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					     CyROS

     Reference Guide




Cyclades Corporation
CyROS Reference Guide
Version 2.2 – March 2001
Copyright (C) Cyclades Corporation, 1998 - 2001

We believe the information in this manual is accurate and reliable. However, we assume no responsibility, financial
or otherwise, for any consequences of the use of this Reference Guide.

All brands, trademarks, and trade names mentioned in this publication belong to their respective owners.

This Reference Guide refers to version 1.9.5 of CyROS.
CyROS                                                                                                                                                                Reference Guide

                                                                             Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 HOW TO USE THIS REFERENCE GUIDE .................................................................................. 14
 Cyclades Technical Support And Contact Information..................................................................................... 17
CHAPTER 2 USING CYROS MENUS ............................................................................................................... 19
   Special Keys ................................................................................................................................................. 20
CHAPTER 3 MAIN MENUS ................................................................................................................................ 21
    Super-User Main Menu................................................................................................................................................................ 21
    User Main Menu .......................................................................................................................................................................... 22
CHAPTER 4 THE CONFIG MENU ..................................................................................................................... 23
    Config Menu CONFIG ................................................................................................................................................................ 24
   Section 4.1 Static Routes ................................................................................................................................ 25
    Add Static Route Menu CONFIG =>STATIC ROUTES =>IP =>ADD ROUTE............................................................................ 28
   Section 4.2 System Configuration ................................................................................................................... 28
    System Configuration Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM ..................................................................................................................... 31
    Syslog Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM =>SYSLOG ......................................................................................................................... 32
    Syslog Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM =>SYSLOG (continued) ..................................................................................................... 33
    Firmware Boot Menu CONFIG =>SYSTEM =>FIRMWARE BOOT ........................................................................................... 34
    Router Description Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>ROUTER DESCRIPTION ............................................................................ 34
    Router Description Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>ROUTER DESCRIPTION (continued) ......................................................... 35
    Hosts Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>HOSTS .............................................................................................................................. 35
    Dial-Out Table Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>MODEMS=>DIAL OUT TABLE=>ADD ............................................................... 36
    Modem Strings Table Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>MODEMS=>MODEM STRINGS TABLE ................................................. 37
    UDP Commands Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>UDP COMMANDS .......................................................................................... 38
    UDP Clear All Sessions Menu CONFIG =>SYSTEM =>UDP COMMANDS =>CLEAR ALL SESSIONS ................................ 39
      SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) .......................................................................................... 39
    SNMP Management Menu CONFIG =>SYSTEM =>SNMP/RMON MANAGEMENT ............................................................... 41
    Add Community Menu CONFIG =>SYSTEM =>SNMP/RMON MANAGEMENT =>COMMUNITY TABLE
    => ADD COMMUNITY ................................................................................................................................................................. 43
    Add Trap Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>SNMP/RMON MANAGEMENT=>TRAPS =>ADD TRAP ........................................... 44
    Add Alarm Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>SNMP/RMON MANAGEMENT=>RMON=>ALARM=>ADD ALARM ....................... 46
    Add Event Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>SNMP/RMON MANAGEMENT=>RMON=>EVENT=>ADD EVENT ........................ 48

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     Remote Network Monitoring (RMON) .......................................................................................................... 48
   RMON Statistics Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>SNMP/RMON MANAGEMENT =>RMON=>RMON STATISTICS .................. 50
   RMON Add History Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>SNMP/RMON MANAGEMENT=>RMON=>RMON HISTORY
   => ADD HISTORY CONTROL .................................................................................................................................................... 50
  Section 4.3 Security Configuration .................................................................................................................. 50
   Security Menu CONFIG=>SECURITY ....................................................................................................................................... 54
   NAT (Network Address Translation) ............................................................................................................................................ 55
     Types of Address Translation ....................................................................................................................... 57
   NAT Menu CONFIG =>SECURITY =>NAT ................................................................................................................................ 58
   NAT Menu CONFIG =>SECURITY =>NAT ................................................................................................................................ 59
   Timeout Menu CONFIG =>SECURITY =>NAT =>TIMEOUT .................................................................................................... 59
   ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 59
   Add Radius Server Menu CONFIG=>SECURITY=>RADIUS=>RADIUS STATUS=>ADD ....................................................... 60
   Add Tacacs Server Menu CONFIG=>SECURITY=>TACACS=>TACACS STATUS=>ADD ...................................................... 62
     Virtual Private Networks ............................................................................................................................... 62
   VPN Add Remote Gateway Menu CONFIG =>SECURITY =>VPN =>REMOTE GATEWAYS =>ADD GATEWAY ................. 63
   VPN Add Local Network Menu CONFIG =>SECURITY =>VPN =>LOCAL IP NETWORK =>ADD NETWORK ...................... 63
   VPN Add Remote Network Menu CONFIG =>SECURITY =>VPN =>REMOTE IP NETWORK =>ADD NETWORK .............. 63
   VPN Options Menu CONFIG =>SECURITY =>VPN =>OPTIONS ............................................................................................ 64
  Section 4.4 Multilink ........................................................................................................................................ 65
   Add Interface Menu CONFIG =>MULTILINK =>MULTILINK CIRCUIT NUMBER =>ADD/MODIFY INTERFACE ................... 68
   Circuit Attributes Menu CONFIG =>MULTILINK =>MULTILINK CIRCUIT NUMBER =>CIRCUIT ATTRIBUTES .................... 69
  Section 4.5 IP Configuration ........................................................................................................................... 72
   IP Menu CONFIG=>IP ................................................................................................................................................................ 77
   OSPF Menu CONFIG=>IP=>OSPF ........................................................................................................................................... 79
   OSPF Global Commands Menu CONFIG =>IP =>OSPF =>GLOBAL ...................................................................................... 80
   OSPF Global Commands (continued) ......................................................................................................................................... 81
   Area Menu CONFIG =>IP =>OSPF =>AREA ............................................................................................................................ 82
   Neighbors Menu CONFIG=>IP =>OSPF =>NEIGHBORS ........................................................................................................ 83
   Virtual Links Menu CONFIG =>IP =>OSPF =>VIRTUAL LINKS ............................................................................................... 84
     Multichassis, Multilink PPP (MCPPP) .......................................................................................................... 84




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     BGP4 ............................................................................................................................................................ 88
   CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>GLOBAL ............................................................................................................................................... 89
   CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>NEIGHBOR=>ADD .............................................................................................................................. 90
   CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>NEIGHBOR=>ADD (continued) ........................................................................................................... 91
   CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>ROUTE MAP=>ADD ............................................................................................................................ 92
   CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>AGGREGATE ADDRESSES=>ADD ................................................................................................... 92
   CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>BGP NETWORK=>ADD ...................................................................................................................... 93
   CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>ACCESS LIST=>ADD .......................................................................................................................... 93
   CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>ACCESS LIST=>CONFIGURE RULES=><ACCESS LIST NAME>=>ADD ....................................... 93
   CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>ACCESS LIST=>CONFIGURE RULES=><ACCESS LIST NAME>=>ADD (continued) .................... 94
  Section 4.6 Transparent Bridge ...................................................................................................................... 94
   Transparent Bridge General Menu CONFIG =>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE =>GENERAL ......................................................... 95
   Spanning Tree Menu CONFIG=>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE =>SPANNING TREE .................................................................. 97
  Section 4.7 Rules List Configuration ............................................................................................................... 97
    Radius Rule Lists ........................................................................................................................................ 106
    Traffic Rule Lists ......................................................................................................................................... 108
   Add Rule List Menu CONFIG =>RULES LIST =>IP =>ADD RULE LIST ................................................................................ 114
   IP Add Rule Menu CONFIG =>RULES LIST =>IP =>CONFIGURE RULES =>ADD RULE ................................................... 115
   IP Add Rule Menu CONFIG =>RULES LIST =>IP =>CONFIGURE RULES =>ADD RULE -- Continued .............................. 116
CHAPTER 5 THE ETHERNET INTERFACE MENU ......................................................................................... 117
   Ethernet Interface Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>ETHERNET............................................................................................. 119
   Network Protocol Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ETHERNET =>NETWORK PROTOCOL =>IP ..................................... 120
   Network Protocol Menu (continued) CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ETHERNET =>NETWORK PROTOCOL =>IP ................... 121
     IP Bridge ..................................................................................................................................................... 121
   Network Protocol Menu (Cont.) CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ETHERNET =>NETWORK PROTOCOL =>IP (IP Bridge) ...... 123
     IP Accounting ............................................................................................................................................. 123
   Transparent Bridge Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ETHERNET =>NETWORK PROTOCOL
   =>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE ..................................................................................................................................................... 125
     Types of RIP ............................................................................................................................................... 126
   RIP Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ETHERNET =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>RIP .......................................................... 126
     The OSPF Routing Protocol ....................................................................................................................... 126
   OSPF Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ETHERNET =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>OSPF ................................................... 127
   OSPF Menu CONFIG (continued) =>INTERFACE =>ETHERNET =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>OSPF ............................... 128

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CHAPTER 6 THE SWAN INTERFACE ............................................................................................................ 129
    SWAN Interface Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN ....................................................................................................... 130
    Encapsulation Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>SWAN =>ENCAPSULATION ...................................................................... 131
      Frame Relay ............................................................................................................................................... 132
      Sub-Network Access Protocol (SNAP) ...................................................................................................... 134
    Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPSULATION =>FRAME RELAY ........................................... 136
    DLCI Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPSULATION =>FRAME RELAY=><ESC> .................. 137
      Traffic Control based on Data Link Connection.......................................................................................... 137
    Add DLCI Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPSULATION=>FRAME RELAY=><ESC>
    =>ADD DLCI .............................................................................................................................................................................. 137
    Add DLCI Frame Relay Menu (continued) ................................................................................................................................ 138
      PPP ............................................................................................................................................................. 139
    PPP Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>SWAN =>ENCAPSULATION =>PPP ........................................................................ 141
    PPP Menu (Continued) .............................................................................................................................................................. 142
      X.25 ............................................................................................................................................................ 143
    X.25 Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPSULATION =>X.25 .......................................................................... 147
    X.25 Menu (continued) .............................................................................................................................................................. 148
    X.25 Add DTE Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPSULATION =>X.25=><ESC>=>Add DTE ........................ 149
      PAD (Packet Assembler/Disassembler) ..................................................................................................... 150
    X.25 PAD PPP CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPS=>X.25=><ESC> =><ESC> =>ENCAPS =>PPP .................... 152
    X.25 PAD PPPCHAR Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPS=>X.25=><ESC> =><ESC> =>ENCAPS
    =>PPPCHAR ............................................................................................................................................................................. 153
    X.25 PAD CHAR Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPS=>X.25=><ESC>=><ESC>=>ENCAPS=>CHAR ...... 153
    X.25 PAD Network Protocol Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>SWAN =>ENCAPS =>X.25=><ESC>=><ESC>
    =>NETWORK PROTOCOL ....................................................................................................................................................... 155
    X.25 PAD Network Protocol Menu (continued) ......................................................................................................................... 156
    X.25 PAD Physical Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPS =>X.25=><ESC>=><ESC> =>PHYSICAL ............ 158
    X.25 Authentication Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPS=>X.25=><ESC>=><ESC>
    =>AUTHENTICATION ............................................................................................................................................................... 160
    Network Protocol (IP) Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>NETWORK PROTOCOL=>IP ........................................... 161
    Network Protocol (IP) Menu (continued) .................................................................................................................................. 162
    Transparent Bridge Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>NETWORK PROTOCOL=>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE ........ 162
    Routing Protocol Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>RIP ................................................. 164
    OSPF Protocol Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ROUTING PROTOCOL=>OSPF ................................................. 164

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    OSPF Protocol Menu (continued) .............................................................................................................................................. 165
    Physical Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>PHYSICAL ............................................................................................. 166
    Authentication Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>AUTHENTICATION ...................................................................... 166
      Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................ 167
CHAPTER 7 THE Z-BUS INTERFACE ............................................................................................................ 168
    CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-BUS ............................................................................................................................................. 170
  Asynchronous Port Menus ............................................................................................................................. 170
    Asynchronous Port Physical Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>PHYSICAL ........................................... 171
    Asynchronous Port Encapsulation Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ENCAPSULATION ................. 172
    CHAR Encapsulation Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ENCAPSULATION =>CHAR ...................... 175
  Synchronous Port Menus ............................................................................................................................... 176
    Synchronous Port Physical Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>PHYSICAL ......................................... 176
    Synchronous Port Encapsulation Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ENCAPSULATION ................... 177
      Frame Relay ............................................................................................................................................... 178
      Sub-Network Access Protocol (SNAP) ...................................................................................................... 180
    Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>ENCAPSULATION =>FRAME RELAY ........................ 182
    DLCI Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>ENCAPSULATION=>FRAME RELAY=><ESC>. 183
      Traffic Control based on Data Link Connection.......................................................................................... 183
    Add DLCI Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>ENCAPS=>FRAME RELAY=><ESC>
    =>ADD DLCI .............................................................................................................................................................................. 183
    Add DLCI Frame Relay Menu (continued) ................................................................................................................................ 184
      X.25 ............................................................................................................................................................ 185
    X.25 Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>ENCAPSULATION =>X.25 ........................................................ 189
    X.25 Menu (continued) .............................................................................................................................................................. 190
    X.25 Add DTE Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>ENCAPSULATION =>X.25=><ESC>=>Add DTE ..... 191
      PAD (Packet Assembler/Disassembler) ..................................................................................................... 192
    X.25 PAD PPP Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>ENCAPS=>X.25=><ESC>=><ESC>=>ENCAPS=>PPP..195
    X.25 PAD PPPCHAR Menu CONFIG=>INTERF =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ENCAPS =>X.25 =><ESC> =><ESC>
    =>ENCAPS =>PPPCHAR ......................................................................................................................................................... 196
    X.25 PAD CHAR Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>ENCAPS=>X.25=><ESC>=><ESC>=>ENCAPS
    =>CHAR ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 197
    X.25 PAD Network Protocol Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ENCAPS =>X.25 =><ESC> =><ESC>
    =>NW PROTOCOL.................................................................................................................................................................... 199

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   X.25 PAD Network Protocol Menu (continued) ......................................................................................................................... 200
   X.25 PAD Physical Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>ENCAPS=>X.25=><ESC>=><ESC>=>PHYSICAL... 202
   X.25 PAD Authentication Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>Z-BUS =><PORT>=>ENCAPS=>X.25 =><ESC>=><ESC>
   =>AUTHENT. ............................................................................................................................................................................. 204
  Mode-Independent Menus ............................................................................................................................. 204
   PPP ............................................................................................................................................................. 204
   PPP Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ENCAPSULATION =>PPP .................................................... 207
   PPP Menu (continued).............................................................................................................................................................. 208
   Network Protocol Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>NETWORK PROTOCOL =>IP ........................... 210
   Network Protocol Menu (continued) .......................................................................................................................................... 211
   Transparent Bridge Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>NETWORK PROTOCOL
   =>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE ..................................................................................................................................................... 211
   Routing Protocol Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>RIP .......................... 213
   OSPF Protocol Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>OSPF ......................... 213
   OSPF Protocol Menu (continued) ............................................................................................................................................. 214
   Authentication Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>AUTHENTICATION ................................................ 215
   Wizards Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>WIZARDS ............................................................................ 226
CHAPTER 8 THE E1 AND T1 INTERFACES, WITHOUT SIGNALING ........................................................... 227
   Controller Menu CONFIG=>CONTROLLER=>T1/E1 .............................................................................................................. 229
   Add Channel Group Menu CONFIG =>CONTROLLER =>T1/E1 =>CHANNEL GROUPS =>ADD GROUP ......................... 230
   E1/T1 Interface Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>T1/E1=><CHANNEL>................................................................................ 232
   Encapsulation Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPSULATION ........................................... 233
     Frame Relay ............................................................................................................................................... 233
     Sub-Network Access Protocol (SNAP) ...................................................................................................... 236
   Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPSULATION =>FRAME RELAY ............... 238
   DLCI Frame Relay Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPSULATION =>FRAME RELAY
   =><ESC> ................................................................................................................................................................................... 239
     Traffic Control based on Data Link Connection.......................................................................................... 239
   Add DLCI Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPS =>FRAME RELAY =><ESC>
   =>ADD DLCI .............................................................................................................................................................................. 239
   Add DLCI Frame Relay Menu (Continued) .............................................................................................................................. 240




