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MONITORING AND INDICATORS FOR COMMUNICATION FOR DEVELOPMENT Technical Note Technical Advisory Service DANIDA October 2005 CONTENTS Acronyms, ii About this guiding note, iii 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 A changed communication environment 1 1.2 Why communication 2 2 STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK 3 2.1 Communication in Danish Development assistance 3 2.1.1 A two-tier perspective 3 2.1.2 Approach and planning 5 2.2 Aligning SPS indicators with PRSs and MDGs 7 3 COMMUNICATION MONITORING AND INDICATORS 9 3.1 Communication objectives, monitoring and evaluation 9 3.2 Communication indicators 10 3.2.1 What indicators tell 10 3.2.2 Characteristics of indicators 11 3.2.3 Type of indicators 12 3.2.4 Process of identifying indicators 13 3.2.5 Indicators and gender 13 3.3 Indicators in media development programmes 14 3.3.1 A Community media programme 15 3.3.2 Good Governance - Support to Independent Media 16 3.4 Indicators in development communication programmes 19 3.4.1 Environment Management and Communication 20 3.4.2 Agriculture – Local radio and extension 21 3.5 Summary – communication indicators 22 ANNEXES A: List of useful references and web addresses B: Glossary of communication terms and concepts ACRONYMS AMG Aid Management Guidelines CFSC Communication for Social Change Danida Danish International Development Assistance EEAA Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency FWCW Fourth World Conference on Women IADB Inter American Development Bank ICD Information and Communication Department (DFID) ICT Information and Communication Technology MDG Millennium Development Goals MFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs M&E Monitoring and Evaluation PRS Poverty Reduction Strategy PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Sida Swedish International Development Agency SPS Sector Programme Support SSP Sector Support Programme WB The World Bank About this guiding note Why this guiding note? The note should be seen in the context of the current decentralisation process in Danida, and the increasing focus on and wish to strengthen monitoring of development programmes as expressed in the Aid Management Guidelines (AMG). The increased focus on monitoring and need for identification of valid indicators should also be seen in the context of aligning Danida project and sector programme support to priorities in the Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS), and the wish to measure Danish development assistance in relation to the progress towards reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Who is it for? The note is intended to give concrete guidance on the process of identifying relevant indicators to Embassy staff and others in the preparation, implementation, and monitoring of the bilateral development assistance. What is communication for development about? In this note it applies to a strategic communication process that promotes social changes through dialogue, knowledge sharing, and participation. The uses include among others: The exchange of information, knowledge, ideas and values among individuals and communities The promotion of citizens’ participation and community empowerment Advocacy with policy-makers and opinion leaders to support specific plans, programs, policies and reforms The use of the media to reach large audiences and affect public opinion. In the context of this note, ICT refers to the internet, e-mail, mobile telephones, and will be used as a tool in the communication process. For a more comprehensive use of ICT please consult the Ministry of Foreign Affairs web site on Good Practice and ICT. The contents of the guiding note 1. Introduction: gives a brief overview of the recent changes in the communication environment in developing countries and justifies why communication for development is particularly relevant now. 2. Strategic framework: outlines the strategic framework for communication for development in Danish development assistance and the alignment with PRSPs and MDGs. 3. Communication Monitoring and Indicators provides general guidelines for monitoring and indicators on communication for development, and analyses the process of identifying indicators in programmes (1) where communication in itself is a vehicle for social change (media development), and (2) where communication is an integral part of a sector/development program (development communication). Annex A includes a list of useful references and websites, and Annex B a glossary of communication terms Foot notes and end notes: The foot notes include explanations and notes to the text and are marked with small letters (a, b, c..) while the end notes refer to the literature used in the note, and are marked with figures (1, 2, 3..) It is emphasized that this note is not a blueprint or a manual on how to design and establish monitoring systems in general, as each intervention, sector, and sector programme is unique and requires an individual approach. Neither can it be taken as a blueprint for outlining communication indicators for Danish support to communication interventions. This is, what the title indicates – a guiding noteintroduction 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 A changed communication environment The decade since the publication of Danida’s last communication focused policy paper, Supporting the promotion of a free press in developing countries (1994) has witnessed a series of profound and fundamental changes. These changes include a revolution in media and communication environments in developing countries; major changes in development policies which has substantially increased the relevance of communication for development in achieving current development objectives; and a major set of changes in how practitioners approach communication in the development context. Media environments have opened up with widespread liberalization of media in general and of broadcasting in particular. Radio has undergone a revolution. Television, particularly satellite television, is becoming an increasingly pervasive medium, even among poor communities. Print media has mushroomed. Most people in developing countries now receive information on issues that affect their lives from multiple sources. New communication technologies, particularly in the form of the internet and mobile telephone, have transformed communication patterns. Although principally the preserve of the middle class, urban oriented consumer, they are increasingly being used in a development context and are increasingly complementing the broader media changes to produce much more networked, horizontally connected societies, in sharp contrast to the vertically connected societies of a decade ago. These changes, combined with others, and especially the growth of increasingly active, organized and networked civil society movements, have fundamentally shifted the way in which people in developing countries access information on issues that affect their lives and make their voices heard on decisions that shape their lives; they have exerted immense influence on how social norms and individual behaviours change; they have provided fresh ways for citizens to hold their governments to account and for governments to provide information that their citizens need. However, while many of the effects of more open, democratic and crowded media environments have been positive, many concerns remain. New divisions between the rural and urban, poor and not-poor, consumers and non consumers have emerged, not only through the well documented “digital divide”, but through a much broader information and voice divide. In many societies, the poorest are sometimes finding themselves increasingly, rather 1 decreasingly, marginalized from debates on issues that most affect them as these divides widen. Development agencies are consequently increasingly preoccupied with supporting communication efforts and enabling communication environment that enable poor people have their voices heard in the public arena. 1.2 Why communication Most current development policy rests on the belief that development works best when it is rooted in country ownership, when people have a voice in their own development and when they can hold both governments and others in power to account. Communication strategies enable people to know and understand issues that affect them, and they provide people with the means and spaces to articulate their own perspectives in public and political debate. Without knowledge of issues that affect you, and without the capacity to make your voice heard, there can be no participation or ownership. This is particularly and especially the case for people living in poverty. Repeated surveys of people living in poverty find that people consistently treasure one thing more than money – that one thing is having a voice in their own development. Communication for development is an essential component of any strategy designed to guarantee that voice. 2 2 STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK The field of communication for development is a broad one encompassing: Media support including for example community media, media policy, media training and capacity building, media in conflict and other areas; Communication strategies designed to empower people most affected and change behaviour in the field of health (particularly HIV/AIDS, malaria, TB and polio), and many similar strategies around livelihoods, agriculture, environment and other areas; The exchange of information, knowledge, ideas and values among individuals and communities Advocacy with policy-makers and opinion leaders The use of the media to reach large audiences and affect public opinion. Communication strategies to foster mutual understanding and dialogue among different groups, particularly relevant to conflict situations. Strategies around information and communication technologies. 