                  Technology
Technology Limits




Human Development                                                 Products and
  Prosperity and                                                   Processes
    Challenges
                    V S Arunachalam, Carnegie Mellon University
  An Appeal to World Leaders in
         Johannesburg
• Enable Connections

• Encourage innovations and applications

• Technology is ready and friendly

• Let us not miss the IT revolution

        Avoid The Digital Divide
           V S Arunachalam, Carnegie Mellon University
   A Johannesburg Initiative
• Establish a global network of Enabling
  Technology Centers with a mandate:
  – global dissemination of information and
    knowledge in accessible form
  – appropriation of technologies for
    developing products and processes for
    human empowerment


           V S Arunachalam, Carnegie Mellon University
 A Johannesburg Initiative (cont’d)
• No top-down approach this; not
  planning on trickle-down
• A collaborative network where every
  center contributes
• National centers created with national
  efforts and with UN suggestions and
  advice

          V S Arunachalam, Carnegie Mellon University
   Build the Road
and People Will Come




  V S Arunachalam, Carnegie Mellon University

				
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