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Technical Note

Technical Advisory Service

DANIDA                          October 2005

Acronyms, ii
About this guiding note, iii

1    INTRODUCTION                                                  1
     1.1     A changed communication environment                   1
     1.2     Why communication                                     2

2    STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK                                           3
     2.1     Communication in Danish Development assistance        3
     2.1.1 A two-tier perspective                                   3
     2.1.2 Approach and planning                                    5
     2.2     Aligning SPS indicators with PRSs and MDGs            7

     3.1     Communication objectives, monitoring and evaluation    9
     3.2     Communication indicators                              10
     3.2.1   What indicators tell                                  10
     3.2.2   Characteristics of indicators                         11
     3.2.3   Type of indicators                                    12
     3.2.4   Process of identifying indicators                     13
     3.2.5   Indicators and gender                                 13
     3.3     Indicators in media development programmes            14
     3.3.1 A Community media programme                             15
     3.3.2 Good Governance - Support to Independent Media          16
     3.4     Indicators in development communication programmes    19
     3.4.1 Environment Management and Communication                20
     3.4.2 Agriculture – Local radio and extension                 21
     3.5     Summary – communication indicators                    22

A:    List of useful references and web addresses
B:    Glossary of communication terms and concepts

AMG        Aid Management Guidelines
CFSC       Communication for Social Change
Danida     Danish International Development Assistance
EEAA       Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency
FWCW       Fourth World Conference on Women
IADB       Inter American Development Bank
ICD        Information and Communication Department
ICT        Information and Communication Technology
MDG        Millennium Development Goals
MFA        Ministry of Foreign Affairs
M&E        Monitoring and Evaluation
PRS        Poverty Reduction Strategy
PRSP       Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
Sida       Swedish International Development Agency
SPS        Sector Programme Support
SSP        Sector Support Programme
WB         The World Bank
About this guiding note

Why this guiding note?
The note should be seen in the context of the current decentralisation process
in Danida, and the increasing focus on and wish to strengthen monitoring of
development programmes as expressed in the Aid Management Guidelines
(AMG). The increased focus on monitoring and need for identification of valid
indicators should also be seen in the context of aligning Danida project and
sector programme support to priorities in the Poverty Reduction Strategies
(PRS), and the wish to measure Danish development assistance in relation to the
progress towards reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Who is it for?
The note is intended to give concrete guidance on the process of identifying
relevant indicators to Embassy staff and others in the preparation,
implementation, and monitoring of the bilateral development assistance.

What is communication for development about?
In this note it applies to a strategic communication process that promotes
social changes through dialogue, knowledge sharing, and participation.
The uses include among others:
      The exchange of information, knowledge, ideas and values among
      individuals and communities
      The promotion of citizens’ participation and community empowerment
      Advocacy with policy-makers and opinion leaders to support specific
      plans, programs, policies and reforms
      The use of the media to reach large audiences and affect public opinion.
In the context of this note, ICT refers to the internet, e-mail, mobile telephones,
and will be used as a tool in the communication process.
For a more comprehensive use of ICT please consult the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs web site on Good Practice and ICT.
The contents of the guiding note
1. Introduction: gives a brief overview of the recent changes in the
communication environment in developing countries and justifies why
communication for development is particularly relevant now.
2. Strategic framework: outlines the strategic framework for communication for
development in Danish development assistance and the alignment with PRSPs
and MDGs.
3. Communication Monitoring and Indicators provides general guidelines for
monitoring and indicators on communication for development, and analyses the
process of identifying indicators in programmes (1) where communication in
itself is a vehicle for social change (media development), and (2) where
communication is an integral part of a sector/development program
(development communication).
Annex A includes a list of useful references and websites, and
Annex B a glossary of communication terms
Foot notes and end notes: The foot notes include explanations and notes to the
text and are marked with small letters (a, b, c..) while the end notes refer to the
literature used in the note, and are marked with figures (1, 2, 3..)
It is emphasized that this note is not a blueprint or a manual on how to design
and establish monitoring systems in general, as each intervention, sector, and
sector programme is unique and requires an individual approach. Neither can it
be taken as a blueprint for outlining communication indicators for Danish
support to communication interventions. This is, what the title indicates – a
guiding noteintroduction

1.1   A changed communication environment
The decade since the publication of Danida’s last communication focused policy
paper, Supporting the promotion of a free press in developing countries (1994) has
witnessed a series of profound and fundamental changes. These changes include
a revolution in media and communication environments in developing countries;
major changes in development policies which has substantially increased the
relevance of communication for development in achieving current development
objectives; and a major set of changes in how practitioners approach
communication in the development context.
Media environments have opened up with widespread liberalization of media
in general and of broadcasting in particular. Radio has undergone a
revolution. Television, particularly satellite television, is becoming an increasingly
pervasive medium, even among poor communities. Print media has
mushroomed. Most people in developing countries now receive information on
issues that affect their lives from multiple sources.
New communication technologies, particularly in the form of the internet
and mobile telephone, have transformed communication patterns. Although
principally the preserve of the middle class, urban oriented consumer, they are
increasingly being used in a development context and are increasingly
complementing the broader media changes to produce much more networked,
horizontally connected societies, in sharp contrast to the vertically connected
societies of a decade ago.
These changes, combined with others, and especially the growth of increasingly
active, organized and networked civil society movements, have fundamentally
shifted the way in which people in developing countries access
information on issues that affect their lives and make their voices heard on
decisions that shape their lives; they have exerted immense influence on how
social norms and individual behaviours change; they have provided fresh ways
for citizens to hold their governments to account and for governments to
provide information that their citizens need.
However, while many of the effects of more open, democratic and crowded
media environments have been positive, many concerns remain. New divisions
between the rural and urban, poor and not-poor, consumers and non
consumers have emerged, not only through the well documented “digital
divide”, but through a much broader information and voice divide. In many
societies, the poorest are sometimes finding themselves increasingly, rather
decreasingly, marginalized from debates on issues that most affect them as these
divides widen.
Development agencies are consequently increasingly preoccupied with
supporting communication efforts and enabling communication environment
that enable poor people have their voices heard in the public arena.

1.2 Why communication
Most current development policy rests on the belief that development works
best when it is rooted in country ownership, when people have a voice in their
own development and when they can hold both governments and others in
power to account.
Communication strategies enable people to know and understand issues that
affect them, and they provide people with the means and spaces to articulate
their own perspectives in public and political debate. Without knowledge of
issues that affect you, and without the capacity to make your voice heard, there
can be no participation or ownership. This is particularly and especially the case
for people living in poverty. Repeated surveys of people living in poverty find
that people consistently treasure one thing more than money – that one thing is
having a voice in their own development.
Communication for development is an essential component of any strategy
designed to guarantee that voice.

The field of communication for development is a broad one encompassing:

   Media support including for example community media, media policy, media
   training and capacity building, media in conflict and other areas;
   Communication strategies designed to empower people most affected and
   change behaviour in the field of health (particularly HIV/AIDS, malaria, TB
   and polio), and many similar strategies around livelihoods, agriculture,
   environment and other areas;
   The exchange of information, knowledge, ideas and values among individuals
   and communities
   Advocacy with policy-makers and opinion leaders
   The use of the media to reach large audiences and affect public opinion.
   Communication strategies to foster mutual understanding and dialogue among
   different groups, particularly relevant to conflict situations.
   Strategies around information and communication technologies.

2.1     Communication in Danish Development assistance
Since mid 90s, the strategic framework for most of the Danish communication
for development initiatives has been the policy-paper: Supporting the
promotion of a free press in developing countries” from 1994.
The policy paper focused on three key areas of support: (1) Promotion of
pluralism in the media world, (2) professionalism of the media sector, and (3)
support for strengthening and establishment of media networks. Thus, the policy
and subsequent initiatives have focused on structure rather than content and
communication processes. This does, however, not mean that these perspectives
have been left out of the discourse and of Danida supported interventions in the
past. Communication for development components have played a part in the
Danish development co-operation since the 80s and there are examples of
strategic use of communication in Danida supported sector programmes in
Malawi, Tanzania, and Egypt.1
2.1.1   A two-tier perspective
In the prevailing strategic framework for Danish Development Assistance,
Partnership 20002, and the priorities of the present government as expressed in A
Wold of Difference (2003-20083) and Security, Growth, and Development (2004-20094),
the support to media has got its own platform as one of the prioritized themes
within Good Governance.