2.1 Communication in Danish Development assistance Since mid 90s, the strategic framework for most of the Danish communication for development initiatives has been the policy-paper: Supporting the promotion of a free press in developing countries” from 1994. The policy paper focused on three key areas of support: (1) Promotion of pluralism in the media world, (2) professionalism of the media sector, and (3) support for strengthening and establishment of media networks. Thus, the policy and subsequent initiatives have focused on structure rather than content and communication processes. This does, however, not mean that these perspectives have been left out of the discourse and of Danida supported interventions in the past. Communication for development components have played a part in the Danish development co-operation since the 80s and there are examples of strategic use of communication in Danida supported sector programmes in Malawi, Tanzania, and Egypt.1 2.1.1 A two-tier perspective In the prevailing strategic framework for Danish Development Assistance, Partnership 20002, and the priorities of the present government as expressed in A Wold of Difference (2003-20083) and Security, Growth, and Development (2004-20094), the support to media has got its own platform as one of the prioritized themes within Good Governance. 3 Thus, recent trends indicate that Danida operates within a two-tier perspective: (1) Development of free, open, and plural media that provide the communication structures for a democratic dialogue between participants in a communication process, and (2) Development of communication processes that provide the contents and way of channelling the dialogue The two perspectives are interrelated and interdependent, but they have different functions and at an operational level, they require different competencies (e.g. (1) journalism and (2) skills in strategic communication). The model below (Fig. 1) illustrates the interrelationship and interdependency between communication structures and communication processes. A free press aiming at transparency and accountability is a prerequisite for a free flow of communication. Thus, a free press will influence the functions of the various types of media (state, public service, private, commercial, and community) which again will have an impact on the various channels of communication. A communication process aiming at social changes through participation, knowledge sharing, policy dialogue is dependent on a free flow of communication. Fig. 1 COMMUNICATION FOR DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION CHANNELS COMMUNICATION STRUCTURE State PROCESS Pub. Service Free press Private Social change Commercial Transparency Community Accountability Participation Knowledge sharing Policy dialogue Print and Electronic (Radio/TV/ICT) Theatre/film Folk media Interpersonal Others At an operational level communication for development encompassing both structure and process will appear in two types of interventions: (a) as an intervention in its own right, i.e. the overall objectives will be directly linked to the communication intervention, e.g. empowerment/social changes attained through access to information and a voice. This type of intervention is termed media 4 development and will often include support to media in governance and establishment of communication structures as vehicles for social change processes. (b) as an integral part of development/sector programmes to facilitate the achievement of the overall development objectives, e.g. communication aiming at increasing the knowledge of how HIV/Aids is transmitted. This type of intervention is termed development communication and includes support to development of communication strategies and activities that promote participation, knowledge sharing, and dialogue among the various participants in a development process. 2.1.2 Approach and planning In this note, communication for development is perceived as a two-way planned process that flows in different directions5. It promotes the active participation of key actors in a development process and maps out the necessary flow of communication at all levels, e.g. at the vertical level, between participants at national, regional, and community levels, and at the horizontal level between peers, e.g. community members, civil society organization, NGOs, authorities, decision-makers. FIG. 2: FLOW OF COMMUNICATION NATIONAL PEERS PEERS REGIONAL COMMUNITY/LOCAL This means that the key actors in a communication intervention have to be prioritised and that strategies of how they can be involved have to be developed. There are various ways and methods of how best to involve the participants and ensure that they have access to needed information and to voice their opinions. They vary from behaviour change models based on diffusion theories (e.g. disseminate information on specific issues (message-based communication)), to more elaborate participatory communication models such as communication for social change (CFSC)1. 1 For a description of the different approaches see Annex B: Glossary of communication terms. 5 Below some examples of the two methods. Message-based communication Communication for Social Change HIV/Aids is transmitted through Dialogue on causes and effects of sexual intercourse with an infected HIV/Aids person Action and voices emerge from within Use of condoms can reduce risks of communities to assert rights (e.g. to being infected with HIV/Aids treatment), tackle stigma and catalyse social movements on HIV/AIDS. Sharing knowledge on how to live positively with HIV/Aids In principle, all communication is a two-way process, and rather than promoting one method for another, it is suggested that different methods are used in different contexts in order to deal with specific issues and priorities. Below planning model shows some of the steps involved in a communication strategy, and indicate at which step indicators should be identified and when to monitor the process. The planning model can be used at component as well as at sector level. STEPS TO CONSIDER IN COMMUNICATION PLANNING Objectives Decide what should be achieved by the communication intervention in short, medium, and long term and identify indicators for the intervention. Participants Select and prioritize the groups of participants/actors, e.g. government officials, media, civil society groups, donors, NGOs, grassroots spokespersons, etc. and understand their interest, advantage and disadvantage. Research Identify the information needs of the participants and their media habits Identify possible barriers Messages and Develop group specific messages and assess the existing channels at national, regional, channels and local level. Identify channels that are relevant in relation to the groups of participants Activities Define activities for knowledge sharing and dissemination of information. Set goals for each activity. Define timings, budget and responsibility Pre-test productions and activities Implement the activities Monitoring Monitor the communication process and adjust the activities accordingly. and feed back 6 2.2 Aligning SPS indicators with PRSs and MDGs In accordance with Danida policy, performance monitoring in Danida supported Sector Programmes will increasingly be harmonized with national Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). In ideal terms, PRS indicators address nationally defined goals, aligned with and feeding into the globally focused MDG indicators. In practice, however, there is some lack of synchronization between the two monitoring processes, and indicators are far from always harmonized6. This complicates the process of aligning indicators from Danida supported sector programmes with those of the PRS and MDGs. In practice, and given the anchoring of Danida sector support in national governments, the first and most practical step will be to focus on developing linkages from communication indicators in the sector programmes to the PRSs, although with continuous attention to the need for harmonization with MDG indicators. Communication for development is not a sector in itself but a tool to reinforce the impact of sector support programmes, and ideally, communication should be an integral part of the overall sector support and of the individual components. However, in practice, it is rare that communication is integrated as a strategic tool at the overall sector level, while it is more common to integrate communication in specific components of a sector programme (e.g. the HIV/Aids communication component of the Education sector programme in Mozambique). In this case it would be relevant to link to or use possible national communication indicators. To be able to link to or develop national indicators for communication within specific sectors, it is, of course, a precondition that communication for development is part of the PRSs. A review of 16 PRSPs has shown that in the PRSPs, media and communication are often referred to (1) as tools to monitor poverty and the PRSP process, and (2) as instruments in specific development interventions2. A few PRSPs (e.g. Vietnam) outline the importance of information for poverty reduction and devises plans to enhance the information flows with related indicators such as: 90 % of house holds should be able to see Vietnamese Television and 95% should be able to hear Voice of Vietnam by 2005.7 2 According to evaluation of Sida’s work with culture and media 14 out of 16 PRSPs made reference to media and/or communication/information. The countries include: Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Tanzania, Zambia, Uganda, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Bolivia, Nicaragua, Honduras, Moldavia, Georgia, Macedonia. 