DHS Preparedness Fact Sheets by stariya

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									              U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
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Fact Sheets
This appendix contains the following fact sheets:
   National Strategy for Homeland Security
   National Exercise Program (NEP)
   National Preparedness Goal
   National Planning Scenarios
   Capabilities-Based Planning and the Target Capabilities List (TCL)
   Universal Task List (UTL)
   National Response Plan (NRP)
   National Incident Management System (NIMS)
   Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP)
   Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Program
   Nunn-Lugar-Domenici (NLD) Domestic Preparedness Program
   Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) Toolkit
   Lessons Learned Information Sharing (LLIS.gov)
   References




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National Strategy for Homeland Security
What is it?
The National Strategy for Homeland Security establishes a foundation for organizing preparedness
efforts and provides initial guidance for prioritizing the work ahead. It outlines what is needed for a
coordinated and focused effort from our entire society: the Federal Government, State and local
governments, the private sector, and the American people.
How was it developed?
The National Strategy for Homeland Security was developed using three strategic objectives as a basis.
These objectives, in order of priority, are to:
   Prevent terrorist attacks within the United States
   Reduce America’s vulnerability to terrorism
   Minimize the damage and recover from attacks that do occur
What are its applications?
The National Strategy for Homeland Security will help prepare our Nation for the work ahead in several
ways. It provides direction to Federal Departments and agencies that have a role in homeland security. It
suggests steps that State and local governments, private companies and organizations, and individual
Americans can take to improve our security and offers incentives for them to do so. It recommends
certain actions to Congress. In this way, the strategy provides a framework for the contributions that we
all can make to secure our homeland.
Where can I find more information?
A complete version of the National Strategy for Homeland Security can be accessed at
www.whitehouse. gov/homeland/book/.




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National Exercise Program (NEP)
What is it?
The National Exercise Program (NEP) was developed under the direction of the U.S. Department of
Homeland Security (DHS). The NEP serves as the primary DHS vehicle for training national leaders and
department and agency staff members and for promoting collaboration among partners at all levels of
government for assigned homeland security missions.
National-level exercises provide the means to conduct full-scale, full-system tests of collective prepared-
ness, improve interoperability, build strong teams across all levels of government and the private sector,
and develop and strengthen international partnerships. The program also incorporates experiments, test
beds, and concept development initiatives to identify the implications of changes to homeland security
strategies, plans, technologies, policies, and procedures.
The strategic goals of the NEP are:
   To meet the requirements of the National Strategy for Homeland Security, applicable Presidential
    Directives, the Homeland Security Act of 2002, and various legislative requirements
   To provide periodic training and exercises for national leaders, their staffs, and the organizations and
    systems they lead
   To provide the processes and systems for collaboration among homeland security partners at all
    levels of government by training and exercising their leaders and department and agency
    components and staff with assigned homeland security missions
   To achieve and sustain national preparedness by ensuring that proficiency can be measured against
    consensus performance standards and by performance-based assessments can be made across all
    levels of government against a range of hazards and threats that pose the greatest risk to homeland
    security
   To ensure that programs at all levels of government are synchronized and administer the programs
    within the established framework of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) when
    finalized
How was it developed?
Homeland Security Presidential Directive 8 (HSPD-8), National Preparedness, directed Secretary Tom
Ridge to establish an NEP. Secretary Ridge charged the DHS Preparedness Directorate’s Office of
Grants and Training (G&T) with the task of developing a program that identifies and integrates national-
level exercise activities and ensures those activities serve the broadest community of learning.
What are its applications?
In addition to full-scale, integrated, national-level exercises, the NEP provides for tailored exercise
activities that serve as the primary DHS vehicle for training national leaders and staff. The NEP
enhances collaboration among partners at all levels of government for assigned homeland security
missions. National-level exercises provide the means to conduct full-scale, full system tests of collective

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preparedness, interoperability, and collaboration across all levels of government and the private sector.
The program also incorporates elements that identify the implications of changes to homeland security
strategies, plans, technologies, policies, and procedures.
Where can I find more information?
For more information about the NEP and other exercise initiatives, visit www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp/
exercises.htm.