Thus, recent trends indicate that Danida operates within a two-tier perspective:
   (1) Development of free, open, and plural media that provide the
       communication structures for a democratic dialogue between
       participants in a communication process, and
   (2) Development of communication processes that provide the contents
       and way of channelling the dialogue

The two perspectives are interrelated and interdependent, but they have different
functions and at an operational level, they require different competencies (e.g. (1)
journalism and (2) skills in strategic communication).
The model below (Fig. 1) illustrates the interrelationship and interdependency
between communication structures and communication processes. A free press
aiming at transparency and accountability is a prerequisite for a free flow of
communication. Thus, a free press will influence the functions of the various
types of media (state, public service, private, commercial, and community) which
again will have an impact on the various channels of communication.
A communication process aiming at social changes through participation,
knowledge sharing, policy dialogue is dependent on a free flow of
Fig. 1


  COMMUNICATION             CHANNELS                   COMMUNICATION
  STRUCTURE                 State                      PROCESS
                            Pub. Service
  Free press                Private                    Social change
      Transparency          Community
      Accountability                                       Participation
                                                           Knowledge sharing
                                                           Policy dialogue
                            Print and Electronic
                            Folk media

At an operational level communication for development encompassing both
structure and process will appear in two types of interventions:
(a) as an intervention in its own right, i.e. the overall objectives will be directly
linked to the communication intervention, e.g. empowerment/social changes attained
through access to information and a voice. This type of intervention is termed media
    development and will often include support to media in governance and
    establishment of communication structures as vehicles for social change
(b) as an integral part of development/sector programmes to facilitate the
achievement of the overall development objectives, e.g. communication aiming at
increasing the knowledge of how HIV/Aids is transmitted. This type of intervention is
termed development communication and includes support to development of
communication strategies and activities that promote participation, knowledge
sharing, and dialogue among the various participants in a development process.
2.1.2      Approach and planning
In this note, communication for development is perceived as a two-way
planned process that flows in different directions5. It promotes the active
participation of key actors in a development process and maps out the
necessary flow of communication at all levels, e.g. at the vertical level,
between participants at national, regional, and community levels, and at the
horizontal level between peers, e.g. community members, civil society
organization, NGOs, authorities, decision-makers.
                    FIG. 2: FLOW OF COMMUNICATION




This means that the key actors in a communication intervention have to be
prioritised and that strategies of how they can be involved have to be developed.
There are various ways and methods of how best to involve the participants and
ensure that they have access to needed information and to voice their opinions.
They vary from behaviour change models based on diffusion theories (e.g.
disseminate information on specific issues (message-based communication)), to
more elaborate participatory communication models such as communication
for social change (CFSC)1.

1   For a description of the different approaches see Annex B: Glossary of communication terms.

Below some examples of the two methods.
  Message-based communication                    Communication for Social Change
      HIV/Aids is transmitted through                 Dialogue on causes and effects of
      sexual intercourse with an infected             HIV/Aids
                                                      Action and voices emerge from within
      Use of condoms can reduce risks of              communities to assert rights (e.g. to
      being infected with HIV/Aids                    treatment), tackle stigma and catalyse
                                                      social movements on HIV/AIDS.
                                                      Sharing knowledge on how to live
                                                      positively with HIV/Aids

In principle, all communication is a two-way process, and rather than promoting
one method for another, it is suggested that different methods are used in
different contexts in order to deal with specific issues and priorities.

Below planning model shows some of the steps involved in a communication
strategy, and indicate at which step indicators should be identified and when to
monitor the process. The planning model can be used at component as well as
at sector level.


  Objectives       Decide what should be achieved by the communication intervention in short, medium,
                   and long term and identify indicators for the intervention.

  Participants     Select and prioritize the groups of participants/actors, e.g. government officials, media,
                   civil society groups, donors, NGOs, grassroots spokespersons, etc. and understand their
                   interest, advantage and disadvantage.

  Research         Identify the information needs of the participants and their media habits
                   Identify possible barriers

  Messages and     Develop group specific messages and assess the existing channels at national, regional,
  channels         and local level.
                   Identify channels that are relevant in relation to the groups of participants

  Activities       Define activities for knowledge sharing and dissemination of information. Set goals for
                   each activity.
                   Define timings, budget and responsibility
                   Pre-test productions and activities
                   Implement the activities

  Monitoring       Monitor the communication process and adjust the activities accordingly.
  and feed

2.2       Aligning SPS indicators with PRSs and MDGs
In accordance with Danida policy, performance monitoring in Danida supported
Sector Programmes will increasingly be harmonized with national Poverty
Reduction Strategies (PRS) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDG).
In ideal terms, PRS indicators address nationally defined goals, aligned with and
feeding into the globally focused MDG indicators. In practice, however, there is
some lack of synchronization between the two monitoring processes, and
indicators are far from always harmonized6. This complicates the process of
aligning indicators from Danida supported sector programmes with those of the
PRS and MDGs. In practice, and given the anchoring of Danida sector support
in national governments, the first and most practical step will be to focus on
developing linkages from communication indicators in the sector
programmes to the PRSs, although with continuous attention to the need for
harmonization with MDG indicators.
Communication for development is not a sector in itself but a tool to reinforce
the impact of sector support programmes, and ideally, communication should be
an integral part of the overall sector support and of the individual components.
However, in practice, it is rare that communication is integrated as a strategic
tool at the overall sector level, while it is more common to integrate
communication in specific components of a sector programme (e.g. the
HIV/Aids communication component of the Education sector programme in
Mozambique). In this case it would be relevant to link to or use possible national
communication indicators.
To be able to link to or develop national indicators for communication within
specific sectors, it is, of course, a precondition that communication for
development is part of the PRSs. A review of 16 PRSPs has shown that in the
PRSPs, media and communication are often referred to (1) as tools to monitor
poverty and the PRSP process, and (2) as instruments in specific development
interventions2. A few PRSPs (e.g. Vietnam) outline the importance of
information for poverty reduction and devises plans to enhance the information
flows with related indicators such as: 90 % of house holds should be able to see
Vietnamese Television and 95% should be able to hear Voice of Vietnam by

2 According to evaluation of Sida’s work with culture and media 14 out of 16 PRSPs made reference to media and/or
communication/information. The countries include: Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Tanzania, Zambia, Uganda,
Mozambique, Ethiopia, Bolivia, Nicaragua, Honduras, Moldavia, Georgia, Macedonia.

Although communication for development is not directly one of the core issues
of the PRSPs, it is part of the whole concept, which builds on knowledge
sharing, dialogue, participation, and empowerment. In some PRSPs,
communication for development is “indirectly mainstreamed” and part of the
various sectors - often referred to as information dissemination on various
issues, such as market information, information on agricultural methods,
information on human rights and policy issues, information on people’s needs,
The development of communication indicators in Danida supported sector
programmes, and the linking to PRSPs and MDGs should take place
through relevant coordinating initiatives between partner countries, rather than
as a parallel process. Steps to coordinate communication for development
interventions was taken by a group of donors and development agencies in
November 2004 when representatives from this group formulated a statement
called the Bellagio statement on the role of communication in meeting the MDGs and poverty
reduction 3 .

3 Bellagio Statement on the Role of Communication in Meeting the Millennium Development Goals. This statement was
developed by representatives from CFSC, DFID, FAO, FEMNET, FINNIDA, Netherlands Foreign Ministry, IFAD, Sida,
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, UNESCO, NICEF, US Mission to the UN (Rome), USAID, World Bank,
World Bank Institute but has not been subject to formal approval processes and should not necessarily be taken to reflect the
official policy of each of these agencies. CFSC 2004.