7 Although communication for development is not directly one of the core issues of the PRSPs, it is part of the whole concept, which builds on knowledge sharing, dialogue, participation, and empowerment. In some PRSPs, communication for development is “indirectly mainstreamed” and part of the various sectors - often referred to as information dissemination on various issues, such as market information, information on agricultural methods, information on human rights and policy issues, information on people’s needs, etc. The development of communication indicators in Danida supported sector programmes, and the linking to PRSPs and MDGs should take place through relevant coordinating initiatives between partner countries, rather than as a parallel process. Steps to coordinate communication for development interventions was taken by a group of donors and development agencies in November 2004 when representatives from this group formulated a statement called the Bellagio statement on the role of communication in meeting the MDGs and poverty reduction 3 . 3 Bellagio Statement on the Role of Communication in Meeting the Millennium Development Goals. This statement was developed by representatives from CFSC, DFID, FAO, FEMNET, FINNIDA, Netherlands Foreign Ministry, IFAD, Sida, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, UNESCO, NICEF, US Mission to the UN (Rome), USAID, World Bank, World Bank Institute but has not been subject to formal approval processes and should not necessarily be taken to reflect the official policy of each of these agencies. CFSC 2004. 8 3 COMMUNICATION MONITORING AND INDICATORS 3.1 Communication objectives, monitoring and evaluation As described in section 2.1, communication for development comprise programmes or interventions per se or interventions integrated into other development programmes, e.g. into sector programmes4. Somewhat arbitrarily, communication interventions are referred to as 'strategies', 'components', 'programmes', 'strategic communication' or 'activities' in the literature. What is more important than the name is that communication for development is a tool to promote dialogue, to share information and knowledge, and give people voice. Its likeness to what in other situations is referred to as participation5 is striking. Communication reinforces people's participation. The communication for development intervention has its own objectives, activities and outputs to be monitored and evaluated whether these stand on their own or they are mainstreamed into the overall sector programme objectives, activities and outputs. The purpose of monitoring is to measure progress during the invention to recognize potential problems and introduce modifications, and the purpose of evaluation is to determine whether goals have been met. Thus, monitoring will measure the extent to which the communication programme was delivered and received, and evaluation will measure what influence communication activities have had on behaviour and what influence those behaviours have had on the development problems. However, it is difficult to isolate the effect of development communication on the longer term effects of a development programme. Therefore, evaluation of communication activities is best taken up in conjunction with overall sector programme evaluations, while communication monitoring should be undertaken as a regular activity. 4 Examples are given in section 3.2 and 3.3 5 Participation has many different meanings. A common typology is: Passive participation, participation in information giving, participation by consultation, participation for material incentives, functional participation, interactive participation, self-mobilization, participation for catalysing change, optimum participation, and manipulation (Mikkelsen 2005). In this context of communication and sector programme support it is categories of participation which provide 'voice' and entail 'participation in decision making' which are of particular interest. 9 In this note we focus on guidance for monitoring of the short-term communication objectives and the related activities. Before monitoring is started, the following questions should be clarified: who wants to know what and why?8 The negotiation over the monitoring objectives will help to determine how to go about it and which indicators of progress to use. 3.2 Communication indicators 3.2.1 What indicators tell Who has seen the wind? Neither you nor I. But where the trees bow down their heads, The wind is passing by (The Wind, Chiristina Rosetti, 1830-1894) If we want to know if the wind is blowing, the bowing treetops are a good indicator9. For some, however, the fact that treetops are bending may not represent the most important thing they want to know about the wind. The fisherman may need to know the direction of the wind. The farmer may want to know how strong the wind is, because her crops might be ruined. Or perhaps the farmer is less interested in the wind than in the types of clouds, which may be a better indicator of coming rain10. Similar considerations about who is interested in which type of information can be applied to indicators of communication. If programme management wants to have an internal inventory of the programme's capacity to generate materials, number of communications produced, by type, during a reference period, may be a good indicator. However, to monitor and evaluate the success of strategic communication, management will want to measure the results or outcomes of communication activities and track the inputs and processes that contribute to these. Other participants such as politicians may take a primary interest in whether programme interventions have an effect for which the indicator, the percentage of the target audience engaged in recommended practices, is more relevant. The latter, people's practices is, however, also much more difficult to measure than counting number of communications and media spots. Whatever the indicators tell us, they will never tell us why communication makes a difference. Indicators can tell us that a change we are interested in is happening. And indicators can be framed in a way that is most relevant to a particular group, provided the particular group has a voice in deciding which 10 indicators are relevant to them. But indicators cannot explain why and how that change occurs. Indicators can tell us that communication plays a role, but not why, to what effect, nor how communication should be undertaken. 3.2.2 Characteristics of indicators An indicator is a quantitative or qualitative factor or variable that provides a simple and reliable basis for assessing achievement, change or performance. It is a unit of information measured over time that can help show changes in a specific condition. A given goal or objective can have multiple indicators11. Objectively verifiable indicators are a group of criteria (not necessarily measurable) used to verify the degree of accomplishment (foreseen or actual) of the sectoral purpose, the objective, and the inputs and outputs of a project. They can be quantitative, and therefore both verifiable and measurable, or qualitative, and therefore only verifiable. The most important indicators are often not quantifiable. For example the number of people participating in a social network is relatively unimportant compared to the quality of relationships and dialogue within that network. In such instances, qualitative indicators (generally descriptive) provide more meaningful measures.12 Examples of quantitative and qualitative communication indicators are given below - for message-based communication and Communication for Social Change respectively. SELECTED INDICATORS FOR MESSAGE-BASED COMMUNICATION Number of communications produced and disseminated, by type, during a reference period Percentage of target audience who correctly comprehend a given message Percentage of audience who acquire the skills recommended by the message Percentage of target audience who engage in recommended practices After Cabanero-Verzosa, Cecilia et al.: Strategic Communication for Development Projects, WB 2003 The suggested indicators illustrate the progressing complexity of the indicators. For indicator number 1 above, administrative records will suffice once the messages, the communication products and the communication channels are defined. Most of the other indicators require that a random sample survey is undertaken of the target population who are expected to be exposed to the communication activities. Verification by observation of people's practices is recommendable but may be almost impossible of intimate practices for example. SELECTED INDICATORS - COMMUNICATION FOR SOCIAL CHANGE Expanded public and private dialogue and debate What increase has there been in family discussions, among friends, in community gatherings, in debate and dialogue in political processes Cont. 11 Increased accuracy of the information that people share in the dialogue/debate Evidence of this may be gathered on a few topics, one example may be the accuracy of information about the ways to spread/avoid HIV/Aids Increased leadership role by people disadvantaged by the issues of concern Did the affected people manage to become decision makers concerning the priorities and activities of the communication intervention? Linked people and groups with similar interests who might otherwise not be in contact Which new groups are involved, new contacts established? This may help people to see opportunities for action which they did not see before – a very important indicator. After CFSC Network and the John Hopkins University (comminit.com/scfulleval/355.html) The researchers that developed these indicators point to a number of challenges developing indicators for social change. The first challenge is time – changes can take a long time, but programme and policy people need more immediate data that indicate the contribution being made. This, requires agreement on indicators which when measured in the short term will indicate a strong likelihood of long term change in the issue being addressed and are applicable across issues, e.g. Increased immunisation levels predict decreased child mortality Increased numbers of girls in school is often cited as a predictor of economic progress In communication, intent to change has been used as predictor of actual change. 