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National Preparedness Goal
What is it?
The National Preparedness Goal establishes measurable targets and priorities to guide the Nation’s
planning and provides a systematic approach for determining how prepared we are, how prepared we
need to be, and how we should prioritize efforts to close the gap.
How was it developed?
On December 17, 2003, the President issued Homeland Security Presidential Directive 8 (HSPD-8),
National Preparedness. The purpose of HSPD-8 is to “establish policies to strengthen the preparedness
of the United States to prevent and respond to threatened or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major
disasters, and other emergencies by requiring a national domestic all-hazards preparedness goal,
establishing mechanisms for improved delivery of Federal preparedness assistance to State and local
governments, and outlining actions to strengthen preparedness capabilities of Federal, State, and local
entities.”
What are its applications?
The goal utilizes a capabilities-based planning approach, which is planning, under uncertainty, to
provide capabilities suitable for a wide range of threats and hazards within an economic framework that
necessitates prioritization and choice. Capabilities-based planning tools and products associated with the
goal are:
   National Planning Scenarios. These planning documents provide parameters for 15 terrorist attacks
    and natural disasters and provide the basis to define prevention, protection, response, and recovery
    tasks, as well as the capabilities required to perform them.
   Universal Task List (UTL). This reference tool provides a comprehensive menu of tasks to be per-
    formed by different disciplines at all levels of government to address major incidents.
   Target Capabilities List (TCL). A list and description of the capabilities needed to perform critical
    homeland security tasks found in the UTL.
Additionally, seven National Priorities were named. These priorities are:
   Implement the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the National Response Plan
    (NRP)
   Expanded regional collaboration
   Implement the Interim National Infrastructure Protection Plan
   Strengthen information sharing and collaboration capabilities
   Strengthen interoperable communications capabilities
   Strengthen chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives (CBRNE)
    detection, response, and decontamination capabilities
   Strengthen medical surge and mass prophylaxis capabilities
Where can I find more information?
For more information, go to www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp/assessments/hspd8.htm.

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National Planning Scenarios
What is it?
The National Planning Scenarios developed by the Homeland Security Council (HSC) were designed to
be the foundation for the development of national preparedness standards from which homeland security
capabilities can be measured. While these scenarios reflect a rigorous analytical effort by Federal, State,
and local homeland security experts, it is recognized that refinement and revision over time may be
necessary to ensure the scenarios remain accurate, represent the evolving all-hazards threat picture, and
embody the capabilities necessary to respond to domestic incidents.
How was it developed?
The HSC, in partnership with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), other Federal
agencies, and State and local homeland security agencies, has developed 15 all-hazards planning
scenarios for use in national, Federal, State, and local homeland security preparedness activities.
What are its applications?
The scenarios have been developed in a way that allows them to be adapted to local conditions
throughout the country. Although certain areas have special concerns (e.g., continuity of government in
Washington, DC; viability of financial markets in New York City; and trade and commerce in other
major cities), every part of the country is vulnerable to one or more major hazard.
Because attacks could be caused by foreign terrorists, domestic radical groups, State-sponsored
adversaries, or disgruntled employees, the perpetrator has been named the Universal Adversary (UA).
The focus of the scenarios is on response capabilities and needs, not threat-based prevention activities.
Since these scenarios were compiled to be the minimum number necessary to test the range of response
capabilities and resources, other hazards were inevitably omitted. Examples of other potentially high-
impact scenarios include nuclear power plant incidents, industrial and transportation accidents, and
frequently occurring natural disasters. These either have well developed and tested response plans and/or
the response would be a subset of the requirements for scenarios contained in this set.
Detailed assumptions for each scenario are provided in the full text of this document but are not
provided in this executive summary.
Where can I find more information?
Executive summaries of the 15 National Planning Scenarios can be found at www.llis.gov.