3.1 Communication objectives, monitoring and evaluation
As described in section 2.1, communication for development comprise
programmes or interventions per se or interventions integrated into other
development programmes, e.g. into sector programmes4.
Somewhat arbitrarily, communication interventions are referred to as 'strategies',
'components', 'programmes', 'strategic communication' or 'activities' in the
literature. What is more important than the name is that communication for
development is a tool to promote dialogue, to share information and
knowledge, and give people voice. Its likeness to what in other situations is
referred to as participation5 is striking. Communication reinforces people's
The communication for development intervention has its own objectives,
activities and outputs to be monitored and evaluated whether these stand
on their own or they are mainstreamed into the overall sector programme
objectives, activities and outputs.
The purpose of monitoring is to measure progress during the invention to
recognize potential problems and introduce modifications, and the purpose of
evaluation is to determine whether goals have been met. Thus, monitoring will
measure the extent to which the communication programme was delivered
and received, and evaluation will measure what influence communication
activities have had on behaviour and what influence those behaviours
have had on the development problems.
However, it is difficult to isolate the effect of development communication on
the longer term effects of a development programme. Therefore, evaluation of
communication activities is best taken up in conjunction with overall sector
programme evaluations, while communication monitoring should be undertaken
as a regular activity.

4   Examples are given in section 3.2 and 3.3

5 Participation has many different meanings. A common typology is: Passive participation, participation in

information giving, participation by consultation, participation for material incentives, functional participation,
interactive participation, self-mobilization, participation for catalysing change, optimum participation, and
manipulation (Mikkelsen 2005). In this context of communication and sector programme support it is categories
of participation which provide 'voice' and entail 'participation in decision making' which are of particular interest.

In this note we focus on guidance for monitoring of the short-term
communication objectives and the related activities.
Before monitoring is started, the following questions should be clarified: who
wants to know what and why?8 The negotiation over the monitoring
objectives will help to determine how to go about it and which indicators of
progress to use.

3.2      Communication indicators
3.2.1    What indicators tell
Who has seen the wind?
Neither you nor I.
But where the trees bow down their heads,
The wind is passing by
(The Wind, Chiristina Rosetti, 1830-1894)

If we want to know if the wind is blowing, the bowing treetops are a good
For some, however, the fact that treetops are bending may not represent the
most important thing they want to know about the wind. The fisherman may
need to know the direction of the wind. The farmer may want to know how
strong the wind is, because her crops might be ruined. Or perhaps the farmer is
less interested in the wind than in the types of clouds, which may be a better
indicator of coming rain10. Similar considerations about who is interested in
which type of information can be applied to indicators of communication.
If programme management wants to have an internal inventory of the
programme's capacity to generate materials, number of communications
produced, by type, during a reference period, may be a good indicator.
However, to monitor and evaluate the success of strategic communication,
management will want to measure the results or outcomes of communication
activities and track the inputs and processes that contribute to these.
Other participants such as politicians may take a primary interest in whether
programme interventions have an effect for which the indicator, the percentage
of the target audience engaged in recommended practices, is more
relevant. The latter, people's practices is, however, also much more difficult to
measure than counting number of communications and media spots.
Whatever the indicators tell us, they will never tell us why communication makes
a difference. Indicators can tell us that a change we are interested in is
happening. And indicators can be framed in a way that is most relevant to a
particular group, provided the particular group has a voice in deciding which

indicators are relevant to them. But indicators cannot explain why and how that
change occurs. Indicators can tell us that communication plays a role, but not
why, to what effect, nor how communication should be undertaken.
3.2.2      Characteristics of indicators

   An indicator is a quantitative or qualitative factor or variable that provides a simple and reliable basis for
   assessing achievement, change or performance. It is a unit of information measured over time that can help show
   changes in a specific condition. A given goal or objective can have multiple indicators11.

   Objectively verifiable indicators are a group of criteria (not necessarily measurable) used to verify
   the degree of accomplishment (foreseen or actual) of the sectoral purpose, the objective, and the inputs and outputs
   of a project. They can be quantitative, and therefore both verifiable and measurable, or qualitative, and therefore
   only verifiable.

The most important indicators are often not quantifiable. For example the
number of people participating in a social network is relatively unimportant
compared to the quality of relationships and dialogue within that network. In such
instances, qualitative indicators (generally descriptive) provide more
meaningful measures.12 Examples of quantitative and qualitative communication
indicators are given below - for message-based communication and
Communication for Social Change respectively.


        Number of communications produced and disseminated, by type, during a reference period
        Percentage of target audience who correctly comprehend a given message
        Percentage of audience who acquire the skills recommended by the message
        Percentage of target audience who engage in recommended practices

After Cabanero-Verzosa, Cecilia et al.: Strategic Communication for Development Projects, WB 2003

The suggested indicators illustrate the progressing complexity of the indicators.
For indicator number 1 above, administrative records will suffice once the
messages, the communication products and the communication channels are
defined. Most of the other indicators require that a random sample survey is
undertaken of the target population who are expected to be exposed to the
communication activities. Verification by observation of people's practices is
recommendable but may be almost impossible of intimate practices for example.


    Expanded public and private dialogue and debate
    What increase has there been in family discussions, among friends, in community gatherings, in
    debate and dialogue in political processes


    Increased accuracy of the information that people share in the dialogue/debate
    Evidence of this may be gathered on a few topics, one example may be the accuracy of
    information about the ways to spread/avoid HIV/Aids

    Increased leadership role by people disadvantaged by the issues of concern
    Did the affected people manage to become decision makers concerning the priorities and
    activities of the communication intervention?

    Linked people and groups with similar interests who might otherwise not be in contact
    Which new groups are involved, new contacts established? This may help people to see
    opportunities for action which they did not see before – a very important indicator.
After CFSC Network and the John Hopkins University (comminit.com/scfulleval/355.html)
The researchers that developed these indicators point to a number of challenges
developing indicators for social change. The first challenge is time – changes can
take a long time, but programme and policy people need more immediate data
that indicate the contribution being made. This, requires agreement on indicators
which when measured in the short term will indicate a strong likelihood of long
term change in the issue being addressed and are applicable across issues, e.g.
        Increased immunisation levels predict decreased child mortality
        Increased numbers of girls in school is often cited as a predictor of
        economic progress
        In communication, intent to change has been used as predictor of actual
        change. 13

3.2.3    Type of indicators
As demonstrated above, the type of indicators vary in accordance with the
chosen approach to communication interventions. The type of indicators also
vary in relation to the various stages of the monitoring and evaluation
process. Below table shows the type and characteristics of such indicators.


Type of indicator      Characteristic                                Examples

Input indicator        Concern resources devoted to the project /     Funds covering the planned communication
                       programme                                      activities.
                                                                      Qualified staff
Process indicator      Monitors achievement during                    Number of participatory radio programmes aired
                       implementation, to track progress towards       Number of people reached through popular
                       the intended results.                          theatre activities

Output indicator       Identifies short-term results                  Percentage of participants by men and women
                                                                      exposed to needed information/messages
                                                                      Expanded public and private dialogue
Outcome /impact        Relate to the longer-term results (normally    ICT increasingly used for dialogue and debate
indicator              outcome indicators are linked to               Percentage of men and women who know about
                       immediate objectives and impact                voting procedures
                       indicators to the development objectives)

After Mikkelsen, B: Methods for Development Work and Research, Sage 2005

3.2.4    Process of identifying indicators
Already developed and externally-derived indicators as the ones illustrated in
3.2.2 and 3.2.3 may stimulate ideas for selection of communication indicators.
But ideally indicators should be developed through a participatory process to
satisfy the need for locally-owned, meaningful indicators in a given context. The
process through which indicators are developed largely determines their
usefulness to particular groups of participants.
According to CFSC, communication for social change indicators must be developed
through an empowering process of dialogue and negotiation between key participants. Indicator
choice will depend on what participants want to assess in their own context. For
    more open private and public dialogue about HIV/AIDS status,
    a reduction in HIV/AIDS-related stigma indicated by greater inclusion of
    those with the disease, or
    increased uptake of Voluntary Counselling and Testing. 14

Because indicators depend on the actual goals of communication interventions
determined by the diagnosis of the problem, the type of strategy, and approach
selected, it is impossible to produce a general list of indicators.
Tips may help when developing indicators:
   Indicators should be relevant and accurate enough for those concerned to interpret the
   information. They do not need to be perfect.
   Indicators can take different formats depending on the particular context. For example pictures
   and stories, the meanings of which can be checked with communities later on.
   Learn from developments elsewhere, including creative alternatives to short-term indicators For
   example, monitoring significant and sometimes unexpected events associated with long-term
   development goals
   “Less is more”. It is better to identify fewer indicators that are meaningful and useful, than a long
   list that is too challenging and not realistic.

