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DIFFUSION AND UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES BY MICRO AND SMALL ENTREPRENEURS IN THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN KENYA BY GEORGE GITAU NJOROGE: 2010 DPHIL ABSTRACT Using a transformative qualitative research method based on interpretive philosophy, this study employed a conceptual model that integrates diffusion of innovation, change management, information needs, learning and sharing of knowledge theories and models to explore factors that influence diffusion and utilization of ICTs in accessing information by micro and small entrepreneurs in the tourism industry in Kenya. Specifically, it examined the ownership, ICTs application, influence and challenges on enterprises' access to information, and opportunities of ICT application in strengthening and developing information systems for micro and small‐scale entrepreneurs in the tourism industry. Data was collected through semi‐structured interview schedules, and supplemented by observation and document reviews. For qualitative data, framework analysis method that constitutes identification, summarization and coding of relevant key issues, concepts and themes to a study was used. The process of mapping and interpretation of the findings was influenced by the research objectives and the themes that emerged from the data. Quantitative data were presented through tables, graphs and charts. Quantitative data were presented through tables, graphs and charts. The result indicates that ICTs have introduced opportunities for improving communication and access to information through quality information systems that are bound to enhance efficiency and effectiveness of most MSEs' processes and create new business opportunities. Further, it indicates that MSEs use ICTs to access information, for e‐mail services, reservations of air flights, hotels and lodges and to market their products and services. Mobile phones are used for communication and money transfer services, computers for word processing and storage of business information, while the World Wide Web to access information and to market products and services. Upgrading and continuous expansion of ICT ‐based systems was regarded as critical to the future success of businesses. It was revealed, however, that most MSEs had applied and adapted such systems largely on an ad hoc basis. They lacked prerequisite knowledge and skills, security and trust, financial resources and support to derive full benefits of these technologies. The study concludes that information needs and subsequent seeking behavior influences diffusion and utilization of ICTs by micro and small entrepreneurs in the tourism industry. This is in addition to technological factors, organization factors, and learning and knowledge sharing among MSEs. In this regard, the study recommends that the Ministry of Tourism through Kenya tourism Development Corporation (KTDC), who are mandated to provide advisory and financial services to investors in tourism, and the tourism stakeholders through Kenya Tourism Federation (KTF), intervenes and develop national capacity for ICT adoption, support online content generation for the tourism industry, develop short ICT courses specific to the industry, and establish policies and legislations that will enable MSEs to effectively adopt and utilize ICTs to meet their information needs. The ministry should also strive to identify business information needs of MSEs and work towards meeting these needs by developing effective information systems. Finally, the study proposes a model to enhance diffusion and better utilization of ICTs by the micro and small enterprises in the tourism industry to improve access to useful enterprise information and better delivery of business information. THE MANAGEMENT OF PERSONNEL RECORDS IN THE PRESIDENT’S OFFICE, PUBLIC SERVICE MANAGEMENT, GOVERNMENT OF TANZANIA-2010 BY NORBET IGNAZI CYRILLE ABSTRACT Proper management of personnel records can make a significant contribution to personnel records management by ensuring that information is available to take decisions and to protect t he rights both of the state and of individuals. A personnel records system should run effectively whether it is in a purely paper‐based environment or in the emerging electronic environment. The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate how effectively personnel records are managed in the Tanzania public service with specific reference to the President's Office ‐ Public Service Management, with a view to developing a records management model as a tool for the management of personnel records in the public service. The specific objectives of the study were to: determine how effectively personnel records are managed in the PO‐PSM; establish what government policies, systems, standards and procedures existed to guide the management of personnel records in the PO‐PSM; explore the challenges experienced in the management of personnel records in the PO‐PSM, determine the use of personnel records in decision making and service delivery; and suggest strategies to address the challenges facing personnel records held in government ministries and departments and propose a records management model to be adopted in the management of personnel records in Tanzania. The theoretical framework for this study was derived from the Records Continuum Model and the Diffusion of Innovation Model. A sample of 46 respondents was selected for the study using purposive and convenient random sampling techniques. The study sample included 3 top management staff, 20 action officers, 8 registry staff, and 15 RAMD staff. The study was qualitative in nature, and data were collected using interviews, which were supplemented by observation and documentary sources. The data were analyzed qualitatively, using data description. The findings of the study showed that personnel records were an important source of information for human resource functions as they were specifically used to document the employees' work history. The findings further indicated that personnel records management at PO‐PSM faced a number of problems, the major one being, the lack of policies, standards, procedures and guidelines to underpin the effective and efficient management of personnel records. Other issues included low priority accorded to records management; absence of records management culture; inadequate skills for managing records especially in electronic format. On the basis of the findings, it was recommended that there is a need for Tanzania to have a major overhaul of personnel records management systems throughout the public service; policies, standards, guidelines and procedures should be promulgated and implemented to improve the management of personnel records in the public service and especially in the PO‐PSM. A model was developed to enhance the management of personnel records in the PO‐PSM. PROVISION OF INFORMATION TO USERS AT THE UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMME HEADQUATERS, NAIROBI-2010 BY STEPHEN MWANGI MACHARIA 2010 ABSTRACT Efficient and effective provision of information services is essential to the success of an organization since it improves decision making, enhances efficiency and provides a competitive edge to any organization both big and small. Quality provision of information services is something that information providers cannot ignore anymore in any organization. The aim of this study was to investigate the provision of information services to users at UNEP with a view to identifying the gaps that may be addressed to enhance provision of information services at UNEP and to adopt a model for effective and efficient provision of information services. The specific objectives of the study were; identify information services available at UNEP; determine the information provision methods applied at UNEP; identify the information needs and information seeking behavior of users at UNEP; establish the range, sources of environmental information and information resources available at UNEP; determine which tools are used for the collecting, storage, and dissemination of information; establish the challenges affecting users at UNEP in accessing the relevant information and make practical recommendations to the challenges affecting users at UNEP for more efficient and effective provision of information to the UNEP information user community. This study was based on two models; the Wilson's theory of information behavior (1996) and the Niedzwiedzka's (2003) new model of information behavior. Data was collected from one hundred and fifteen users including sixty researchers, forty five students and ten senior managers of UNEP. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used where data was collected using semi‐structured interview schedules and document review. Data was analyzed thematically using qualitative data analysis technique. The study identified some gaps in the provision of information services at UNEP. Among the THE ROLE OF RECORDS MANAGEMENT IN SUPPORTING LOCAL GOVERNMENT REFORMS PROGRAMME AT DAR-ES-SALAAM CITY COUNCIL TANZANIA -2010 BY JOSEPH MASSOTA ROBART NDARO ABSTRACT Records management is a key driver in increasing organizational efficiency and offers significant business benefits to reforms in Dar‐es‐ Salaam City Council, Tanzania. Tanzania has experience breakdown of recordkeeping systems in Local Government Authorities (LGA). Most of the LGA offices manage their records in an unsystematic way to warrant their continuous use in supporting the Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP) instituted in the early 2000. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of records management in supporting local government reforms programme (LGRP) at Dar‐es‐ Salaam City Council, Tanzania and propose a records management framework for implementation of reforms in Dar‐es‐ Salaam City Council. The specific objectives of the study were to: Establish the nature and purposes of records management reforms in Dar‐es‐ Salaam City Council offices and their effectiveness in implementation of LGRP ; determine the methods used by RAMD Staff in addressing the records management issues during implementation of LGRP; establish measures taken by Dar‐es‐ Salaam City Council management to sustain records management reforms; identify records management challenges experienced by Dares‐Salaam City Council management in the implementation of local government reforms and suggest appropriate strategies that would help to address challenges identified by the study. The study was informed by Frank Upward (1997) Records Continuum Model. Purposive sampling technique was used at various stages of the research process to collect data from 93 respondents namely Directors, Assistant Directors, Action Officers, RMA staff, RAMD staff, LGRP staff, PMs Office Staff and other records users. The data was collected through interview schedules supplemented by observations. Data was presented and analyzed qualitatively. The study findings indicate that Dar‐es‐ Salaam City Council faced various records management challenges which undermine support of LGRP. The study recommended the Dar‐es‐ Salaam City Council Management design records management policies and procedures, train registry staff, educate and sensitize record users; upgrade records centers and archival repositories, manage the transition from paper records to electronic records as well as monitor and evaluate the implementation of records management programs. A proposed records management model for Dar‐es‐ Salaam City Council to support effective implementation