National Planning Scenario Overviews
Scenario 1 – Nuclear Detonation
In this scenario, terrorist members of the UA group plan to assemble a gun-type nuclear device using
highly enriched uranium (HEU) stolen from a nuclear facility in another country. The nuclear device
components are smuggled into the United States, and the device is assembled near a major metropolitan


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center. Using a delivery van, terrorists plan to transport the device to the business district of a large city
and detonate it.
Scenario 2 – Biological Attack
Anthrax spores delivered by aerosol result in inhalation anthrax, which develops when the bacterial
organism, Bacillus anthracis, is inhaled into the lungs. A progressive infection follows. This scenario
describes a single aerosol anthrax attack delivered by a truck using a concealed improvised spraying
device in a densely populated urban city with a significant commuter workforce. It does not, however,
exclude the possibility of multiple attacks in disparate cities or time-phased attacks (e.g., “reload”). For
Federal planning purposes, it will be assumed that the UA will attack five separate metropolitan areas in
a sequential manner. Three cities will be attacked initially, followed by two additional cities 2 weeks
later.
Scenario 3 – Biological Disease Outbreak: Pandemic Influenza
Influenza pandemics have occurred every 10–60 years, with three occurring in the 20th century (1918,
1957–1958, and 1967–1968). Influenza pandemics occur when there is a notable genetic change (termed
genetic shift) in the circulating strain of influenza. Because of this genetic shift, a large portion of the
human population is entirely vulnerable to infection from the new pandemic strain. This scenario
hypothetically relates what could happen during the next influenza pandemic without an effective
preplanned response.
Scenario 4 – Biological Attack: Plague
Plague is a bacterium that causes high mortality in untreated cases and has epidemic potential. It is best
known as the cause of Justinian’s Plague (in the mid-6th century) and the Black Death (in the mid-14th
century), two pandemics that killed millions. In this scenario, members of the UA release pneumonic
plague in three main areas of a major metropolitan city (e.g., in the bathrooms of the city’s major airport,
at the city’s main sports arena, and at the city’s major train station).
Scenario 5 – Chemical Attack: Blister Agent
Agent YELLOW, which is a mixture of the blister agents sulfur, mustard, and lewisite, is a liquid with a
garlic-like odor. Individuals who breathe this mixture may experience damage to the respiratory system.
Contact with the skin or eyes can result in serious burns. Lewisite can also cause damage to bone
marrow and blood vessels. Exposure to high levels may be fatal. In this scenario, the UA uses a light
aircraft to spray chemical agent YELLOW into a packed college football stadium. The agent directly
contaminates the stadium and the immediate surrounding area and generates a downwind vapor hazard.
The attack causes a large number of casualties that require urgent and long-term medical treatment, but
few immediate fatalities occur.
Scenario 6 – Toxic Industrial Chemicals
In this scenario, terrorists from the UA land in several helicopters at fixed-facility petroleum refineries.
They quickly launch rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) and plant improvised explosive devices (IEDs)
before reboarding and departing, resulting in major fires. At the same time, multiple cargo containers at

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a nearby port explode aboard or near several cargo ships with resulting fires. Two of the ships contain
flammable liquids or solids. The wind is headed in the north-northeast direction, and a large, heavy
plume of smoke is visibly drifting east into heavily populated areas. Releases of cobalt, nickel,
molybdenum, cadmium, mercury, vanadium, platinum, and other metals are in the plumes. One of the
burning ships in the port contains resins and coatings including isocyanates, nitriles, and epoxy resins.