After Measuring change: A user’s guide to participatory monitoring and evaluation of CFSC, 2005

3.2.5    Indicators and gender
Communication for development interventions are extremely gender sensitive.
In most countries men and women have unequal access to information and
freedom of expression, and it is necessary to mainstream gender in all
communication for development interventions. This means that indicators on
communication for development interventions should reflect the need for sex
disaggregated data and note should be taken of the section on Media and
Technologies of Communication in the technical note on Gender Sensitive Indicators for
Monitoring Bilateral Development Assistance15.

The following sections on indicators in media development programmes or
sector related development communication provide general considerations,
constructed illustrations and concrete examples.

3.3 Indicators in media development programmes
As described in section 2, this type of intervention includes support to
communication structures to promote social change processes and facilitate the
vertical and horizontal flow of communication country wise, in specific
geographic areas, or sectors. The overall purpose of support to media
development programmes is to empower people to take action either
individually or collectively through access to information and a voice, and it
includes support to a wide range of media and communication channels such as
mass media, ICT (internet, e-mail, and telephones), community media, and
folk/popular media6.
The design of this kind of support rests on a thorough assessment of existing
communication channels on a national, regional, and local level to explore how
they can be utilised and how the structure can be supported to maximise the
involvement of participants in organized and timely communication.

NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES                             In the case of analysing newspapers
   How many newspapers circulate regularly?          and magazines as vehicles for
   Are they government owned or private?             communication interventions, some
   What are the different kinds (financial,          of the questions that have to be
   political, sport, women’s and their
   readership?                                       answered are indicated to the left.
   What sectors of the population do they
   not reach?                                        Similar questions will be put for other
   What is the knowledge, assumptions and
   skill levels of reporters in reporting on
                                                     relevant media such as Radio, TV,
   poverty related issues?                           Journals, ICT, folk media
   Etc., etc.

After Mozammel, Masud and Barbara Zatlokal: Strategic Communication in PRSP, p. 19-21, WB 2005

Based on such assessments in combination with assessment of the media habits
of the participants, interventions are designed to either support existing
structures or establish new and relevant communication structures that facilitate

6 Note that the Media Sustainability Index (MSI) is a tool to assess the development of independent media

systems over time and across countries, it assesses five objectives for shaping a successful media system, each
with a series of sub-criteria, scored by an annual panel of experts. For a copy of the MSI 2003 visit
www.irex.org/msi/2003MSI03-intro.pdf (After DFID: Monitoring and Evaluating IDC programmes. Guidelines
March 2005).

a two way communication between participants at all levels.
This type of intervention will usually be measured against the initial assessments
and baseline data, e.g. measure the changes that have occurred after
introduction of the intervention. The question, of course, is what kind of
changes you want – this will normally have to be agreed upon in cooperation
with stakeholder representatives. The agreed anticipated changes will then be
formulated as indicators. In media development programmes, the indicators will
typically be related to issues such as:

        The media coverage (e.g. how many and who are reached)
        The style (form/formats) (e.g. does the media provide a platform for
        participation and debate?)
        The contents (e.g. what is channelled through the medium and does it
        appeal to the participants and cover their needs?)
        The effect (e.g. what planned or unplanned actions/activities have occurred
        as a result of the media development programme?).

A relatively simple way of identifying relevant indicators is to formulate a set of
monitoring questions. Subsequently, indicators can be identified and the data
needed to verify the results can be defined.
3.3.1    A Community media programme
Below case on Tambuli Community Media Project states the objectives of a
typical media development programme. In view of the objectives, sample
monitoring questions, indicators and means of verification are suggested below:

 Tambuli Community Media Project, The Philippines, 1990-. UNESCO/DANIDA

 Development objective:
    ⇒ The empowerment of people through communication so that they will strengthen their
        community organisations and seek better opportunities for development

 Immediate objectives:
   ⇒ To provide local access to information
   ⇒ To allow villagers to express themselves
   ⇒ To link together as a community
   ⇒ To strengthen the sense of identity
   ⇒ To transform the audience from mere receivers to participants and managers of
       communication system.

 Brief on the project: To provide the population in remote areas with access to information and a
 voice, a network of 20 community media centres were established in areas with limited access to other
 media. The media centres all comprise a community radio and some of the centres have print facilities
 for publication of newsletters, etc. The centres are 100% community owned.

After www.comminit.com, (Tambuli), 2002

 Tambuli Community Media Project, The Philippines, 1990-. UNESCO/DANIDA

 Sample Monitoring Question       Sample Indicators                 Sample Means of Verification

 Does the radio provide a         Amount of participatory radio       Radio programme schedules
 platform for dialogue?           programmes over a period of 6       Content analysis

 Do various sectors of the        Number of radio programmes          Radio programme schedules
 community have access to the     with sector specific contents       Lists of participants in radio
 radio?                           over a period of 6 months           programmes by profession,
                                                                      sex, and age.
                                  Discussions of sector specific      Content analysis
                                  issues among friends and in         Semi-structured interviews
                                  community gatherings                with men and women from
                                                                      the various sectors
 Is the radio strengthening the   The radio used to promote           Radio programme schedules
 community organisation?          networks and partnerships           Content analysis
                                                                      Semi-structured interviews
                                                                      with community members
 Is the radio supporting the      Increasing number of men and         Content analysis
 empowerment of community         women informed and aware of          Focus group discussions
 members?                         their rights and obligations in      and interviews with
                                  relation to decision-making          community members
                                  processes.                           Statistics on voters in local
                                  Increasing number of
                                  community members participate
                                  in local elections.

3.3.2   Good Governance - Support to Independent Media
'Good Governance' can serve as an example of a cross-cutting theme which has
acquired a semi-sector status in Danish development assistance.16 Good
Governance Programmes - often in combination with promotion of Human
Rights17, concern awareness and good practice of citizens at all levels whether
they are duty bearers or rights holders, and the latter’s ability to hold duty
bearers accountable. Awareness raising, advocacy training, and transparency are
part and parcel of good governance programmes, hence the need for
communication, vertically as well as horizontally.
To facilitate awareness raising many Good Governance Programmes include a
communication component. The objectives may be two-fold, i.e. supporting
media structures as well as communication processes (see figure 1). The
Zambia case below focuses on hard-ware and radio transmission while the
objective in the Nepal case is training media practitioners and improved access
for underprivileged groups in the districts to relevant media throughout Nepal,
with different indicator implications. The indicators in both examples refer to
output indicators, while the matrixes use different categories.
For the Zambia programme, the development objective is: to promote a democratic
governance system in Zambia through strengthening the links between the National Assembly
and the general public.

Good Governance - Parliament and Public Information Radio System; Zambia
Immediate objective             Expected Output                  Verifiable Output          Means of Verification

Provide equipment for           Equipment purchased,             Increased range of radio
FM broadcast network of         installed and functioning        transmission of National
maximum coverage for                                             Assembly                   Installation technical
live radio transmission of      The range of live radio                                     report
National Assembly               transmission of National         List of equipment
sessions                        Assembly sessions                purchased and installed
                                                                 Number of link-points      Project report
                                                                 equipped and operational

    After: MFA: Parliament and Public Information Radio System, File No: 104.Zam.18/122, Sept 2003

The output indicators are easily quantified and relate to the tangible objectives.
When objectives for communication activities are less tangible and imply quality
assessments, the identification of indicators is more complex. Forthwith are
illustrations from the communication component: Support to Independent
Media, of the Human Rights and Good Governance Programme in Nepal7.
For the Nepal programme the development objective is:
A free, independent, pluralistic, sustainable, accountable and competent media environment in
Nepal enabling the public's access to fair and relevant information by all sectors of society.

