Landsat Satellite Program by xiaohuicaicai

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 51

									Remote Sensing in Precision
       Agriculture
          Remote Sensing
• The science and art of obtaining
  information about an object, area, or
  phenomenon through the analysis of
  data acquired by a device that is not
  in contact with object, area, or
  phenomenon under investigation.
Remote Sensing can divide into four stages
or division based on altitude of the sensor.

• Remote Sensing can divide into four
  stages or division based on altitude
  of the sensor.
• Ground Observation - approximately
  0 - 50 ft.
• Low Altitude Airplane - <10,000 ft
• High Altitude Airplane - > 10,000 ft
• Satellite > 150 miles
   Advantages of Ground Level
           Sensors
• Lowest per unit cost
• With a self-contained light source,
  complete control over incident light
  which simplifies calibration and
  correction.
• Ability to collect data at any time.
• Potential for very high resolution
  data collection.
• Data can be easily georeferenced for
  use in a GIS .
 Disadvantages of Ground Level
           Sensing
• Relatively high costs to scan large
  areas unless part of another field
  operation.
• Cannot simultaneously scan entire
  fields.
Turf Scanned with OSU Sensor
      700.00


                                                   0.70
      600.00
                                                   0.65
                                                   0.60
      500.00                                       0.55
                                                   0.50

      400.00                                       0.45
                                                   0.40
                                                   0.35
      300.00
                                                   0.30

                                                   0.25
      200.00                                       0.20
                                                   0.15

      100.00




               100.00   200.00   300.00   400.00
Possible Configuration of a
    Sensor/Applicator
Experimental OSU Sensor with GPS
       Mounted on an ATV
40 ac of Wheat Pasture Center Scanned with
                   ATV
Interpolated Surface from ATV Scanned
                  Data
Noble Foundation - Pepsi Field ATV Sensor
                  Scan
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Noble Foundation Pepsi Field NDVI Fixed
            Interval Scale
Noble Foundation Pepsi Field NDVI - Natural
              Breaks Scale
Advantages of Aerial Remote Sensing

• Can quickly scan large area.
• Cost/ac when scanning large areas is
  relatively low.
• Data can be collected at high
  resolution < 1m.
Disadvantages of Aerial Remote Sensing
• Images must be rectified and
  georeferenced.
• Cost to scan small areas is high.
• Data can’t be collected at night or in
  bad weather.
• Calibration must be performed on the
  images.
    Methods of Optical Sensing
• Photographic

• Digital Imaging
NDVI of OSU Experiment Station
          1m Resolution
Detail of Southwest Corner
False Color Image Noble Foundation Red
              River Ranch
Corn at Shelton, NE
NDVI Late Sept. 1997
3/25/98 Wheat Pasture Center 1-m
      Resolution NDVI Image
4/23/98 Wheat Pasture Center 1-m
      Resolution NDVI Image
   False Color (green, red, NIR) Image
< 1 m Resolution - Raw Radiometric Data
           (Courtesy F. Schiebe)
   False Color (green, red, NIR) Image
< 1 m Resolution – Reflectance Corrected
 Radiometric Data (Courtesy F. Schiebe)
Gray Scale Image < 1 m Resolution – Reflectance
       Corrected NDVI (Courtesy F. Schiebe)
Reflectance Corrected Gray Scale Image < 1 m
  Resolution – Green to Near Infrafed Ratio
             (Courtesy F. Schiebe)
  Advantage of Satellite Sensing
• Historical data are readily available.
• Cost/ac of large area images is vary
  low.
• Very large areas can be scanned
  near instantaneously.
• Data for radiometric bands up to 16
  micro meters are available.
Disadvantages of Satellite Sensing
• Resolution is lower than other
  sources.
• Cannot control when an area is
  scanned, e.g. each area is scanned
  every 16 to 26 days.
• Correction of radiometric data
  because of atmospheric interference
  is challenging.
       Remote Sensing System
       Measures of Performance
•   Spatial Resolution
•   Spectral Response
•   Spectral Resolution
•   Frequency of Coverage
  Landsat Satellite Program
• United States NASA satellites
• Images from Landsat 5 available
  from Space Imaging Corporation -
  www.spaceimaging.com (formerly
  EOSAT
• Images from Landsat 7 available
  from USGS, Sioux Falls,
   South Dakota
         Landsat Satellites
• Landsat Scene 185 km x 185 km
• TM quantatization Range 256 (8 bits)
• 16 day repeat cycle per satellite
• Currently only one satellite is
  operational
• Satellite crosses the equator at 9:45
  local time (North to South Pass)
  Sensor Used on Current Landsat
            Satellites