Some IEDs are set up for remote detonation. Casualties occur onsite from the explosive blast and
fragmentation, fire, and vapor/liquid exposure to the toxic industrial chemical (TIC). Downwind
casualties occur because of vapor exposure.
Scenario 7 – Chemical Attack: Nerve Agent
Sarin is a human-made chemical warfare agent classified as a nerve agent. Nerve agents are the most
toxic and rapidly acting of the known chemical warfare agents. They are similar to certain kinds of
pesticides (e.g., insect killers) called organophosphates in terms of how they work and what kind of
harmful effects they cause. However, nerve agents are much more potent than organophosphate
pesticides. Sarin is a clear, colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid in its pure form. However, sarin can
evaporate into a vapor and spread into the environment. Sarin is also known as GB.
In this scenario, the UA releases sarin vapor into the ventilation systems of three large commercial
office buildings in a metropolitan area. The agent kills 95 percent of the people in the buildings and kills
or sickens many of the first responders. In addition, some of the agent exits through rooftop ventilation
stacks, creating a downwind hazard.
Scenario 8 – Chemical Attack: Chlorine Tank Explosion
Chlorine gas is poisonous and can be pressurized and cooled to change it into a liquid form so that it can
be shipped and stored. When released, it quickly turns into a gas, stays close to the ground, and spreads
rapidly. Chlorine gas is yellow-green in color and, although not flammable alone, it can react
explosively or form explosive compounds with other chemicals such as turpentine or ammonia.
In this scenario, the UA infiltrates an industrial facility that stores a large quantity of chlorine gas
(liquefied under pressure). Using a low-order explosive, the UA ruptures a storage tank access hatch,
sending a large quantity of chlorine gas downwind from the site. Secondary devices are set to impact
first responders.
Scenario 9 – Natural Disaster: Major Earthquake
Earthquakes occur when the plates that form under the earth’s surface suddenly shift, causing binding
and pressure; and most earthquakes occur at the boundaries where the plates meet. A fault is a fracture
in the earth’s crust along which two blocks of the crust have slipped with respect to each other. The
magnitude of an earthquake, usually expressed by the Richter Scale, is a measure of the amplitude of the
seismic waves. The intensity, as expressed by the Modified Mercalli (MM) Intensity Scale, is a
subjective measure that describes how strong a shock was felt at a particular location.



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The Richter Scale is logarithmic so that a recording of 7, for example, indicates a disturbance with
ground motion 10 times as large as a recording of 6. A quake of magnitude 2 is the smallest quake
normally felt by people. Earthquakes with a Richter value of 6 or more are commonly considered major;
great earthquakes have magnitudes of 8 or more. The MM Intensity Scale expresses the intensity of an
earthquake’s effects in a given locality in values ranging from I to XII. The most commonly used
adaptation covers the range of intensity from the condition of “I – Not felt except by a very few under
especially favorable conditions” to “XII – Damage total. Lines of sight and level are distorted. Objects
thrown upward into the air.”
In this scenario, a 7.2-magnitude earthquake, with a subsequent 8.0 earthquake occur along a fault zone
in a major metropolitan area of a city. MM Intensity Scale VIII or greater intense ground shaking
extends throughout large sections of the metropolitan area, greatly impacting a six-county region with a
population of approximately 10 million people. Subsurface faulting occurs along 45 miles of the fault
zone, extending along a large portion of highly populated local jurisdictions, creating a large swath of
destruction. Soil liquefaction occurs in some areas, creating quicksand-like conditions.
Scenario 10 – Natural Disaster: Major Hurricane
Hurricanes are intense tropical weather systems consisting of dangerous winds and torrential rains.
Hurricanes often spawn tornadoes and can produce a storm surge of ocean water that can be up to 24
feet at its peak and 50 to 100 miles wide. The most destructive companion of hurricanes is the storm
surge.
A typical hurricane is 400 miles in diameter and has an average forward speed of 15 miles per hour
(mph) in a range of 0–60 mph. The average life span of a hurricane is 9 days, but they can range from
less than 1 day to more than 12 days. Hurricanes’ highest wind speeds are 20–30 miles from the center.
Hurricane force winds cover almost 100 miles, and gale-force winds of 40 mph or more may cover
400 miles in diameter. A fully developed hurricane may tower 10 miles into the atmosphere.
A hurricane is categorized by its sustained wind intensity on a Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale that is
used to estimate the potential for property damage and flooding. “Major” hurricanes are placed in
Categories 3, 4, or 5 with sustained wind intensities between 111 mph to greater than 155 mph. The
most dangerous storm would be a slow-moving Category 5 hurricane that makes landfall in a highly
populated area.
In this scenario, a Category 5 hurricane hits a major metropolitan area. Sustained winds are at 160 mph
with a storm surge over 20 feet above normal. As the storm moves closer to land, massive evacuations
are required. Certain low-lying escape routes are inundated by water up to 5 hours before the eye of the
hurricane reaches land.
Scenario 11 – Radiological Attack: Radiological Dispersal Devices
In this scenario, the UA purchases stolen cesium chloride (CsCl) to make a radiological dispersal device
(RDD) or “dirty bomb.” The explosive and the shielded cesium-137 (137Cs) sources are smuggled into
the country. A detonator cord is stolen from a mining operation, and all other materials are obtained
legally in the United States. The devices are detonated in three separate, but regionally close, moderate-
to-large cities.