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     PPP ............................................................................................................................................................. 241
   PPP Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>T1/E1=><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPSULATION =>PPP ................................................. 242
   PPP Menu (continued) ............................................................................................................................................................... 243
   PPP Menu (continued) ............................................................................................................................................................... 244
     X.25 ............................................................................................................................................................ 245
   X.25 Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPSULATION =>X.25................................................ 248
   X.25 Menu (continued) .............................................................................................................................................................. 249
   X.25 Add DTE Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPS =>X.25 =><ESC> =>Add DTE ........ 251
     PAD (Packet Assembler/Disassembler) ..................................................................................................... 252
   X.25 PAD PPP Menu CONFIG =>INTERF =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPS =>X.25 =><ESC> =><ESC> =>ENCAPS
   =>PPP ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 255
   X.25 PAD PPPCHAR Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>T1/E1=><CHANNEL>=>ENCAPS=>X.25 =><ESC>=><ESC>=>ENCAPS
   =>PPPCHAR ............................................................................................................................................................................. 256
   X.25 PAD CHAR Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>T1/E1=><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPS=>X.25=><ESC> =><ESC>=>ENCAPS
   =>CHAR ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 256
   X.25 PAD Network Protocol Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>T1/E1=><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPS=>X.25=><ESC> =><ESC>
   =>NW PRTCL ............................................................................................................................................................................ 258
   X.25 PAD Network Protocol Menu (Continued) ......................................................................................................................... 259
   X.25 PAD Physical Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPS =>X.25 =><ESC> =><ESC>
   =>PHYSICAL ............................................................................................................................................................................. 261
   X.25 Authentication Menu CONFIG =>INTERF =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPS=>X.25 =><ESC> =><ESC>
   =>AUTHENTICATION ............................................................................................................................................................... 263
   Network Protocol (IP) Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>NETWORK PROTOCOL =>IP ............. 265
   Network Protocol (IP) Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>NETWORK PROTOCOL
   =>IP (continued) ........................................................................................................................................................................ 266
   Transparent Bridge Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>NETWORK PROTOCOL
   =>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE ..................................................................................................................................................... 266
   Routing Protocol Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>RIP .................... 268
   OSPF Protocol Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>OSPF ................... 268
   OSPF Protocol Menu (continued) .............................................................................................................................................. 269
   Authentication Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>AUTHENTICATION ......................................... 270
     Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................ 270



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CHAPTER 9 THE E1 AND T1 INTERFACES, WITH SIGNALING .................................................................. 271
    Controller Menu CONFIG=>CONTROLLER=>T1/E1 .............................................................................................................. 272
  The CCS Signaling Mode (ISDN-PRI) ........................................................................................................... 273
    ISDN General Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>T1/E1(ISDN-PRI)=>ISDN ............................................................................ 275
    Add Entry Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1(ISDN-PRI)= >ISDN =><ESC> =>ADD ENTRY ..................................... 276
  The CAS Signaling Mode ............................................................................................................................... 276
  Parameters Independent of Signaling Mode ................................................................................................. 278
    Channel Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>T1/E1=><CHANNEL> ........................................................................................... 278
    Encapsulation Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPSULATION ........................................... 279
    PPP Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPSULATION =>PPP ............................................... 282
    PPP Menu (Continued) ............................................................................................................................................................. 283
    CHAR Encapsulation Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPSULATION =>CHAR ................. 286
    Network Protocol Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>NETWORK PROTOCOL =>IP ..................... 288
    Network Protocol Menu (Continued) ........................................................................................................................................ 289
    Network Protocol Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>RIP .................... 290
    Channel ISDN Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>T1/E1(ISDN-PRI)=><CHANNEL>=>ISDN .................................................. 291
    Channel Signaling Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>T1/E1(CAS)=><CHANNEL>=>SIGNALING .......................................... 291
    Authentication Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1=><CHANNEL> =>AUTHENTICATION .......................................... 294
    Wizards Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>WIZARDS .................................................................. 296
CHAPTER 10 THE ISDN-BRI INTERFACE ..................................................................................................... 299
    ISDN-BRI Interface Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>ISDN-BRI ............................................................................................. 300
    Encapsulation Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>ENCAPSULATION =><CHANNEL> ..................................... 300
      Frame Relay ............................................................................................................................................... 301
      Sub-Network Access Protocol (SNAP) ...................................................................................................... 303
    Frame Relay Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>ENCAPSULATION =><CHANNEL> =>FRAME RELAY ........ 305
    DLCI Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>ISDN-BRI=>ENCAPS=><CHANNEL>=>FRAME RELAY=><ESC> ... 306
      Traffic Control based on Data Link Connection.......................................................................................... 306
    Add DLCI Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>ISDN-BRI=>ENCAPS =><CHANNEL> =>FRAME RELAY =><ESC>
    =>ADD DLCI .............................................................................................................................................................................. 306
    Add DLCI Frame Relay Menu (continued) ............................................................................................................................... 307
      PPP ............................................................................................................................................................. 308
    PPP Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPSULATION=>PPP ............................................................................ 309
      X.25 ............................................................................................................................................................ 310

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    X.25 Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>ENCAPS =><CHANNEL> =>X.25 ....................................................... 315
    X.25 Menu (Continued).............................................................................................................................................................. 316
    X.25 Add DTE Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>ENCAPS =><CHANNEL> =>X.25 =><ESC> =>Add DTE .. 317
      PAD (Packet Assembler/Disassembler) ..................................................................................................... 318
    X.25 PAD PPP Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>ISDN-BRI =>ENCAPS =><CHANNEL> =>X.25 =><ESC> =><ESC> =>ENCAPS
    =>PPP ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 321
    X.25 PAD PPPCHAR Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>ISDN-BRI=>ENCAPS =><CHANNEL>=>X.25 =><ESC> ><ESC> =>ENCAPS
    =>PPPCHAR ............................................................................................................................................................................. 322
    X.25 PAD CHAR Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>ISDN-BRI=>ENCAPS =><CHANNEL> =>X.25=><ESC> =><ESC> =>ENCAPS
    =>CHAR ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 322
    X.25 PAD Network Protocol Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>ISDN-BRI=>ENCAPS =><CHANNEL> =>X.25 =><ESC> =><ESC>
    =>NW PROTOCOL.................................................................................................................................................................... 324
    X.25 PAD Network Protocol Menu (continued) ........................................................................................................................ 325
    X.25 Physical Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>ISDN-BRI=>ENCAPS=><CHANNEL>=>X.25=><ESC>=><ESC>
    =>PHYSICAL ............................................................................................................................................................................. 327
    X.25 Authentication Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>ISDN-BRI=>ENCAPS=><CHANNEL> =>X.25 =><ESC> =><ESC>
    =>AUTHENTICATION ............................................................................................................................................................... 329
    Network Protocol (IP) Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>NETWORK PROTOCOL =><CHANNEL> =>IP ....... 331
    Network Protocol (IP) Menu (Continued) ................................................................................................................................. 332
    Transparent Bridge Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>ISDN-BRI=>NETWORK PROTOCOL =><CHANNEL> =>TRANSPARENT
     BRIDGE.................................................................................................................................................................................... 332
    Routing Protocol Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =><CHANNEL> =>RIP .............. 334
    OSPF Protocol Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =><CHANNEL> =>OSPF ............ 334
    OSPF Protocol Menu (continued)............................................................................................................................................. 335
    ISDN Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>ISDN ................................................................................................... 337
    Authentication Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>AUTHENTICATION =><CHANNEL> ................................... 338
      Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................ 338
CHAPTER 11 APPLICATION MENU ................................................................................................................ 339
    Application Menu ....................................................................................................................................................................... 339
    Telnet Menu APPLICATIONS=>TELNET ................................................................................................................................. 340
     IP Ping Menu APPLICATIONS=>PING=>IP ........................................................................................................................... 340
    Traceroute APPLICATIONS=>TRACEROUTE ........................................................................................................................ 341




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CHAPTER 12 DEBUG MENU .......................................................................................................................... 342
    DEBUG=>TRACE ...................................................................................................................................................................... 342
    DEBUG=>EVENT LOGS=>DISPLAY ....................................................................................................................................... 342
    DEBUG=>BUFFER REPORT=>GENERAL BUFFERS ............................................................................................................ 342
    DEBUG=>HARDWARE TESTS ................................................................................................................................................ 342
    DEBUG=>MESSAGE TRACE ................................................................................................................................................... 342
CHAPTER 13 INFO MENU ............................................................................................................................. 343
    Info Menu INFO ........................................................................................................................................................................ 345
     ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 345
    Info Menu INFO (continued) ..................................................................................................................................................... 346
CHAPTER 14 ADMIN MENU ........................................................................................................................... 347
    Administration Menu ADMIN .................................................................................................................................................... 350
    Administration Menu ADMIN (continued) ................................................................................................................................. 351
    Load Configuration Menu ADMIN=>LOAD CONFIGURATION ............................................................................................... 352
    Write to TFTP Server Menu ADMIN=>WRITE CONFIGURATION=>TO TFTP SERVER ....................................................... 352
    Write to FTP Server Menu ADMIN=>WRITE CONFIGURATION=>TO FTP SERVER ........................................................... 353
    Clear Menu ADMIN=>CLEAR .................................................................................................................................................. 353
    Clear Menu ADMIN=>CLEAR (continued) ............................................................................................................................... 354
    Download / Upload CyROS Menus ADMIN=>DOWNLOAD CyROS / UPLOAD CyROS ....................................................... 354
    Kill session ADMIN=>KILL SESSION ...................................................................................................................................... 354
    Kill Session Menu 1 ADMIN=>KILL SESSION=>RTELNET/SSH-1 OR CONSOLE ............................................................... 355
    Kill Session Menu 2 ADMIN=>KILL SESSION=>SLOT N (ZBUS/T1/E1) OR X.25/PAD ........................................................ 355
    EVENT PROGRAMMING MENU ADMIN=> EVENT PROGRAMMING=>PROGRAM ............................................................ 356
APPENDIX A APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE (API) FOR X.25 WITH TCP SOCKETS .......... 357
  Automatic mode ............................................................................................................................................. 358
  Manual Mode (mode 3) .................................................................................................................................. 359
  Outgoing Calls ................................................................................................................................................ 363
  Incoming Calls ................................................................................................................................................ 365
  Status Messages ............................................................................................................................................ 367
  Details of the implementation of the TCP Port / DTE table in CyROS .......................................................... 368



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APPENDICE B IPX ........................................................................................................................................... 369
  Enabling IPX................................................................................................................................................... 370
  Configuring the Ethernet Interface ................................................................................................................. 370
  Configuring Other Interfaces .......................................................................................................................... 370
    PPP ............................................................................................................................................................. 371
    Frame Relay ............................................................................................................................................... 371
    X.25 ............................................................................................................................................................ 371
  Routing ........................................................................................................................................................... 371
  The SAP (Service Advertisement Protocol) Table ......................................................................................... 373
INDEX ................................................................................................................................................................ 374




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CHAPTER 1 HOW TO USE THIS REFERENCE GUIDE
CyROS stands for the Cyclades Routing Operating System. It is the operating system for all Cyclades Power
Routers (PR1000, PR2000, PR3000, and PR4000).

CyROS incorporates all the internetworking expertise and experience accumulated by Cyclades through the
years. It is a proven software platform that allows us to introduce new features and products without compromising
stability, reliability and robustness. It also allows us to provide interoperability, connectivity, security, and consistent
interfaces across the product line.

This manual describes CyROS commands and options. It is intended as a companion guide to the router installation
manual. CyROS commands are displayed in structured menus that are accessed by local sessions through:

  • a console terminal (a PC with a terminal emulator or a VT100 terminal),

  • a Telnet session from the network, or

  • an HTTP session through a web browser.

This manual describes all the features available in CyROS. However, some features depend on the router model
or the CyROS profile installed.

CyROS is constantly evolving, and the menus in this manual might be slightly different from the menus in the
router. The latest version of this manual (and the latest version of CyROS) can be downloaded from the Cyclades
ftp site, ftp://ftp.cyclades.com.

For users new to CyROS, these chapters are recommended:

Chapter 2 – Using CyROS menus - explains how the menus are organized.

Chapter 3 – Main menu - describes the main menu for each type of user.
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Chapter 4 – Configuration menus - describes the menus used to configure the router and its interfaces.

Chapter 11 – Application menu - explains how to use the applications available in CyROS.

Chapter 13 – Info menu - describes how to display the router configuration, statistics and the status of the router
and its interfaces.

Chapter 14 – Admin menu - describes CyROS’ administration tools.

For details of configuration of a particular board, read the specific chapter dedicated to it (chapters 5 through 10).

Installation Assumptions
This Reference Guide assumes that the reader understands networking basics and is familiar with the terms and
concepts used in Local Area and Wide Area Networking.

Text Conventions
Common text conventions are used. A summary is presented below:
Convention                         Description
CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>L               A combination of menu items, with the last being either a menu item, a
                                   parameter, or a command. In this example, L lists the interface configuration.

<INTERFACE>                        A variable menu item that depends on hardware options or a choice of
                                   hardware or software options.

IP Address                         A parameter or menu item referenced in text, without path prepended.

Screen Text                        Screen Text

<ESC>, <Enter>                     Simbols representing special keyboard keys.


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CyROS                                                                                                   Reference Guide

Icons
Icons are used to draw attention to important text.
    Icon          Meaning                                                Why
             What is Wrong?       When an error is common, text with this icon will mention the symptoms and how to
                                  resolve the problem.

             Where Can I Find     CyROS is complicated, and related material must be broken up into digestible pieces.
             More Information?    Text with this icon will indicate the relevant section.

             Caution!             Not following instructions can result in damage to the hardware. Text with this icon
                                  will warn when damage is possible.

             Reminder.            Certain instructions must be followed in order. Text with this icon will explain the
                                  proper steps.

             Where Can I See      Configuration information is provided in many locations throughout the CyROS
             What I Configured?   menus. Text with this icon will demonstrate how to display this data.




Chapter 1 - How to Use This Reference Guide                                                                              16
CyROS                                                                                               Reference Guide

Cyclades Technical Support And Contact Information
All Cyclades products include free and unlimited technical support, and software and manual updates.

These updates and the latest product information are available at:

      http://www.cyclades.com
      ftp://ftp.cyclades.com/pub/cyclades

          Before contacting us for technical support on a configuration problem, please collect the information
          listed below.


  •   The Cyclades product name and model.
  •   Applicable hardware and software options and versions.
  •   Information about the environment (network, carrier, etc).
  •   The product configuration. Print out a copy of the listing obtained by selecting INFO=>SHOW
      CONFIGURATION=>ALL.
  •   A detailed description of the problem.
  •   The exact error or log messages printed by the router or by any other system.
  •   The Installation Guide for your product.
  •   Contact information in case we need to contact you at a later time.

In the United States and Canada, contact technical support by phone or e-mail:

      Phone: (510) 770-9727 (9:00AM to 5:00PM PST)
      Fax: (510) 770-0355
      E-mail: support@cyclades.com

Outside North America, please contact us through e-mail or contact your local Cyclades distributor or representative.


Chapter 1 - How to Use This Reference Guide                                                                       17
CyROS                                                                         Reference Guide

The mailing address and general phone numbers for Cyclades Corporation are:

    Cyclades Corporation

    Phone: + 01 (510) 770-9727
    Fax: + 01 (510) 770-0355

    41829 Albrae Street
    Fremont, CA 94538
    USA




Chapter 1 - How to Use This Reference Guide                                               18
CyROS                                                                                            Reference Guide

CHAPTER 2 USING CYROS MENUS
This chapter explains CyROS menu navigation and special keys. The Main Menu is shown in the figure.

                      Cyclades Router (Router Name) – Main Menu

                      1 – Config            2 – Applications         3 – Logout
                      4 – Debug             5 – Info                 6 – Admin

                      Select Option ==>

All menus have the following elements:
   • Title – In the above example: “Main Menu”
   • Prompt – The text: “Select Option ==>”
   • Options –The menu options, which are selected by number.
   • Router Name – The default is the name of the product. Each router can be renamed for easier
     identification.

Menus can also be navigated using a short-cut method. 4+1+1, for example, jumps to the driver trace
configuration menu. This option must be activated first by choosing the shortcut chacter in the
CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>ROUTER DESCRIPTION menu. In addition to the menus, some screens have
questions with letter choices. In the following example, several elements may be identified:
        lmi-type((A)NSI, (G)roup of four, (N)one )[ANSI]:
  • Parameter description – The name of the parameter to be configured, in this case “lmi-type”
  • Options – Legal choices. The letter in parentheses is the letter that selects the corresponding option:
  • Current value – The option in square brackets is the current value.

Pressing <Enter> without typing a new value leaves the item unchanged.



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Special Keys

<Enter> or        These keys are used to end the input of a value.
<Ctrl+M>
<ESC> or          These keys are used to cancel a selection or return to the previous menu. In some isolated
<Ctrl+I>          cases, this key forwards you to the next menu in a series of menus at the same level.
<Backspace>       These keys have the expected effect of erasing previously typed characters.
or <Ctrl+H>
L                 When available, this option displays the current configuration. For example, in the Ethernet
                  Interface Menu, “L” displays the Ethernet configurations.

On leaving a menu where a change in configuration was made, CyROS will ask whether the change is to be
saved:
        (D)iscard, save to (F)lash, or save to (R)un configuration:
Selecting Discard will eliminate all changes made since the last time the question was asked. Saving to Flash
memory makes all changes permanent. The changes are immediately effective and are saved to the
configuration vector in flash memory. In this case, the configuration is maintained even after a router reboot.
Saving only to the Run configuration makes all changes effective immediately, but nothing is saved
permanently until explicitly saved to flash. This can be done through the menu options ADMIN =>WRITE
CONFIGURATION=>TO FLASH.

The menus and parameter lists are represented in this manual by tables. The first column contains the menu
item or the parameter, and the second column contains its description.