7   It is assumed that the media can play a positive conflict-resolving role in the battle for democracy. ibid: 27

Good Governance - Independent Media Component, Nepal
Immediate Objective          Condensed                Verifiable Output Indicators                     Means of
                             Objectives                                                                Verification

1. Training of media         I. Training of                  A core group of competent trainers        Mix of derived
   practitioners             media practitioners             have been established                     indicators, e.g:
   qualitatively             in mastering the                Quality of evaluation reports of
   improved                  core skills of                  supported training                        course
                             journalism                      Quality of training curricula             evaluations,
                             qualitatively            -----------------------------------------        trainee's self-
                             improved                                                                  perception,
2. Media practitioners                                   Number of people from vulnerable
   sensitised in                                         groups who receive scholarships               editor's
   reporting on conflict                                 and are working as journalists 6 to           evaluation,
   and post-conflict         ---------------------       12 months after
   situations, and other                                 Number of community media                     work related
   human rights and                                      outlets supported in the districts            analysis,
   good governance                                       Number of journalists sensitised
   areas                     II. Improved access         through training and fellowship               case-studies
                             for underprivileged         schemes on Dalit, gender and
                             groups in the               ethnic minority issues                        -----------------------
                             districts to relevant       Number of programmes and
3. Improved access for       information and             articles targeting gender, Dalit and          progress reports
   underprivileged           media outlets               ethnic minority issues                        from partners
   groups in the districts   throughout Nepal          ……………………………………….
   to relevant media
   throughout Nepal                                          Number of media practitioners,
                                                             including women8 and Dalits,              monitoring by
                                                             trained in the new improved               Human Rights
                                                             curricula                                 and Good
                                                                                                       Advisory Group

After: MFA/Danida 2003:27-33

Note that the last indicator has been added since it is judged by the programme
that it is too costly and complex an exercise to monitor media outlets regularly as
the above indicators imply. Mainstreaming of Dalit, gender and ethnic minority
issues in the media curricula and programmes and articles, and increasing
awareness among the media practitioners on the social barriers in the society, are
seen as one of the major outcomes of the component, and hence increased
awareness should be reflected in news articles and programmes. Monitoring
these outcomes is anticipated to require external expertise and is not further
described here. The proposed output monitoring is less complex.
The Nepal media component is an illustrative example that monitoring often has

8 Note that the objectives for action on Women and Media in the Beijing declaration are: (1) Increase the participation and

access of women to expression and decision-making in and through the media and new technologies of communication, (2)
Promote a balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women in the media.

to use less optimal proxy indicators due to cost and complexity of identifying
and using ideal indicators. The two Good Governance related communication
programmes also illustrate a wide difference in the level of ambition as reflected
in the development objectives. They also suggest that there could be a variety of
other possible linkages between the longer term development objectives and the
immediate objectives and between the immediate objectives and related
activities, indicators and outputs. A given goal or objective can have multiple

3.4 Indicators in development communication programmes
Development communication is a tool to help the process to better attain the
overall objectives of e.g. sector programmes. Strategic communication can be
used in policy development as well as in institutional strengthening and in
implementation of sector programmes. It involves several approaches, including
community mobilisation, social marketing, the use of mass media and
institutional and interpersonal communication.18
Development communication in sector programmes9 is primarily a means
though the contribution that communication can make to participatory
development may also be an end. In this regard integration of development
communication has a lot in common across sector programmes - the process is
more or less the same whether it is developed within the health sector or any
other sector. Thus, the selected examples serve the purpose of illustrating
various aspects of working with indicators in development communication.
Independent of the subject matter of a particular sector, the following points on
indicators are relevant across sectors. I.e. communication indicators need to be:

    ⇒ Established during initial program planning
    ⇒ Tied in with general objectives
    ⇒ Linked or derived from communication goals
    ⇒ Easy to measure
    ⇒ Monitored throughout the project/programme19

Sometimes sector or subject matter specific communication indicators are
required, desirable and can be constructed. The examples below are illustrations

9 Sector specific indicators should always be tallied with PRSP indicators applied in a specific national/regional
context if they exist, and communication indicators adjusted to these. Since the PRSPs are in different stages and
quality and advancement relevant PRSP indicators cannot be taken for granted. Neither are relevant MDG
indicators available for all sectors. It is important to recognize the different status of the MDG indicators, which
are long-term, general indicators, and the PRSP indicators which are short(er) term and country/ context specific.
(MFA/COWI 2004).

from concrete programmes, where little is recorded about how the indicators
were identified. It is evident that the monitoring indicators could have been
identified in a participatory process, but are more likely to have been identified
by programme planners.
3.4.1   Environment Management and Communication
In principle the objectives of the communication interventions should link up to
the development programme objectives. This relationship may be rather indirect
as the case of Bay Island Environment management, Honduras illustrates20 (see
box below).
The communication strategy goals and sample indicators of activities,
process and outputs are summarised in the matrix below and means of
verification are suggested.
The programme objectives are to: establish and strengthen the management of protected
areas, water and sewage systems, property registry, local government structures and capabilities;
and promote incentives to involve the private sector in the sustainable management of tourism in
the Bay Island.


Communication            Sample Activity        Sample Process           Sample Output           Means of
Strategy objectives      Indicators             Indicators               Indicators              Verification

1. bring together the    - variety of           - x community meetings   - % villagers           - testimonies from
   Project and           interpersonal and      to disseminate           (fe/male) participate   Project staff
   participating         media activities                                in x meetings
   communities                                  Project information                              - testimonies from
                         - information on       conducted                                        representative
                         community                                                               stakeholder groups
                         priorities, customs                             -number of teachers
2 increase community     and perceptions                                 attend workshops
  perception about                              - xx popular theatre     and provide
  the risks associated                          performances             environment             - local
  with environmental                                                     training to             organisations
  mismanagement          - popular theatre      - y agents undertaken    community
  ….                     and home visits        home visits
  and about the
  benefits for the                                                                               - Project
  communities in                                                         -                       documentation
  terms of               - mass media           - teachers' role as
  improvement of the     productions -          educational agents       five minute videos
  quality of life        audiovisual and        strengthened             about water, waste
                         inter-personal; less                            and risks distributed   - media
                         print media                                     through media,
                                                                         workshops and
3 implement changes                                                      schools
  in environmental

After: Managing Development Communication in Bank Projects, IADB 1999:48-50

It is evident that the communication strategy outline rests on a number of
assumptions and risks. These are for example:

         diversity of ethnic, linguistic and cultural groups
         variety of participants with different/conflicting interests
         overcoming mutual distrust and strengthening participatory mechanisms
         overcoming misinformation and false expectations of possible benefits
         optimal timing of communication relative to works
         budget constraints

Other environmental programmes operate with a related communication
component10 but in principle the same requirements for correspondence
between communication goals and indicators as illustrated are valid for
meaningful monitoring of progress and achievements to take place.
3.4.2      Agriculture – Local radio and extension
The agricultural sector was one of the first sectors to realize the needs and
benefits of strategic communication and have been in the forefront of
developing methods and approaches that include communication as a
participatory tool in all stages of agricultural programmes, i.e. planning,
implementation, training/extension, and evaluation. This is hardly surprising as
the sector also was one of the first that demonstrated the need for participatory
approached to achieve results in agricultural extension work.
Local radio and extension in Danish Agricultural SPS
Support to agricultural extension has been one of the major elements in Danish
development assistance for more than 40 years. The approach has varied over
the years. In some countries, the use of modern mass media has been an activity
supplementing the traditional agricultural extension, but the mass media has not
yet been used in a systematic or professional way in Danish supported projects
or programmes21
Realising the shortcomings of traditional extension systems, Danida decided in
2004 to start pilot activities on Use of Local Radio in Agricultural Extension in
Kenya, Mozambique, and Uganda, and proposals were prepared for each of the
three countries. The proposals are aligned with the Danida Agricultural SPSs and
national policies and strategies.
Below case is based on the proposal for use of local radio in agricultural
extension in Kenya. The case is an example of generalised indicators of a specific
communication activity/medium, developed by planners and valid in several

10   e.g. Danida & EEAA: Communication for Environmental Management, Egypt, 2002 -

agricultural sector programmes.