13 3.2.3 Type of indicators As demonstrated above, the type of indicators vary in accordance with the chosen approach to communication interventions. The type of indicators also vary in relation to the various stages of the monitoring and evaluation process. Below table shows the type and characteristics of such indicators. EXAMPLES OF TYPE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF M&E COMMUNICATION INDICATORS Type of indicator Characteristic Examples Input indicator Concern resources devoted to the project / Funds covering the planned communication programme activities. Qualified staff Process indicator Monitors achievement during Number of participatory radio programmes aired implementation, to track progress towards Number of people reached through popular the intended results. theatre activities Output indicator Identifies short-term results Percentage of participants by men and women exposed to needed information/messages Expanded public and private dialogue Outcome /impact Relate to the longer-term results (normally ICT increasingly used for dialogue and debate indicator outcome indicators are linked to Percentage of men and women who know about immediate objectives and impact voting procedures indicators to the development objectives) After Mikkelsen, B: Methods for Development Work and Research, Sage 2005 12 3.2.4 Process of identifying indicators Already developed and externally-derived indicators as the ones illustrated in 3.2.2 and 3.2.3 may stimulate ideas for selection of communication indicators. But ideally indicators should be developed through a participatory process to satisfy the need for locally-owned, meaningful indicators in a given context. The process through which indicators are developed largely determines their usefulness to particular groups of participants. According to CFSC, communication for social change indicators must be developed through an empowering process of dialogue and negotiation between key participants. Indicator choice will depend on what participants want to assess in their own context. For example: more open private and public dialogue about HIV/AIDS status, a reduction in HIV/AIDS-related stigma indicated by greater inclusion of those with the disease, or increased uptake of Voluntary Counselling and Testing. 14 Because indicators depend on the actual goals of communication interventions determined by the diagnosis of the problem, the type of strategy, and approach selected, it is impossible to produce a general list of indicators. Tips may help when developing indicators: Indicators should be relevant and accurate enough for those concerned to interpret the information. They do not need to be perfect. Indicators can take different formats depending on the particular context. For example pictures and stories, the meanings of which can be checked with communities later on. Learn from developments elsewhere, including creative alternatives to short-term indicators For example, monitoring significant and sometimes unexpected events associated with long-term development goals “Less is more”. It is better to identify fewer indicators that are meaningful and useful, than a long list that is too challenging and not realistic. After Measuring change: A user’s guide to participatory monitoring and evaluation of CFSC, 2005 3.2.5 Indicators and gender Communication for development interventions are extremely gender sensitive. In most countries men and women have unequal access to information and freedom of expression, and it is necessary to mainstream gender in all communication for development interventions. This means that indicators on communication for development interventions should reflect the need for sex disaggregated data and note should be taken of the section on Media and Technologies of Communication in the technical note on Gender Sensitive Indicators for Monitoring Bilateral Development Assistance15. 13 The following sections on indicators in media development programmes or sector related development communication provide general considerations, constructed illustrations and concrete examples. 3.3 Indicators in media development programmes As described in section 2, this type of intervention includes support to communication structures to promote social change processes and facilitate the vertical and horizontal flow of communication country wise, in specific geographic areas, or sectors. The overall purpose of support to media development programmes is to empower people to take action either individually or collectively through access to information and a voice, and it includes support to a wide range of media and communication channels such as mass media, ICT (internet, e-mail, and telephones), community media, and folk/popular media6. The design of this kind of support rests on a thorough assessment of existing communication channels on a national, regional, and local level to explore how they can be utilised and how the structure can be supported to maximise the involvement of participants in organized and timely communication. NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES In the case of analysing newspapers How many newspapers circulate regularly? and magazines as vehicles for Are they government owned or private? communication interventions, some What are the different kinds (financial, of the questions that have to be political, sport, women’s and their readership? answered are indicated to the left. What sectors of the population do they not reach? Similar questions will be put for other What is the knowledge, assumptions and skill levels of reporters in reporting on relevant media such as Radio, TV, poverty related issues? Journals, ICT, folk media Etc., etc. After Mozammel, Masud and Barbara Zatlokal: Strategic Communication in PRSP, p. 19-21, WB 2005 Based on such assessments in combination with assessment of the media habits of the participants, interventions are designed to either support existing structures or establish new and relevant communication structures that facilitate 6 Note that the Media Sustainability Index (MSI) is a tool to assess the development of independent media systems over time and across countries, it assesses five objectives for shaping a successful media system, each with a series of sub-criteria, scored by an annual panel of experts. For a copy of the MSI 2003 visit www.irex.org/msi/2003MSI03-intro.pdf (After DFID: Monitoring and Evaluating IDC programmes. Guidelines March 2005). 14 a two way communication between participants at all levels. This type of intervention will usually be measured against the initial assessments and baseline data, e.g. measure the changes that have occurred after introduction of the intervention. The question, of course, is what kind of changes you want – this will normally have to be agreed upon in cooperation with stakeholder representatives. The agreed anticipated changes will then be formulated as indicators. In media development programmes, the indicators will typically be related to issues such as: The media coverage (e.g. how many and who are reached) The style (form/formats) (e.g. does the media provide a platform for participation and debate?) The contents (e.g. what is channelled through the medium and does it appeal to the participants and cover their needs?) The effect (e.g. what planned or unplanned actions/activities have occurred as a result of the media development programme?). A relatively simple way of identifying relevant indicators is to formulate a set of monitoring questions. Subsequently, indicators can be identified and the data needed to verify the results can be defined. 3.3.1 A Community media programme Below case on Tambuli Community Media Project states the objectives of a typical media development programme. In view of the objectives, sample monitoring questions, indicators and means of verification are suggested below: Tambuli Community Media Project, The Philippines, 1990-. UNESCO/DANIDA Development objective: ⇒ The empowerment of people through communication so that they will strengthen their community organisations and seek better opportunities for development Immediate objectives: ⇒ To provide local access to information ⇒ To allow villagers to express themselves ⇒ To link together as a community ⇒ To strengthen the sense of identity ⇒ To transform the audience from mere receivers to participants and managers of communication system. Brief on the project: To provide the population in remote areas with access to information and a voice, a network of 20 community media centres were established in areas with limited access to other media. The media centres all comprise a community radio and some of the centres have print facilities for publication of newsletters, etc. The centres are 100% community owned. After www.comminit.com, (Tambuli), 2002 15 Tambuli Community Media Project, The Philippines, 1990-. UNESCO/DANIDA Sample Monitoring Question Sample Indicators Sample Means of Verification Does the radio provide a Amount of participatory radio Radio programme schedules platform for dialogue? programmes over a period of 6 Content analysis months Do various sectors of the Number of radio programmes Radio programme schedules community have access to the with sector specific contents Lists of participants in radio radio? over a period of 6 months programmes by profession, sex, and age. Discussions of sector specific Content analysis issues among friends and in Semi-structured interviews community gatherings with men and women from the various sectors Is the radio strengthening the The radio used to promote Radio programme schedules community organisation? networks and partnerships Content analysis Semi-structured interviews with community members Is the radio supporting the Increasing number of men and Content analysis empowerment of community women informed and aware of Focus group discussions members? their rights and obligations in and interviews with relation to decision-making community members processes. Statistics on voters in local elections. Increasing number of community members participate in local elections. 