Example:
Parameter         Description
Ethernet          Enables/Disables the Ethernet interface



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CHAPTER 3 MAIN MENUS
The main menu depends on the user type. The super-user has access to all menu commands, while the regu-
lar user has access to a restricted subset of commands. The super-user main menu is structured as shown in
the following diagram:

                    Config                        Interface           Ethernet [chapter 5]
                                                                      SWAN [chapter 6]
                    Applications [chapter 11]                         Z-Bus [chapter 7]
                                                                      ISDN-BRI [chapter 10]
                    Logout                                            T1/E1 [chapters 8 and 9]

                    Debug [chapter 12]            (other config sub-menus in chapter 4)

                    Info [chapter 13]

                    Admin [chapter 14]

                               FIGURE 3.1 SUPER-USER MAIN MENU TREE
Super-User Main Menu
Menu Option        Description
Config             Contains all of the menus related to configuration of the router. Each interface is covered
                   in a separate chapter. Please see chapters 4 - 9.
Applications       Runs the applications Telnet, Ping and Traceroute. Please see chapter 10.
Logout             Closes the super-user session.
Debug              Provides tests and diagnostic tools. Please see chapter 11.
Info               Displays the configurations set in the Config menu. Shows the status of each interface and
                   statistics related to the throughput. Please see chapter 12.
Admin              Provides administration tools, including event programming, reboot, and date/time settings.
                   It also contains options to save operating system and configuration vector files on another
                   computer for backup or upgrading. Please see chapter 13.

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The default main menu for regular users is shown in Figure 3.2.

                                      Applications                 Telnet
                                                                   Ping
                                                                   Traceroute
                                                                   PPP




                                      Logout

                                   FIGURE 3.2 USER MAIN MENU TREE
User Main Menu
Menu Option        Description
Applications       Accesses the applications Telnet, Ping, Traceroute and PPP. The PPP application is
                   available only for dial-up connections or a direct connection using network serial cables.
Logout             Closes the user session.

            This user menu can be customized for each user. See the description of the menus CONFIG
            =>SECURITY =>USERS (for users stored in the local database) and CONFIG =>SECURITY
            =>DEFAULT USR MENU (for users authenticated by RADIUS or TACACS servers), in chapter 4.




Chapter 3 - Main Menus                                                                                          22
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CHAPTER 4 THE CONFIG MENU
The Config Menu is very complex. Due to this fact, its description will be broken into several chapters. A guide
is given in Figure 4.1, and a brief description of each principal item is given in the following table.

                     Config               Interface               Ethernet [chapter 5]
                                                                  SWAN [chapter 6]
                                                                  Z-Bus [chapter 7]
                                                                  T1/E1 [chapters 8 and 9]
                                                                  ISDN-BRI [chapter 10]

                                          Static Routes [section 4.1]
                                          System [section 4.2]
                                          Security [section 4.3]
                                          Multilink [section 4.4]
                                          IP [section 4.5]
                                          Transparent Bridge [section 4.6]
                                          Rules List [section 4.7]
                                          Voice [separate manual provided with voice card]
                                          Controller [chapters 8 and 9]
                                          IPX

                                        FIG 4.1 CONFIG MENU TREE




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Config Menu CONFIG

Menu Option        Description
Interface          Contains menu trees for Ethernet and each of the three slots.
Static Routes      Creates static routes to non-local hosts and other routers.
System             Contains menu trees for control of the system log and SNMP management. Allows
                   configuration of modems, the console, the router description and hardware.
Security           Contains submenus for user authentication and authorization, backup servers, and virtual
                   private network parameters.
Multilink          Creates groups of circuits for load balancing, load backup, or link backup.
IP                 Contains submenus for DNS, TCP, DHCP, BGP and OSPF protocols.
Transparent        Allows interconnection of remotely connected LANs through MAC-level bridges.
Bridge
Rules List         Creates rules for IP filtering and traffic control.
Controller         Configures T1/E1 interface channels.

The interface menu has one sub-menu for each slot. The configuration options are very different for each type
of board, and are treated separately. Chapter 5 covers the Ethernet interface, chapter 6 the SWAN interface,
chapter 7 the Z-Bus interface, chapter 8 the T1/E1 interface without signalling, chapter 9 the T1/E1 interface
with signalling, and chapter 10 the ISDN BRI interface.




Chapter 4 - The Config Menu                                                                                   24
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Section 4.1 Static Routes
The menu tree for configuration of static routes is given in Figure 4.2.

     Config        Static Routes        IP         Add Route               Destination IP Address
                                                                           Subnet Mask
                                                                           Gateway or Interface
                                                                           Gateway IP Address
                                                                           Metric
                                                                           Interface
                                                                           Is this a Backup Route?
                                                                           OSPF Advertises This Static Route
                                                                           External Metric
                                                                           External MetricType

                                                   Delete Route
                                                   Edit Route
                                                   Clear Static Routes

                                     FIG 4.2 STATIC ROUTES MENU TREE
Routers used in very small or simple networks may use static routes as the primary routing method. When RIP
or OSPF are used, some static routes may still be needed. Configuration of static routes will be explained
using two examples.




Chapter 4 - The Config Menu                                                                                    25
CyROS                                                                                                          Reference Guide

                  Network 2
                                                                         142.10.0.0
                                                                         Mask: 255.255.0.0
                                                    142.10.0.3
                                     D
                                                            142.10.0.4
                              142.10.0.2                                                           192.168.100.0
                      C                                                           192.168.100.1    Mask: 255.255.255.0
                                                                  Router 2



         142.10.0.1           Router 1
                                                                                                   F 192.168.100.3
                               10.0.0.3
                                                                                    E    192.168.100.2
                                                                                                           Network 3
                 10.0.0.0
          Mask: 255.0.0.0
                                                     B     10.0.0.2

                                 A       10.0.0.1
                                                      Network 1

                                     FIGURE 4.3 STATIC ROUTING EXAMPLE 1
In the first example, three networks are connected by 2 routers. The routing table for router 1 will automatically
include servers A,B,C, and D, as they are direct links. A static route must be created for access to Network 3.
This type of route, a Gateway route, tells the router that any message not intended for hosts A, B, C or D
should be sent to Router 2. Details are given in the parameter table that follows.




Chapter 4 - The Config Menu                                                                                                26
CyROS                                                                                                    Reference Guide

                                                                                     Router 2

                                   Unnumbered                                            192.168.100.1
                                   Interfaces                            Slot 3
                                                                    on            ETH0
                                                                 cti
                                                           Conne
                                                     int
                                             t-to-Po
                                         Poin
                              Slot 1
          Router 1            10.0.0.3                                                               F
                       ETH0
                                                                                    E             Network 3


                                                      B

                                   A                Network 1

                                 FIGURE 4.4 STATIC ROUTING EXAMPLE 2
Figure 4.4 shows another static routing example to explain the Gateway or Interface parameter. Between the
two routers is a point-to-point connection. Another network could be created, but is not necessary. Both
routers can be assigned unnumbered interfaces, because everything that leaves one router is sent to the other.
The configuration for Router 1 is given in the table that follows.




Chapter 4 - The Config Menu                                                                                          27
CyROS                                                                                            Reference Guide

Add Static Route Menu CONFIG =>STATIC ROUTES =>IP =>ADD ROUTE
Parameter               Description
Destination IP          Address that route will lead to. To configure a default route, type "default" or 0.0.0.0
Address                 for this parameter. Both Examples -- for the static route between Router 1 and
                        Network 3, the IP address is 192.168.100.0.
Subnet Mask             Both Examples -- To access all hosts in Network 3, its mask, 255.255.255.0, is used.
Gateway or              Example 1 -- the route is to a gateway.
Interface               Example 2 -- the route is to an interface since unnumbered interfaces are being used.
Gateway IP              Applies only when previous parameter is Gateway. It must be an address visible to the
Address                 router. In Example 1, it is 142.10.0.4.
Interface               Applies only when previous parameter is Interface. Select the port (Ethernet or slot N)
                        that will be unnumbered. In Example 2, it is Slot 1.
Metric                  Relative cost of this link. Generally measured in number of routers between two IP
                        addresses. Both Examples -- 1.
Is This a Backup        Indicates that this route is used as a backup in a multilink circuit. See section 4.4 for
Route?                  more information about multilink circuits.
OSPF Advertises         Static routes defined in the router can be advertised by OSPF. Both this parameter
This Static Route       and the parameter CONFIG=>IP=>OSPF=>GLOBAL=>ADVERTISE STATIC
                        ROUTES must be set to Yes for the route to be advertised.
External Metric         Applies when OSPF Advertises This Static Route is set to Yes. Defines the metric that
                        will be advertised by OSPF.
External Metric-Type    Applies when OSPF Advertises This Static Route is set to Yes. For Type 1, the total
                        metric of this route is composed of the internal metric (inside the autonomous system)
                        and the external metric (provided in the previous parameter). For Type 2, the total
                        metric of this route is the value provided in the previous parameter.

Section 4.2 System Configuration
This menu contains a mixture of configuration menus that do not fall into some other category. The menu tree
shown does not include the SNMP and RMON Management menus, as they are given in detail later in this
section.
Chapter 4 - The Config Menu                                                                                    28
CyROS                                                                                         Reference Guide


 Config      System           Syslog          Console
                                                 Log Level
                                                 Filter Syslog Messages by Their Types
                                                 Show all Line Condition/Protocol Messages
                                                 Show Debug Information Messages
                                                 Show all User Authentication/Accounting Messages
                                                 Show all System Messages
                                                 Show all Routing Messages
                                                 Show all TCP/IP Messages
                                                 Show all Filter Messages
                                                 Show all SNA Messages
                                                 Show all Modem Messages
                                              Server
                                                               Repeated
                                              IP Server
                                              Local Server
                                              Time
                                              Message Identification

                              Firmware Boot          Boot From
                                                     Boot Protocol
                                                     Boot Filename
                                                     Boot Server IP Address

                              Hardware               Watch Dog Timer           Active or Inactive
                                                     Startup Tests            Flash      Skip or Perform
                                                                              RAM        Skip, Quick or Full
                              Console                Current Console Speed


                              FIGURE 4.5 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION MENU TREE

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      Router Description         Prompt String
                                 Router Name
                                 Router Location
                                 Router Contact
                                 Banner Terminating Character
                                 Banner string
                                 Login String
                                 Password String
                                 Escape Char
                                 Shortcut Char                                 Select host Number
                                                                               Host Name
                                                                               IP Address
     Hosts                                                                     TCP Port ID
     Modems           Dial Out Table    Add                                    Protocol
                                                                               IP Adress
                                                                               Init String
                                                                               Dial String
                                                                               Authentication Method
                                                                               Login Name
                                        Edit                                   Password
                                                  Select Dial-Out Number       TX00 String
                                                   Rest same as Add            RX01 String
                                        Delete      Select Dial-Out            TX01 String
                                                    Number to Delete           RX02 String to TX08 String


                      Modem String Table         Modem strings Index
                                                 Modem Initialization String
                                                 Modem Ring String
                                                 Modem Hang-up String

                    FIGURE 4.5 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION MENU TREE, CONTINUED
Chapter 4 - The Config Menu                                                                                 30
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A summary of the options in this menu is given in the table that follows.

System Configuration Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM

Menu Option     Description
Syslog          Sends warning messages to a remote server or displays them on the console screen.
Firmware Boot   Enables booting of the router with a copy of CyROS other than that stored in flash memory.
Hardware        Enables the Watch-Dog Timer, a feature which automatically restarts the router in case of
                an unexpected software error. Enables flash and RAM start-up tests. The RAM test has
                three options: disabled, enabled, and quick test, the last being less conclusive.
Console         Sets the speed for the connection between the router and the computer used as a console.
                The default is 9.6k, but other speeds are available. This number must match that used by
                the console's terminal emulator.
Router          Personalizes the operating system, including some strings which are displayed to the user.
Description     The most useful parameters are the router name (which appears in the menu header and
                allows you to tell two routers apart), and the banner string, which is sent to remote users on
                connection.
Hosts           Assigns aliases for up to 32 hosts.
Modems          Associates IP addresses with telephone numbers for the dial-out table and defines modem
                strings for up to 16 different types of modems in the modem strings table.
UDP Commands Allows communication with the router via messages sent by an external program using the
                UDP protocol. The router interprets the message and performs an action that is configured
                in this menu. The only option currently available is to clear all TCP sessions.
SNMP/RMON       SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and RMON (Remote Network Monitoring)
Mngmt           are used for network management. Hosts and community tables, along with traps, alarms,
                events, and RMON histories and statistics are configured in this menu.
CPU Utilization Available when SNMP is enabled. Makes CPU utilization statistics available to SNMP
                Clients.
Accounting      Enables recording of IP packets, by service.

The Syslog menu is described in the following table.
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Syslog Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM =>SYSLOG

Parameter                     Description
Console                       Displays Syslog messages on the console screen, whether or not someone is
                              logged in.
Server                        Sends Syslog messages to a server.
The next parameters apply when Console = Yes and/or when Server = Yes. If both Console and Server
Syslog messages are requested, the parameters will appear twice so that the two Syslog displays can be
configured separately
Log Level                     Applies to Syslog messages appearing on the console. The levels are defined
                              in the next table. Each level contains the messages of the previous level.
Filter Syslog Messages by     Allows the selection of which Syslog messages will be displayed.
Their Types
The parameters that follow (up to Show All Modem Messages) appear only if the previous parameter is Yes.
Show All Line Condition/      Displays line condition and protocol Syslog messages.
Protocol Messages
Show All Debug Information Displays debug messages, usually needed only by software engineers working
Messages                      on CyROS.
Show All User                 Displays authentication and accounting messages for both local authentication
Authentication/ Accounting    and Radius/TACACS authentication.
Messages
Show All System Messages Displays system messages, like problems with hardware or in writing to flash.
Show All Routing Messages Displays messages when the routing table is modified.
Show All TCP/IP Messages Displays TCP/IP connection messages and indicates when socket connections
                              are established and closed.
Show All Filter Messages      Displays messages regarding IP packet filtering.
Show All SNA Messages         Displays SNA debug messages, usually needed only by software engineers
                              working on CyROS.
Show All Modem Messages Applies only to the PR4000. Displays messages related to incoming calls.
This table is continued


Chapter 4 - The Config Menu                                                                               32
CyROS                                                                                     Reference Guide

Syslog Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM =>SYSLOG (continued)
Parameter               Description
Commands for Server = Yes
IP Server               Remote server IP address where the messages should be sent.
Local Level             Number used by the Syslog program on the server to determine where to save the
                        messages. On some UNIX systems, the /etc/syslog.conf file contains the
                        association between the name "local<Local Level>.*" and the file where the
                        messages should be stored. See man syslog.conf in the server's operating system
                        for more information.
Time                    Applies to Syslog messages sent to the server. Puts a timestamp on all messages.
Message Identification  Applies to Syslog messages sent to the server or displayed on the console. Allows
                        the inclusion of an identifying string in each message.

Definition of the Syslog Messages:

                                     Syslog Level    Messages Displayed
                                          0         System Unusable
                                          1         Alert / Security
                                          2         Initialization Error
                                          3         Recoverable Error
                                          4         Minor Problems
                                          5         Significant Conditions
                                          6         Information
                                          7         Debug Only




Chapter 4 - The Config Menu                                                                            33
CyROS                                                                                          Reference Guide

Details of the Firmware Boot Menu are presented in the following table.

Firmware Boot Menu CONFIG =>SYSTEM =>FIRMWARE BOOT
Parameter        Description
Boot From        Determines which copy of CyROS will be used to boot the system. Flash loads CyROS
                 from the flash memory. Network loads CyROS from a server in the network. This
                 simplifies upgrades for a system with many routers.
Parameters Applying only to Boot From Network
Boot Protocol    Protocol used for the network boot: Bootp, TFTP, or Both.
Boot Filename    Locates file containing CyROS. Not used for Bootp.
Boot Server IP   Locates server where file is located.
Address

Specific router parameters that must be defined are shown in the following table.

Router Description Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>ROUTER DESCRIPTION

Parameter          Description
Prompt String      String used instead of Select option ==>.
Router Name        Name used to differentiate between two or more routers of the same model. The default is
                   the model name.
Router Location    Used to indicate the location.
Router Contact     Used to identify the person who maintains the router.
Banner             Character that will be used to indicate the end of the banner string in the next parameter.
Terminating
Character
Banner String       String that will be sent to a remote user when a modem connection is established
                    (maximum of 255 characters). After typing the banner, press the character chosen in the
                    previous command (Banner Terminating Character) to end the banner string.
This table is continued.

Chapter 4 - The Config Menu                                                                                   34
CyROS                                                                                           Reference Guide

Router Description Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>ROUTER DESCRIPTION (continued)

Parameter          Description
Login String       String used instead of Username: Maximum of 16 characters.
Password String    String used instead of Password: Maximum of 16 characters.
Escape Char        ASCII character that will be used to return to the previous menu. The default is <ESC>.
Shortcut Char      ASCII character used to enter router commands quickly. Usually + is used, but other
                   characters are available. A description of this method is given in chapter 2. A character
                   must be chosen here before the shortcut method will work.