Immediate objective                    Outputs                       Indicators

To enable small-holders                One weekly one-                 Timely availability of inputs according to agreements
and commercial farmers in              hour agricultural               between ASPS and the broadcasters
the pilot activity areas to            magazine                        Actual number of programmes broadcast
increase productivity and              programme                       Actual format of programmes broadcast
marketing of agricultural              produced and                    Involvement of extension workers in radio
produce through enhanced               broadcast by each of            programmes
knowledge of production                the two radio                   Number of letters and phone calls to the radio
methods and market                     stations11                      stations about agricultural issues
conditions                                                             Farmers’ knowledge about issues addressed in the
                                                                       radio programmes
                                                                       Number of listeners to the agriculture programmes.
MFA: Proposal use of Local Radio for Agricultural Extension, Kenya, Dec. 2004. File no: 104.Dan.4-52-5

In the project document, the stated means of verification of the indicators are:
in-depth studies (audience research) of listeners’ reactions, learning, and
behavioural change and Special Audience Research Reports will explore the
outcome of the radio broadcast approach to agricultural extension, and will feed
into the final evaluation of the entire pilot activity.
A brief analysis of this case shows that the stated indicators provide examples
of mainly “quantitative” indicators – only one of the indicators is “qualitative”
i.e. Farmers’ knowledge about issues addressed in the radio programmes. This indicator will
probably be the most important indicator in terms of measuring the changes.
Indicators such as: expanded public and private dialogue on issues addressed in the radio
programmes or increased accuracy of the information that people share in the dialogue would
facilitate the measuring of the change in knowledge.
In view of the fact that many of the farmers in the project areas are women and
that communication is gender sensitive, it would have been desirable if the
indicators were sex disaggregated, e.g. by adding by men and women to the relevant

3.5 Summary – communication indicators
The selected examples described in section 3.3 and 3.4., demonstrate the
identification and use of communication indicators in different types of
communication for development interventions, i.e.:

11 The programmes will not restrict themselves to disseminating agricultural extension messages but will address rural life issues in a broader
sense: farming is not just an occupation – it is a way of life, the livelihood – and thus the productivity of the agriculture sector

  1. Media development including media in governance (Tambuli, the
     Philippines, Independent media in Nepal, Parliament Public Information
     systems in Zambia), and
  2. Development communication (Environmental Management, Honduras
     and Radio for Agricultural extension in Kenya, Tanzania, and
The sectors and countries chosen for these examples are less important
compared to the approach and type of communication interventions. Similar
approaches and communication interventions could have been applied in other
sectors and/or countries.
When analysing the above examples, the general findings can be summarized as

  Communication indicators should be established during programme
  planning, preferably in a participatory process.

  Type of indicators and their characteristics are dependent on the chosen
  communication approach and the stage of the monitoring and evaluation

  Communication indicators relate to the objectives, inputs and outputs of the
  communication intervention.

  Correspondence between communication goals and indicators are important
  for meaningful monitoring of progress and achievements to take place.

  Communication objectives may link to overall development objectives in
  sector programmes, which again may link to the PRSPs and the MDGs if
  these are synchronised. In such cases indicators should be harmonized.

  Change processes are long term but more immediate data are often needed
  to indicate the contribution being made. This, requires agreement on
  communication indicators which when measured in the short term will
  indicate a strong likelihood of long term changes. Thus, in communication,
  the intent to change has been used as predictor of actual change.
  Communication interventions are gender sensitive and indicators should be
  sex disaggregated when relevant and possible.

Useful References and Websites                                                 ANNEX A

This annotated bibliography includes references to literature and websites on
communication for development.

In the selection of references, we have aimed at including fairly new references that will
be useful in the daily work of development practitioners.

Many of the print publications are available on the internet as pdf-files and when possible
the references include the relevant web-addresses.

The list includes three sections: (1) strategic communication, (2) Monitoring and
Indicators, and (3) Websites.

Strategic Communication in PRSP                                      A useful and practical
                                                                     guide on how to apply
Mozammel, Masud & Zatiokal Barbara,                                  strategic communication
World Bank, 2002.                                                    in the PRSP process with
                                                                     examples from Niger,
                                                                     Vietnam, and Uganda.
                                                                     The participatory
                                                                     approach of this model
                                                                     can also be used in
                                                                     sector programmes and
                                                                     other social change

Strategic Communication for Development Projects – A                 Reviews the basic
toolkit for task team leaders.                                       principles of
                                                                     communication for
Cabañero-Verzosa, Cecillia. World Bank, 2003                         behaviour change
                                                                     (message based and
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTDEVCOMMENG/                    campaign-type
Resources/toolkitwebjan2004.pdf                                      communication),
                                                                     presenting a step-by-step
                                                                     guide to planning and
                                                                     communication activities.
                                                                     The toolkit contains a set
                                                                     of practical modules,
                                                                     including a Guide to

Communications and Development                                       A practical guide to
                                                                     communications in
Burke, Adam: DFID, Social development division. 1999                 development
                                                                     programmes. It stresses
http://www.dfid.gov.uk/Pubs/files/c-d.pdf                            the information needs
                                                                     and rights of the poor
                                                                     and marginalised people.
                                                                     In doing so it should help
                                                                     to define an emphasis on
                                                                     rights and on
                                                                     strengthening civil

Useful References and Websites                                                                  ANNEX A

                                                                                      society, encouraging new
                                                                                      programme ideas as well
                                                                                      as helping improve
                                                                                      existing initiatives.

Involving the Community – A guide to Participatory                                    Environmental and
Development Communication                                                             natural resource
                                                                                      management is used as
Besette, Guy. International Development Research Centre, 2004                         the context in which to
                                                                                      illustrate participatory
http://web.idrc.ca/openebooks/066-7/                                                  development
                                                                                      communication. 10 steps
                                                                                      of how to plan a
                                                                                      communication strategy
                                                                                      is described, and
                                                                                      particularly note should
                                                                                      be given to Step 9:
                                                                                      Monitoring and
                                                                                      evaluation the
                                                                                      strategy and
                                                                                      documenting the
                                                                                      development or research

Managing Development Communication in Bank Projects –                                 Handbook aimed to: (1)
A Handbook for Project Officers.                                                      introduce project officers
                                                                                      to strategic
Inter-American Development Bank Office of External Relations. 2004. Design and case   communication, (2) help
stories developed by Dr. Silvio Waisbord and Dr. William Smith.                       project officers to
                                                                                      effectively incorporate
http://enet.iadb.org/idbdocswebservices/idbdocsInternet/                              communication in
                                                                                      programs in projects, (3)
                                                                                      provide the basic tools
                                                                                      that any project officer
                                                                                      needs to determine what
                                                                                      kind of communication
                                                                                      support is required by a
                                                                                      specific project.
                                                                                      Describes five
                                                                                      approaches: advocacy,
                                                                                      community participation,
                                                                                      communication, media
                                                                                      persuasion, and social
                                                                                      marketing. It focuses on
                                                                                      the fundamental steps to
                                                                                      plan communication
                                                                                      programs and includes a
                                                                                      section on how to
                                                                                      monitor and evaluate

Family Tree of Theories, Methodologies and Strategies in                              Presents a chronological
Development Communication: convergences and                                           evolution and
differences                                                                           comparison of

Useful References and Websites                                                               ANNEX A

differences                                                                        approaches and findings.
                                                                                   The goal of this report is
Silvio Waiboard: The Rockefeller Foundation, 2001.                                 to clarify the
                                                                                   understandings and the
http://www.communicationforsocialchange.org/publications-resources.php?id=105      uses of the most
                                                                                   influential theories,
                                                                                   strategies and
                                                                                   techniques and explain
                                                                                   the nature and causes of
                                                                                   a given problem and
                                                                                   provide guidelines for
                                                                                   practical interventions.

