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					Bingxin Xiao, Dong Wang
Congcong Gao, Jing Shen
   Left-Behind Children
    ◦ Rural areas
    ◦ One or both their parents are migrant workers
    ◦ Stay at home with grandparents or alone
   The reasons of phenomenon
    ◦ No time to look after their children
    ◦ Low salary hard to support the children’s living
      fees in city
    ◦ Residence system influences enrollment of children



                                 University of Maryland   10/28/2011   2
                                                              Name                                     Numbers

                                                              Migrant workers                        150 million




                                                              Left-Behind                            20 million
                                                              Children




Proportion for Migrant workers : Left-Behind Children = 7:1
                                                                    Source: All-China Women Federation
             Source: Bureau of Census, China


                                                                                        10/28/2011                 3
                                                               University of Maryland
University of Maryland   10/28/2011   4
                  2005                  2006                            2007

Crimes records    172                   218                             261

Juveniles         318                   451                             526
involved in
crimes

Left-Behind       143                   248                             362
Children
involved in
crimes



              Source: Annual Report, Public Security Bureau of Jiangyan

                                               University of Maryland   10/28/2011   5
   Social Bond Theory
    ◦ Attachment:
      Affection and sensitivity to others
    ◦ Commitment:
      Investment in conventional society or stake in
       conformity
    ◦ Involvement :
      Being busy, restricted opportunities for delinquency
    ◦ Belief:
      Degree to which person thinks they should obey the
       law



                                       University of Maryland   10/28/2011   6
   Target population: school children aged 10-
    14
   2 elementary schools
    ◦ 4 grades (3, 4, 5, 6)
   Sample
    ◦ Nonprobability Sampling: convenience sampling
    ◦ Sample size:
      172 questionnaires for four grades students in two
       elementary schools
      156 responded and 16 missing
      153 valid



                                     University of Maryland   10/28/2011   7
              Attachment


              Commitment
Left or Non
    Left
              Involvement


                 Belief




                            University of Maryland   10/28/2011   8
   Independent Variables
    ◦   Gender
    ◦   Age
    ◦   Left or non left behind children
    ◦   Attachment to parents
    ◦   Attachment to teachers
    ◦   Attachment to peers
    ◦   School commitment
    ◦   Beliefs of police
    ◦   Involvement in school activities




                                     University of Maryland   10/28/2011   9
   Dependent Variables
    ◦ Assault
    ◦ School delinquency
    ◦ Public disturbance




                           University of Maryland   10/28/2011   10
   Social bond are all measured by Likert Scale
    ◦ Responses are coded as 1=never, 2=rarely,
      3=sometimes, 4=generally, 5=always
    ◦ The conventionality of peers reverse coded
    ◦ The higher the score, the greater the social bond
   Juvenile delinquency are all measured by
    Likert scale
    ◦ Response are coded as 1=always, 2=generally,
      3=sometimes, 4=rarely, 5=never
    ◦ The lower the score, the more the juvenile
      delinquent behaviors



                                    University of Maryland   10/28/2011   11
University of Maryland   10/28/2011   12
                          Gender                                Age

                   Male       Female    10           11           12         13    14

Left behind (64)     33            31   12           13           16         15    8



Non-left (89)        43            46   7            25           32         16    9



Total                76            77   19           38           48         31    17




                                             University of Maryland   10/28/2011        13
University of Maryland   10/28/2011   14
University of Maryland   10/28/2011   15
   Left or non left ( Table2)
    ◦ Parents want to help me, want to be like the kind of
      persons parents are, parents know where I am, my
      friends tend to get in trouble with their parents, I
      try hard in school, attendance to school is
      important, and believe police treat me fairly are
      statistically significant in liner regression. Left-
      behind children has weaker attachment in parents
      and peers, commitment and belief in police than
      that of non left-behind children




                                    University of Maryland   10/28/2011   16
University of Maryland   10/28/2011   17
   Assault(Table 3)
    ◦ There exists significant relation between want to be
      like parents, want to be like teachers and assault
   School Delinquency(Table 3)
    ◦ There are strong relation between want to be like
      parents and want to be like teachers and school
      delinquency
   Public disturbance(Table 3)
    ◦ The relation between want to be like teachers, try
      hard in school and public disturbance is strong



                                    University of Maryland   10/28/2011   18
   We can conclude that once the attachment
    weakens, children’s behavior of assault and
    their school delinquency tend to increase.
    Besides, as the attachment to parents and try
    hard in school decrease, public disturbance
    goes up(Table 3)




                               University of Maryland   10/28/2011   19
   With the weakening of attachment and school
    commitment, children’s assault and school
    delinquency increase. Besides, left-behind
    children are more inclined to involve in
    assault and school delinquency than non-left
    behind
   The weakening of attachment and school
    commitment has certain impact on children’s
    public disturbance



                              University of Maryland   10/28/2011   20
   Our sample data indicate that involvement
    and belief have no significant influence on
    children’s assault, school delinquency and
    public disturbance
   Attachment is the most important factor




                               University of Maryland   10/28/2011   21
   Help the children communicating with their
    parents
    ◦ Letter
    ◦ Phone call
   Training programs for their guardians
   Develop interests and hobbies, enrich the
    children life
    ◦ Art training
    ◦ After-school activities
    ◦ Psychological consultation
   Establish boarding school

				
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