Sensor          Sensitivity   Resolution
                   (m)          (m)
MSS              0.5 – 0.6        82
Multispectral
Scanner
                 0.6 - 0.7        82
                 0.8 – 1.1        82
Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM)
 Band     Sensitivity   Resolution
              (m)          (m)
   1      0.45 – 0.52      30
   2      0.52 – 0.60      30
   3      0.63 – 0.69      30
   4      0.76 – 0.90      30
   5      1.55 – 1.75      30
   6      10.4 – 12.5      120
   7      2.08 – 2.35      30
               TM Spectral Bands

                      Mapping coastal water, soil
Band 1 Blue           vegetation discrimination forest
0.45-0.52 m          type mapping, & cultural feature
                      identification
                      Vegetation discrimination and
Band 2 Green          vigor assessment and cultural
0.52-0.60 m          feature identification
                      Chlorophyl absorption region.
Band 3 Red            Also useful for plant species
0.63-0.69 m          identification and cultural
                      features.
               Landsat TM Bands


Band 4         Near       Determination of
0.76-0.90 m   Infrared   vegetation types, vigor,
                          biomass content. Also
                          delineation of water bodies
                          and soil moisture
Band 5         Mid        Plant moisture content and
1.55-1.75 m   Infrared   soil moisture. Also
                          differentiate snow from
                          clouds
Band 6         Thermal    Vegetation moisture
10.4-12.5      Infrared   content, soil moisture
                          discrimination, and thermal
                          mapping applications
               Landsat TM Bands


Band 7         Mid        Discrimination of mineral and
2.08-2.35 m              rock types. Sensitive to plant
               Infrared   moisture content
TM Image North Central Oklahoma April,
                1998
April 23,1998 TM Scene over North Central
                Oklahoma
   Systeme Pour l’Observation
       de la Terre (SPOT)
• Orbit repeats every 26 days
• 60 km wide field-of-view per camera
  or 117 km field of view with both
  units
• Quantatization Range 256 (8 bits)
• Images available through
  www.spot.com
Systeme Pour l’Observation
    de la Terre (SPOT)

    Band          Resolution

Panchromatic        10 m
 0.51 – 0.73 m
0.50 – 0.59 m      20 m

0.61 – 0.68 m      20 m

0.79 – 0.89 m      20 m
SPOT XS image
SPOT Pan image
       Indian Research Satellite
         IRS - LISS 3 Satellites
•   23 m Resolution 4 bands
•   5 m Resolution - Panchromatic
•   142 by 145 km Image Size
•   24 day repeat cycle
•   Images available through
    Spaceimaging at
    www.spaceimaging.com
IRS-LISS
                  IKONIS
• Resolution
  – 4 m multispectral
  – 1 m Panchromatic
• Scene size is approximately 7 miles by 7
  miles
• Scenes are available from Space Imaging
• Farm size images marketed by Earthscan
  Network, a subsidiary of DTN
IKONOS
 Steps to Utilize Remote Sensed
   Data (modified from JD text
• Collect data
• Process image data (rectification,
  radiometric correction, and
  georeferencing)
• Examine image and analyze
  statistical data
• Perform ground truthing of remote-
  sensed data
 Steps to Utilize Remote Sensed
   Data (modified from JD text
• Incorporate remote sensed and
  ground truth data into a GIS
• Develop calibration equations for
  remote sensed data
• Identify cause-effect relationships
  among measured variables and crop
  conditions
• Treat regions in fields (management
  zones) based on information
  generated
                        Marshall Wheat Pasture Center Calibration
                                         Data
                                                        Wheat Yiield vs NDVI

                        70
                                 LISS III 97 (May 18)

                        60       TM 98 (April 23)
                                 TM 93 (April 25)
                                 TM 94 (March 27)
Wheat Yield (Bu/acre)




                        50


                        40


                        30


                        20


                        10


                         0
                          0.00     0.10       0.20      0.30    0.40    0.50   0.60   0.70   0.80
                                                               NDVI

								
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