of LGRP is provided. It is hoped that, the recommendation of the study will assist the Dar‐es‐ Salaam City Council to design effective recordkeeping system aimed at sustaining LGRP in collaboration with RAMD Management. RECORDS MANAGEMENT AND RISK MANAGEMENT AT KENYA COMMERCIAL BANK LIMITED, NAIROBI AREA -2010 BY CLEOPHAS MUTUNDU AMBIRA ABSTRACT Risk management has become a major point of focus in the banking industry. Despite increasing efforts and strategies for mitigating risk in the banking industry, there continues to be a sense of neglect of records and records management as an essential component of risk management. This study investigated records management and risk management at Kenya Commercial Bank (KCB) Ltd, Nairobi. The specific objectives of the study were to: establish the nature and type of risks KCB is exposed to; conduct business process analysis and identify the records generated; establish the extent to which records management is emphasized within KCB as a tool for managing risk; identify vital records that need protection because of their nature and value to the Bank. The study was informed by Frank Upward's (1980) Records Continuum Model and the Government of Canada (2000) Integrated Risk Management Model. The study population sample size constituted thirty six (36) respondents drawn from five KCB Nairobi braches and five Head Office units comprising management and non management cadres of staff. Face‐to‐face interviews were used as the data collection method. Qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to analyze, present and interpret data. Analysis of data was done by use of thematic method. Key findings of the study were that: KCB is exposed to a wide range of risks by virtue of its business; KCB generates a lot of records in the course of its business activities; there are inadequate records management practices and systems, which undermine risk management function. Recommendations include: KCB Operations Division should develop a comprehensive enterprise‐wide records management programme for the Bank; KCB Risk Management Division should include Records Management as part of its risk management strategies. MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRONIC REORDS AT MOI UNIVERSITY ELDORET, KENYA -2010 BY PENINAH NASIEKU ABSTRACT The advent of ICTs and in particular the computer, has altered the ways in which records are created, received, maintained, used and disposed of. Moi University has embraced the use of computers as a critical tool for information management and communication in support of its business transactions. However, despite embracing the use of computers in creating and receiving information, the management of electronic records remains a neglected area of the university record keeping system. The aim of the study was to examine the management of electronic records at Moi University within the context of the continuum principle with a view to recommending a framework that can be used to manage electronic records. The specific objectives of the study were to: conduct a business process analysis of Moi University and ascertain the electronic records generated and received by the institution; determine and evaluate the strategies used for managing electronic records; ascertain the professional knowledge and skills of staff responsible for managing electronic records; determine the adequacy of the existing ICT infrastructure and resources to cater for the management of electronic records; identify the challenges encountered by staff in the management of electronic records and propose a framework for improving and sustaining the efficient and effective management of electronic records at Moi University. The study used both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The study population consisted of 60 respondents drawn from Moi University Main Campus, Chepkoilel Campus and Town Campuses. Purposive sampling technique was used to select respondents from university management, ICT, general administration, records/accounts and secretarial staff. Data was collected using semi‐structured interview schedules supplemented by observation. Statistical data was presented in the form of tables and graphs and content analysis was used to organize data collected through interviews. The major findings of the study were that: policies and procedures to guide the management of electronic records were non‐existent; staff devised their own strategies for managing electronic records; the ICT infrastructure was not adequate and the computers did not have a record keeping system. Staff faced many challenges which included: lack of knowledge and skills in records management and in particular electronic records management; poor handling of storage devices and lack of connectivity. The recommendations of the study include: the development and implementation of a policy framework for managing electronic records; equipping staff and especially those responsible for managing electronic records with knowledge and skills in records management and in particular electronic records management; staff and users be equipped with ICT skills to enable them work in an electronic environment and the university should raise awareness amongst staff on the importance of electronic records management. A proposed policy framework for managing electronic records is provided. THE ROLE OF KENYA NATIONAL LIBRARY SERVICES IN SUPPORTING UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION IN ELDORET MUNICIPALITY-2008 BY ELSEBAH J. MASEH ABSTRACT Education has emerged pivotal in helping to reduce poverty by equipping people with skills necessary to increase productivity and tackle the millennium development goals (MDGs) Consequently, the achievement of Universal Primary Education (UPE) is ranked second among other MDGs. The Kenyan government in response to this call introduced Free Primary Education (FPE) in January 2003. This resulted in drastic increases in primary school enrollment in public primary schools. However, this introduced new challenges in that, school libraries are not able to fully meet information needs of both teachers and pupils. It is, therefore, expected that the Kenya National Library Service (KNLS), being a stake holder in the education sector should come in to support UPE. It is however not clear to what extent the KNLS supports UPE thus the need for this research The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the KNLS Eldoret branch supports the achievement of UPE in Eldoret municipality The study sought to (i) identify the types of information materials available in the library and the services offered by the library (ii) establish measures being undertaken by KNLS Eldoret branch towards the achievement of universal primary education in the municipality (iii) evaluate the support given by the library towards the achievement of ul11versal primary education (iv) find out constraints faced' by the library in its contribution towards the achievement of universal primary education (v) to suggest possible strategies that the library could use to enhance the achievement of universal primary education in the municipality. The study was based on the Ranganathan’s Laws of library Science. The study was a survey research whose study population comprised of representatives from public and private municipal primary schools. Other stakeholders including the Municipal Education Officer (MEO), Municipal Quality and Standards Assurance Officer (MQSAO) and KNLS Eldoret branch librarian were used as key informants for the study. Probability sampling method was used where stratified random sampling technique was used to draw samples from both the public and private primary schools within the Municipality The study sample therefore comprised 29 representatives of public primary schools, 25 representatives of private primary schools and the three key informants making it a total of 57 respondents. The study adopted survey research method where Interviews and administration of questionnaires were used as techniques of data collection. Qualitative and quantitative techniques were used to present, analyze and interpret the data. The findings showed that KNLS played an insignificant role in supporting UPE There was no cooperation between the municipal education office, primary schools and the KNLS branch library, the materials in the library though useful were not relevant to the current syllabus and were outdated, and the library was faced by a number of challenges that needed to be addressed. The study concluded that the branch library should play a more significant role in the support of UPE. The study recommended the formation of a learning resources development committee within the municipality to address the challenges facing the library so that the library could maximize its support to UPE in the municipality. DISASTER PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS IN UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES IN KENYA -2008 DPHIL BY DANIEL WAMBIRI MUTHEE ABSTRACT The prevalence of disasters which devastate world economies and services is a wakeup call for librarians to the vulnerability of libraries. Libraries collect and disseminate vital information which is prerequisite to the fulfillment of the university mission of teaching and research. Disaster preparedness in university libraries ensures continued services or immediate resumption of service and therefore, eliminates the possibility of entire termination of library services. This study investigated the level of disaster preparedness in university libraries in Kenya. Specifically, it established: the importance of disaster preparedness programs; the attitude of library management to disaster management programs; the degree of involvement of library staff; existing level of skills or knowledge in disaster preparedness; efforts and measures taken towards disaster preparedness and possible challenges and solutions to the challenges and problems. The study was based on the contingency approach theory, a theory that emphasizes on the activities that must be put in place in advance in the event of a disaster. It emphasized on disaster preparedness by giving alternative course of action. The theory is a strong platform for supporting and ensuring availability and continued library services for the university clientele even in the face of disaster. The study covered twelve university libraries in Kenya, specifically six public and six private university libraries. The study population included university librarians, deputy librarians, and senior librarians involved in decision‐making. Data was collected using observation and interview methods. Pre‐testing was carried out to ascertain the suitability of the tools used. Descriptive techniques were used to present and analyze the data. The study found out that the respondents had a high regard for disaster planning and preparedness programs (DPPP) despite its low implementation. There was inadequate education and training. The staff lacked the necessary skills to deal with disasters. Disaster management has not been prioritized and the libraries lacked insurance policies and budget for disasters. Major obstacles to effective DPPP included among others, indifferent attitude from staff and university management, education and training for equipping staff with knowledge and skills to deal with disasters. Others were lack of university management policies, inadequate funding, strong bureaucracy management systems and low involvement of library staff in development of DPPP strategies. The study recommends that staff education and training be enhanced as a way of ensuring that the staff have prerequisite skills to handle disasters. It was also recommended that collaboration and networking with stakeholders as well as adoption of Information Communication Technology (ICT) as a strategy to strengthen DPPP be adopted. AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNITY BASED LIBRARY SERVICE IN PROVIDING INFORMATION SERVICES TO RURAL COMMUNITIES IN KENYA - 2008 BY HESBON SHIKUKU KIONGE ABSRACT Kenya National Library service (KNLS), is charged with the mandate of empowering Kenyans with information for development, regardless of their education or societal status. To date, this mandate is yet to be realized as far as KNLS' information service provision is concerned. Consequently, most Kenyans have opted to ignore KNLS services as they seem not to be compatible with their information needs. In an attempt to address this shortcoming, the KNLS Board founded alternative information service provision approach through Community Eased Library (CEL) system. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of Community Eased Library (CEL) services to the communities they purport to serve. The study specifically sought to examine the status of CBLs in Kenya with particular reference to:‐ the kind of services they offer, the conditions and relevancy of their collections, and the communities' levels of awareness of such services among others. The study was based on Defleur's theory of improved communication of 1970, as was first advanced by Shannon and Weaver communication model. The study fitted well in this theory as it was concerned with seeking feedbacks (responses) on the effectiveness of the CELs' information provision services to their intended clients. It was an exploratory study based on qualitative research, although with a number of integrated quantitative data analysis. The study employed survey method through data collection instruments comprising interviews schedules, semi‐ structured questionnaires, focused group discussions as well as an in‐depth documentary analysis. Of the four hundred and six targeted respondents, three hundred and thirty two responded, giving a response rate of eighty two percent. The study established that the initial Community Based Library (CBL) concept is yet to be formalized in the current CEL facilities' frameworks as far as their information services are concerned. This has resulted into different perception of CELs among the stake holders' in relation to their ownership, operations, and sustainability. The study concluded that the current Community Based Libraries have fallen short of providing effective information services to rural communities in Kenya and hence, have no any unique identity that differentiate them from the conventional public libraries that they were meant to depart away from, in terms of their service provisions. One of the major recommendations the study made is that, a senior position be created at the head office to effectively coordinate all aspects of CBL development. This study was meant to stir‐up top KNLS decision makers to initiate proper CEL development approaches that can guarantee effective information service provision and assured sustainability. MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRONIC REORDS AT MOI UNIVERSITY ELDORET, KENYA -2007 BY CAROLINE KAYORO ABSTRACT In many countries legal deposit law plays an important role in the development of the national collection. Although Kenya has a legal deposit law, it has not been effective. No empirical study has been conducted to determine the extent to which the law has contributed to the development of the national collection. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the legal deposit law in Kenya to ascertain the extent to which it has contributed to the development of the national collection. The objectives of the study were to: analyze the legal deposit law and its administration in Kenya; evaluate the state of the legal deposit collections in the recipient institutions; determine the level of awareness about legal deposit law among depositors and the: recipient institutions; ascertain the level of compliance with the law by producers of information materials; and propose solutions to improve the legal deposit law in Kenya. The theoretical framework of the study was based on Ranganathan's Five Laws of Library Science which state that; books are for use, every reader his/her book, every book its reader, save time of the reader and the library is a growing organism. Survey research method was adopted. The study population included publishers, recipient institutions and the Office of the Registrar of Books and Newspapers. Non‐probability sampling method was used through the purposive sampling technique. The study was based in Nairobi. The respondents selected comprised 33% of the study population. Interviews were the main data collection method. Face‐to‐face interviews were employed with the aid of semi‐structured interview schedules. In addition, documentary analysis was used to collect data from relevant documentary sources. Data collected was analyzed using various qualitative techniques and presented in tables, descriptions and percentages. It was found that the legal deposit law in Kenya was ineffective. Among the reasons cited were: poor administration and enforcement of the law; lack of awareness of the benefits of the law; various other limitations in the law that do not facilitate comprehensive collection of publications. The study recommended, among others, the enactment of a new legal deposit law, the establishment of a national library to administer the law, proper record‐keeping, regular evaluation of the law and sensitization efforts. It is hoped that the findings of the study will be of theoretical and practical significance to information professionals, researchers and policy‐makers in the country. ACCESSIBILITY AND UTILIZATION OF HIV/AIDS INFORMATION BY UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS-2007 BY RAPHAEL WANYONYI NAMARU ABSTRACT University students indulge in dangerous behaviors that put them at risk of contracting HIV virus. This is largely attributed to lack of information to equip them with knowledge and skills to avoid dangerous behavior. This study investigated the accessibility and utilization of HIV / AIDS information by Moi University Students. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the kind of information needs Moi University students have in relation to HIV/AIDS, determine the use of available information services on HIV/AIDS by students, determine the problems that affect communication of HIV / AIDS information to students, establish the various HIV/AIDS information sources available for Moi University students and the extent to which they are accessible to serve their information needs, establish the various channels used to communicate HIV/AIDS information to students, assess the effectiveness of the channels used by students in accessing HIV/AIDS information and establish the problems that hinder effective communication of HIV / AIDS information to Moi University students and suggest ways of improving it. The Survey method was used for this research. Systematic sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample for this research. Two hundred and fifty seven students participated in the study and were drawn from three campuses of Moi University namely the Main Campus, Chepkoilel and College of Health Sciences. The nominal rolls at respective campuses were used as sampling frames for respondents Data was collected by use of questionnaires and interviews and a total of 257 undergraduate students were interviewed. Documentary sources were utilized as a complimentary method of data collection. Data collected were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Tables were used to enter specific types of data in order to show relationship between variables. The findings from the study indicate that the provision of HIV/ AIDS information in Moi University was not effective. Several reasons can be advanced for this phenomenon. These include: lack of well‐defined policies stipulating how HIV/AIDS information should be provided by the university, lack of appropriate HIV/AIDS information by mass media; lack of trained resource persons and restricted location of HIV/AIDS information resources. It was concluded that university students need to be informed about HIV/AIDS information resources availability in order to address some misconceptions that they hold as well as influence their behaviors to avoid HIV infection. The study recommends that the government of Kenya should formulate policies on provision of HIV/AIDS education to university students, provision of guidance and counseling of the university students on HIV / AIDS, promote use of peer group counseling, health professionals, AIDS patients, religious leaders, professional counselors, parents and use of mass media to provide HIV/AIDS information to students. HIV/AIDS awareness clubs and performing arts/ information role‐play should be utilized to disseminate HIV/ AIDS information. APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN HEALTH CARE SERVICES AT THE NAIROBI HOSPITAL- 2007 BY FRANCIS MURIUKI MACHARIA ABSTRACT Medical information and knowledge is continuously being generated. This in turn requires medics to continually up‐date their information and knowledge as well as making contributions to the existing knowledge. They require current information and knowledge to be able to face daily challenges resulting from the rapid developments occurring in the field. There is need for this knowledge to be managed. Although knowledge management is being applied in both the public and private hospitals in Kenya, the extent of its application is unclear. This study therefore, investigated how knowledge management is applied in health care services at the Nairobi Hospital. The specific objectives of , the study were to establish the existence of knowledge management practices at the Nairobi Hospital; ascertain the level of ICT awareness and infrastructure at the hospital and how this has affected the sharing of knowledge among the medics; establish the culture of knowledge sharing at the hospital; establish the sources of knowledge available to medical staff of the hospital; ascertain the hierarchical structure of the hospital and how it affects sharing of knowledge; establish the nature of relationships between various departments and their functions; establish the problems affecting knowledge management practices at the hospital; and recommend measures to be taken into account in improving knowledge management at the hospital. The study was based on the theory of connectivism, a learning theory for the digital age. The theory emphasizes the element of connecting people to people and people to information, which is a major concept in knowledge management. Knowledge management is about ensuring that people have the knowledge they need, where they need it and when they need it ‐ the right knowledge, in the right place, at the right time. The study was based on the case study research design. Purposive and random sampling techniques were used. Data was collected through face to face semi ‐ structured interviews, observation and documentary review. It was analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. Analysis was further enhanced through use of tables and percentages. Among the findings was that there is no formal knowledge management strategy at the hospital. The hospital culture was found to be conducive for knowledge sharing. The hospital ICT infrastructure