Assignment of host names is explained in the following table.

Hosts Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>HOSTS
Parameter          Description
Host Number        Sequential number (1 to 32) used to identify the host in the list.
Host Name          String (maximum 8 characters) used as an alias by the router. This name can be used in
                   Telnet, Ping and Traceroute applications.
IP Address         IP address to be associated with the host name.
TCP Port ID        Number specifying the port for TCP Port ID sessions to the host. The preset value is 23.

The modem parameters are described in two separate tables.




Chapter 4 - The Config Menu                                                                                    35
CyROS                                                                                       Reference Guide

Dial-Out Table Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>MODEMS=>DIAL OUT TABLE=>ADD

Parameter        Description
IP Address       IP address of the host that will answer the connection.
Init String      Commands to be sent to the modem during initialization. (See the modem's manual for
                 appropriate strings.)
Dial String      Dial commands to be sent to the modem.
Authentication   Method to be used for authentication when connecting to this IP address:
Method           Direct – direct authentication, where the username and password are sent using strings.
                 None – no authentication is used.
                 PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) – the string “login name, password” is transmitted
                 in plain text.
                 CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) – this method is based on the
                 existence of a shared secret (between the sender and the receiver). The authenticator
                 sends a unique number (challenge) plus the “login name”. The authenticatee should
                 answer with an MD5 encrypted password based on the challenge and the shared secret.
                 The authenticator allows the PPP connection if the received password is valid.
                 Both – [PAP or CHAP] The two sides of the PPP connection negotiate the authentication
                 method at the time of connection.
Login Name       Login name expected by the remote host.
Password         Password expected by the remote host.
Parameters used only with the Direct Authentication Method.
TX00 String      Message to be sent to the remote authenticator as soon as the modem connects.
RX01 String      String to be expected from the authenticator.
TX01 String      String to be sent to the remote authenticator in reply.
RX02 String to   More strings (if necessary), up to 8 pairs of questions and answers.
TX08 String




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Modem Strings Table Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>MODEMS=>MODEM STRINGS TABLE

Parameter          Description
Modem Strings      Identifies a set of modem commands, or a type of modem. This number will be used to
Index              describe the modem in the CONFIG=>INTERFACE=><INTERFACE>=>PHYSICAL
                   =>MODEM STRING INDEX parameter.
Modem              Set of initialization commands to be sent to the modem.
Initialization
String
Modem Ring     Sent to the modem in response to a RING command.
String
Modem Hang-up Sent to the modem when the line goes down.
String




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UDP Commands Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>UDP COMMANDS
The only UDP command currently available is Clear All Sessions. Figure 4.6 shows an example of the use of
this feature.

                                                          Terminal Using
                                                          a Socket Application
                            Terminal
                         UsingTelnet
                                                                                            Dial-In Lines

                                         Cyclades                        ......
                                                                               ......
                                                                                     ....




                                          PR3000
                                                                   ......
                                                             ......
                                                       ......




                                                                                                            Host 1
                                                                      Backup
                                                    Host 2            for Host 1
                                                    Running UDP
                                                    Switch-over Program


                                   FIGURE 4.6 UDP COMMAND EXAMPLE
A network has a critical host (host 1) and a secondary host for backup. When the primary host goes down, its
funcionality is switched to the backup host via instructions received from Host 2. TCP dial-up connections
cannot be transferred, so all sessions should be dropped to enable the users to call in again and reach the
backup host. The port on which the router will receive this request and the string contained in the request are
defined in this menu.



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UDP Clear All Sessions Menu CONFIG =>SYSTEM =>UDP COMMANDS =>CLEAR ALL SESSIONS

Parameter          Description
Clear All          Router UDP port (1025-65535) to which remote host will send the Clear All Sessions
Sessions UDP       Request String.
Port
Clear All          When the router receives this string, it confirms the message received (by sending a
Sessions           message with the Clear All Sessions Acknowledgement String to the sender), and clears all
Request String     active sessions.
Clear All          String to be sent to remote host to confirm receipt of the Clear All Sessions Request String
Sessions Ack       message.
String

         To see the port and string information registered in CONFIG=> SYSTEM=>UDP
         COMMANDS=>CLEAR ALL SESSIONS, use the list command: CONFIG=> SYSTEM=>UDP
         COMMANDS=>L.


SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
SNMP is used for network management. A network management system based on this protocol consists of:
 • a management station,
 • management agents,
 • and a management information base (MIB) for each station/agent.

The management station provides an interface to the management system and maintains the Central MIB.
Management agents are all hosts, routers, bridges, and hubs that are managed by the management station.
Each one maintains a local MIB. The MIB is a collection of objects, standardized across a network. The
management station monitors the agents by collecting the values of local MIB objects. The SNMP Menu Tree
is shown in Figure 4.7.



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  Config     System       SNMP/RMON     Host Table      Add Host                IP Address
                           MNGMNT                                               Subnet Mask
                                                        Delete Host             IP Address
                                                        Clear Host Table

                                        Community       Add Community           Community Name
                                        Table                                   Type
                                                                                Status
                                                        Delete Community        Community Name
                                                        Edit Community          Community Name
                                                                                New Name
                                                                                Type
                                                                                Status
                                                        Clear Community Table


                                        Traps           Add Trap                Options
                                                                                Trap Status
                                                        Delete Trap             Community
                                                                                IP Adress
                                        RMON [next figure]

                                  FIGURE 4.7 SNMP MENU TREE




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A brief clarification of these options is given in the following table:

SNMP Management Menu CONFIG =>SYSTEM =>SNMP/RMON MANAGEMENT
Menu Option     Description
Host Table      SNMP management stations that manage this router. Up to 32 IP-address/mask pairs can
                be entered. The host table for the example is given in the figure.
Community Table The SNMP community is better understood as a general password used in combination
                with the IP addresses stored in the host table. The simplest case would be to have one
                read/write community for management stations controlling the router and one read only
                community for other management stations. For convenience in the grouping of stations, up
                to 5 communities can be defined.
Traps           The router can send messages to the management stations when certain conditions (traps)
                are met. Up to 72 traps can be defined. See the section on traps in this chapter for more
                information.
RMON            RMON statistics and history configurations, along with alarm and event sub-menus.

A typical example with one router, two LANs, and two management stations is shown in Figure 4.8.
Management station 1 monitors hosts 1 and 2 and the router. Management station 2 monitors hosts 3 and 4
and the same router.




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      Management Station 1
             Host Table
   IPCommunity
   200.0.0.55     Get:Manag1                                              Management
                  Set:Manag1                                              Station 2
                  Trap:T Manag1                                           IP: 70.0.0.23
   200.0.0.1      All:LAN 1
   200.0.0.2      All:LAN 1                                                                          Host 4
                                     Management                                 LAN 2           IP: 70.0.0.4
                                     Station 1
                                     IP: 200.0.0.7       Router
                                               IP: 200.0.0.55         IP: 70.0.0.11
                                                                                                     Host 3
                                                                                                IP: 70.0.0.3
                                         LAN 1                           Router Host Table
                                                                             IPMask
                                                           Host 2            70.0.0.23 255.255.255.255
                     Host 1                                                  200.0.0.7 255.255.255.255
                                                           IP: 200.0.0.2
                     IP: 200.0.0.1                                         Router Community Table
                                                                                Public : Read
                                                                                Manag1 : Read/Write
                                                                                Manag2 : Read/Write


                                       FIGURE 4.8 SNMP EXAMPLE




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In this example, the router has 3 passwords (communities). Management station 1 can access the router using
any of the three. Which one it uses determines whether it has read/write or read only access. The host table of
the management station stores the IP address/community pair needed to access each agent in the system. In
this example, it stores the router’s IP address together with the community manag1. This gives it read/write
access to the router. Further explanations are given in the following tables.

Add Community Menu CONFIG =>SYSTEM =>SNMP/RMON MANAGEMENT =>COMMUNITY TABLE =>
ADD COMMUNITY

Parameter          Description
Community          Name that will be used by the management stations as a password to access the router.
Name               The maximum length is 7 characters. In the example there are four communities: Public,
                   Manag1, Manage2 and TManag1.
Type               Type of access allowed for this community.
                   Read – management stations can read MIB variables.
                   Read/Write – management stations can read and modify MIB variables.
Status             Enabling or disabling of this community.

When the network contains many agents, the management station can opt to receive MIB information from
agents only when certain conditions are met. Traps are set on each agent, with information as to which
management station should receive the information. This reduces network traffic and simplifies the processing
of the incoming messages.

As an extension of the previous example, the router will set three traps. As a preview, output from
CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>SNMP/RMON MANAGEMENT=>TRAPS=>L will look like this after configuration:

                    #   Type               Status     Community      Destination
                    1   Link 2-Up/Down     Enabled    tmanag2        70.0.0.23
                    2   Rising             Enabled                   200.0.0.7
                    3   Falling            Enabled                   200.0.0.7


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Management station 2 will receive a message from the router whenever link 2 (slot 1) changes status. The
only parameters that need to be set are in Add Trap.

Add Trap Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>SNMP/RMON MANAGEMENT=>TRAPS =>ADD TRAP
Parameters         Description
Options            Currently, 5 types of traps are provided in CyROS.
                   Cold start: whenever the router is rebooted.
                   Link up/down: when the link status changes (for a given slot). Trap 1 is of this type.
                   Authorization failure: When a management station attempts to perform an action with an
                   inappropriate community.
                   Rising alarm/Falling alarm: See section on alarms in this chapter for more information.
                   Traps 2 and 3 are of this type.
Trap Status        Enabling or disabling of this trap.
Community          Community that is defined in management station's host table for router's IP address. For
                   management station 1 in the example, it would be Tmanag1, and for management station
                   2, Tmanag2.
IP Address         Address of the management station that is to receive the message. For management
                   station 1 in the example, it is 200.0.0.7.

Rising and Falling Traps are especially complicated. Management station 1 is interested in the messages
arriving over the internet. Two traps will be set for ifInOctets (MIB: 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10.1) for maximum and
minimum values of interest. This involves traps, alarms, and events.




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        Where Parameters are Trap #2 - Rising         Alarm 1
        Defined                                                 Rising Event: Event 1 -> Event 1
                                                                 Falling Event: Event 2 -> Event 2
                                Trap #3 - Falling     Alarm 2
                                                              Rising Event: Event 3 -> Event 3
                                                               Falling Event: Event 4 -> Event 4
        What is defined         Destination of Trap   MIB Object, Conditions for Alarm   Community
                                Message
        What is NOT defined     Alarm Number,                                              Destination
                                Event Number


An alarm can evoke only 2 events -- one for rising and one for falling. An event can be called by any number of
alarms. Trap 2, a rising trap, will send messages to the configured destination IP address for ALL rising events
(bold in above table). This is irrespective of the communities defined in the related events.

The configuration of alarms will now be described. The output of CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>SNMP/RMON
MANAGEMENT =>RMON=>ALARM=>L, showing a new alarm configured to fire when ifInOctets passes
700 or goes below 200, is displayed next.

                    Alarm Group Entries
                    Alarm Index : 1
                    Mib Object : 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10.1
                    Sample Interval : 60
                    Sample Type : Delta
                    Startup Alarm : Rising
                    Rising Threshold : 700
                    Event to Fire on Rising Threshold Crossing : 1
                    Falling Threshold : 200
                    Event to Fire on Falling Threshold Crossing : 2
                    Owner : naomi

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Explanations of the Alarm parameters appear in the table below.

Add Alarm Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>SNMP/RMON MANAGEMENT=>RMON=>ALARM=>ADD ALARM

Parameter         Description
Alarm Index       Non-consecutive number used to identify the alarm.
MIB Object        The number of the object in MIB format, e.g. 1.3.6.1.2.1.5.1.0
Sample Interval   How often the value should be sampled, in seconds.
Sample Type       Absolute or delta, delta being the current value less the previous sample value. Check the
                  MIB documentation for more information about the particular MIB object.
Start-up Alarm    This determines which alarm will be triggered first. In the example output, this parameter
                  is rising. If the first value sampled is 400, and the next is 150, the falling threshold is
                  breached but the alarm will not fire until the rising threshold is crossed at least once.
Rising Threshold Value to trigger alarm when MIB object value is increasing. In Alarm 1, it is 700 octets per
                  second, because the sample interval is 1 second.
Event to Fire on Number of event -- must be configured separately, see the following paragraphs. For Alarm
Crossing Rising 1, it is Event 1
Threshold
Falling Threshold Value to trigger alarm when MIB object value is decreasing. In Alarm 1, it is 200 octets per
                  second.
Event to Fire on Number of event -- must be configured separately, see the following paragraphs. For
Crossing Falling Alarm 1, it is Event 2.
Threshold
Owner             Name of person setting up this alarm, for later reference.




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Since this alarm is linked to two events (one for rising, one for falling), these events must be created. After
creation, the output of CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>SNMP/RMON MANAGEMENT=>RMON=>EVENT=>L will be:
                        Event Group Entries
                        Event Index : 1
                        Description : on octets rising
                        Event Type : Trap
                        Community Name : tmanag1
                        Owner : naomi

                        Event Index : 2
                        Description : on octets falling
                        Event Type : Trap
                        Community Name : tmanag1
                        Owner : naomi

The last step in this example is the creation of two traps, one for rising and one for falling. These can be seen
in the previous traps display. Note that the community does not appear in the CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>SNMP/
RMON MANAGEMENT=>TRAPS=>L display. This is because the community is defined in the event and all
rising events will be associated with a rising trap. A curiosity of SNMP is that all rising events will be sent due
to the rising trap. The combination of IP address and community will determine if the message is used by the
receiving management station.




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Details of event definition are shown in the next table.

Add Event Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>SNMP/RMON MANAGEMENT=>RMON=>EVENT=>ADD EVENT
Parameter           Description
Event Index         Non-consecutive number used to identify the event.
Description         A string describing the event, used to distinguish different events for ease of administration.
Event Type          Trap: sends a message to the management station.
                    Log: stores the information in the RMON event group log table. This is only accessible
                    through SNMP. The administrator of the router cannot see this information by logging into
                    the router.
Community           Community that is set up in the management station's host table for the router's IP address.
                    For management station 1 in the example, it would be Tmanag1.
Owner               Name of person setting up this alarm, for later reference.

Remote Network Monitoring (RMON)
The RMON sub-menu tree is shown in Figure 4.9. Parameters related to RMON are explained in the following
tables.




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     Config
                              Statistics   Statistics Status
                                           Promiscuous Mode
     System
                              History      Add History Control         Enter History Table Index
                                                                       Number of Discrete
    SNMP              RMON                 Delete History Control      Sampling Intervals
  Management                               Edit History Control        Interval
                                           Clear All                   Owner Name
                              Alarm        Add Alarm                Alarm Index
                                                                    MIB Object
                                           Delete Alarm             Sample Interval
                                           Edit Alarm               Sample Type
                                           Clear All                Startup Alarm
                                                                    Rising Threshold
                                                                    Event to Fire on Rising
                                                                    Threshold Crossing
                                                                    Falling Threshold
                                                                    Event to Fire on Falling
                                                                    Threshold Crossing
                                                                    Owner name

                              Event        Add Event                Event Index
                                                                    Description
                                           Delete Event             Event Type
                                           Edit Event               Community
                                           Clear All                Owner Name


                               FIGURE 4.9 RMON MENU TREE




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RMON Statistics Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>SNMP/RMON MANAGEMENT =>RMON=>RMON STATISTICS

Parameter           Description
Statistics Status   Enables/disables collection of low-level utilization and error statistics. These statistics are
                    available only through SNMP.
Promiscuous         Causes the router to collect information on all network traffic on the LAN. When disabled,
Mode                only traffic passing through the router will be analyzed.


RMON Add History Menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>SNMP/RMON MANAGEMENT=>RMON=>RMON
HISTORY=> ADD HISTORY CONTROL

Parameter           Description
History Table       Number that uniquely identifies a row in the history table (the historyControlIndex). CyROS
Index               is limited to 3 history table entries.
Number of           Number of back samples stored at any given time.
Discrete
Sampling
Intervals
Interval            The sampling interval, in seconds. Valid values are 1 to 3600 (1 hour).
Owner Name          Name of person setting up this request, for later reference.


Section 4.3 Security Configuration
The Security Configuration Menu contains various access and validation topics. IP filtering is covered
separately in section 4.7. The Security Configuration menu tree is shown in Figure 4.10.




