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					ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL
SCANNING AND MARKETING
RESEARCH

• Economic institutions
• Levels of trade
  integration
• Marketing Research




MKTG 376   ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING   Lars Perner, Instructor   1
Economic Institutions

• World Trade Organization (WTO)
• World Bank
• International Monetary Fund (IMF)




MKTG 376   ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING     Lars Perner, Instructor   2
Levels of International Economic
Integration             Text, p. 158


                  Political Union
                  Economic Union
                 Common Market
                   Free Trade Area
                    Preferential
                                                    Increasing
                 Trading Agreement
                 (Tariff concessions on             Integration
                      select items)

                (Free trade among members)

             (Common External Trading Policy)

             (Harmonization of economic policies)
           (Complete political and economic integration)

MKTG 376   ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING                   Lars Perner, Instructor   3
Levels

•    Preferential Trading Agreement
•    Free Trade Area
•    Customs Union
•    Common Market
•    Economic Union
•    Political Union




MKTG 376    ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING    Lars Perner, Instructor   4
MARKETING RESEARCH:
COUNTRY AND CONSUMER

  • Country research
  • Primary vs. secondary marketing research
  • Issues in secondary marketing research
           – Sources
           – ―Hard‖ vs. ―soft‖ data
           – Reliability
               • currency
               • credibility
               • comparability
           – Cost
  • Primary research methods



MKTG 376            ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING     Lars Perner, Instructor   5
Country Research Issues

• Political                      • Sociocultural
       – Stability                 environment
       – Terrorism               • Economic environment
• Physical Environment           • Regulatory
       – Climate                   environment
       – Infrastructure




MKTG 376         ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING      Lars Perner, Instructor   6
Some Sources of Information --
Books and Indices

• World almanacs
• Statistical Abstracts of
  the United States
• Government
  publications
• Country-specific books




MKTG 376    ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING   Lars Perner, Instructor   7
Useful Periodicals

• Heavily                         • Some international
  internationally                   coverage
  focused                            – Wall Street Journal, New
       – Economist                     York Times, Washington
                                       Post
       – Journal of Commerce
                                     – Business Week, Fortune
       – Forbes
                                     – Time, Newsweek
       – Business America (U.S.
         Dept. of Commerce)
       – World Press Review




MKTG 376         ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING           Lars Perner, Instructor   8
Other

• Academic country
  specialists (e.g.,
  anthropologists,
  economists)
• Consultants
• Expatriates
• Own experience




MKTG 376   ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING   Lars Perner, Instructor   9
―Hard‖ vs. ―Soft‖ Data

• ―Hard” data--usually                • “Soft” data
  quantitative--examples:                – Country history
       – Gross national product          – Laws and enforcement--
       – Per capita expenditure on         theoretical vs. reality
         food                            – Culture and tradition
       – Average number of years of          • ―How things are done‖
         school completed by                 • Meaning of behaviors--
         population                             why are people late?
       – Product penetration levels      – Attitudes toward
         (e.g., percentage of              products/motivations for
         households having                 usage
         microwave ovens)




MKTG 376         ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING               Lars Perner, Instructor   10
Data Availability and Reliability

                 • Availability/ ability to collect
                   data
                 • Motivations for releasing data
                     – Wishful thinking vs. reality
                     – The Web--accessible to any fool or
                       group
                 • Comparability of data/Arbitrary
                   differences in measurements
                 • Recency--is the data up-to-date?




MKTG 376   ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING           Lars Perner, Instructor   11
Cost of Data

                           • Much ―raw‖ data is free
                             from
                              – U.S. Gvt.
                              – United Nations
                              – Research institutions
                           • Commercial directories
                           • Consulting services




MKTG 376   ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING         Lars Perner, Instructor   12
Some Cultural Variables Among
Countries

•    Religion
•    Value system
•    Norms
•    Aesthetics
•    Language




MKTG 376    ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING   Lars Perner, Instructor   13
International Marketing Research
Process
                                      Text, p. 200



             Problem                      Preparation of
           Identification                Research Design


       Selection of                          Primary Data
    Research Method(s)                        Collection


     Determination of
Information Requirements                       Analysis



Info Source Identification                   Evaluation and
(Primary and Secondary)                       Interpretation




MKTG 376            ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING            Lars Perner, Instructor   14
Equivalences in International
Market Research

• Construct                          • Measurement
       – Functional—how product        – Calibration (e.g., number
         is used                         of scale points)
       – Conceptual—                   – Translation (e.g.,
         interpretation of objects       specificity of family
       – Classification/                 relationship terms)
         categorization                – Sampling
                                           • Comparability
                                           • Representativeness
                                             of population
                                       – Data analysis




MKTG 376         ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING            Lars Perner, Instructor   15
Issues in Primary Research

• Social desirability/         • New technologies (e.g.,
  willingness to ―stand out‖     scanner data) --usually
  ---> need to adjust data       less well developed than
• Willingness to criticize       in the U.S.
  products                     • Reachability of
• Familiarity with being         respondents
  surveyed                     • Selection of appropriate
• Language/translation           respondent




MKTG 376    ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING          Lars Perner, Instructor   16

				
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