was found inadequate as well as the medics computing skills. The study concluded that there was knowledge creation, sharing and use activities at the hospital. In addition, the hospital administration encouraged knowledge sharing and learning through training and PROVISION OF CAREER INFORMATION RESOURCES TO SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ELDORET MUNICIPALITY KENYA-2007 BY RICHARD KIMITEI KIRUI ABSTRACT According to the Ministry of Education, career guidance in secondary schools in Kenya has not been adequately effective. As a result, school leavers make uninformed career choices and undertake unsuitable career training programmes that ultimately are not beneficial to them and the society at large. This study, therefore, aimed at examining the current status of provision of career information resources to secondary school students in Eldoret Municipality and, also, to suggest possible ways of improvements. The objectives of the study were to: determine career information needs of secondary school students in the municipality; establish how students go about seeking information on career; identify career information resources and services available; assess the effectiveness of career information resources; analyze problems, if any, that hinder effective provision of career information and, suggest ways of improving the provision and utilization of career information resources by secondary school students in the municipality . The theoretical framework on which this study was based is Defleur's Communication Model. To determine a representative sample for the study, probability sampling method and simple random sampling technique was employed. A sample of 10 schools‐ 5 public and 5 private‐ was drawn randomly from a population of twenty‐ one schools. From each of the selected schools, a 10 % sample of each of Forms III and IV students was selected randomly from sampling frames. A teacher in charge of guidance and counseling in each of the selected schools participated in the study as key informants. Data was collected from the selected students by use of questionnaires and an interview schedule was used to collect data from key informants. The findings of the study indicate that secondary school students in Eldoret municipality needed career information. The study established that secondary school students in the Municipality sought for information to satisfy various career information needs. The study also established that available career information resources in the Municipality secondary schools were ineffective. Some of the problems which hindered the effective provision of career information resources were: lack of trained career teachers, lack of publications on careers, lack of specified time on the time table for career discussions, extra workload on the career teachers. From the study a number of recommendations were advanced to improve the provision of career information resources to schools in the Municipality. MARKETING PRACTICES AND TECHNIQUES USED BY AGRICUTURAL LIBRARIES TO MARKET INFORMATION SERVICES TO RESEARCHERS AND POLICY MAKERS IN KENYA- 2006 BY JANE CHERONO MAINA ABSTRACT Agriculture plays a major role in the national economic growth and development in Kenya. It is a major contributor to the Gross Domestic Product, foreign exchange and is the main source of employment. Information is one of the, key resources that the government uses to improve growth in this sector. Libraries have been established in agricultural institutions to provide information to researchers, extension personnel, policy makers and farmers. However" literature has shown that agricultural libraries have not been appreciated as important sources of information by its major stakeholder. Marketing is critical to the clientele's appreciation and subsequent use of agricultural libraries. This study is aimed at examining marketing practices of agricultural libraries in Kenya; and the techniques used by these libraries to market their information services to researchers and policy makers. The objectives of this study are to: establish the types of infor_l1_tion services provided by libraries in agricultural, institutions in Kenya;' investigate the nature of marketing practices of libraries in agricultural institutions in Kenya;, examine the marketing techniques used, to market agricultural information services to researchers and policy makers; determine the challenges faced by librarians in agricultural institutions in Kenya when marketing agricultural information services to' researchers and I policy makers; suggest strategies suitable' for, marketing agricultural information services to researchers and policy makers in agricultural institutions in Kenya. The theoretical framework for this study was based on Gronroos triangle of service marketing. A sample of four libraries were selected each from the three categories of agricultural libraries in Kenya namely research, educational and administrative. From each of the selected library, an 80% sample of library staff and 40% of researchers were systematically selected. Four library managers and 'twenty‐seven policy makers were purposively selected. Questionnaires were administered to library staff, researchers and' policy makers while the librarians were interviewed. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. The major findings of this study are: agricultural libraries provide several types of information services; agricultural libraries hardly carry out planned marketing activities to researchers, and policy makers; promotion was given more emphasis by agricultural libraries than the other elements of the marketing mix; the role of marketing was appreciated by both library managers and library staff; most library staff in agricultural libraries lack marketing skills. Challenges that face agricultural librarians including inadequate funds, lack' of formal marketing activities, marketing policies, modem technology and marketing skills among library staff, and poor infrastructure. Conclusions were drawn from the analyzed data and recom1nendations were made to improve marketing practices and techniques of agricultural libraries in Kenya. Agricultural libraries, researchers, policy makers and specialists in the information field are likely to find the results of this study useful in developing suitable marketing strategies for agricultural information provision. CULTIVATION AND PROMOTION OF A READING CULTURE AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN AREAS: A CASE STUDY OF SCHOOLS IN ELDORET MUNICIPALITY- 2006 By FREDRICK WAWIRE OTIKE ABSTRACT The study investigated the efforts being made towards the cultivation and promotion of a reading culture in primary schools within Eldoret Municipality. The specific objectives of the study were to: determine the extent to which reading culture was being promoted in the schools; to analyze the strategies used in promoting a reading culture among primary school children; to establish the relationship between the educational system/objectives and (post‐school) reading culture; to establish the role played by the Kenya National Library Service (KNLS) in the development and cultivation of a reading culture; to establish the impediments in promoting reading and development of a reading culture and finally to suggest and recommend measures that may be used in promoting a reading culture among primary school children in the urban areas. This study was guided by the scheme theory. Scheme is the structure or organization of actions as they are transferred or generalized by repetition in similar or analogous circumstances. This theory describes the process by which readers combine their own background knowledge with the information in a text to comprehend that text. The theory is based on the belief that the art of comprehension involves ones knowledge of the world as well. Thus readers develop. a coherent interpretation of the text through the interactive process of combing textual information with the information a reader brings to a text. Fifteen primary schools within Eldoret Municipality were sampled for the study, they comprised five private and ten public primary schools. From each school, the head teacher and language teacher/school librarian were interviewed using the semi‐structured interview schedule. Self‐ administered questionnaires were used to solicit for information from pupils in the selected primary schools. Analysis of documentary sources was also used to provide supplementary information. All the data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and relationships between variables were discussed. The study established that most of the schools relied on the library lessons to promote a reading habit. Furthermore, there were no policies in the Kenyan educational system that encouraged cultivation and promotion of a reading culture. The reading habit was therefore promoted in a vacuum. Due to lack of firm government policy most schools had no libraries or adequate reading materials. The study recommended several measures that need to be taken by the Government and stakeholders in improving the situation. These include, the need to restructure the current school curriculum to incorporate more reading for leisure; the need to enact a policy to enable construction of libraries in schools and provision of relevant resources by qualified librarians; provision of more reading books to pupils and the need for KNLS to widen its scope in the promotion of reading and development of a reading culture in primary schools. DIFFUSION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN MANAGING MEDICAL RECORDS IN HOSPITALS IN KENYA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE MOI TEACHING AND REFERAL HOSPITAL AND AGAKHAN HOSPITAL – 2006 BY EVANS MWANGI MUNGE ABSTRACT Medical practice in hospitals depends critically on information, much of which is stored in medical records. Unfortunately, in many hospitals in Kenya the effective management of this vital resource is hampered by several factors, the main one being inadequate application of information and communication technologies (lCTs) in the existing medical record systems. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the extent of lCTs diffusion in managing medical records in hospitals in Kenya, with a view to identifying gaps that may be addressed in order to enhance the effectiveness of service provision in these institutions. The study focused on one hospital in the private sector ‐ Aga Khan Hospital Nairobi (AKHN), and the other in the public sector ‐ Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH). The specific objectives of the study were to: examine the nature of existing medical records systems at the two hospitals; establish the extent to which lCTs have been utilized in managing medical records; determine the organizational factors that influence the diffusion of lCTs in managing medical records; establish how the state of lCTs diffusion in managing medical records compares between the two hospitals, and make recommendations for enhancing diffusion of lCTs in order to improve the management of medical records in the two institutions. The study was based on the theory of diffusion of innovations, which helps to explain the complex social and technical processes that are involved in the diffusion of innovations. A comparative case study research method was employed. The population for each of the two case study organisations was divided into four strata, namely: heads of medical records departments/sections; clinical services staff; top hospital administrators, and medical records personnel. Samples were drawn as follows: a census was applied for the first stratum; purposive sampling was used for the second and third strata, while systematic sampling was used for the fourth stratum. The total samples numbered 30 for MTRH and 20 for AKHN. Data was collected by means of structured and semi‐structured face‐to‐face interviews, supplemented by analysis of documentary evidence. The Framework Analysis qualitative technique was used to analyse data and to make inferences. Data presentation is mainly descriptive, while interpretations are made by comparing the variables and their meanings and significance to the problem. The study has provided a thorough understanding of the factors that influence the diffusion of lCTs and the extent to which lCTs have been applied in the management of medical records at the two hospitals. Among the significant findings is that the level of diffusion and adoption of lCTs in this area is very limited, occasioned largely by inadequate provision of requisite resources and infrastructure; inadequate involvement of all stakeholders in the diffusion process; lack of physical access to lCTs, as well as lack of an overall lCTs culture among some cadres. ACCESS TO INFORMATION BY SOCIAL WORKERS IN KENYA: A CASE STUDY OF NAKURU MUNICIPALITY- 2005 BY PERIS WAMBUI NJUGUNA ABSTRACT This study was set to establish the significance and accessibility of information to social workers in Nakuru Municipality. Social workers are actively involved in providing services to needy persons within the society. Their services are encouraged by the government as a way of cushioning the poor from the adverse effects of the Structural Adjustment Programmes and the liberalization of the economy. In Nakuru Municipality this comprised of social workers from government departments as well as private and non‐governmental organizations. Other objectives of the study were to: establish the nature of information use by social workers in Nakuru Municipality; establish the information resources they use in the course of their work; ascertain the effectiveness of these resources in meeting the social workers' information needs; establish the problems experienced by social workers in accessing information; and propose solutions to the problems identified in the study. Thirty‐six respondents drawn from a cross‐section of social workers from different social welfare organizations/departments were interviewed through face‐to‐face interviews. Data was also collected through documentary analysis. The respondents comprised all social workers that were found within the municipality. However, data was presented and analyzed in' five categories of social workers namely: Child Welfare; Community Welfare; Educational Services; Elderly Welfare; Family Welfare; and Medical and Psychiatric Services. Data was analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods. This included comparison with other user studies, tables, figures and descriptive statistics. The study established that social workers needed to have access to a wide variety of information sources including government publications. At least 25% of social work groups were information conscious as evidenced by the information resources they had. Heavily used by all categories of social workers were field reports, clients, office records and colleagues. It was found that social workers would be more effective if: information on local data was more easily accessible; proper co‐ordination among social workers was established; relevant information was more effectively accessed and disseminated. The study recommended that the government should collect data required by the urban social workers. These should then be made available to the social workers through the District Information Documentation Centre which serves information to the District Development Office. ACCESS TO AND USE OF INFORMATION BY BOOKSELLERS IN THE WORK SITUATION: A CASE STUDY OF BOOK TRADE ENTREPRENEURS IN NAIROBI- DPHIL 2003 BY EMILY J. KOGOS ABSTRACT This study investigated access to and use of information by book trade entrepreneurs in Nairobi. It examined the experiences of the entrepreneurs in the day to day work situation by identifying information needs, information seeking–behavior and use, determining information systems, sources and channels available, establishing specific environmental factors both micro and macro that impact on the work situation. The study also considered problems that hamper the smooth flow of information in the book trade; investigated the role other players whose operations affect or are affected by the book trade play and further examined views of informants to the book trade such as the Kenya Booksellers and Stationer’ Association, suppliers to the trade and Ministry of Education. The study used largely qualitative case study approaches with arising quantitative aspects being incorporated as per research parameters that allow for use of both qualitative and quantitative methods irrespective of the dominant method of study. Data collection was through the interview method where semi‐structured interviews were conducted. These were tape‐recorded for most of the entrepreneurs and hand written for those not comfortable with taped interviews. Responses were transcribed, coded, analyzed and interpreted for each interview. Book trade entrepreneurs in Nairobi, provided the sample population where non‐probability purposive sampling was applied. Major findings of the research show that book trade entrepreneurs’ information needs comprise funding related information, stock and stocking information, market information, supplier information, human resource information and personal development information. Other emerging issues that affected entrepreneur access to, and use of information included information illiteracy, lack of streamlined records systems, manual systems of operation, entrepreneurial oversight, change preparedness inadequacy, information inequalities, poor provision of book information, an unstructured system of book trade communication and ineffective book trade associations. EMPOWERING RURAL WOMEN IN KENYA TO ALLEVIATE POVERTY THROUGH PROVISION OF INFORMATION: THE CASE OF VIHIGA DISTRICT IN WESTERN PROVINCE- 2003 BY SERAH ODINI Although women play an important role in the society, they are poorly represented on policy‐ making bodies at all levels in most sectors of socio – economic development particularly in the rural area. This often results to increased poverty amongst women. Poor packaging and exchange of existing information aggravate this situation. Rural women, therefore, lack access to relevant, reliable, and timely information crucial in socio – economic development and alleviation of poverty. The study investigated the provision of information to women in Vihiga District; ascertained the extent to which their information needs were met by the existing services; and suggested ways by which information provision could be improved with the hope of empowering rural women in the district to alleviate poverty. The specific objectives of the study were to: obtain a better understanding of information needs and information seeking habits of women in Vihiga District; determine the purpose for which women seek information; ascertain the extent to which their information needs are met through existing information systems and services; establish how rural women in the district seek information; establish how they make use of information; identify the problems that hinder access to and use of information by women in their efforts to alleviate poverty; and to suggest ways and means by which information provision to rural women can be improved with the hope of empowering them to alleviate poverty. The study was informed by a theoretical approach derived from radical structuralism theory. According to this theory, it is possible to have radical changes of the status of a group such as that of women through appropriate means by which they can achieve emancipation from structures of the social world in which they live. The radical structuralism theory has significant parallels with Sen’s entitlement theory which argues that increasing the capability of rural women to analyze, make decisions and self ‐ organize for empowerment is the key to poverty alleviation amongst them. This is in line with the Feminism theory, which stresses that it is possible to reduce poverty amongst rural women through the provision of adequate, reliable, and timely information. CONSERVATION OF INFORMATION RESOURCES IN UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES IN KENYA: A CASE STUDY OF MOI UNIVERSITY LIBRARY -2002 BY IDDI WEBUKHA JUMA ABSTRACT This study set out to examine the degree to which conservation was practiced in the management of information resources in Moi University Library (MDL) and how this could be improved to meet the various information needs of the university community. In fulfilling this aim, the study sought to achieve a number of specific objectives. These included: establishing the nature of information resources in MOL, their current state of conservation, the prevalent factors contributing to their deterioration, effects of deterioration, as well as the efforts that were being made by the Library to facilitate conservation. The study also examined the future of conservation of library materials meanwhile making suggestions regarding the effective ways of conserving information resources in university libraries in Kenya. The study's framework was based on Ranganathan's Five Laws of Library Science and Higgibontham's Contemporary Themes in Conservation. In conducting the study, a purposive sample of eighty respondents comprising sixty users and twenty staff members of Moi University main Library were identified for face‐to‐face intervi_ws. Random samples of information resources and documentary materials in the Library were also analysed. Besides, observations of conditions prevailing in and around the Library were made with a view to establishing trends in the conservation of its information resources. Various methods were used with regard to data presentation and analysis. Descriptive techniques were used to analyze qualitative data collected from respondents. Tables and graphs were used to give more detailed presentation and analyses, some of which involved such other quantitative techniques as regression and correlation. Among the findings of the study were that the state of conservation in MDL was unsatisfactory and that financial resources were inadequate to meet the growing needs of the Library, a factor that was contributing to further deterioration of information resources. The study made a number of recommendations to facilitate conservation in the Library, the main one being that the Library adopt a conservational approach in the management of its information resources whereby all the functions of the Library would be carried out with conservation in mind. It is hoped that the findings and recommendations of this study will go a long way in sensitizing and helping information professionals especially in university libraries in Kenya to adopt progressive ways of conserving their information resources and by so doing enhance the sustainability and development of these resources. INFORMATION NEEDS AND INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF PERSONNEL IN BOOK PUBLISHING FIRMS: A CASE STUDY OF LONGHORN (K) LTD.