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        Config
                              Users   Add           User Name
                                                    New User Name
                                      Delete        Password
      Security                                      Confirm New Password
                                      Modify        User Type
                                                    User Status
                                                    Start Telnet Session Mode
                                                    Host N
                                                    Host N Automatic Login User Name
                                                    Main Menu Items for User
                                                    Disable Login on Console
                                                    Disable Login on Terminal
                                                    Disable Login on PPP
                                                    Disable Login on Telnet
                                                    Disable Login on PAD Terminal
                              NAT     General    Status
                                                 Mode
                                                 Disable port translation

                                      Global     Add Range           First IP Address
                                      Address                        Last IP Address
                                                 Delete Range

                                      Local      Add Range           Net IP Address
                                      Address                        Netmask
                                                                     First IP Address
                                                                     Last IP Address
                                                                     Shold Rande be Translated
                                                 Delete Range

                          FIGURE 4.10 SECURITY CONFIGURATION MENU TREE



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                              Static              Add Entry                    Global IP Address
                              Translation         Delete Entry                 Protocol
                                                                               Global Port
                              Timeouts             UDP Timeout                 Local IP Address
                                                   DNS Timeout                 Local Port
                                                   TCP Timeout
                                                   TCP Flags Timeout
             Radius            Radius Status       Disabled Port Translation

                              Add              Radius Server IP Address
                                               Radius Server Type
                                               Radius Server Retries
                                               Radius Server Timeout
                                               Radius Server Encryption Key
                                               Radius Server Authentication Port
                                               Radius Server Send Start Accounting

                              Edit             Same as Add
                              Delete
                              Move to Top

             Tacacs           Add              Tacacs Server IP Address
                                               Tacacs Server Type
                                               Tacacs Server Retries
                                               Tacacs Server Timeout

                              Edit             Same as Add
                              Delete
                              Move to Top


                      FIGURE 4.10 (PART 2) SECURITY CONFIGURATION MENU TREE



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      Default User Menu                                                  Enable Telnet
                                                                         Enable Ping
                                                                         Enable Traceroute
      LAN IP           Add Backup           Primary IP Address           Enable PPP
      Backup           Delete Backup        Backup IP Address            Enable Slip
                       Edit Backup
                       Clear Backup Entries

      VPN              Remote Gateways         Add Gateway                  Remote Security
                                               Delete Gateway               Gateway IP Address
                                               Edit Gateway                 Secret

                       Local IP Networks       Add Network                  Local Network Address
                                               Delete Network               Local Network Netmask
                                               Edit Network
                                               Clear Local Network

                       Remote IP Networks      Add Network                  Remote Network IP Address
                                               Delete Network               Remote Network Netmask
                                               Edit Network                 Remote Security Gateway
                                               Clear Remote Networks        IP Address

                       Options                   Cyclades VPN Status
                                                 Tunnel Keepalive Timeout
                                                 Tunnel Keepalive Retries
                                                 Tunnel Inactivity Timeout
                                                 Time Interval for VPN Retries

      SSH              General                   SSH Active
                                                 Negotiation Timeout
                       Generate Keys             Number of Retries


                     FIGURE 4.10 (PART 3) SECURITY CONFIGURATION MENU TREE
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A summary of the Security Menu options is given next.

Security Menu CONFIG=>SECURITY
Menu Option      Description
Users            Management of local user accounts, including user type, password, access, main menu
                 options. The super user has access to all menus. The usr user is shown a menu, upon
                 sucessful login, with the items chosen in the user’s profile. The pppauto user is connected
                 directly to the user via PPP. No menu appears. The auto user is connected via telnet
                 directly to the host specified as host 1 in the user profile. His user name on the host can be
                 defined in the CONFIG=>SECURITY=>USERS=>ADD menu, which means he will only
                 need to supply his password during login.
NAT              Network Address Translation sub-menus.
Radius           Adds Radius servers and determines in which order they are contacted. Move to Top
                 causes the server selected to be contacted first.
Tacacs           Adds Tacacs servers and determines in which order they are contacted. Move to Top
                 causes the server selected to be contacted first.
Default Usr Menu Menu items for the user main menu when Radius or Tacacs server authentication is used.
LAN IP Backup    When packet delivery to a critical application must be guaranteed, a backup LAN IP
                 address can be chosen for a critical host. CyROS monitors the critical host, and if it goes
                 down all messages are passed to the backup host transparently. Up to 4 server pairs can
                 be entered.
VPN              Creates Virtual Private Networks where authentication, criptography and authenticity
                 garantee protocols are applied when packets are sent.
SSH              Secure shell parameters. SSH Active activates the SSH server, Negotiation Timeout
                 determines the time allowed for a SSH connection to be established by the SSH client
                 (values 0-600sec, with 0=no timeout), Number of Retries (values 0-999) is the number of
                 retries permitted by the same remote SSH client, and Generate Keys allows the alteration
                 of the pair of RSA keys.



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            The menu items configured in the Default Usr Menu option above are only for Radius or Tacacs
            authenticated users. The menu items for local users are chosen individually when the user is
            created, in CONFIG=>SECURITY=>USERS=>ADD.

 NAT (Network Address Translation)
 NAT exists to convert local IP addresses into Internet “global” IP addresses. Internet IP addresses are
 assigned by Internet providers. Due to the explosion of the internet, these numbers are scarce. Certain ranges
 of IP addresses are reserved for internal use only — they may not have a direct connection to the Internet (for
 reference, they are 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255, 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255, and 192.168.0.0 -
 192.168.255.255). These are used as local IP addresses. Figure 4.11 shows an example of the utility of NAT:

                              Global Address Range                     ftp                 Networks
                              - Network: 200.240.230.224               Server              192.168.0.0 &
                              - Mask: 255.255.255.240                  192.168.0.30        200.200.200.0
                                               Host
                                   Host




         200.240.230.2                                                 PC

         PR1000 With                                  200.200.200.11                          WWW
        Expanded NAT                                                                          Server
                                          200.200.200.10
                                                                                           192.168.0.31
                                                                            192.168.0.5
                                Router Ethernet Port
                                Primary IP Address: 192.168.0.1
                                Secondary IP Address: 200.200.200.1


                                           FIGURE 4.11 NAT EXAMPLE

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In this example, the company has:

  • 14 global IP addresses available for NAT, 200.240.230.225 to 200.240.230.238,
  • Two networks connected to the router via the Ethernet Interface, one of which will be translated,
  • Two servers that are accessed via the same global IP address, assigned statically.

After configuring the router as shown in the example, CONFIG =>SECURITY =>NAT =>L will display:


        NAT Enabled
        NAT mode Expanded
        Port map translation Enabled
        UDP Timeout (min) 5
        DNS Timeout (min) 1
        TCP Timeout (min) 1440
        TCP flags Timeout (min) 1

        NAT Global Addresses

        #     address range
        1     200.240.230.225 to 200.240.230.238

        NAT Local Addresses

        #     address range
        1     192.168.0.0            255.255.255.0             translated




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        NAT Static Translation Table

        #   Global address        /    port         local address         /   Port       Protocol
        1   200.240.230.225       /      20         192.168.0.30          /     20          TPC
        2   200.240.230.225       /      21         192.168.0.30          /     21          TPC
        3   200.240.230.225       /      80         192.168.0.31          /     80          TPC


Types of Address Translation
In dynamic address translation, a pool of global IP addresses is loosely related to a pool of local IP
addresses. Mapping of one onto the other is done dynamically whenever a computer on the local network
requests a connection to the external network. When the connection is broken, the global IP address is
returned to the pool. Hosts connected via dynamic address translation must initiate all connections with the
external network.

In static address translation, one global IP address (or global IP address / port pair) is permanently associ-
ated with one local IP address (or global IP address / port pair). In the example, the web server is connected to
one of the global IP addresses for services on port 80, reducing the IP address pool to 13. Static address
translation is used when the connection with the external network is to be initiated from either side — external
or internal.

Translation may be done in two ways:

  1 Address translation only – each global address is assigned to a single local address when necessary. In
    the example, there are only 13 global addresses available and more than 13 hosts . With this type of
    translation, only 13 servers can connect to the Internet at any given time.

  2 Port and address translation — the UDP/TCP port and local IP address are translated as a pair. With this
    type of translation, only ONE global address is needed. All hosts can be mapped to the same global IP
    address. This can be used in our example to allow all hosts in the 192.168.0.0 network access to the
    Internet at the same time.
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Some services are not supported by NAT (SNMP, NetBios, routing protocols) and others are limited by NAT
(ICMP, DNS). CyROS NAT supports FTP, DNS, Telnet, Traceroute, SMTP, HTTP, ICMP, ntalk, and talk. The
NAT translation table supports up to 2048 simultaneous entries. When NAT and IP filtering are used together
(see section 4.7), filter rules are applied to incoming packets before NAT is applied. The inverse is true for
outgoing packets -- NAT is applied before IP filtering.

NAT Menu CONFIG =>SECURITY =>NAT

Menu Option           Description
General               Parameters for enabling NAT and choosing the NAT Mode (Normal or Expanded). Also
                      includes the port translation option.
Global Address        The first and last IP addresses in the range. In the example, these numbers are
                      200.240.230.225 and 200.240.230.238.
Local Address         For Expanded NAT, the local network IP address and network mask, and whether or not
                      the network should be translated. In the example, these numbers are 192.168.0.0 and
                      255.255.255.0. For Normal Mode NAT, the first IP address in the range to be translated
                      and the number of IP addresses in the range.
Static Translation    Defines a static translation between a global IP address/port pair and a local IP
                      address/port pair. In the example, three such pairs are defined.
Timeout               Definition of inactivity timeouts for UDP, DNS, and TCP dynamic NAT translations.

          What is the difference between Expanded and Normal Mode NAT? The Normal Mode is a previous
          implementation of NAT used in the Power Router line. It has been maintained for backward
~         compatibility. Expanded NAT provides static translation not only from one IP address to another, but
          from one IP address/port pair to another IP address/port pair.




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NAT Menu CONFIG =>SECURITY =>NAT

Menu Option           Description
NAT Status            Enables NAT.
NAT Mode              Provides a choice between the previous and still existing NAT version (the Normal Mode)
                      and the new Expanded NAT version. Note that if this parameter is changed, all NAT
                      parameters will be reset to the preset values.
Disable Port          Disables/enables NAT with port translation. If this parameter is changed while the router
Translation           is in use, all the active translations are destroyed, and their entries are removed from the
                      translation table.


Timeout Menu CONFIG =>SECURITY =>NAT =>TIMEOUT

Parameter         Description
UDP Timeout       Inactivity time required before a UDP translation is removed from the translation table.
                  An entry is created in the translation table the first time a UDP packet passes through the
                  interface. Five minutes is a reasonable time.
DNS Timeout       Inactivity time required before a DNS translation is removed from the translation table.
TCP Timeout       Inactivity time required before a TCP translation is removed from the translation table.
                  This time should be relatively long, because under normal conditions TCP connections
                  are formally disconnected with FIN (No more data from sender) or RST (Reset
                  Connection) flags.
TCP Flags Timeout Inactivity time required, after the receipt of a FIN, RST, or SYN (Synchronize sequence
                  numbers) flag, before a TCP translation is removed from the translation table. This time
                  can be relatively short, because after the TCP connection has been closed, there is no
                  further need for its address translation.




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Add Radius Server Menu CONFIG=>SECURITY=>RADIUS=>RADIUS STATUS=>ADD

Parameter        Description
Radius Server IP RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) requires a server providing user
Address          authentication and accounting. More than one can be configured, and each one is tried, in
                 order, if the previous one fails to respond.
Radius Server    Authentication: Determines if user can access the network.
Type             Accounting: Monitors user's network activity.
                 Both: Authentication and Accounting.
Radius Server    Number of times router will resend request if RADIUS server does not answer.
Retries
Radius Server    Waiting time between RADIUS server retries, in seconds.
Timeout
Radius Server    Encryption Key used in communications between the router and the Radius server. The
Encryption Key   string can have a maximum of 16 characters and is case-sensitive.
Radius Server    1812: – UDP ports 1812 and 1813 are used for Radius, according to RFCs 2138 and 2139;
Authentication   1645: – UDP ports 1645 and 1646 are used for Radius, according to RFCs 2058 and 2059
Port             (now obsolete, but still common).
Radius Server    No: Economizes messages between the router and Radius server. Instead of sending the
Send Start       Accounting Request Start message, the Access Accept message is interpreted as the
Accounting       beginning of the session.
                 Yes: Both the Access Accept and Accounting Request Start messages are sent.

Callback is available in combination with Radius Server authentication. When a registered user calls the router,
the router will disconnect the user, then call the user back. The following three parameters must be configured
in the Radius Server: attribute Service_type(6) : Callback Framed; attribute Framed_Protocol(7): PPP; at-
tribute Callback_Number(19): the dial string (example: atdt50903300).
              General Radius server information is set here. Each interface must then be configured to use
              server authorization: CONFIG =>INTERFACE =><SLOT N> =>AUTHENTICATION
              =>AUTHENTICATION TYPE =SERVER AND AUTHENTICATION SERVER =RADIUS or
              TACACS.
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The following is a list of supported RADIUS Authorization and Accounting Attributes:
 #          Attribute Implemented in CyROS           #              Attribute          Implemented in CyROS
  1   User-Name       Yes                            30   Called-Station-Id            No
  2   User-Password   Yes                            31   Calling-Station-Id           Yes for the PR4000
  3   CHAP-Password   Yes                            32   NAS-Identifier               No
  4   NAS-IP-Address  Yes                            33   Proxy-State                  No
  5   NAS-Port        Yes                            34   Login-LAT-Service            No
  6   Service-Type    Login, Framed, or NAS          35   Login-LAT-Node               No
                      Prompt
 7 Framed-Protocol    PPP or SLIP                    36   Login-LAT-Group              No
 8 Framed-IP-Address  Yes                            37   Framed-AppleTalk-Link        No
 9 Framed-IP-Netmask Yes                             38   Framed-AppleTalk-Network     No
10 Framed-Routing     No                             39   Framed-AppleTalk-Zone        No
11 Filter-Id          Yes                            60   CHAP-Challenge               No
12 Framed-MTU         Yes                            61   NAS-Port-Type                Yes
13 Framed-Compression Yes                            62   Port-Limit                   No
14 Login-IP-Host      Yes                            63   Login-LAT-Port               No
15 Login-Service      Telnet                         77   Connect Info                 Yes for the PR4000
16 Login-TCP-Port     Yes                            40   Acct-Status-Type             Yes
18 Reply-Message      Yes, on challenge              41   Acct-Delay-Time              Yes
19 Callback-Number    Yes                            42   Acct-Input-Octets            Yes
20 Callback-Id        No                             43   Acct-Output-Octets           Yes
22 Framed-Route       Yes                            44   Acct-Session-Id              Yes
23 Framed-IPX-Network No                             45   Acct-Authentic               Yes
24 State              Yes, on challenge              46   Acct-Session-Time            Yes
25 Class              Yes                            47   Acct-Input-Packets           Yes
26 Vendor-Specific    No                             48   Acct-Output-Packets          Yes
27 Session-Timeout    Yes                            49   Acct-Terminate-Cause         Yes
28 Idle-Timeout       Yes                            50   Acct-Multi-Session-Id        No
29 Termination-Action Yes                            51   Acct-Link-Count              No

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Another authentication protocol option is TACACS. Its menu is similar to that for Radius.

Add Tacacs Server Menu CONFIG=>SECURITY=>TACACS=>TACACS STATUS=>ADD
Parameter        Description
Tacacs Server IP TACACS (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System) requires a server providing
Address          user authentication and accounting. More than one can be configured, and each one is
                 tried, in order, if the first one fails to respond.
Tacacs Server    Simple: only “login” and “logout” information are controlled.
Type             Extended: parameters such as “Telnet=CONNECT” and “PPP switching” can be used.
Tacacs Server    Number of times router will resend request if TACACS server does not answer.
Retries
Tacacs Server    Waiting time between TACACS server retries.
Timeout


Virtual Private Networks
The Virtual Private Network utility can be used on any link using IP routing. It is used to provide greater
security between two or more networks connected through a public communications network. The Virtual
Private Network Utility must be Enabled in the ADMIN =>ENABLE FEATURES =>VPN menu before it can be
used. Additionally, the router should be fully configured and operational before beginning the VPN
configuration. Each router has a Router IP Address which is one of the interface IP addresses. This router IP
address is used whenever a single IP address is needed to identify the router. It is critical that each router
being used as a remote security gateway have this parameter defined. It is NOT defined automatically.
Navigate to CONFIG =>IP =>ROUTER IP and confirm that this parameter has been defined and is set to the
value desired. An address that can be routed on the internet is generally used.




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VPN Add Remote Gateway Menu CONFIG =>SECURITY =>VPN =>REMOTE GATEWAYS =>ADD
GATEWAY
Parameter               Description
Remote Security         The "Router IP Address" (not necessarily the interface IP address) for the router(s) on
Gateway Address         the other end of the VPN connection.
Secret                  The secret for the connection, which is different for each remote gateway.