3.3.2 Good Governance - Support to Independent Media 'Good Governance' can serve as an example of a cross-cutting theme which has acquired a semi-sector status in Danish development assistance.16 Good Governance Programmes - often in combination with promotion of Human Rights17, concern awareness and good practice of citizens at all levels whether they are duty bearers or rights holders, and the latter’s ability to hold duty bearers accountable. Awareness raising, advocacy training, and transparency are part and parcel of good governance programmes, hence the need for communication, vertically as well as horizontally. To facilitate awareness raising many Good Governance Programmes include a communication component. The objectives may be two-fold, i.e. supporting media structures as well as communication processes (see figure 1). The Zambia case below focuses on hard-ware and radio transmission while the objective in the Nepal case is training media practitioners and improved access for underprivileged groups in the districts to relevant media throughout Nepal, 16 with different indicator implications. The indicators in both examples refer to output indicators, while the matrixes use different categories. For the Zambia programme, the development objective is: to promote a democratic governance system in Zambia through strengthening the links between the National Assembly and the general public. Good Governance - Parliament and Public Information Radio System; Zambia Immediate objective Expected Output Verifiable Output Means of Verification Indicators Provide equipment for Equipment purchased, Increased range of radio FM broadcast network of installed and functioning transmission of National maximum coverage for Assembly Installation technical live radio transmission of The range of live radio report National Assembly transmission of National List of equipment sessions Assembly sessions purchased and installed increased Number of link-points Project report equipped and operational After: MFA: Parliament and Public Information Radio System, File No: 104.Zam.18/122, Sept 2003 The output indicators are easily quantified and relate to the tangible objectives. When objectives for communication activities are less tangible and imply quality assessments, the identification of indicators is more complex. Forthwith are illustrations from the communication component: Support to Independent Media, of the Human Rights and Good Governance Programme in Nepal7. For the Nepal programme the development objective is: A free, independent, pluralistic, sustainable, accountable and competent media environment in Nepal enabling the public's access to fair and relevant information by all sectors of society. 7 It is assumed that the media can play a positive conflict-resolving role in the battle for democracy. ibid: 27 17 Good Governance - Independent Media Component, Nepal Immediate Objective Condensed Verifiable Output Indicators Means of Objectives Verification 1. Training of media I. Training of A core group of competent trainers Mix of derived practitioners media practitioners have been established indicators, e.g: qualitatively in mastering the Quality of evaluation reports of improved core skills of supported training course journalism Quality of training curricula evaluations, qualitatively ----------------------------------------- trainee's self- improved perception, 2. Media practitioners Number of people from vulnerable sensitised in groups who receive scholarships editor's reporting on conflict and are working as journalists 6 to evaluation, and post-conflict --------------------- 12 months after situations, and other Number of community media work related human rights and outlets supported in the districts analysis, good governance Number of journalists sensitised areas II. Improved access through training and fellowship case-studies for underprivileged schemes on Dalit, gender and groups in the ethnic minority issues ----------------------- districts to relevant Number of programmes and 3. Improved access for information and articles targeting gender, Dalit and progress reports underprivileged media outlets ethnic minority issues from partners groups in the districts throughout Nepal ………………………………………. to relevant media throughout Nepal Number of media practitioners, including women8 and Dalits, monitoring by trained in the new improved Human Rights curricula and Good Governance Advisory Group After: MFA/Danida 2003:27-33 Note that the last indicator has been added since it is judged by the programme that it is too costly and complex an exercise to monitor media outlets regularly as the above indicators imply. Mainstreaming of Dalit, gender and ethnic minority issues in the media curricula and programmes and articles, and increasing awareness among the media practitioners on the social barriers in the society, are seen as one of the major outcomes of the component, and hence increased awareness should be reflected in news articles and programmes. Monitoring these outcomes is anticipated to require external expertise and is not further described here. The proposed output monitoring is less complex. The Nepal media component is an illustrative example that monitoring often has 8 Note that the objectives for action on Women and Media in the Beijing declaration are: (1) Increase the participation and access of women to expression and decision-making in and through the media and new technologies of communication, (2) Promote a balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women in the media. 18 to use less optimal proxy indicators due to cost and complexity of identifying and using ideal indicators. The two Good Governance related communication programmes also illustrate a wide difference in the level of ambition as reflected in the development objectives. They also suggest that there could be a variety of other possible linkages between the longer term development objectives and the immediate objectives and between the immediate objectives and related activities, indicators and outputs. A given goal or objective can have multiple indicators. 3.4 Indicators in development communication programmes Development communication is a tool to help the process to better attain the overall objectives of e.g. sector programmes. Strategic communication can be used in policy development as well as in institutional strengthening and in implementation of sector programmes. It involves several approaches, including community mobilisation, social marketing, the use of mass media and institutional and interpersonal communication.18 Development communication in sector programmes9 is primarily a means though the contribution that communication can make to participatory development may also be an end. In this regard integration of development communication has a lot in common across sector programmes - the process is more or less the same whether it is developed within the health sector or any other sector. Thus, the selected examples serve the purpose of illustrating various aspects of working with indicators in development communication. Independent of the subject matter of a particular sector, the following points on indicators are relevant across sectors. I.e. communication indicators need to be: ⇒ Established during initial program planning ⇒ Tied in with general objectives ⇒ Linked or derived from communication goals ⇒ Easy to measure ⇒ Monitored throughout the project/programme19 Sometimes sector or subject matter specific communication indicators are required, desirable and can be constructed. The examples below are illustrations 9 Sector specific indicators should always be tallied with PRSP indicators applied in a specific national/regional context if they exist, and communication indicators adjusted to these. Since the PRSPs are in different stages and quality and advancement relevant PRSP indicators cannot be taken for granted. Neither are relevant MDG indicators available for all sectors. It is important to recognize the different status of the MDG indicators, which are long-term, general indicators, and the PRSP indicators which are short(er) term and country/ context specific. (MFA/COWI 2004). 19 from concrete programmes, where little is recorded about how the indicators were identified. It is evident that the monitoring indicators could have been identified in a participatory process, but are more likely to have been identified by programme planners. 