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137Cs is mostly used in the form of CsCl because it is easy to precipitate. CsCl is a fine, light powder
with typical particle size median at approximately 300 microns. Fractions below 10 microns are
typically less than 1 percent. In an RDD, most will fall out within approximately 1,000 to 2,000 feet
(although many variables exist), but a small amount may be carried great distances, even hundreds of
miles.
Scenario 12 – Explosives Attack: Bombing Using Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)
In this scenario, agents of the UA use IEDs to detonate bombs at a sports arena.
During an event at a large urban entertainment/sports venue, multiple suicide bombers are strategically
pre-positioned around the arena. They ignite their bombs and self-destruct to guarantee mass panic and a
chaotic evacuation of the arena. They also create a large vehicle bomb (LVB) and, using suicide
bombers in an underground public transportation concourse, detonate the LVB in a parking facility near
the entertainment complex. Finally, an additional series of devices is detonated in the lobby of the
nearest hospital emergency room (ER).
Scenario 13 – Biological Attack: Food Contamination
The United States food industry has significantly increased its physical and personnel security since
2001. A successful attack could only occur following the illegal acquisition of sensitive information
revealing detailed vulnerabilities of a specific production site. However, in this scenario, the UA is able
to acquire these restricted documents through a security lapse. The UA uses these sensitive documents
and a high degree of careful planning to avoid apprehension and conduct a serious attack on the
American people.
Scenario 14 – Biological Attack: Foreign Animal Disease (Foot-and-Mouth Disease)
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute infectious viral disease that causes blisters, fever, and
lameness in cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle and swine. Pregnant animals often abort, and dairy
cattle may dry up. It spreads rapidly among such animals and can be fatal in young animals. The disease
is not considered a human threat.
In this scenario, members of the UA enter the United States to survey large operations in the livestock
industries. The UA targets several locations for a coordinated bioterrorism attack on the agricultural
industry. Approximately 2 months later, UA teams enter the United States and infect farm animals at
specific locations.
Scenario 15 – Cyber Attack
In this scenario, the UA conducts cyber attacks that affect several parts of the Nation’s financial
infrastructure over the course of several weeks. Specifically, credit card processing facilities are hacked,
and numbers are released over the Internet, causing 20 million cards to be cancelled; automated teller
machines (ATMs) fail nearly simultaneously across the Nation; major companies report payroll checks
are not being received by workers; and several large pension and mutual-fund companies have computer
malfunctions so severe they are unable to operate for more than a week.