VPN Add Local Network Menu CONFIG =>SECURITY =>VPN =>LOCAL IP NETWORK =>ADD NETWORK
Parameter               Description
Local Network           IP Addresses of local networks that should be included in the VPN. Messages from
Address                 other local networks will still be routed, but will not receive special treatment.
Local Network           Netmask for the Network address entered in the previous parameter.
Netmask

VPN Add Remote Network Menu CONFIG =>SECURITY =>VPN =>REMOTE IP NETWORK =>ADD
NETWORK

Parameter               Description
Remote Network          IP Addresses of remote networks that should be included in the VPN. Messages to
Address                 other remote networks connected locally to the remote gateway router will still be
                        routed, but will not receive special treatment.
Remote Network          Netmask for the Network address entered in the previous parameter.
Netmask
Remote Security         The "Router IP Address" (not necessarily the interface IP address) for the router
Gateway Address         connected to the Remote Network entered above. This should be one of those entered
                        in the CONFIG =>SECURITY =>VPN =>REMOTE GATEWAYS =>ADD GATEWAY
                        menu.




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VPN Options Menu CONFIG =>SECURITY =>VPN =>OPTIONS

Parameter             Description
Cyclades VPN Status Activates the Virtual Private Network. Warning: until VPN is activated on both ends of
                      a given tunnel, all traffic will halt.
Tunnel Keepalive      Keepalive messages are sent across each tunnel with this frequency, to make sure
Timeout               that the router on the other end of the connection is operating.
Tunnel Keepalive      If a keepalive message reply is not received, the router sends the request again this
Retries               number of times.
Tunnel Inactivity     If no messages are passed for this time period (keepalive messages not included), the
Timeout               tunnel will be disconnected.
Time Interval for VPN This is the time between retries (for either tunnel creation or keepalive requests that
Retries               are not acknowledged).




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Section 4.4 Multilink
The Multilink Menu tree is shown in Figure 4.12.
        Config         Multilink         Multilink Circuit Number                Slot N
                                         Add/Modify Interface                    Type of Interface
                                                                                 Time to Active Backup
                                                                                 After This Link Goes Down
                                                                                 Time to Deactivate Backup
                                                                                 After this Link Returns
                                                                                 Cost

                                         Delete Interface                        Slot N

                                         Circuit Attributes                      Criterion For
                                                                                 Traffic Distribution
                                                                                 Includes TCP Packets
                                                                                 Bandwidth Upper Limit
                                                                                 Time to Activate Backup
                                                                                 if Above Limit
                                                                                 Bandwidth Lower Limit
                                                                                 Time to Deactivate Backup
                                                                                 if Below Limit
                                      FIGURE 4.12 MULTILINK MENU TREE
Multilink circuits are used for three purposes:

  1 Load Balancing: When two links (interfaces) can be used unconditionally to send packets, the load can be
    balanced between them so that neither is overloaded. In this case, both links are main links.
  2 Link Backup: When guaranteed delivery is necessary, a backup link can be activated if the main link is
    unavailable. In this case, the primary link is a main link and the secondary link is a backup link.
  3 Load Backup: This is similar to link backup, but activates a backup link if the traffic on the main link surpasses
    a given level.
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Combination: The three types, load balancing, link backup, and load backup can be combined in a single multi-link.




                         200.240.240.1      130.30.30.1




                                               Slot 2 - 64K
                            Slot 1 - 2M        130.30.30.2                     Network
                           200.240.240.2               Router                  10.0.0.0


                                           10.0.0.1                                 Server 2
                                                                                    10.0.0.3
                                                      Server 1
                                                      10.0.0.2


                                   FIGURE 4.13 LOAD BALANCING EXAMPLE
An example is given in Figure 4.13. A router has two dedicated connections to an Internet provider. Either load
balancing, link backup, or load backup can be performed by a multilink involving these two circuits. Details are given
in the parameter tables. Note that a multilink circuit can contain more than one main link and more than one backup
link simultaneously — up to a maximum of 8 links per multilink. Thirty-two multilinks can be configured in CyROS.
Each link can be the main link of only one multilink circuit.



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         The multilink circuit configuration is not confined to the multilink menu. The bandwidth of each
         interface must be set and static routes must be configured. Please follow the steps given below in
         order to achieve the desired results.

The following steps are necessary to create a multilink circuit:

  1 Set the bandwidth in the CONFIG =>INTERFACE =><INTERFACE> =>TRAFFIC CONTROL =>GENERAL
    menu for each interface to be included.

  2 Add static routes CONFIG =>STATIC ROUTES =>IP =>ADD ROUTE for all backup links. Unnumbered links
    also require static routes. For the example shown in the figure, with slot 1 as the main link and slot 2 as the
    backup link, two static routes are needed. After configuration, the menu option CONFIG =>STATIC ROUTES
    =>IP =>L displays:

                 Static Routes

                 Destination                  Gateway/ Interface          Metric/ Backup

                 Default Gateway              200.240.240.1               1/no
                 Default Gateway              130.30.30.1                 1/yes

  3 Add links to a multilink using CONFIG =>MULTILINK =>MULTILINK CIRCUIT NUMBER =>ADD/MODIFY
    INTERFACE.

  4 Configure the multilink for load balancing or load backup using CONFIG =>MULTILINK =>MULTILINK
    CIRCUIT NUMBER =>CIRCUIT ATTRIBUTES




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Add Interface Menu CONFIG =>MULTILINK =>MULTILINK CIRCUIT NUMBER =>ADD/MODIFY INTERFACE

Parameter          Description
Slot N             Includes a link in the multilink. In channelized T1/E1 interfaces, the channel group must
                   be specified.
Type of Interface Load Balancing: If more than one main link is chosen, load balancing will occur.
                   Link Backup and Load Backup: One link is chosen as the main link and one or more as
                   the backup link.
Time to Activate   Link Backup Time until first backup is activated after main link goes down (if this link is
Backup After This the main link) or time until next backup is activated (if this link is a backup link).
Link Goes Down     Load Balancing and Load Backup: This value has no effect.
Time to Deactivate Link Backup Time until first backup is deactivated after main link returns (if this link is the
Backup After This main link) or time until next backup is deactivated (if this link is a backup link).
Link Returns       Load Balancing and Load Backup: This value has no effect.
Cost               Applies to backup links. Indicates the relative priority of each backup link, with links with
                   lower costs being activated before links with higher costs. Ranges from 1 to 100.




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Circuit Attributes Menu CONFIG =>MULTILINK =>MULTILINK CIRCUIT NUMBER =>CIRCUIT ATTRIBUTES

Parameter        Description
Criterion for    Load Balancing and Load Backup: Determines how traffic will be distributed between
Traffic          links. Optimal distribution is performed randomly, and the packet is forwarded to the
Distribution     interface with the lesser load. Address Based distribution is used when the receiver cannot
                 reorder packets, and all packets to a certain IP address must be sent through the same
                 interface. Selecting Address Based here, all UDP packets are sent through the same
                 interface. TCP packets can be included via the next parameter
                 Note: If no packet for a particular destination arrives at the interface for 50 seconds, the
                 communication is considered complete and any new packet is passed based on optimal
                 distribution considerations.
                 Link Backup: This parameter has no effect.
Include TCP      Applies if Criterion for Traffic Distribution is Address Based. Uses address based criterion
Packets          for distribution of TCP packets in addition to UDP packets.
Bandwidth Upper Load Backup: Defines when load backup should activate the backup link. It is measured
Limit            as a percentage of the bandwidth set for this link in CONFIG =>INTERFACE
                 =><SLOT N =>TRAFFIC CONTROL =>GENERAL =>BANDWIDTH.
                 Load Balancing and Link Backup: This parameter has no effect.
Time to Activate Applies to Bandwidth Upper Limit. Time until first backup is activated after main link
Backup if Above bandwidth exceeds limit defined in last parameter (if this link is the main link) or time until
Limit            next backup is activated (if this link is a backup link).
Bandwidth Lower Load Backup: Defines when load backup should deactivate the backup link. It is
Limit            measured as a percentage of the bandwidth set for this link in CONFIG=>INTERFACE
                 =><SLOT N> =>TRAFFIC CONTROL =>GENERAL =>BANDWIDTH.
                 Load Balancing and Link Backup: This parameter has no effect.
Time to          Applies to Bandwidth Lower Limit. Time until first backup is deactivated after main link
Deactivate       bandwidth passes lower limit defined in last parameter (if this link is the main link) or time
Backup if Below until next backup is deactivated (if this link is a backup link).
Limit


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          Is the multilink circuit working? There are various ways to see if the multilink circuit is set up
          correctly. Examples of representative output for load balancing and link backup are given below.



To see if load balancing is correctly configured select INFO =>TRAFFIC CONTROL. The output shown is for the
example and displays the percentage of the total bandwidth being used on each link. The numbers may not always
be identical due to random fluctuations in message forwarding.

     Protocol Traffic Control

     Slot #1 Port #1
     Proto          Band traffic (%)                      Exceeded                Discards
     IP             25                                    False                   0

     Slot #2 Port #1
     Proto          Band traffic (%)                      Exceeded                Discards
     IP             27                                    False                   0


To see if link backup is correctly configured, look at the routing table using INFO =>SHOW ROUTING TABLE. The
output for the example is:
      IP Routing Table
      Destination              Gateway               Interface           Metric         Ct      Typ
      10.0.0.0                 direct                Eth                 0                      C
      200.240.240.0            direct                slt1 lnk1           0              1       C
      130.30.0.0               direct                slt2 lnk1           0                      C
      Default Gateway          200.240.240.1         slt1 lnk1           1              1       S
      Codes: C - connected, S - static


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The default gateway forms part of multilink circuit 1 (shown in the Ct column). To break the main link, use the utility
ADMIN =>START/STOP INTERFACE to put the main link administratively down. Then, view the routing table again.
      IP Routing Table

      Destination        Gateway                    Interface                Metric             Ct    Typ
      10.0.0.0           direct                     Eth                      0                        C
      130.30.0.0         direct                     slt2 lnk1                0                        C
      Default Gateway                               multi-circuit                               1     S
                  130.30.30.1                       slt2 lnk1                0                  1     S

      Codes: C - connected, S - static

All references to slot 1 have disappeared and slot 2 has taken over in the multilink circuit.




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Section 4.5 IP Configuration
The IP Configuration Menu Tree is shown in Figure 4.14.

     Config          IP         DNS Client                DNS Client Status
                                                          Primary DNS Server IP Address
                                                          Secondary DNS Server IP Address
                                                          Router Domain
                                                          Primary NBNS Server IP Address
                                                          Secondary NBNS Server IP Address

                                TCP                       X25 Socket Start Port Range
                                                          X25 Socket End Port Range
                                                          TCP Keepalive Timer for X.25 Socket
                                                          Terminal Socket Start Port Range
                                                          Terminal Socket End Port Range
                                                          Remote Telnet Start Port Range
                                                          Remote Telnet End Port Range
                                                          Printer Start Port Range
                                                          Printer End Port Range
                                                          Terminal SSH Start Port Range
                                                          Terminal SSH End Port Range

                                DHCP Relay Agent          Delay Time to Route DHCP Messages
                                                          DHCP Server n IP Address

                                Router IP                 Default Router IP Address for Applications


                               FIGURE 4.14 IP CONFIGURATION MENU TREE




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           OSPF               Global                Enable OSPF Protocol
                                                    Router ID
                                                    This is an AS Boundary Router
                                                    Originate Default Gateway Advertisement
                                                    Default Gateway External Metric
                                                    Default Gateway External Metric Type
                                                    Advertise RIP Routes
                                                    RIP External Metric
                                                    RIP External Metric Type
                                                    Advertise Non-OSPF Interfaces
                                                    Advertise Static Routes
                                                    Advertise Dial-up Routes
                                                    Dial-up External Metric
                                                    Dial-up External Metric Type

                              Area                                              Area ID
                                                                                Authentication Type
                              Neighbors             Interface                   Area Range N Status
                                                    Neighbor's IP               Area Range N Net address
                                                    Neighbor's Status           Area Range N Mask
                                                    Neighbor's Priority

                              Virtual Links                     Transit Area ID
                                                                Neighbor's ID
                                                                Virtual Link Status
                                                                Transit Delay
                                                                Retransmit Interval
                                                                Hello Interval
           MCPPP               End Point Discriminator          Dead Interval
                               MCPPP IP Address                 Password



                       FIGURE 4.14 (CONTINUED) IP CONFIGURATION MENU TREE
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    BGP4         Global                                                   BGP4 Protocol
                                                                          Local AS Number
                 Neighbor       Add            Name                       Router Identifier
                              Neighbor         IP Address                 Cluster Identifier
                                               Description                Default Local Preference
                                               AS Number                  Accept Connection From all Peers
                                               Source IP Address          Advertise Direct Routes
                                               Passive                    Advertise Static Routes
                                               Transparent-AS             Advertise Rip Routes
                                               Transparent-Next Hop       Advertise DSPF Routes
                                               Next Hop Self
                                               Router Reflector Client
                                               Weight
                                               Maximum-Prefix
                                               Holdtime
                                               Keepalive
                                               Connection Retry Time
                                               Start Time
                                               Incoming Distribute Access List Name
                                               Outgoing Distribute Access List Name
                                               Incoming Filter Access List Name
                                               Outgoing Filter Access List Name
                                               Incoming Community Access List Name
                                               Outgoing Community Access List Name
                                               Incoming Route Map Number
                                               Incoming Route Map Number
                                               Neighbor Alias Address

                               Delete Neighbor          Neighbor Name

                               Edit Neighbor            Neighbor Name



                       FIGURE 4.14 (CONTINUED) IP CONFIGURATION MENU TREE
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      Route Map        Add Route Map      Route Map Number
       (BGP4)                             Sequence Number
                                          Match List Name
                                          Route Map Weight
                                          Route Map Origin
                                          Route Map Set Nexthop
                                          Route Map Set Metric
                                          Route Map Set Local Reference
                                          Route Map Set Atomic Aggregate
                                          Route Map Set Aggregate AS Number
                                          AS Path Prepend
                                          AS Path AS-SET       Add Community          Community
                                                                Delete Community
                                                                Clear All Communities

                       Delete Route Map   Route Map Number

                       Edit Route Map     Route Map Number
      Aggregate        Add Address        Number
       Address                            Address
                                          Mask (bitlen)
                                          AS Set
                                          Summary Only

                       Delete Address     Aggregate Number

                       Edit Address       Aggregate Number


                       FIGURE 4.14 (CONTINUED) IP CONFIGURATION MENU TREE




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      BGP Network         Add Network          BGP Network Address
        (BGP4)                                 BGP Network Mask (bitlen)
                          Delete Network
                          Edit Network



      Access List         Add Access List      Access List Name
                                               Access List Type
                          Edit Access List     Rule Status
                                               Default Scope
                          Delete Access List

                          Configure Rules      Add
                                               Rule Status
                                               Scope
                                               Rule AS Position
                                               Rule AS Number
                                               Rule Distr. Search Type
                                               Rule Distr. Address
                                               Rule Distr. Mask Bitlen
                                               Community

                       FIGURE 4.14 (CONTINUED) IP CONFIGURATION MENU TREE




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A summary of the menu items is given in the following table.

IP Menu CONFIG=>IP

Menu Option     Description
DNS Client      Allows access to a DNS Server. The DNS server provides domain name resolution.
                Names like www.cyclades.com are translated to the equivalent IP address by the DNS
                Server and sent back to the router. Two DNS server IP addresses can be stored, along
                with the domain name where the router is located.
TCP Port Ranges Configures TCP port ranges for which the router will wait for client connections. Ranges
                are chosen for X25 sockets, terminal sockets, SSH, remote Telnets, and printers.
DHCP Relay      Stores the addresses of DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) servers so the router
Agent           can send on client requests. Also determines the delay before a DHCP client request will
                be routed.
Router IP       Assigns a default router IP to be used by applications. If the router sends a request over
                an interface with an internal IP address, and the message then travels outside of the
                internal network, the return address will no longer be valid. This Router IP must be an
                address of one of the interfaces.
OSPF            Enables the OSPF protocol for all interfaces and defines areas and virtual links for the
                interfaces.
MCPPP           Multichassis, multilink PPP parameters.
BGP4            Enables the BGP4 routing protocol, usually used for routers connected to the Internet.




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The OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) routing protocol is significantly more complicated than RIP. The
determination of which protocol is better suited to a given network is beyond the scope of this manual. An example
network using OSPF is given in Figure 4.15.

                                          AREA 1

                                           Router 2                  AREA 0
                                                                   (Backbone)
                Router 0
                                                                                     To Another
                                                                                     Autonomous System
            Router 1
                                Link 1                                Router 5
                                         Router 3

                                                      Router 4    Router 6
                                                                                   AREA 2
               AN AUTONOMOUS SYSTEM

               Area Border                                                             Virtual
               Routers:                                               Router 7
               R3, R6, R8                                                              Link
                                                                                                        AREA 3
               AS Boundary
               Router: R5                                                         Router 8


                                                                                                 Router 9

                                            FIGURE 4.15 OSPF EXAMPLE


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First, some definitions:

  • An Autonomous System (AS) is a portion of the network that will use a single routing strategy. It is made up
      of a backbone area and optionally of non-backbone areas.
  •   OSPF Areas are sub-systems that have identical routing databases. An area generally has no knowledge of
      the routing databases of other areas.
  •   The Backbone connects areas and contains any routers not contained in another area.
  •   An Area Border Router connects areas and contains a separate database for each area it is contained in.
  •   An Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR) connects Autonomous Systems. The other
      Autonomous System does not necessarily need to use OSPF.