-2001 BY BERNARD N. MBENGEI ABSTRACT This study sought to find out the information needs and information seeking behavior of publishing personnel in a typical Kenyan book publishing firm, the Longhorn (K) Ltd. The study identified the problems that publishing personnel encounter in their work situation in their endeavour to satisfy their information needs and also suggested possible solutions to some of the problems. Understanding of the information needs and information seeking behavior of publishing personnel might be helpful in designing better information systems for them. The study employed mainly a qualitative case study approach., An interview schedule was used to guide the researcher in data collection in face‐to‐face personal interviews with the respondents. Observation and documentary sources were used to complement interviews in data collection. On average, the interview sessions lasted between half to one hour. Altogether, forty two (42) members of staff engaged in work related to publishing were interviewed and the data carefully recorded and analyzed. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in analyzing data collected from the respondents. In the data analysis, discussions and deductions were centered mainly on the views of the respondents. The major findings of the study were that publishing personnel frequently encountered information needs in the context of their work and made attempts to satisfy those needs. The study established that information needs of publishing personnel included the following: information on authors who could write saleable books, market and marketing information, customers' information such as names, addresses and telephone numbers, competitors' information such as their products and the marketing strategies they used, pricing information, information on suppliers of raw materials and providers of services, financial information, internal statistical information such as the number of books in stock and internal personnel information. It was observed that publishing personnel attempted to satisfy their information needs by consulting sources of information such as colleagues, books, journals and newspapers. The study found out that the available information sources and channels regularly utilized by publishing personnel were not fully adequate in satisfying their needs. It was therefore strongly recommended that there is need to introduce modern methods of information handling and processing, such as computers to store and process information, the installation of Electronic Mail and the use of Internet information resources to be used alongside the manual systems that are in place. By so doing, it is hoped that information needs of publishing personnel will be fully satisfied by these modern information systems and that publishing personnel will become more effective and productive in the performance of their publishing duties. PROVISION AND ACCESSIBILITY OF HEALTH INFORMATION TO THE RURAL COMMUNITY IN KENYA: A CASE STUDY OF ABOSI LOCATION, BOMET DISTRICT- 2001 BY HARRISON BII ABSTRACT This study examined the provision of and accessibility to health information by people in Abosi Location, Bomet District. Rural people constitute a majority of Kenya’s population who, despite the health services provided, continue to suffer easily preventable diseases. This indicates to a great extent that a big proportion of the Kenyan public lack essential information on causes, symptoms, dangers, and prevention of diseases, among others. This problem is worsened by the fact that rural areas are not well served by the existing information systems. The specific objectives of the study were to: ascertain the health information needs of people in Abosi Location; identify the types of health information channels available to people in Abosi Location; and, find out the types of information conveyed by the accessible cham1els to the residents of Abosi Location. The other objectives were to assess the effectiveness of the accessible channels in meeting the health information needs of the residents of Abosi Location; to establish how Abosi residents use the health information obtained; to identify the factors that hinder effective communication of health information to the people of Abosi; and to suggest ways of improving the provision of health information services to the inhabitants of Abosi Location. A sample of 100 respondents aged 15 years and above was selected from 10 randomly picked villages in Abosi Location. From each village, four literate males and females and one illiterate male and female were interviewed. Thirty‐five opinion leaders were also selected for interview. Interviews with both groups were semi‐structured. Data collected were analyzed and presented in tables, percentages, and discussion. THE PROVISION OF HIV/AIDS INFORMATION TO SECONDARY SCHOL STUDENTS IN KENYA: A CASE OF NAKURU MUNICIPALITY-2001 BY JAMES NJUGUNA KIMANI ABSTRACT Young people continue to indulge in dangerous behaviors that put them at risk of contracting HIV virus. This is largely attributed to lack of information to equip them with knowledge and skills to avoid dangerous behavior. A number of studies have been carried out to test AIDS knowledge levels of students in schools in Kenya. However, a gap exists in our understanding of the suitability and effectiveness of the resources used for dissemination of HIV / AIDS information to secondary school students. This study sought to reduce this gap. This study investigated the provision of HIV / AIDS information to secondary school students in Nakuru Municipality. The specific objectives of the study were to: establish the importance of HIV / AIDS information to students in secondary schools in Nakuru Municipality; determine the various HIV/AIDS information resources available for secondary school students in the municipality; assess the accessibility and effectiveness of the existing information resources in meeting the information needs of students in the municipality; determine the HIV / AIDS information resources preferred by secondary school students; identify the problems hindering the provision of HIV/AIDS information to students in secondary schools in Nakuru Municipality and propose solutions to the problems identified. Survey methodology was adopted for this research. Multi‐stage sampling technique was used to select a sample of schools and respondents to participate in the study. Ten out of twenty schools in the municipality were selected. Four hundred students participated in the study and were drawn from form one, two and three classes in each of the selected schools. Ten head teachers and ten teachers in charge of guidance and counseling in the selected schools were involved in the study. Data were collected by use of questionnaire and interviews. Documentary sources and observation were utilized as complimentary methods of data collection. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive analysis. Tables were used to enter specific types of data and show relationships between variables. The findings from the study indicate that the provision of HIV / AIDS information in secondary schools was not effective. Several reasons can be advanced for this phenomenon. These include lack of well‐defined policies stipulating how information should be provided; lack of appropriate HIV / AIDS information resources in schools; lack of time due to a packed curriculum in schools and restriction of access to some HIV / AIDS information resources by the: schools. It was concluded that students in secondary schools need to be informed about HIV / AIDS in order to address some misconceptions that they hold as well as influence their behavior to avoid HIV infection. The study recommends that AIDS education be introduced in schools; guidance and counseling of the students in schools be strengthened; provision of HIV / AIDS information be done by use of various persons including, peer leaders, health professionals, AIDS patients, religious leaders, parents and professional counselors. ACCESIBILITY TO INFORMATION RESOURCES BY THE PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOL POPULATION: A CASE OF ELDORET MUNICIPALITY SCHOOLS-2001 BY LOISE MATHENGE ABSTRACT This' research aimed at investigating the accessibility to information resources by the public secondary school population in Eldoret Municipality. The specific objectives of the study were to establish the information needs of the school population, establish the information resources and services that are available in the Municipality and determine the extent to which these resources meet the information needs of the school population, to identify problems that hinder access and use of information resources by the school population in the Municipality and suggest possible solutions to some of the problems. Provision of adequate and relevant information resources should be a requirement for all education systems in order to support the curriculum, to develop a reading culture in the school population and promote independent learning on the part of the students. Despite this, the available literature shows that the situation of the Kenyan education system in regard to the provision of information resources is wanting. Most Kenyan secondary schools do not have libraries and there is no firm government policy on their establishment. Library establishment, equipment and maintenance is left to the initiative of individual schools. Prices, whether of text or reference books, are quite prohibitive. All the six public secondary schools within the Municipality were sampled for the study. From each school, the headmaster and the teachers representing all subjects taught in the school were interviewed using a semi‐structured interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered to students in every school in the sample. Observation and analysis of documentary evidence was also used to provide supplementary information. All the data collected was analyzed using quantitative and qualitative techniques. The study identified the various information needs of the school population which included requirements for curriculum and leisure information among other needs. It also established the fact the existing information resources, sources and services were unable to meet these needs. This was so because of the inadequacy of current resources. Lack of trained personnel to man school libraries and poorly stocked libraries were other major shortcomings. The study recommended that there is a need to formulate a national information policy which should cater for the school educational sector, coordination of school library service, provision of accommodation, staff and information materials, teaching of information skills, provision of educational programmes on radio and television among others. PROVISION OF BUSINESS INFORMATION TO THE BUSINESS AND INDUSTRIAL COMMUNITY IN KENYA: THE CASE OF MACHAKOS MUNICIPALITY-2001 BY FIDELIS KATONGA MUTISYA ABSTRACT The study aimed at finding out the status of the provision of business information to the business and industrial community in Machakos Municipality, and ways in which this can be made more efficient and effective. It investigates business information needs of this community, their information seeking behavior, the information sources and services available, its accessibility and use, and the problems faced in accessing business information. The research method used was the analytical survey method. The population of study was the business and industrial community in Machakos Municipality. The sampling method used was the systematic random where a sample of 65 firms were selected. The sample included primary, secondary and tertiary firms. Data was collected using interviews, observation, and document analysis. Interviews were conducted with the