                                                                                   Highly recommended as
                                                                                   a general overview of the
                                                                                   various approaches to
                                                                                   communication for

Communication that works                                                           A short and clear article
                                                                                   setting out the
Chetley (Health Exchange: London, 2002)                                            differences between
                                                                                   behaviour change and
www.ecdpm.org/Web_ECDPM/Web/Content/                                               social change
                                                                                   approaches to

Communication for Social Change: A Position Paper and                              This paper argues that
Conference Report.                                                                 communication for social
                                                                                   change is a distinct way
The Rockefeller Foundation, 1999
                                                                                   of doing communication -
                                                                                   and one of the few
http://www.communicationforsocialchange.org/publications-resources.php?id=108      approaches that can be
                                                                                   sustained because
                                                                                   ownership of both the
                                                                                   message and the
                                                                                   medium - the content
                                                                                   and the process - resides
                                                                                   with the individuals or
                                                                                   communities affected.

Which future role for communication in Danish                                      In this paper, the author
development aid?                                                                   tries to respond to a
                                                                                   question that puzzled her
Kirsten Lund Larsen: School of Arts and Communication, Malmö University, Sweden,   when Partnership 2000
2002.                                                                              was first published: How
                                                                                   was it possible that a
                                                                                   document outlining the
                                                                                   strategic directions for
                                                                                   Danish development
                                                                                   assistance in the new
                                                                                   Millennium did not
                                                                                   contain a single
                                                                                   reference to
                                                                                   communication? The
                                                                                   strategy emphasised
                                                                                   poverty alleviation,
                                                                                   empowerment and
                                                                                   participation, and yet it

Useful References and Websites                                                                      ANNEX A

                                                                                         made no mention of the
                                                                                         necessary ingredient to
                                                                                         make all this happen –

Research and Learning Group (R&L) – Connecting with                                      The R&L is an
audiences throughout the developing world.                                               international group of
                                                                                         research professionals
BBC World Service Trust.                                                                 within the BBC World
www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/trust.                                                        Service Trust with
                                                                                         expertise in media,
                                                                                         communications and
                                                                                         audience insight. The
                                                                                         group has specialised in
                                                                                         audience research
                                                                                         methods and provide
                                                                                         services within this field.

Monitoring and Evaluating Information and Communication for                                        The guidelines
Development (ICD) Programmes. Guidelines, March 2005                                               are for
DFID, 2005. Draft. Will be published on:                                                           practitioners
                                                                                                   that need
http://www.dfid.gov.uk/aboutdfid/organisation/icd.asp                                              advice on
                                                                                                   monitoring and
                                                                                                   evaluating ICD.
                                                                                                   It introduces a
                                                                                                   range of
                                                                                                   approaches to
                                                                                                   choose from at
                                                                                                   various stages
                                                                                                   in programmes.
                                                                                                   When possible,
                                                                                                   it refers to
                                                                                                   further sources
                                                                                                   of information.
                                                                                                   The guidelines
                                                                                                   can be used as
                                                                                                   reference tools
                                                                                                   or help
                                                                                                   work with

Measuring Change: A User’s Guide to Participatory Monitoring and                                   This guide is
Evaluation of Communication for Social Change.                                                     for all those
                                                                                                   involved in the
Will Parks for Communication for Social Change Consortium, Draft 2005. Will be published on:       process of
http://www.communicationforsocialchange.org                                                        for social
                                                                                                   change as
                                                                                                   facilitators and
                                                                                                   members of the
                                                                                                   community. It
                                                                                                   outlines how to
                                                                                                   establish a
Useful References and Websites                                                          ANNEX A

                                                                                        Monitoring and
                                                                                        process in
                                                                                        which dialogue
                                                                                        is central. It
                                                                                        and use of
                                                                                        indicators and
                                                                                        tools to assess
                                                                                        the impact of
                                                                                        for Social

Who Measures Change? An Annotated Bibliography                                          Useful
Communication for Social Change Consortium, May 2005.                                   report, books,
                                                                                        and articles on
                                                                                        for Social
                                                                                        Change, and
                                                                                        Monitoring and

Exploring the development of indicators derived from a social                           This brief paper
change and social movement process.                                                     focuses on the
                                                                                        process of
The Rockefeller Foundation’s Communication and Social Change Network and John Hopkins   preparing
University for the Communication Initiative Forum, 2001.                                indicators for
                                                                                        social change
http://www.comminit.com/scfulleval/sld-355.html                                         processes
                                                                                        questions such
                                                                                        as why
                                                                                        measure and
                                                                                        what to
                                                                                        measure. It
                                                                                        outlines the
                                                                                        related to
                                                                                        identification of
                                                                                        indicators. It
                                                                                        identifies 6
                                                                                        indicators and
                                                                                        poses key
                                                                                        questions to

Virtual Change – Criteria and Indicators for assessing the impact of ICT                Identification of
on development trends.                                                                  18 core

Useful References and Websites                                                         ANNEX A

on development trends.                                                                 indicators for
Warren Feek – a paper for the SDRE and SDRR Divisions at the FAO, In progress, 2005.   interventions
                                                                                       based on
                                                                                       for social
                                                                                       approach, i.e.
                                                                                       positive change
                                                                                       (such as
                                                                                       poverty, better
                                                                                       health, and
                                                                                       more equitable
                                                                                       and its
                                                                                       contribution to
                                                                                       the overall mix
                                                                                       of development
                                                                                       action: (a)
                                                                                       Dialogue, (b)
                                                                                       Voice, (c)
                                                                                       making, (d)
                                                                                       Platform, (e)
                                                                                       Symbols, (f)

Results based management (RBM) in UNDP: Selecting Indicators                           This practical
                                                                                       guiding note on
http://www.undp.org/eo/documents/methodology/rbm/Indicators-Paperl.doc                 indicators is
                                                                                       part of a series
                                                                                       of UNDP notes
                                                                                       on Results
                                                                                       Management. It
                                                                                       illustrates the
                                                                                       various types of
                                                                                       indicators, how
                                                                                       to select them.
                                                                                       The point of
                                                                                       departure is
                                                                                       that indicators
                                                                                       are signposts
                                                                                       of change and
                                                                                       indicators are
                                                                                       only intended
                                                                                       to indicate, and
                                                                                       not to provide
                                                                                       “proof” or
                                                                                       about change.

Assessing community change: development of a ‘bare foot’ impact                        Describes an
assessment methodology                                                                 impact
Jallov, Birgitte: Radio Journal Vol. 3, 1. (forthcoming). Radio journal link:          methodology

Useful References and Websites                                      ANNEX A

http://www.intellectbooks.co.uk/ppjournals.php?issn=14764504        that has been
                                                                    tested, revised,
                                                                    with eight
                                                                    owned stations
                                                                    in Mozambique
                                                                    between 2000-

Useful References and Websites                                             ANNEX A

www.comminit.com                             All communication issues

                                             A comprehensive website including all aspects related
                                             to communication for development or as expressed in
                                             the mission a space to share, debate and innovate for
                                             more effective development communication practice.
                                             The Goals are among others to: debate development
                                             issues and programmes; and improve strategic
                                             communication analysis and action, and to promote
                                             the importance of communication for development.

www.communicationforsocialchange.org         Communication for Social Change

                                             Comprise experience, references and publications on
                                             communication for social change.

www.dfid.gov.uk/aboutdfid/organisation/icd DFID Information and Communication
.asp                                       Department.

                                             References and publications on communication issues

www.fao.org/sd/kn1_en.htm                    Agriculture

                                             A site on Communications under FAO's Sustainable
                                             Development Department (SD). SD has been a
                                             pioneer in the use of communication processes and
                                             media to help rural people to exchange experiences,
                                             find common ground for collaboration and actively
                                             participate in and manage agricultural and rural
                                             development activities.