3.4.1 Environment Management and Communication In principle the objectives of the communication interventions should link up to the development programme objectives. This relationship may be rather indirect as the case of Bay Island Environment management, Honduras illustrates20 (see box below). The communication strategy goals and sample indicators of activities, process and outputs are summarised in the matrix below and means of verification are suggested. The programme objectives are to: establish and strengthen the management of protected areas, water and sewage systems, property registry, local government structures and capabilities; and promote incentives to involve the private sector in the sustainable management of tourism in the Bay Island. COMMUNICATION STRATEGY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME Communication Sample Activity Sample Process Sample Output Means of Strategy objectives Indicators Indicators Indicators Verification 1. bring together the - variety of - x community meetings - % villagers - testimonies from Project and interpersonal and to disseminate (fe/male) participate Project staff participating media activities in x meetings communities Project information - testimonies from - information on conducted representative community stakeholder groups priorities, customs -number of teachers 2 increase community and perceptions attend workshops perception about - xx popular theatre and provide the risks associated performances environment - local with environmental training to organisations mismanagement - popular theatre - y agents undertaken community …. and home visits home visits and about the benefits for the - Project communities in - documentation terms of - mass media - teachers' role as improvement of the productions - educational agents five minute videos quality of life audiovisual and strengthened about water, waste inter-personal; less and risks distributed - media print media through media, workshops and 3 implement changes schools in environmental behaviours After: Managing Development Communication in Bank Projects, IADB 1999:48-50 20 It is evident that the communication strategy outline rests on a number of assumptions and risks. These are for example: diversity of ethnic, linguistic and cultural groups variety of participants with different/conflicting interests overcoming mutual distrust and strengthening participatory mechanisms overcoming misinformation and false expectations of possible benefits optimal timing of communication relative to works budget constraints Other environmental programmes operate with a related communication component10 but in principle the same requirements for correspondence between communication goals and indicators as illustrated are valid for meaningful monitoring of progress and achievements to take place. 3.4.2 Agriculture – Local radio and extension The agricultural sector was one of the first sectors to realize the needs and benefits of strategic communication and have been in the forefront of developing methods and approaches that include communication as a participatory tool in all stages of agricultural programmes, i.e. planning, implementation, training/extension, and evaluation. This is hardly surprising as the sector also was one of the first that demonstrated the need for participatory approached to achieve results in agricultural extension work. Local radio and extension in Danish Agricultural SPS Support to agricultural extension has been one of the major elements in Danish development assistance for more than 40 years. The approach has varied over the years. In some countries, the use of modern mass media has been an activity supplementing the traditional agricultural extension, but the mass media has not yet been used in a systematic or professional way in Danish supported projects or programmes21 Realising the shortcomings of traditional extension systems, Danida decided in 2004 to start pilot activities on Use of Local Radio in Agricultural Extension in Kenya, Mozambique, and Uganda, and proposals were prepared for each of the three countries. The proposals are aligned with the Danida Agricultural SPSs and national policies and strategies. Below case is based on the proposal for use of local radio in agricultural extension in Kenya. The case is an example of generalised indicators of a specific communication activity/medium, developed by planners and valid in several 10 e.g. Danida & EEAA: Communication for Environmental Management, Egypt, 2002 - 21 agricultural sector programmes. USE OF LOCAL RADIO FOR AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, KENYA Immediate objective Outputs Indicators To enable small-holders One weekly one- Timely availability of inputs according to agreements and commercial farmers in hour agricultural between ASPS and the broadcasters the pilot activity areas to magazine Actual number of programmes broadcast increase productivity and programme Actual format of programmes broadcast marketing of agricultural produced and Involvement of extension workers in radio produce through enhanced broadcast by each of programmes knowledge of production the two radio Number of letters and phone calls to the radio methods and market stations11 stations about agricultural issues conditions Farmers’ knowledge about issues addressed in the radio programmes Number of listeners to the agriculture programmes. MFA: Proposal use of Local Radio for Agricultural Extension, Kenya, Dec. 2004. File no: 104.Dan.4-52-5 In the project document, the stated means of verification of the indicators are: in-depth studies (audience research) of listeners’ reactions, learning, and behavioural change and Special Audience Research Reports will explore the outcome of the radio broadcast approach to agricultural extension, and will feed into the final evaluation of the entire pilot activity. A brief analysis of this case shows that the stated indicators provide examples of mainly “quantitative” indicators – only one of the indicators is “qualitative” i.e. Farmers’ knowledge about issues addressed in the radio programmes. This indicator will probably be the most important indicator in terms of measuring the changes. Indicators such as: expanded public and private dialogue on issues addressed in the radio programmes or increased accuracy of the information that people share in the dialogue would facilitate the measuring of the change in knowledge. In view of the fact that many of the farmers in the project areas are women and that communication is gender sensitive, it would have been desirable if the indicators were sex disaggregated, e.g. by adding by men and women to the relevant indicators. 3.5 Summary – communication indicators The selected examples described in section 3.3 and 3.4., demonstrate the identification and use of communication indicators in different types of communication for development interventions, i.e.: 11 The programmes will not restrict themselves to disseminating agricultural extension messages but will address rural life issues in a broader sense: farming is not just an occupation – it is a way of life, the livelihood – and thus the productivity of the agriculture sector 22 1. Media development including media in governance (Tambuli, the Philippines, Independent media in Nepal, Parliament Public Information systems in Zambia), and 2. Development communication (Environmental Management, Honduras and Radio for Agricultural extension in Kenya, Tanzania, and Mozambique) The sectors and countries chosen for these examples are less important compared to the approach and type of communication interventions. Similar approaches and communication interventions could have been applied in other sectors and/or countries. When analysing the above examples, the general findings can be summarized as follows: Communication indicators should be established during programme planning, preferably in a participatory process. Type of indicators and their characteristics are dependent on the chosen communication approach and the stage of the monitoring and evaluation process. Communication indicators relate to the objectives, inputs and outputs of the communication intervention. Correspondence between communication goals and indicators are important for meaningful monitoring of progress and achievements to take place. Communication objectives may link to overall development objectives in sector programmes, which again may link to the PRSPs and the MDGs if these are synchronised. In such cases indicators should be harmonized. Change processes are long term but more immediate data are often needed to indicate the contribution being made. This, requires agreement on communication indicators which when measured in the short term will indicate a strong likelihood of long term changes. Thus, in communication, the intent to change has been used as predictor of actual change. Communication interventions are gender sensitive and indicators should be sex disaggregated when relevant and possible. 