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Capabilities-Based Planning and the Target Capabilities List (TCL)
What is it?
The National Preparedness Goal utilizes a capabilities-based planning approach to help answer the ques-
tions: “How prepared are we?” “How prepared do we need to be?” and “How do we prioritize efforts to
close the gap?” A central objective of capabilities-based planning is the identification of target levels of
capabilities that Federal, State, tribal, and local entities must achieve to perform critical tasks for
homeland security missions. Capabilities are combinations of resources that provide the means to
achieve a measurable outcome resulting from performance of one or more critical tasks under specified
conditions and performance standards. Version 2.0 of the Target Capabilities List (TCL) identifies 36
target capabilities.
A capability may be delivered with any combination of properly planned, organized, equipped, trained,
and exercised personnel who achieve the intended outcome. The TCL is designed to assist Federal,
State, tribal, and local entities in understanding and defining their respective roles in a major incident,
the capabilities required to perform a specified set of tasks, and where to obtain additional resources if
needed.
How was it developed?
The TCL was developed in close consultation with Federal, State, tribal, and local entities and national
associations. The TCL will continue to be refined and improved as it is put into practice.
What are its applications?
As capability-based tools and processes are implemented, requests for preparedness assistance will
ultimately be expressed as capability needs with clearly defined requirements:
   Why a capability is needed
   How the capability will be used
   What function the capability will perform
   Who will need the capability
   When the capability will be available
   What key performance and other attributes comprise the capability
   How the capability will be supported
   What skills will be required
   How responders are trained
   How much the capability will cost
Just as no single entity would be expected to perform every task, neither would they be expected to have
sufficient levels of every capability needed for a major incident. Requirements that exceed an entity’s
capabilities would be secured through mutual aid or formal requests for assistance from other levels of
government.



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Where can I find more information?
The TCL can be accessed at www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp/assessments/hspd8.htm.

Universal Task List (UTL)
What is it?
The Universal Task List (UTL) is a comprehensive menu of tasks that may be performed in major
events illustrated by the National Planning Scenarios. The UTL describes what tasks need to be
performed. Federal, State, tribal, and local entities reserve the flexibility to determine who needs to
perform them and how to perform them. While no single jurisdiction or agency is expected to be able to
perform all tasks, it is expected that tasks will be chosen based on specific roles, missions, and
functions.
Why was it developed?
The UTL was developed as part of the National Strategy for Homeland Security.
What are its applications?
The UTL should be used by entities at all levels of government as a reference to help them plan,
organize, equip, train, exercise, and evaluate personnel for the critical tasks they may need to perform in
major incidents that could occur across town or across the Nation. Both the UTL and the TCL are
considered living documents that will continue to be refined over time.
Where can I find more information?
A copy of the UTL can be found at www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp/assessments/hspd8.htm.




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National Response Plan (NRP)
What is it?
The National Response Plan (NRP) is an all-discipline, all-hazards plan for the management of domestic
incidents. Using the template established by the National Incident Management System (NIMS), the
NRP provides the structure and mechanisms to coordinate and integrate incident management activities
and emergency support functions across Federal, State, tribal, and local government entities; the private
sector; and nongovernmental organizations.
Why was it developed?
The NRP was developed as an overall response to the changing homeland security landscape and in
direct response to Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 (HSPD-5), Management of Domestic
Incidents, on February 28, 2003, which called for the creation of an NRP to “integrate Federal
Government domestic prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery plans into one all-discipline, all-
hazards plan” under the authority of the secretary of homeland security.
What are its applications?
The purpose of the NRP is to enhance the ability of the United States to prepare for and manage
domestic incidents by establishing a single, comprehensive, national approach. To accomplish this goal,
the NRP integrates all incident management activities across the continuum from preincident awareness,
prevention, and preparedness to incident response and postincident recovery. It establishes a single base
plan to address all hazards and contingencies, covering all disciplines. The NRP also ensures
coordination at the Federal, State, and local levels of government and cooperation with the private and
public sectors to bring the full range of the Nation’s capabilities to bear in protecting the homeland.
Finally, the NRP ensures the Federal Government works effectively and efficiently with State and local
agencies to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents by establishing a
common NIMS to be used at all levels. The NRP establishes protocols to help:
   Save lives and protect the health and safety of the public, responders, and recovery workers
   Ensure security of the homeland
   Prevent an imminent incident, including acts of terrorism, from occurring
   Protect and restore critical infrastructure and key resources
   Conduct law enforcement investigations to resolve the incident, apprehend the perpetrators, and
    collect and preserve evidence for prosecution and/or attribution
   Protect property and mitigate damage and impacts to individuals, communities, and the environment
   Facilitate recovery of individuals, families, businesses, governments, and the environment
Where can I find more information?
For more information about the NRP, visit www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/interapp/editorial/
editorial_0566.xml. A full-text version of the NRP can be accessed at www.dhs.gov/interweb/
assetlibrary/NRP_FullText.pdf.