managers of the firms in the sample. Also interviewed were officials of government departments and Non‐Governmental Organizations whose activities have a bearing on business and industrial development in the Municipality. The collected data was presented using descriptive statistics and analyzed using qualitative analysis methods. The study found out that the provision of business information to the business and industrial community in the area is not only inadequate but also ineffective and inefficient. The respondents are fairly educated and can identify, seek and use information. The investigation revealed that oral resources combined with such media as television, radio and newspapers are the most commonly and frequently used, and also the most available sources of information. Events such as shows, seminars and workshops were also found to be useful resources of information. The study also found out that users do not make use of international business information and, access to information technology is poor. The study concludes that provision of business information to the community will be more appropriately facilitated through informal channels of communication, radio, television and newspapers. In this regard, it recommends the establishment of a business information centre (BIC), in Machakos town that will cater for the information needs of the busil1ess and industrial community. To maximize the use of the BIC, it was suggested that the community should be sensitized about their information needs and the importance of information in satisfying these needs. The findings of the study will assist organizations such as government departments and NGOs who may envisage setting up a BIC for the business and industrial community in Machakos Municipality. INFORMATION NEEDS OF GOVERNMENT ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGERS IN NAIROBI- 2001 BY TERESIA MBEWA ABSTRACT This study investigates information needs of government environmental managers in Nairobi and establishes the extent to which their information needs are met, identifies problems the managers encounter while seeking information and analyses accessibility to environmental information resources by the managers. Environmental information plays a very important role in environmental management both locally and globally. The need for adequate environmental information has grown as a result of increased global environmental concern as a basis for sustainable development. This being the case, it is clear that environmental information is a must for proper environmental management in a country. Kenya being no exception to this, her environment management activities must be information‐driven. With this concern in mind, the Kenya Government through the National Environment Action Plan has streamlined and stressed the need for the country to have appropriate information for sustainable environmental development. Nairobi being the capital city of Kenya, and naturally the seat of Government Ministries, it was deemed appropriate to investigate how well equipped was Kenya, and in particular government environmental managers to face this challenge. A population sample of 63 environmental managers was selected from government environmental management system in Nairobi. A survey research was used to conduct the study and structured interviews were administered to the respondents. Three levels of managers were interviewed from each representative ministry, government bodies and institutions of higher learning. The survey research was supplemented by documentary review. The data collected was tabulated, analyzed and relationships among variables presented. The study revealed that government environmental managers in Nairobi have information needs which are riot adequately met by the existing environment. AN EVAULATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE INTERNET AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR INDUSTRIAL RESEARCHERS IN NAIROBI- 2001 BY PHILIP OUMA AYOO ABSTRA CT This research aimed at investigating possibilities of improving the utilization of the Internet as a source of information for industrial researchers based in Nairobi. Specifically, the study sought to ascertain the information needs of Nairobi‐based industrial researchers, assess the extent to which the industrial researchers' information needs are being met via the Internet, and find out whether the Internet is best placed to provide information relevant to industrial research. The study also sought to find out what information services are available to industrial researchers through the Internet, investigate the extent to which the Internet is used by Nairobi‐based industrial researchers for their research activities, and identify the Internet services most commonly used by industrial researchers in Nairobi and the reasons for this. A sample of 48 researchers was taken for the study and the findings used to generalize on the whole population; this is in line with the principles of survey research which formed the foundation for the study. To obtain the sample, a list of industrial research institutions which had an Internet account with the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) in the country was obtained; a sample of researchers was then selected from this list reflecting the various areas of industrial research undertaken. Both commercial public access providers and the private service providers belonging to various research organizations were visited. Data was collected mainly through face‐ to‐face interviews where three semi‐structured interview schedules were used for the industrial researchers, Internet Service Providers, and the Kenya Posts and Telecommunications Corporation (KPTC). The study was restricted to Nairobi owing to the concentration of Internet services in the major urban areas, especially in the city environs. The collected data was mainly qualitative in nature, thereby rendering detailed statistical analysis methods unnecessary. The study revealed that various factors have rendered the Internet only partially effective as a source of information to industrial researchers in Nairobi. These factors have been identified to include, among others, lack of awareness by industrial researchers of the exact nature of their information needs, poor telecommunications infrastructures, high costs of Internet services, low levels of computer and Internet literacy skills, negligible computer ownership levels, poor distribution of Internet access points, lack of awareness of full Internet potential amongst the researchers, and lack of information on the local (Kenyan) scene. Recommendations have been suggested for possible improvements in an attempt to enhance the effectiveness of the Internet as a source of information for industrial research in Nairobi. The major recommendations include: upgrading the telecommunications infrastructure in the country, Internet awareness campaigns, subsidized special services for industrial researchers, encouraging more research organizations to establish their presence on the Internet by creating and hosting web sites, and more research findings posted onto the Internet by local researchers. Possible areas of further research have also been suggested. THE USE OF INFORMATION BY WORKERS IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE PROGRAMMES IN SIAYA DISTRICT -2000 DUNCAN ANGAYO AMOTH ABSTRACT This study attempts to systematically analyze the use of information by workers in primary health care programmes in Siaya District. It focuses on information needs and information seeking behavior of health workers in a geographically isolated region. Consideration is given to how the workers obtain needed information and the constraints involved in accessing and using health information resources. The available information sources are identified and the role the present information channels play examined. The Kenya national policy on the attainment of Health For All by the Year 2000 through the primary health care strategy has not been very successful despite the continued effort made by the government. It is argued here that one of the most important factors contributing to this situation is lack of appropriate and timely provision of health information required by primary health care workers to enable them plan and implement programmes at the community level. Survey research was employed in face to face interviews guided by an interview schedule. This was supplemented with documentary review. The population of interest comprised primary health‐care workers in Siaya District. Using random sampling technique, a total of 107 respondents were interviewed. Data collected was tabulated and analyzed by use of descriptive statistics, which involved the use of percentages and frequency tables, and relationship between variables presented. The study established that primary health‐care workers require timely and accurate health information resources not only to enable them solve clinical problems but also for preventive and promotive campaigns at the community level. Primary health care workers in Siaya District mainly use information sources that are available to them and which are easy to consult and also easy to understand. Posters and colleagues, which have got these qualities, are the most preferred information sources by primary health care workers. THE USE OF INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING: A SURVEY OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR FIRMS IN ELDORET MUNICIPALITY, KENYA-1998 BY ABISAI JAMES ABSTRACT The need for sound decision‐making in public and private enterprises has become a matter of necessity. Economic liberalization in Kenya is exposing firms to fierce competition and this calls for managers to improve their decision‐making. This study investigated the use of information by managers of public and private sector enterprises in Eldoret Municipality. The survey method was used for the study. Ten firms were picked for the study. Five were public sector firms and the other five were private sector firms. In each of the ten firms, random sampling technique was used to pick two managers from the top level, three from the middle level and three from the lower level, giving a sample of 8 respondents from each firm. The total sample population was 80 (10 x 8). Three sets of questionnaires were prepared. The first set of 20 questionnaires was administered to the top level managers, the second set of 30 to tile middle level managers and the third set of 30 to the lower level managers. Data was analyzed and presented by use of tables, calculation of percentages. The two hypotheses were tested using the chi‐ squared test at the 0.05 level of confidence. The study found out that provision of information services in both public and private sector firms in the municipality is not efficient; many firms do not have information personnel and those who are there are not qualified; firms in both sectors gather a lot of information about their competitors due to increased competition; both public and private sector firms have information resources but access to it is hampered by poor repackaging and that sometimes managers get insufficient information services because information needs assessment is not done in their firms. The study therefore recommends and emphasizes the need for trained manpower who will be able to appreciate the use and value of information, recruitment of qualified:‐ personnel to ensure effective provision of information, and formulation of information policies in‐house to guide in the management ‐ of information resources. It