23 Useful References and Websites ANNEX A USEFUL REFERENCES AND WEBSITES This annotated bibliography includes references to literature and websites on communication for development. In the selection of references, we have aimed at including fairly new references that will be useful in the daily work of development practitioners. Many of the print publications are available on the internet as pdf-files and when possible the references include the relevant web-addresses. The list includes three sections: (1) strategic communication, (2) Monitoring and Indicators, and (3) Websites. STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION FOR DEVELOPMENT Strategic Communication in PRSP A useful and practical guide on how to apply Mozammel, Masud & Zatiokal Barbara, strategic communication World Bank, 2002. in the PRSP process with examples from Niger, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTDEVCOMMENG/ Resources/prspstrategiccommchapter.pdf Vietnam, and Uganda. The participatory approach of this model can also be used in sector programmes and other social change processes. Strategic Communication for Development Projects – A Reviews the basic toolkit for task team leaders. principles of communication for Cabañero-Verzosa, Cecillia. World Bank, 2003 behaviour change (message based and http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTDEVCOMMENG/ campaign-type Resources/toolkitwebjan2004.pdf communication), presenting a step-by-step guide to planning and implementing communication activities. The toolkit contains a set of practical modules, including a Guide to Communication Indicators Communications and Development A practical guide to communications in Burke, Adam: DFID, Social development division. 1999 development programmes. It stresses http://www.dfid.gov.uk/Pubs/files/c-d.pdf the information needs and rights of the poor and marginalised people. In doing so it should help to define an emphasis on rights and on strengthening civil 24 Useful References and Websites ANNEX A society, encouraging new programme ideas as well as helping improve existing initiatives. Involving the Community – A guide to Participatory Environmental and Development Communication natural resource management is used as Besette, Guy. International Development Research Centre, 2004 the context in which to illustrate participatory http://web.idrc.ca/openebooks/066-7/ development communication. 10 steps of how to plan a participatory development communication strategy is described, and particularly note should be given to Step 9: Monitoring and evaluation the communication strategy and documenting the development or research process. Managing Development Communication in Bank Projects – Handbook aimed to: (1) A Handbook for Project Officers. introduce project officers to strategic Inter-American Development Bank Office of External Relations. 2004. Design and case communication, (2) help stories developed by Dr. Silvio Waisbord and Dr. William Smith. project officers to effectively incorporate http://enet.iadb.org/idbdocswebservices/idbdocsInternet/ communication in IADBPublicDoc.aspx?docnum=491159 programs in projects, (3) provide the basic tools that any project officer needs to determine what kind of communication support is required by a specific project. Describes five communication approaches: advocacy, community participation, institutional communication, media persuasion, and social marketing. It focuses on the fundamental steps to plan communication programs and includes a section on how to monitor and evaluate communication interventions. Family Tree of Theories, Methodologies and Strategies in Presents a chronological Development Communication: convergences and evolution and differences comparison of 25 Useful References and Websites ANNEX A differences approaches and findings. The goal of this report is Silvio Waiboard: The Rockefeller Foundation, 2001. to clarify the understandings and the http://www.communicationforsocialchange.org/publications-resources.php?id=105 uses of the most influential theories, strategies and techniques and explain the nature and causes of a given problem and provide guidelines for practical interventions. Highly recommended as a general overview of the various approaches to communication for development. Communication that works A short and clear article setting out the Chetley (Health Exchange: London, 2002) differences between behaviour change and www.ecdpm.org/Web_ECDPM/Web/Content/ social change Navigation.nsf/index.htm approaches to communication. Communication for Social Change: A Position Paper and This paper argues that Conference Report. communication for social change is a distinct way The Rockefeller Foundation, 1999 of doing communication - and one of the few http://www.communicationforsocialchange.org/publications-resources.php?id=108 approaches that can be sustained because ownership of both the message and the medium - the content and the process - resides with the individuals or communities affected. Which future role for communication in Danish In this paper, the author development aid? tries to respond to a question that puzzled her Kirsten Lund Larsen: School of Arts and Communication, Malmö University, Sweden, when Partnership 2000 2002. was first published: How was it possible that a document outlining the strategic directions for Danish development assistance in the new Millennium did not contain a single reference to communication? The strategy emphasised poverty alleviation, democratisation, empowerment and participation, and yet it 26 Useful References and Websites ANNEX A made no mention of the necessary ingredient to make all this happen – communication. Research and Learning Group (R&L) – Connecting with The R&L is an audiences throughout the developing world. international group of research professionals BBC World Service Trust. within the BBC World www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/trust. Service Trust with expertise in media, communications and audience insight. The group has specialised in audience research methods and provide services within this field. MONITORING AND INDICATORS Monitoring and Evaluating Information and Communication for The guidelines Development (ICD) Programmes. Guidelines, March 2005 are for development DFID, 2005. Draft. Will be published on: practitioners that need http://www.dfid.gov.uk/aboutdfid/organisation/icd.asp advice on monitoring and evaluating ICD. It introduces a range of approaches to choose from at various stages in programmes. When possible, it refers to further sources of information. The guidelines can be used as reference tools or help development practitioners work with consultants. Measuring Change: A User’s Guide to Participatory Monitoring and This guide is Evaluation of Communication for Social Change. for all those involved in the Will Parks for Communication for Social Change Consortium, Draft 2005. Will be published on: process of communication http://www.communicationforsocialchange.org for social change as facilitators and members of the dialogue community. It outlines how to establish a 27 Useful References and Websites ANNEX A Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation (PM&E) process in which dialogue is central. It encompasses the identification and use of context-specific indicators and tools to assess the impact of Communication for Social Change. Who Measures Change? An Annotated Bibliography Useful websites, Communication for Social Change Consortium, May 2005. report, books, and articles on HIV/AIDS communication, communication for Social Change, and Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation. Exploring the development of indicators derived from a social This brief paper change and social movement process. focuses on the process of The Rockefeller Foundation’s Communication and Social Change Network and John Hopkins preparing University for the Communication Initiative Forum, 2001. indicators for social change http://www.comminit.com/scfulleval/sld-355.html processes asking questions such as why measure and what to measure. It outlines the challenges related to identification of indicators. It identifies 6 indicators and poses key measurement questions to these indicators. Virtual Change – Criteria and Indicators for assessing the impact of ICT Identification of on development trends. 18 core 28 Useful References and Websites ANNEX A on development trends. indicators for ICT Warren Feek – a paper for the SDRE and SDRR Divisions at the FAO, In progress, 2005. interventions based on communication for social change approach, i.e. positive change (such as reduced poverty, better health, and more equitable gender relationships) and its contribution to the overall mix of development action: (a) Dialogue, (b) Voice, (c) Decision- making, (d) Platform, (e) Symbols, (f) Alliances. Results based management (RBM) in UNDP: Selecting Indicators This practical guiding note on http://www.undp.org/eo/documents/methodology/rbm/Indicators-Paperl.doc indicators is part of a series of UNDP notes on Results Based Management. It illustrates the various types of indicators, how to select them. The point of departure is that indicators are signposts of change and indicators are only intended to indicate, and not to provide scientific “proof” or detailed explanations about change. Assessing community change: development of a ‘bare foot’ impact Describes an assessment methodology impact assessment Jallov, Birgitte: Radio Journal Vol. 3, 1. (forthcoming). Radio journal link: methodology 29 Useful References and Websites ANNEX A http://www.intellectbooks.co.uk/ppjournals.php?issn=14764504 that has been designed, tested, revised, and implemented with eight community owned stations in Mozambique between 2000- 2005. 