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National Incident Management System (NIMS)
What is it?
The National Incident Management System (NIMS) establishes standardized incident management pro-
cesses, protocols, and procedures that all Federal, State, tribal, and local responders will use to
coordinate and conduct response actions. With responders using the same standardized procedures, they
will share a common focus and be able to place full emphasis on incident management when a homeland
security incident occurs, whether it is an act of terrorism or natural disaster. In addition, national
preparedness and readiness in responding to and recovering from an incident is enhanced since all of the
Nation’s emergency teams and authorities use a common language and set of procedures.
How was it developed?
NIMS was created and vetted by representatives across America, including:
   The Federal Government
   States
   Tribal officials
   Territories
   Cities, counties, and townships
   First responders
What are its applications?
NIMS incorporates incident management best practices developed and proven by thousands of
responders and authorities across America. These practices, coupled with consistency and national
standardization, will now be carried forward throughout all incident management processes, including
exercises, qualification and certification, communications interoperability, doctrinal changes, training,
publications, public affairs, equipping, evaluating, and incident management. All of these measures
unify the response community as never before. Key features of NIMS include:
   Incident Command System (ICS)
   Communications and information management
   Preparedness
   Joint Information System (JIS)
   NIMS Integration Center (NIC)
Where can I find more information?
For more information about NIMS, visit www.fema.gov/nims/.




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Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP)
What is it?
The Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) is a unique partnership between the
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the U.S. Army based on FEMA’s extensive
experience in preparing for and dealing with all types of emergencies and the U.S. Army’s role as
custodian of the U.S. chemical stockpile. Since 1988, FEMA and the U.S. Army have assisted
communities surrounding the eight chemical stockpile sites to enhance their abilities to respond to a
chemical agent emergency. This success of CSEPP initiatives depends on the productive working
partnerships enjoyed by Federal, State, and local jurisdictions involved in the program.
What are its applications?
CSEPP has provided funding and technical assistance to:
   Improve public warning capabilities
   Build and upgrade state-of-the-art Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs)
   Train emergency managers and first responders
   Hold functional exercises (FEs) that improve readiness
   Increase public knowledge and understanding of protective actions
   Over-pressurize schools to ensure the safety of children
   Study emergency response options to determine the best way to protect communities
   Train doctors and nurses to treat victims of chemical agent exposure
CSEPP communities have been recognized nationally for their abilities to respond to emergencies of all
kinds. In the 15 years since its inception, CSEPP has become a leader in providing community education
and emergency preparedness resources. Many of the lessons learned in CSEPP are used in industry, and
CSEPP enjoys partnerships with other public safety organizations to ensure the knowledge gained
through prudent use of taxpayer dollars has the greatest benefit for the most people.
Where can I find more information?
For more information on CSEEP, go to www.fema.gov/preparedness/csepp.shtm.




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Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Program
What is it?
On December 7, 1979, following the March 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident in
Pennsylvania, President Carter transferred the Federal lead role in offsite radiological emergency
planning and preparedness activities from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to the
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). FEMA established the Radiological Emergency
Preparedness (REP) Program to ensure that the public health and safety of citizens living around
commercial nuclear power plants would be adequately protected in the event of a nuclear power station
accident and inform and educate the public about radiological emergency preparedness.
Why was it developed?
The mission of the REP Program is to:
   Enhance planning, preparedness, and response for all types of peacetime radiological emergencies
    with Federal, State, and local governments and the private sector
   Ensure adequate offsite emergency plans and preparedness are in place and can be implemented by
    State and local governments to protect the health and safety of the public living in the vicinity of
    commercial nuclear power plants through the evaluation of scheduled biennial exercises
Where can I find more information?
For more information about the REP Program, visit www.fema.gov/rrr/rep/.