further recommends that information departments should be established. INFORMATION FOR SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES: A CASE OF RURAL SMALL-SCALE BUSINESS WOMEN IN KAKAMEGA DISTRICT OF WESTERN KENYA- 1998 By JULIEX MALALA WASWA ABSTRACT The development and promotion of rural small‐scale enterprises is largely dependent on the accessibility and availability of information. Such information would be wide, encompassing information on marketing, how to. secure loans, and the nature and extent of small businesses. Studies which have been conducted indicate that women who form the larger percentage of the population of rural small‐scale enterprises have deficiencies of information. They are unable to access the relevant information to enhance their daily activities. The provision of relevant information to the rural small‐scale business women is dependent on the identification of their information needs. The purpose of this study was to investigate and establish the information needs of small scale rural business women in Kakamega district and how these needs were being met. The study also attempted to establish how the women sought information; what information sources and channels they used; problems encountered in seeking information and how they made use of the information that they obtained. The specific objectives of the study were to:‐ establish the importance of information to small scale enterprise development; determine the information needs and information seeking behavior of rural small‐scale business women; identify sources of information preferred by the small‐scale rural business women and how these information sources are used; identify the problems that hinder the availability and accessibility of information; and recommend appropriate information services needed in the promotion of rural small‐scale enterprises. This study also aimed at suggesting factors to be considered in order to provide efficient and effective information services for the rural small‐scale business women. IMPEDIMENTS TO PATENT DOCUMENT CREATION: A CASE STUDY OF NAIRBO-BASED INDUSTRIALISTS AND RESEARCHERS -1996 BY DAMARIS ODERO ABSTRACT Patent documents creation is dependent on the contextual environment in which it operates. Producers of such information are faced with a multiplicity of interacting factors ranging from social‐cultural, political, economical and psychological impediments. By analyzing the major factors influencing, and their extent of exertion on, the production of patent documents in Kenya, the focus of this research was the establishment of the infrastructure necessary for the promotion of national production of patent documents in Kenya. Using survey research methodology, personal interviews through structured questionnaires was adopted as the main tools in data collection. This was supplemented with documentary review. The population of interest comprised researchers/scientists in Nairobi‐based industries and research centers. Using subjective and disproportionate sampling techniques, a total of 50 respondents were drawn: 37 from the industrial sector and 13 from research centers. In addition, four (4) key respondents wer selected from the Kenya Industrial Property Office (KIPO) employees. Data collected was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. These include the use of percentage and frequency tables, bar charts, figures, Chi‐square test, Weighted average method and descriptive discussions. Findings show that not all inventions/innovations are registered and documented as patent documents. While the production of patents by industrialists and researchers in Kenya is generally low, the former produce more innovative works while the latter produce inventive works mainly. Among the major impediments to the production of patent documents include: poor control and regulatory mechanisms, non scientific creative culture, economic and technological dependency on foreign countries, inadequate government intervention, complexity of patent documents requirements, COMPETENCIES FOR THE INFORMATION PROFESSIONAL IN THE COMING DECADE: A DELPHI STUDY -1996 BY BENSON SHIHOLO MISCO ABSTRACT The concept of a Competency‐Based‐Education has become relevant in Kenya amid increasing University graduate unemployment and accusations that they are lacking in practical skills needed in the work place. The purpose of this study was to determine competencies perceived as important now and predict those perceived as important for information professionals in the coming decade. The aim was to incorporate them into curricula of Library and Information Science training institutions in Kenya. This, it was realized, was one way of making learning relevant to students. Competencies were defined as the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to perform work tasks successfully. These were derived from a review of Library and Information Science literature, and were selected as being job generic rather than job specific. The study was a survey in nature. The questionnaire used to collect the data had a list of 51 items with two 5‐point scales whereby respondents were requested to rate with the year 2005 in mind. The respondents were a highly selected inter‐disciplinary group of 'experts' representing the group of the information profession. Statistical analysis of the data was done to determine Mean scores, Median, Standard Deviation and Inter‐quartile Ranges of the response scores. This provided the means of ranking the items. Findings indicated high ratings for two macro areas, that is, Information Technology and Information Management. In spite of it all, listed competencies were, at least, cited as important, hence an indication of preference for a general knowledge rather than knowledge required in specific environments. MEDIA ACCESSIBILITY AND UTILIZATION BY KENYAN RURAL WOMEN: A STUDY OF KINANGOP DIVISION IN NYANDARUA DISTRICT- 1996 BY PAULINE GACHAKI NGIMWA ABSTRACT Communication media are the means through which people receive information intended to foster their physical and mental development and encourage intelligent co‐existence among themselves, ultimately boosting national development. When people are denied such media, they lag behind in their personal and national development process. This study is based on media accessibility and utilization by Kinangop women of Nyandarua District, Kenya. It sets out to establish the following; (I) the information needs of Kinangop women and how they are met, (ii) Their information seeking behavior, (iii) The existing media accessible to them and the problems encountered while accessing the media, (iv)Possible recommendations for improving information dissemination to these women, (v) A basis or guide to a wider study of information needs in rural areas in Kenya. Critical incident method of survey research design was employed with person‐to‐person interviews and questionnaires as the main research tools. One hundred and four women were interviewed and ten questionnaires were sent to key informants who included administrators, women group leaders and social workers. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data obtained. INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE ‘JUA KALI’SECTOR IN KENYA: A CASE STUDY OF THE GOKOMBA AND KARIOKOR AREAS OF NAIROBI-1996 BY PEKETSA MWARO ABSTRACT Information is vital for the performance and survival of any enterprise. Identification of the information needs of an enterprise is necessary for the provision of relevant information. The Jua Kali sector in Kenya is an important sector as it exploits indigenous technology and ingenuity. It creates employment. The purpose of the study was to establish the information needs of the Jua Kali sector and the prioritization of these Needs per subsector. 10% of the Jua Kali entrepreneurs (individuals or workshops) operating in formal structures were sampled in the Gikomba and Kariokor areas of Nairobi. 140 entrepreneurs were interviewed. 10% of NGOs were purposively selected from a list of 71 NGOs to which questionnaires were distributed and collected. A questionnaire was sent to Kenya Industrial Estates and collected. Schedule interviews were conducted with officials of Kenya National Federation of the Jua Kali Associations, Ministry of Research, Technical Training and Technology, and the Kenya Industrial Property Office. The study established that most problems experienced by the IJua Kali sector are due to information poverty. Entrepreneurs with higher level of education have higher access to information. Most NGOs have little direct contact with the sector. Most information centers, private or public do not cater for the special information needs of the sector. The sector is still male dominated. AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING INFORMATION SKILLS IN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA-1996 BY JOSEPH KIPLANG’AT ABSTRACT The implication of the 8‐4‐4 system of education which was implemented in the Public Universities in Kenya in 1990 following the recommendations of Mackay Report, was the development of integrated University Syllabi which required interdisciplinary approach of teaching. Common undergraduate courses were therefore introduced to cater for the "Foundation Knowledge" as recommended by the Report. These courses were meant for equipping the students with skills that would enable them to relate more easily to the changing society. Among the common undergraduate courses was communication skills course which is composed of seven components namely, reading skills, writing skills, study skills, trans coding skills, public speaking skills, listening skills, and information skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching information skills in Public Universities in Kenya. The teaching of this component was supposed to be a joint venture between the university libraries, communication skills departments and the respective faculties. The study sought to establish how the course has been conducted in the Public Universities and whether it has met the objectives for which it was conceived. The study covered four Public Universities, namely Nairobi, Moi, Kenyatta and Egerton. The methodology adopted was a survey, where questionnaires supplemented by interviews and documentary sources were used in gathering relevant data. The following respondents were consulted: 30 members of the teaching personnel; randomly sampled 484 students who had gone through the course from three universities and 4 university Librarians. The findings of the study indicated that, the effectiveness' of teaching information skills has been affected by lack of well defined policies and guidelines stipulating how the course should be conducted; short duration accorded to the course; large classes; lack of adequate tools and materials for teaching; lack of co‐operation between the university libraries, communication skills departments and the respective faculties; poor co‐ ordination and management of the, course; incompetency among some of the resource personnel teaching and poor evaluation methods. . It was concluded that the course has partially achieved the objectives for which it was instituted in Public Universities. For the objectives to be realized fully, the study has recommended that well defined policies and guidelines should be formulated stating how the course should be conducted. The course should also be restructured and spread over the four academic years. This would allow relevant skills to be identified and taught at the point of need.
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