                                             Worth searching for good sources, contacts and news
                                             on development communications as seen by FAO.

                                             The site can be browsed through a detailed list of key-
                                             words such as: Audiovisual aids, distance education,
                                             emergency preparedness, gender, HIV/AIDS,
                                             indigenous knowledge, ICT, Internet, Participatory
                                             communication, Popular communication, Rural Radio
                                             and Traditional media.

www.fao.org/waicent/portal/                  Livelihood
                                             FAO, DFID and ODI undertook a study in 2001-2002
                                             which included a literature review and field trips to
                                             three countries to analyse the role of information in
                                             livelihoods, and make recommendations on how
                                             agencies can capitalize on and integrate the best
                                             elements of traditional communication methods and
                                             the ICT revolution technologies within the livelihoods

Useful References and Websites                                            ANNEX A

www.jhuccp.org                               Health   – John Hopkins University
                                             This site enables you to access the JHU Centre for
                                             Communication Programs and reach their library of
                                             extensive and authoritative reports on their
                                             communications projects around the world.

www.panos.org.uk                             HIV/AIDS – Panos Institute London

                                             The Panos London AIDS Programme works to
                                             improve communication about - and media reporting
                                             on - HIV/AIDS.

Good Practices in Danish Development         ICT
Assistance. (Not yet official)
                                             A comprehensive website on use of ICT in
http://demo02.injection.dk/                  development, including ICT as tool in communication
                                             for development.

http://topics.developmentgateway.org/eval    ICT
RCContentUser~folderId=5020                  These resources are intended to help in the selection
                                             of indicators for M&E of ICT projects.

www.aed.org/Communications/                  Various topics

                                             Academy for Educational Development (AED) is a
                                             good site to browse by specific topics: education,
                                             environment & energy, health, HIV/Aids, leadership
                                             and democracy, youth.

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/T   World Bank Development Communication Group
9027~menuPK:490442~pagePK:34000187~piPK:     A good site for publications and handbooks on e.g.
34000160~theSitePK:423815,00.html            PRS and communications. Has references to useful

GLOSSARY                                                                 ANNEX B

Advocacy                          Communication strategy to influence policies,
                                  positions, and programs of different institutions

Behaviour Change                  Communication programs that through a variety of
Communication                     strategies aim to change practices.

Campaign                          A strategically planned series of related, carefully
                                  targeted activities delivered through multiple
                                  channels to a large audience and designed to
                                  create awareness or behavioural changes in a
                                  predefined period of time.

Channels                          Technologies and social practices through which
                                  people exchange information and ideas

Communication                     Exchange of information and ideas. It promotes
                                  dialogue, feedback and increases understanding
                                  among various actors.

Communication Capacity            Quantity and quality of human resources and their
                                  competencies to carry out different tasks required
                                  by communication programs

Communication for social change   A process of public and private dialogue through
                                  which people themselves define who they are,
                                  what they need and how to get what they need in
                                  order to improve their own lives. It utilizes dialogue
                                  that leads to collective problem identification,
                                  decision-making and community-based
                                  implementation of solutions to development issues.

Community                         A group of people with some degree of common
                                  interest who identify with one another and who
                                  may or may not live in the same geographic area.

Community Participation           A process to engage people in action to achieve
                                  common goals through discussion, organization,
                                  and interventions.

Community radio                   Radio for the people by the people

Education                         The process of facilitating learning, to enable
                                  audiences to make rational and informed
                                  decisions, and to influence their behaviour over
                                  long term.

Folk/Popular Media                Non-mediated forms and channels of
                                  communication such as street performances,
                                  songs, theatre, puppet shows and fairs.

GLOSSARY                                                                  ANNEX B

Indicator                           A quantitative or qualitative factor or variable that
                                    provides a simple and reliable basis for assessing
                                    achievement, change or performance. It is a unit of
                                    information measured over time that can help
                                    show changes in a specific condition. A given goal
                                    or objective can have multiple indicators.

Information                         The generation and dissemination of technical
                                    information, facts, and issues to create awareness.

Institutional Communication         Strategies to raise awareness and inform about the

Interpersonal Communication         Communication conducted among two or in small
                                    groups such as counselling, training group
                                    discussion, and peer education

Mass media                          Technologies used to transmit information to large
                                    numbers such as radio, television, newspapers,
                                    magazines, video, film, documentary, billboards,
                                    and internet.

Media persuasion                    The use of different media to disseminate
                                    information to influence the population about ideas
                                    and practices

Messages                            Short phrases, sentences or statements that
                                    convey information.

Objectively verifiable indicators   A group of criteria (not necessarily measurable)
                                    used to verify the degree of accomplishment
                                    (foreseen or actual) of the sectoral purpose, the
                                    objective, and the inputs and outputs of a project.
                                    They can be quantitative, and therefore both
                                    verifiable and measurable, or qualitative, and
                                    therefore only verifiable.

Primary stakeholders                Those who are expected to change

Random Sample Survey                Collection of quantitative or quantifiable data in
                                    casually selected sections of a population in
                                    connection with two or more variables which are
                                    then examined to detect patterns of relationship.

Secondary stakeholders              Those who can facilitate the change

GLOSSARY                                                    ANNEX B

Social marketing      The design, implementation and control of
                      programmes aimed at increasing the acceptability
                      of a social idea, practice, or product in one or more
                      groups of target adopters. The process actively
                      involves the target population who voluntarily
                      exchange their time and attention for help in
                      meeting their health needs as they perceive them.
                      Social marketing borrows heavily from commercial
                      marketing, especially in the use of the “4P’s” of
                      product, place, promotion, and price.

Social mobilization   A broad-scale movement to engage large numbers
                      of people in action for achieving a specific
                      development goal through self-reliant effort, most
                      effective when composed of a mix of advocacy,
                      community participation, partnerships and capacity
                      building activities that together create an enabling
                      environment for sustained action and behaviour

End notes

1 Larsen, Kirsten Lund: Which future role for communication in Danish Development Aid? School of Arts and

Communication, Malmö University, Sweden, 2002.

2   Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Partnership 2000, 2000

3 Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, A world of Difference, 2003

4   Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Security, Growth and Development, 2004.

5   Burke, Adam. Communications & Development – A practical guide, DFID, 1999.

      Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Review of Monitoring and Indicators in relation to MDGs and PRSPs”

COWI. April 2004

7   Ljungman, Cecilia M. et al: Sida’s Work with Culture and Media. A Sida Evaluation Report 04/38. Sida 2005

8 Communication for Social Change Consortium: Measuring Change: A User’s Guide to Participatory Monitoring

and Evaluation of Communication for Social Change. DRAFT. May 2005

9UNDP: Signposts of Development. RBM in UNDP: Selecting Indicators.

10   ibid

11 OECD/DAC: DAC Working Party on Aid Evaluation: Glossary of Evaluation and Results Based

Management Terms, Paris 2001 and IFAD: A Guide for Project M&E. A-7, Rome 2002

 Communication for Social Change Consortium: Measuring Change: A User’s Guide to Participatory

Monitoring and Evaluation of Communication for Social Change. DRAFT. May 2005

13 Communication and Social Change Network and the Johns Hopkins University:


14 Communication for Social Change Consortium: Measuring Change: A User’s Guide to Participatory

Monitoring and Evaluation of Communication for Social Change. DRAFT. 2005

15Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Gender Sensitive Indicators for Monitoring Bilateral Development
Assistance – Technical note, 2004.

16 Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Monitoring and Indicators on Good Governance, Technical Note, January


17   Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Human Rights and Good Governance Programme, Nepal, June 2003

18Inter-American Development Bank: Managing Development Communication in Bank Projects. A Handbook
for Project Officers. 1999:3.

19   Ibid

20   Ibid

21Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Proposal “Use of Local Radio for Agricultural Extension, Kenya, Uganda
and Mozambique”. Dec. 2004. File no: 104.Dan.4-52-5


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