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Nunn-Lugar-Domenici (NLD) Domestic Preparedness Program
What is it?
In 1997, Congress passed legislation that tasked the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) with assisting
Federal, State, and local officials in deterrence of or response to threats or acts of weapons of mass
destruction (WMD) terrorism.
The program included a nationwide training support plan with an initial focus on 27 cities. Modular
training courses were available to other cities throughout the Nation. Through the Helpline in non-
emergency situations and the Hotline in emergency situations, first responders had access to DoD
chemical/biological (C/B) agent/warfare information and technical expertise to enhance their
preparedness.
Why was it developed?
The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici (NLD) Domestic Preparedness Program, later administered by the
Department of Homeland Security Preparedness Directorate’s Office of Grants and Training (OG&T)
(formerly the Office for Domestic Preparedness [ODP]), was the result of the growing concerns
regarding C/B terrorism.
What are its applications?
The NLD Domestic Preparedness Program called for the following:
   The establishment of a training and exercise program that targeted selected cities
   A national hotline/helpline program designed to receive and process inquiries from the responder
    community
   A program designed to identify systematic deficiencies in response capabilities of the community as
    a whole
Where can I find more information?
More information about the history of the NLD Domestic Preparedness Program can be found at
www.dod.gov/speeches/1997/s19970428-holmes.html.




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Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) Toolkit
What is it?
The Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) Toolkit is a project management
tool and comprehensive tutorial for the design, development, conduct, and evaluation of exercises.
Why was it developed?
Its objectives focus on reducing dependence on direct support; facilitating development and coordination
of multiple, simultaneous exercises; and identifying and closing gaps in preparedness capabilities.
What are its applications?
This online, collaborative program empowers exercise planners with the appropriate templates and
guidance for developing master task lists, timelines, exercise planning teams, and exercise
documentation. Planners may choose a manual or guided approach for more or less interactive
assistance. Throughout the planning cycle, the HSEEP Toolkit will automatically populate design
templates and provide references and example documentation, as well as linkages with additional
products and services to assist in overall exercise program design and implementation.
Where can I find more information?
To see the HSEEP Toolkit, visit http://hseep.dhs.gov.




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Lessons Learned Information Sharing (LLIS.gov)
What is it?
Lessons Learned Information Sharing (LLIS.gov) is a national, online network of lessons learned and
best practices designed to help emergency response providers and homeland security officials prevent,
prepare for, and respond to terrorism. LLIS.gov will improve preparedness nationwide by allowing
response providers to tap into a wealth of validated frontline expertise on effective planning, training,
and operational practices for homeland security. It includes the following features:
   Peer-validated lessons learned and best practices
   A clearinghouse of homeland security information, including After-Action Reports (AARs)
   A dynamic, continually updated system
   A free and secure system accessible only to registered emergency response providers and homeland
    security officials
   A feedback tool through which members can submit their own best practices and lessons learned
   Online forums and direct, secure information sharing between and among responders
   Directories of Federal, State, and local emergency response providers
   Frequently updated listings and calendars of emergency response events and exercises
Why was it developed?
LLIS.gov was developed to facilitate the sharing of information that is crucial to help emergency
response providers and homeland security officials prevent, prepare for, and respond to terrorism.
LLIS.gov was developed by the National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) in
Oklahoma City, in cooperation with its sponsor, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
Preparedness Directorate’s Office of Grants and Training (G&T).
What are its applications?
LLIS.gov offers the following types of original content:
   Lessons Learned. This includes the knowledge and experience, positive or negative, derived from
    actual incidents such as the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing and the September 11, 2001, attacks, as
    well as observations and historical studies of operations, training, and exercises.
   Best Practices. These peer-validated techniques, procedures, good ideas, or solutions work and are
    solidly grounded upon actual experience in operations, training, and exercises.
   Good Stories. Exemplary, but non-peer-validated, these initiatives are implemented by various juris-
    dictions that have shown success in their specific environments and may provide useful information
    to other communities and organizations.




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              HSEEP Training Course
              Participant Manual

Where can I find more information?
For more information contact:
Lessons Learned Information Sharing
1717 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Thirteenth Floor
Washington, DC 20006
(866) 276-7001
www.llis.gov




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