30 Useful References and Websites ANNEX A USEFUL WEBSITES www.comminit.com All communication issues A comprehensive website including all aspects related to communication for development or as expressed in the mission a space to share, debate and innovate for more effective development communication practice. The Goals are among others to: debate development issues and programmes; and improve strategic communication analysis and action, and to promote the importance of communication for development. www.communicationforsocialchange.org Communication for Social Change Comprise experience, references and publications on communication for social change. www.dfid.gov.uk/aboutdfid/organisation/icd DFID Information and Communication .asp Department. References and publications on communication issues www.fao.org/sd/kn1_en.htm Agriculture A site on Communications under FAO's Sustainable Development Department (SD). SD has been a pioneer in the use of communication processes and media to help rural people to exchange experiences, find common ground for collaboration and actively participate in and manage agricultural and rural development activities. Worth searching for good sources, contacts and news on development communications as seen by FAO. The site can be browsed through a detailed list of key- words such as: Audiovisual aids, distance education, emergency preparedness, gender, HIV/AIDS, indigenous knowledge, ICT, Internet, Participatory communication, Popular communication, Rural Radio and Traditional media. www.fao.org/waicent/portal/ Livelihood outreach/livelihoods/en/index-en.html FAO, DFID and ODI undertook a study in 2001-2002 which included a literature review and field trips to three countries to analyse the role of information in livelihoods, and make recommendations on how agencies can capitalize on and integrate the best elements of traditional communication methods and the ICT revolution technologies within the livelihoods approach. 31 Useful References and Websites ANNEX A www.jhuccp.org Health – John Hopkins University This site enables you to access the JHU Centre for Communication Programs and reach their library of extensive and authoritative reports on their communications projects around the world. www.panos.org.uk HIV/AIDS – Panos Institute London The Panos London AIDS Programme works to improve communication about - and media reporting on - HIV/AIDS. Good Practices in Danish Development ICT Assistance. (Not yet official) A comprehensive website on use of ICT in http://demo02.injection.dk/ development, including ICT as tool in communication for development. http://topics.developmentgateway.org/eval ICT uation/rc/BrowseContent.do~source= RCContentUser~folderId=5020 These resources are intended to help in the selection of indicators for M&E of ICT projects. www.aed.org/Communications/ Various topics Academy for Educational Development (AED) is a good site to browse by specific topics: education, environment & energy, health, HIV/Aids, leadership and democracy, youth. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/T World Bank Development Communication Group OPICS/EXTDEVCOMMENG/0,,contentMDK:2023 9027~menuPK:490442~pagePK:34000187~piPK: A good site for publications and handbooks on e.g. 34000160~theSitePK:423815,00.html PRS and communications. Has references to useful websites. 32 GLOSSARY ANNEX B GLOSSARY OF COMMUNICATION TERMS Advocacy Communication strategy to influence policies, positions, and programs of different institutions Behaviour Change Communication programs that through a variety of Communication strategies aim to change practices. Campaign A strategically planned series of related, carefully targeted activities delivered through multiple channels to a large audience and designed to create awareness or behavioural changes in a predefined period of time. Channels Technologies and social practices through which people exchange information and ideas Communication Exchange of information and ideas. It promotes dialogue, feedback and increases understanding among various actors. Communication Capacity Quantity and quality of human resources and their competencies to carry out different tasks required by communication programs Communication for social change A process of public and private dialogue through which people themselves define who they are, what they need and how to get what they need in order to improve their own lives. It utilizes dialogue that leads to collective problem identification, decision-making and community-based implementation of solutions to development issues. Community A group of people with some degree of common interest who identify with one another and who may or may not live in the same geographic area. Community Participation A process to engage people in action to achieve common goals through discussion, organization, and interventions. Community radio Radio for the people by the people Education The process of facilitating learning, to enable audiences to make rational and informed decisions, and to influence their behaviour over long term. Folk/Popular Media Non-mediated forms and channels of communication such as street performances, songs, theatre, puppet shows and fairs. 29 GLOSSARY ANNEX B Indicator A quantitative or qualitative factor or variable that provides a simple and reliable basis for assessing achievement, change or performance. It is a unit of information measured over time that can help show changes in a specific condition. A given goal or objective can have multiple indicators. Information The generation and dissemination of technical information, facts, and issues to create awareness. Institutional Communication Strategies to raise awareness and inform about the goals Interpersonal Communication Communication conducted among two or in small groups such as counselling, training group discussion, and peer education Mass media Technologies used to transmit information to large numbers such as radio, television, newspapers, magazines, video, film, documentary, billboards, and internet. Media persuasion The use of different media to disseminate information to influence the population about ideas and practices Messages Short phrases, sentences or statements that convey information. Objectively verifiable indicators A group of criteria (not necessarily measurable) used to verify the degree of accomplishment (foreseen or actual) of the sectoral purpose, the objective, and the inputs and outputs of a project. They can be quantitative, and therefore both verifiable and measurable, or qualitative, and therefore only verifiable. Primary stakeholders Those who are expected to change Random Sample Survey Collection of quantitative or quantifiable data in casually selected sections of a population in connection with two or more variables which are then examined to detect patterns of relationship. Secondary stakeholders Those who can facilitate the change 30 GLOSSARY ANNEX B Social marketing The design, implementation and control of programmes aimed at increasing the acceptability of a social idea, practice, or product in one or more groups of target adopters. The process actively involves the target population who voluntarily exchange their time and attention for help in meeting their health needs as they perceive them. Social marketing borrows heavily from commercial marketing, especially in the use of the “4P’s” of product, place, promotion, and price. Social mobilization A broad-scale movement to engage large numbers of people in action for achieving a specific development goal through self-reliant effort, most effective when composed of a mix of advocacy, community participation, partnerships and capacity building activities that together create an enabling environment for sustained action and behaviour change. 31 End notes 1 Larsen, Kirsten Lund: Which future role for communication in Danish Development Aid? School of Arts and Communication, Malmö University, Sweden, 2002. 2 Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Partnership 2000, 2000 http://www.um.dk/en/menu/DevelopmentPolicy/DanishDevelopmentPolicy/Partnership2000/ 3 Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, A world of Difference, 2003 http://www.um.dk/en/menu/DevelopmentPolicy/DanishDevelopmentPolicy/WorldOfDifference/ 4 Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Security, Growth and Development, 2004. http://www.um.dk/en/menu/DevelopmentPolicy/DanishDevelopmentPolicy/SecurityGrowthDevelopment/ 5 Burke, Adam. Communications & Development – A practical guide, DFID, 1999. Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Review of Monitoring and Indicators in relation to MDGs and PRSPs” 6Danish COWI. April 2004 7 Ljungman, Cecilia M. et al: Sida’s Work with Culture and Media. A Sida Evaluation Report 04/38. Sida 2005 8 Communication for Social Change Consortium: Measuring Change: A User’s Guide to Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of Communication for Social Change. DRAFT. May 2005 9UNDP: Signposts of Development. RBM in UNDP: Selecting Indicators. http://www.undp.org/eo/documents/methodology/rbm/Indicators-Paperl.doc 10 ibid 11 OECD/DAC: DAC Working Party on Aid Evaluation: Glossary of Evaluation and Results Based Management Terms, Paris 2001 and IFAD: A Guide for Project M&E. A-7, Rome 2002 Communication for Social Change Consortium: Measuring Change: A User’s Guide to Participatory 12 Monitoring and Evaluation of Communication for Social Change. DRAFT. May 2005 13 Communication and Social Change Network and the Johns Hopkins University: http://comminit.com/scfulleval/355.html 14 Communication for Social Change Consortium: Measuring Change: A User’s Guide to Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of Communication for Social Change. DRAFT. 2005 15Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Gender Sensitive Indicators for Monitoring Bilateral Development Assistance – Technical note, 2004. 16 Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Monitoring and Indicators on Good Governance, Technical Note, January 2005 17 Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Human Rights and Good Governance Programme, Nepal, June 2003 18Inter-American Development Bank: Managing Development Communication in Bank Projects. A Handbook for Project Officers. 1999:3. 19 Ibid 20 Ibid 21Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Proposal “Use of Local Radio for Agricultural Extension, Kenya, Uganda and Mozambique”. Dec. 2004. File no: 104.Dan.4-52-5 32
"MONITORING AND INDICATORS FOR COMMUNICATION FOR DEVELOPMENT"