OSPF Menu CONFIG=>IP=>OSPF

Menu Option          Description
Global               Enables OSPF, assigns an OSPF Router ID, and allows configuration of Autonomous
                     System Boundary Router parameters.
Area                 Sets area-specific parameters, including password and network range condensation.
                     Areas must first be referenced in the CONFIG=>INTERFACE=><INTERFACE>
                     =>ROUTING PROTOCOL=>OSPF=>AREA ID parameter. Only then can they be
                     manipulated in the CONFIG=>IP=>OSPF=>AREA menu.
Neighbors            Required if OSPF is being used over an NBMA (non-broadcast multi-access) network.
                     Defines neighboring routers.
Virtual Links        Necessary when an OSPF Area is not directly connected to the backbone.

Contrary to most other protocols in CyROS, OSPF must first be configured on each interface (see CONFIG =>IN-
TERFACE =><INTERFACE> =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>OSPF), then configured in the CONFIG =>IP =>OSPF
menu.




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OSPF Global Commands Menu CONFIG =>IP =>OSPF =>GLOBAL
Parameter               Description
Enable OSPF Protocol Enables OSPF on all interfaces.
Router ID               Assigns a unique ID to the router for use by the OSPF protocol. It must be one of the
                        router's IP addresses.
This is na AS           An Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR) can convert external routes into
Boundary Router         OSPF routes. Which external routes is determined through the following parameters.
                        In the figure, only Router 5 is an ASBR.
The following parameters apply only to Autonomous System Boundary Routers.
Originate Default       Router will advertise itself as the Default Gateway (DG).
Gateway
Advertisement
Default Gateway         Applies when Originate Default Gateway Advertisement is set to Yes. Defines the
External Metric         metric that will be advertised by OSPF.
Default Gateway         Applies when Originate Default Gateway Advertisement is set to Yes. For Type 1, the
External Metric-Type    total metric of this route is composed of the internal metric (inside the autonomous
                        system) and the external metric (provided in the previous parameter). For Type 2, the
                        total metric of this route is the value provided in the previous parameter.
Advertise RIP Routes Routes learned through the RIP protocol will be converted to OSPF as external
                        routes.
RIP External Metric     Applies when Advertise RIP routes is set to Yes. Defines the metric that will be
                        advertised by OSPF.
RIP External Metric-    Applies when Advertise RIP routes is set to Yes. For Type 1, the total metric of this
Type                    route is composed of the internal metric (inside the autonomous system) and the
                        external metric (provided in the previous parameter). For Type 2, the total metric of
                        this route is the value provided in the previous parameter.
This table is continued




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OSPF Global Commands (continued)
Parameter               Description
Advertise Non-OSPF      A router can have both OSPF and non-OSPF interfaces. This option causes the
interfaces              router to advertise when these non-OSPF interfaces are up or down. When OSPF is
                        disabled on an interface, the parameter CONFIG =>INTERFACE =><INTERFACE>
                        =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>OSPF =>ADVERTISE THIS NON-OSPF INTERFACE
                        must also be set to Yes for the interface to be advertised.
Advertise Static        Static routes defined in the router will be converted to OSPF. Note that static routes
Routes                  can be configured individually as advertised or not in the parameter CONFIG
                        =>STATIC ROUTES =>IP =>ADD ROUTE =>OSPF ADVERTISES THIS STATIC
                        ROUTE. Both parameters must be Yes for the route to be advertised.
Advertise Dial-up       Dial-up routes dynamically created by dial-up connections will be converted to OSPF
Routes                  as external routes.
Dial-up External Metric Applies when Advertise Dial-up Routes is Yes. Defines the metric that will be
                        advertised by OSPF.
Dial-up External Metric Applies when Advertise Dial-up Routes is Yes. For type 1, the total metric of this
Type                    route is the sum of the internal metric (within the autonomous system) and the
                        external metric (the previous parameter). For type 2, the total metric of this route is
                        the value set in the previous parameter.

Note: CyROS OSPF does not support TOS (Type of Service) routing. All routes are computed for the default TOS
of 0.




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Area Menu CONFIG =>IP =>OSPF =>AREA
Parameter          Description
Area ID            Has the format of an IP address, but is not linked to any IP address in the system. Use the
                   CONFIG=>IP=>OSPF=>L option to see which areas have been defined, and use the area
                   ID here.
Authentication     Simple password authentication can be used in OSPF. The authentication type should be
Type               the same for all routers in an OSPF Area. If used, the password for each interface is set in
                   CONFIG=>INTERFACE=><INTERFACE>=>ROUTING
                   PROTOCOL=>OSPF=>PASSWORD.
Area Range N       An Area Border Router (ABR) advertises link states for all networks within the area. The
Status             number of such advertisements can potentially be reduced by condensing different IP
                   networks into a single range.
Area Range N       Applies when Area Range N Status is Active.
Net Address        Sets the network IP address for the range.
Area Range N       Applies when Area Range N Status is Active.
Mask               Sets the network IP mask for the range.

The CONFIG =>IP =>OSPF =>NEIGHBORS menu is required if the router uses OSPF over non-broadcast multi-
access interfaces such as X.25 and Frame Relay.




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Neighbors Menu CONFIG=>IP =>OSPF =>NEIGHBORS

Parameter           Description
Interface           Link for which neighbors will be defined. In the OSPF example, consider link 1 of Router 3.
Neighbor's IP       The router ID of the neighboring router. For Router 3, link 1, use the router ID of router 1.
Neighbor's          Enable includes link in OSPF database.
Status              Enable Inactive leaves link in OSPF database, but router at end of link (Router 1 in this
                    case) no longer passes OSPF information.
                    Disable deactivates neighbor link and erases Neighbor’s IP.
Neighbor's          Priority used by OSPF in multicast networks to elect the designated router. A priority of 1
Priority            will make this router the most likely to be chosen. A priority of 2 will make it second most
                    likely. Set it to 0 (zero) if this router should never be the designated router. An example
                    can be seen in Area 1 in the figure -- Router 1 should never be the Designated Router
                    because it does not have a direct link to Router 2. Either Router 0 or Router 3 should be
                    chosen.

It is not always possible to connect all areas directly to the backbone. When an area is connected to the backbone
only through another area, two virtual links must be created. One from the backbone to the unattached area and
one from the unattached area to the backbone. The link between Area 3 (router 8) and the backbone will be used
as an example.




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Virtual Links Menu CONFIG =>IP =>OSPF =>VIRTUAL LINKS

Parameter           Description
Transit Area ID     ID of the OSPF Area sandwiched between this router and the backbone. In the figure, area
                    2 is the area used to link Router 8 with the Backbone. This ID has the form of an IP
                    address.
Neighbor's ID       Router ID of router at end of virtual link. In the example, this will be Router 6.
Virtual Link        Activates the virtual link.
Status
Parameters available only when Virtual Link Status is Active.
Transit Delay     Estimated transit time in seconds to route a packet from Router 8 to Router 6. Use the
                  preset value (1) or increase the number for slow links.
Retransmit        Time in seconds between link-state advertisement retransmissions for adjacencies
Interval*         belonging to this interface.
Hello Interval*   Time in seconds between the hello packets on this interface.
Dead interval*    Inactivity time (seconds) before a neighbor router is considered down.
Password*         String of up to 8 characters used to authenticate OSPF packages. The use of this password
                  is enabled in CONFIG
                  =>IP=>OSPF=>AREA=>AUTHENTICATION TYPE.

* Inside a given area, these 4 parameters should be the same for all routers. In the example virtual link, they
should be the same as those used for the backbone.
Multichassis, Multilink PPP (MCPPP)
Multichassis PPP is a feature that allows two or more connections to different PR4000s/PR3000s on the same
LAN act as one logical connection. The Cyclades Multichassis PPP implementation is compatible with the Lucent
Portmaster 3 (either PR4000s/PR3000s or Portmaster 3s can be used to form the multichassis circuit). The
multichassis PPP functionality is demonstrated in Figures 4.16 and 4.17.




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Figure 4.16 shows a RAS bank in an Internet Service Provider. The RAS that receives the first connection
becomes the master and the connection becomes the primary link. The information sent on link 1 passes through
the RAS and continues on to its destination (in this example, a server on the LAN). The information sent on link 1
passes through the RAS and continues on to its destination (in this example, a server on the LAN). At the same
time, the RAS (IP 200.200.200.1 in the example) sends a broadcast message to all other RASs in the same group
letting them know that it has the primary link for this PPP connection.
                                                                     Internet Service Provider
                ISDN
                                                                                   LAN            Server
               Modem
                                Packet
                       Link 1                                                                Packet
                                                           PR4000
                                    Primary Link           Master

          MC PPP End Point Discriminator 11:22:33:44:55:66
          MC PPP IP Address (Ethernet IP Address): 200.200.200.1              BC



                                                           PR4000          BC

          MC PPP End Point Discriminator 11:22:33:44:55:66
          MC PPP IP Address (Ethernet IP Address): 200.200.200.2


                                                           PR4000
                                                                           BC

          MC PPP End Point Discriminator 11:22:33:44:55:66
          MC PPP IP Address (Ethernet IP Address): 200.200.200.3

             FIGURE 4.16 FIRST INCOMING CONNECTION OF A MULTICHASSIS PPP CIRCUIT
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The RAS that receives the second connection from the same ISDN modem (shown in Figure 4.17), has already
been informed by the broadcast message that the first RAS has the primary link. The connection is set up as a
secondary link with this RAS (IP 200.200.200.3 in the example) as the slave. The information is not sent directly to
its final destination. Rather, the packets are sent to the master RAS where they are joined with packets sent
through other physical links before being forwarded to their final destination.

The info menu items INFO=> SHOW MCPPP LINKS and INFO=> SHOW MCPPP NEIGHBORS provide
information about the PPP connections and the other RASs forming the circuit. The tool DEBUG=> MESSAGE
TRACE=> MCPPP may be useful in discovering MCPPP problems. Another tool exists which must be used in the
RAS containing the primary link for a given PPP connection.

The menu option ADMIN=> KILL VIRTUAL SESSION will show all active secondary links. Selecting one of them
will cause the master RAS to send a message to the slave RAS holding that secondary link, ordering it to drop its
connection.




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                                                        Internet Service Provider
          ISDN
                                                                  LAN               Server
         Modem
                 Link 1                                                      Packet
                                               PR4000
        Link 2                                 Master
                              Primary Link

                                                                      IP Address 200.200.200.1




                                               PR4000

                                                                     IP Address 200.200.200.2


                              Secondary Link
                                               PR4000
                    Packet                      Slave

                                                                      IP Address 200.200.200.3

           FIGURE 4.17 SECOND INCOMING CONNECTION OF A MULTICHASSIS PPP CIRCUIT




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The MCPPP parameters must be set for all the RASs that will participate in the circuit.
CONFIG =>IP =>MCPPP

Parameter                                                  Description
MCPPP End Point Discriminator                              Must be the same for all RASs that will participate in
                                                           the Multichassis Multilink PPP Circuit. The value of
                                                           the number is immaterial, but it must have the form of
                                                           a MAC number, as shown in the example.
MCPPP IP Address                                           must be the same as the Ethernet IP address for the
                                                           LAN where the other RASs are located.

BGP4
The BGP-4 routing protocol is used for routing on the Internet, performed between Autonomous Systems (ASs).
An autonomous system is defined as:

  · A set of routers and networks under the same administration.
  · An interconnected network, where no router is reachable solely through a path exterior to the AS

Each AS is identified by a 16-bit AS number. This number is supplied by the service provider.




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CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>GLOBAL
Parameter               Description
BGP4 Protocol           Activates the protocol.
Local AS Number         This number is assigned by the service provider.
Router Identifier       Usually the same as the Router ID, one of the interface IP addresses
Cluster Identifier      Only used when this router is used as a router reflector.
Default Local           Value of the attribute "local pref" used by IBGP.
Preference
Accept Connections      Allows BGP connections from neighbors that have not been specified in the Neighbors
From All Peers          Menu.
Advertise Direct        Allows the removal of the interface routes from the list of routes to be advertised. In
Routes                  the example these would be 100.100.100.1, 200.200.200.1 and the LAN interface IP
                        address.
Advertise Static        Allows the removal of static routes from the list of routes to be advertised.
Routes
Advertise RIP Routes Allows the removal of routes learned via RIP from the list of routes to be advertised.
Advertise OSPF       Allows the removal of routes learned via OSPF from the list of routes to be advertised.
Routes




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CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>NEIGHBOR=>ADD
Parameter                Description
Name                     A string to facilitate identification of the Neighbor. In the example above, the names
                         Popeye and Brutus could be used.
IP Address               The IP address at the other end of the connection. For AS 747, the value is
                         100.100.100.2.
Description              Another string to identify the Neighbor.
AS Number                The AS number assigned to the neighbor.
Source IP Address        When this number is set, the protocol accepts TCP/BGP connections only when the
                         destination IP is this value. For Popeye, the value would be 100.100.100.1.
Passive                  Causes the router to not initiate BGP connections with this neighbor.
Transparent-AS           Yes causes the router to NOT include its own AS number in the "AS Path" path
                         attribute for update messages sent to this neighbor.
Transparent-NextHop Yes causes the router to NOT alter the "NextHop" path attribute for update messages
                         sent to this neighbor.
NextHop Self             Yes causes the router to change the NextHop path attribute for update messages sent
                         to this neighbor. The value is replaced by the Source IP Address set above.
Route Reflector Client Indicates that this router is a route reflector and the neighbor is a route reflector client.
Weight                   Indicates the relative importance of the routes received from this neighbor. Routes
                         with greater weights are chosen over routes with lesser weights.
Maximum-Prefix           When set, indicates the maximum number of routes that the router will accept in a
                         single update message from this router.
Holdtime                 When a message is not received from this neighbor for the holdtime, the neighbor is
                         considered inactive.
This table is continued.




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CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>NEIGHBOR=>ADD (continued)

Keepalive               Interval between keepalive messages sent to this neighbor.
Connection Retry        When a connection with this neighbor is broken, the router try to reconnect with
Time                    frequency 1 divided by the Connection Retry Time.
Start Time              Time delay before router tries to connect
Incoming Distribute     Applies a distribution access list to update messages received from this neighbor.
Access List Name
Outgoing Distribute     Applies a distribution access list to update messages sent to this neighbor.
Access List Name
Incoming Filter         Applies a filter access list to update messages received from this neighbor.
Access List Name
Outgoing Filter         Applies a filter access list to update messages sent to this neighbor.
Access List Name
Incoming Community      Applies a filter access list to update messages received from this neighbor.
Access List Name
Outgoing Community      Applies a filter access list to update messages sent to this neighbor.
Access List Name
Incoming Route Map      Applies a route map to update messages received from this neighbor.
Number
Outgoing Route Map      Applies a route map to update messages sent to this neighbor.
Number
Neighbor Alias          Additional address used by the other router.
Address




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CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>ROUTE MAP=>ADD
Parameter               Description
Route Map Number        Identifies the route map
Sequence Number         Identifies the sequence within the route map. The numbers need not be consecutive.
Match List Name         Associates an access list with this sequence, as shown in the figure above.
Weight                  Alters the weight used to determine the best path. This value replaces the importance
                        assigned to the route by the weight parameter in the neighbor configuration.
Origin, Set Nexthop,    These parameters modify the path attributes with the same name in the update
Set Metric, Set Local   message.
Preference, Set
Atomic Aggregate,
Set Aggregate AS
number, Set AS Path,
AS Path Prepend,
AS Path AS-SET

CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>AGGREGATE ADDRESSES=>ADD
Parameter               Description
Number                  An ID for reference.
Address                 The aggregated address. In the example, 200.50.50.0.
Mask (bitlen)           The mask for the aggregated address. In the example, 23.
AS Set                  Yes causes the route to be tagged with the AS Set path attribute. Otherwise, the AS
                        Sequence path attribute is assigned.
Summary Only            Yes removes all more specific routes, leaving only the aggregated form. No maintains
                        both the individual and aggregated routes.




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CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>BGP NETWORK=>ADD
Parameter             Description
Network Address       Network IP address of network to be added.
Network Mask (bitlen) Mask in CIDR format.

CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>ACCESS LIST=>ADD
Parameter                  Description
Access List Name           Name assigned to list, to indicate which interface and direction it applies to.
Access List Type           The AS Path type allows filtering by AS number; the Dist BGP type allows filtering by
                           IP address and the Community BGP type allows filtering by community. In the figure,
                           the filtering can be done based either on AS 5 or the address 100.10.0.0/16
Rule Status                Enables the rule.
Default Scope              If the default of the list is permit, the default of each rule must be deny and the
                           corresponding rule must define which routes must be discarded. If the default of the
                           list is deny, the default of each rule must be permit and the corresponding rule must
                           define which routes will be accepted (with all others being discarded).

CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>ACCESS LIST=>CONFIGURE RULES=><ACCESS LIST NAME>=>ADD
Parameter                  Description
Rule Status                Enables the rule.
Scope                      See explanation of this parameter in step 3.
Rule AS Position           Applies only for Access List Type equal to AS Path. Limits the search on AS number to
                           a particular position in the route. For the example in Figure 12.5, Any would be the
                           correct choice because AS 5 will appear in the middle or the beginning of the route.
Rule AS Number             Applies only for Access List Type equal to AS Path. Applies the rule to routes
                           containing this AS number, with the restriction given in the preceding parameter.
This table is continued.



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CONFIG=>IP=>BGP4=>ACCESS LIST=>CONFIGURE RULES=><ACCESS LIST NAME>=>ADD (continued)
Rule Distr. Search      Applies only for Access List Type equal to Dist BGP. Exact filters rules that match the
Type                    IP Address/Mask pair exactly. Refine matches more specific routes.
Rule Distr. Address     Applies only for Access List Type equal to Dist BGP. Applies the rule to routes with
                        this IP number and the mask defined in the next parameter.
Rule Distr. Mask        Applies only for Access List Type equal to Dist BGP. The shortened mask that is used
Bitlen                  with the IP address defined in the previous parameter.
Community               Applies only for Access List Type equal to Community BGP. Applies this rule to the
                        community number entered or to well-known communities defined in RFC 1997, BGP
                        Communities.

Section 4.6 Transparent Bridge
The Transparent Bridge menu tree is shown in Figure 4.18.
         Config         Transparent Bridge        General                  Transparent Bridge Status
                                                                           MAC Address Cache Size
                                                                           Time to Live

                                                  Spanning Tree            Spanning Tree Status
                                                                           Priority
                                                                           Max Age
                                                                           Hello Time
                                                                           Forward Delay

                              FIGURE 4.18 TRANSPARENT BRIDGE MENU TREE

MAC Transparent Bridges are used as an alternative to IP routing. When two hosts are on the same network, they
communicate by sending messages directly to their respective MAC addresses. When two hosts are on networks
connected by routers, this is no longer possible.


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The objective of a Transparent Bridge is to make it appear as if two separate networks are really one — and all
hosts are local to each other. Figure 4.18 shows an example.
                        Network 1                                                    Network 2
                  Host 1                                                                    Host 2
                                                Transparent Bridge


                                                          Link 2            Link 1
                                    Router 1                                Router 2
                                                                   Link 3

                               FIGURE 4.18 TRANSPARENT BRIDGE EXAMPLE
Both routers have the Transparent Bridge feature activated. Imagine host 2 wants to talk directly with host 1, and
knows its MAC address. The router will not know what to do with the message unless it has a table. This table, the
Transparent Bridge ARP table, contains a list of MAC addresses on other networks, and which link must be used
for the message to reach the correct network. Given the MAC address of host 1, router 2 will find it associated with
link 2. If the destination MAC address is not in the table, the router will copy the message and send it through ALL
its interfaces. After the destination computer receives the message and replies to the sender, the router, listening
for this response, enters the MAC address in its table.

Transparent Bridge General Menu CONFIG =>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE =>GENERAL

Parameter          Description
Transparent        Activates the Transparent Bridge feature in general. For this feature to work on a given
Bridge Status      interface, the parameter CONFIG =>INTERFACE=><INTERFACE>=>NETWORK
                   PROTOCOL=>INTERFACE TRANSPARENT BRIDGE STATUS must be Active.
MAC Address        Number of MAC/Interface entries allowed in the router's Transparent Bridge ARP table. This
Cache Size         is separate from the ARP Cache table normally used for locating addresses on the LAN.
Time to Live       Defines how long a MAC/Interface entry will remain in the Transparent Bridge ARP table.

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When a network has more than two routers, a loop can form as shown in Figure 4.19. The spanning tree algorithm
was developed to avoid looping of the update messages between the routers and duplication of information. The
router with the lowest priority number is the designated router and the others send all requests to it. In the example,
both router 1 and router 2 will send MAC requests to router 3. This avoids router 3 receiving a request from router
2 both directly and through router 1.




                                    Router 1                              Router 2
                                  Priority 10           RING              Priority 3
                              Blocking State                              Blocking State


                                                Router 3
                                               Priority 1
                                        Forwarding State




                              FIGURE 4.19 SPANNING TREE ALGORITHM EXAMPLE




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Spanning Tree Menu CONFIG=>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE =>SPANNING TREE
Parameter            Description
Spanning Tree        Activates an algorithm used to avoid looping of MAC/Interface information between routers
Status               when the network has a ring form.
Priority             A priority is given to each router in the network. The router with the lowest priority value is
                     the designated router and communicates with the rest. When this router goes down, the
                     router with the second highest priority is elected to take its place.
Max Age              Indicates how long the transparent bridge messages passed between routers should last.
                     The message time starts at zero, and is incremented by each router that sends it on. When
                     this Max Age is met, the message is discarded.
Hello Time           Determines the time between Hello messages between routers. Hello messages are used
                     to learn the status of each router and determine if the designated router must be changed.
Forward Delay        When a Transparent Bridge system is restarted (either because the routers are turned on
                     or because the designated router goes down), all routers begin in the listening state. After
                     one Forward Delay time period, the router with the highest priority transfers to the learning
                     state where it stores information from the messages passing through it. After an additional
                     Forward Delay time period, this router passes to the forwarding state. This ends the warm-
                     up period.

Router 3 will be in the forwarding state and routers 1 and 2 will move to the blocking state under normal operation.
Note that when the designated router fails, the time until the system stabilizes itself will be a portion of the Hello
Time, plus 2 times the Forward Delay time, plus any time lost in retransmission of messages during this period.
Relationships between these parameters are given in Annex B, section 4.6, of the IEEE Standard 802.1D.



Section 4.7 Rules List Configuration
The Rules List Menu Tree is presented in Figure 4.20.




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   Config         IP      Add Rule List                                        Rule List Name
                                                                               Rule Status
                          Edit Rule List          Same as Add Rule List        Rule List Type
 Rules List                                                                    Default Scope
                          Configure         Rule List Name                     Incoming Rule List Name
                          Rules                                                Outgoing Rule List Name
                                                                               Linked Rule List Name N
                                            Add Rule                           Insert as Rule Number
                                                                               Rule Status
                                                                               Scope
                                                                               Flow Priority Level
                                                                               Reserved Bandwidth
                                                                               Bandwidth Priority Level
                                                                               Protocol
                                                                               Source IP Operator
                                                                               IP Address Start Mask
                                                                               IP Address Start
                                                                               IP Address End
                                                                               Destination IP Operator
                                                                               IP Address Start Mask
                                                                               IP Address Start
                                                                               IP Address End
                                                                               Source Port Operator
                                                                               Source Port Start
                                                                               Source Port End
                                            Delete Rule      Rule to delete    Destination Port Operator
                                                                               Destination Port Start
                                            Edit Rule        Same Parameters   Destination Port End
                                                             as Add Rule       Allow TCP connections
                          Clear Rule List
                                                                               Allow Account Process
                                                                               Syslog Status
                                                                               Syslog Level

                                 FIGURE 4.20 THE RULES LIST MENU TREE

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           Transparent          Add Rule List             Rule List Name
           Bridge                                         Rule Status
                                                          Default Scope

                                Edit Rule List            Rule List Name
                                                          Rule Status
                                                          Default Scope

                                Configure Rules           Rule List Name             Insert as Rule Number
                                                          Add Rule                   Rule status
                                                                                     Scope
                                                                                     Source MAC Address
                                                                                     Source MAC Mask
                                                                                     Destination MAC Address
                                                                                     Destinations MAC Mask
                                                                                     Type
                                                                                     Syslog Status
                                                                                     Syslog Level

                                                          Delete Rule                Rule to Delete

                                                          Edit Rule                  Same Parameters
                                Clear Rule List                                      as Add Rule

                           FIGURE 4.20 (CONTINUED) THE RULES LIST MENU TREE
Three types of rules for IP can be configured in CyROS:

  1 IP filter rules,
  2 Radius filter rules (actually a combination of previously defined IP filter rules), and
  3 Traffic rules.


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                              Exterior Router          Perimeter Network
                 Slot 1
                                                       192.168.0.0
                                    ETH0
                 192.168.0.2                 192.168.0.1
                                                                             Router               172.16.0.0
                                        Slot 1     Interior Router
               192.168.0.3
                                                ETH0
                          Bastion
                            Host

                                    10.0.0.0
                                                                                        Extension to Network


                                           FIGURE 4.21 FIREWALL EXAMPLE

IP Filter rules are a very important part of a network’s firewall. They permit packets into or out of the network
depending on the source and destination IP addresses, the source and destination ports, the protocol used, and
the ACK bit for TCP packets. The Syslog can be used to monitor the packets that meet the rules applied in this
menu. Figure 4.21 will be used to show how both an exterior router and an interior router would be configured
using the filters available in CyROS.




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Exterior Router
The exterior router is the network’s first defense against attacks. For this reason, it is reasonable to prohibit all
packets except for those explicitly allowed. This is done by choosing the Default Scope to be Deny. Thus, ALL
desired traffic must be expressly allowed by the rules in the rule list.
                                                               World
                                                                     of   Po
                                                                            ss
                                                                                 ib




                                                                                 le
                                                                                    P
                                               DENY




                                                                                      ac k
                                                                   Let




                                                                                       ets
                                                                 e-mail in
                                                Let
                                             e-mail out            DENY


                                           DENY             Let Telnet
                                                          Connections Out




                                     FIGURE 4.22 DENY AS DEFAULT SCOPE
In Figure 4.22, a conceptual equivalent of the interface is shown. All packets except those which fall into the holes
in the ball will be denied entry in to or out of the network.




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Steps necessary to activate filtering on the exterior router in the example:
  1 There are two interfaces with two directions each. Filtering on link 1 requires the creation of two rule lists,
    called exterior_in and exterior_out. Create them using CONFIG =>RULES LIST =>IP =>ADD RULE
    LIST.

  2 Create the rules for each rule list in the order in which they should be evaluated. The order is important and
    mis-ordering the rules can cause unexpected results. This is done in the menu CONFIG =>RULES LIST =>IP
    =>CONFIGURE RULES.

  3 Link the rule lists to the respective interface parameters in the menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE
    =><INTERFACE> =>NETWORK PROTOCOL =>INCOMING/ OUTGOING RULE LIST NAME

The configuration for “Let e-mail in” is shown in the following figure (obtained by selecting CONFIG =>RULES LIST
=>IP =>L in the menus):
                 Rules Lists
                 Rule List           Rule             Default           List         Linked
                 Name
                                     Status           Scope             Type         Rule
                                                                                     List
                 exterior_in         Enabled          Deny              Filter
                 exterior_out        Enabled          Deny              Filter

                 Filter_list Name exterior_in
                 Rule 0
                 Status                    Enabled
                 Scope                     Permit
                 Protocol                  TCP
                 Source IP Operator        None
                 Destination IP Operator Equal


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                Destination IP start                192.168.0.3
                Destination IP Mask                 255.255.255.255
                Source Port Operator                Greater than
                Source Port Start                   1023
                Destination Port                    Equal
                Operator
                Destination Port Start              SMTP
                TCP connections allowed             Y
                Account Process allowed             N

                Filter_list Name exterior_out
                Rule 0
                Status                    Enabled
                Scope                     Permit
                Protocol                  TCP
                Source IP Operator        Equal
                Source IP start           192.168.0.3
                Source IP Mask            255.255.255.255
                Destination IP Operator None
                Source Port Operator      Equal
                Source Port Start         SMTP
                Destination Port          Greater than
                Operator
                Destination Port Start    1023
                TCP connections allowed   N
                Account Process allowed   N


Exterior_in, rule 0, allows a remote computer to connect to the bastion host using the TCP protocol on its
SMTP port. Exterior_out, rule 0, allows the Bastion Server to RESPOND to the connection started by the
remote computer. To send e-mail out, two more rules would be needed. If all the router needs to do is receive e-
mail, the configuration is done. If not, other “holes” must be created in the deny ball.

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Interior Router
If an interior router exists in the network, the administrator may decide to use a Default Scope of Permit. In this
case, all undesired traffic must be excluded by a rule in the rule list. In Figure 4.23, a conceptual equivalent of the
interface is shown.

All packets except those which fall into the holes in the ball will be allowed entry in to or out of the network.
                                                                World
                                                                      of   Po
                                                                              s   si




                                                                                  b le
                                                               Stop




                                                                                       Pa
                                                          Forged Packets




                                                                                          cke
                                            PERMIT




                                                                                              ts
                                              Don’t Allow            PERM
                                                                            IT
                                            Access to News

                                                       Stop Telnets
                                                     From the Outside
                                                   (Except Bastion Host)

                                                          PERMIT


                                      FIGURE 4.23 PERMIT DEFAULT SCOPE




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The configuration for “Stop forged packets” is shown in the following listing:
                 Rules Lists
                 Rule List            Rule             Default          List         Linked
                 Name
                                      Status           Scope            Type         Rule
                                                                                     List
                 slot1_in             Enabled          Permit           Filter

                 Filter_list Name slot1_in
                 Rule 0
                 Status                                Enabled
                 Scope                                 Deny
                 Protocol                              0
                 Source IP Operator                    Equal
                 Source IP start                       10.0.0.0
                 Source IP Mask                        255.0.0.0
                 Destination IP Operator               None
                 Source Port Operator                  None
                 Destination Port                      None
                 Operator
                 TCP connections allowed               Y
                 Account Process allowed               N

Slot1_in, rule 0, prohibits any incoming packets with source IP addresses of the internal network. Since the
addresses used for internal networks cannot be routed on the Internet, they cannot be valid unless there is a leak
of traffic through another router to the perimeter network.

Imagine that, as shown in the figure, the network is expanded and another range of IP addresses is used (not a
sub-network). Rule 0 in the list Slot1_in will not protect this network. Either another rule can be added to this
list, or the new router can filter packets into its area (or both).


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Radius Rule Lists
A Radius Server and the Radius services in CyROS must be configured first. See section 4.3, where Radius is
discussed. A simple example will be given here.

                                                                                PR4000


                                                                                   Send
                                                        Radius
                                                        Server                         Receive
                                                                      Telephone
                                                                      Connection

                                                                                   Modem
                          User List
           User       Passwd        Filter -ID
           Denise     ***           mail_access
           Wanda      ***           full_access
           Naomi      ***            HTTP_access


                                  FIGURE 4.24 RADIUS RULE LIST EXAMPLE
In Figure 4.24, a PR4000 provides remote access via modems to many users. The users and the permissions
granted to each are stored in the Radius Server on the network. When a user dials in and requests a connection,
the user name and password are verified by the Radius server. The Radius server, in the message to the router
granting access, can specify which Radius filter should be applied to the interface providing the connection. These
filters take the place of the filters normally active on the interface.



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Suppose Naomi dials in to the PR4000, requesting a connection. The IP filters defined in the HTTP_access
Radius filter are applied to the interface for the duration of the connection. The configuration of this Radius filter
will appear as shown in the following output.

            Rules Lists
            Rule List               Rule              Default            List            Linked
            Name                    Status            Scope              Type            Rule List

            http_access             Enabled           Deny               Radius          send_http
                                                                                         receive_http
            receive_http            Enabled           Permit             Filter
            send_http               Enabled           Permit             Filter
            Filter_list Name http_access
            No rules configured
            Filter_list Name receive_http
            Rule 0
            Status                      Enabled
            Scope                       Permit
            Protocol                    TCP
            Source IP Operator          None
            Destination IP Operator     None
            Destination IP start
            Destination IP Mask
            Source Port Operator        Equal
            Source Port Start           80
            Destination Port Operator Greater than
            Destination Port Start      1023
            TCP connections allowed     N
            Account Process allowed     N



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            Filter_list Name send_http
            Rule 0
            Status                                    Enabled
            Scope                                     Permit
            Protocol                                  TCP
            Source IP Operator                        None
            Source IP start
            Source IP Mask
            Destination IP Operator                   None
            Source Port Operator                      Greater than
            Source Port Start                         1023
            Destination Port Operator                 Equal
            Destination Port Start                    80
            TCP connections allowed                   Y
            Account Process allowed                   N

Note particularly the directions assigned to incoming (send) and outgoing (receive) filters.

Traffic Rule Lists
There are three kinds of traffic rules that can be configured in CyROS.

The first two determine a division of bandwidth for traffic flowing out of the router:

  1 Traffic Shaping (the division of bandwidth is strictly adhered to),
  2 Bandwidth Reservation (the division with the larger priority can steal bandwidth from the others),

The third determines which services have priority flowing through the router:

  3 Service Prioritization.


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An example showing the first two types is given in figure 4.25.

                           Network of
                            Client A
                                                     50% or more
                                                     of total bandwidth


                                                                          INTERNET
                                                              Link 3
                                             Link 0
                                           11.11.11.1
                                                                   Link 2
                                                                   33.33.33.1     25% or less
                                                 Link 1
                                                 22.22.22.1                       of total bandwidth



                       25% or less
                of total bandwidth
                                                                                Client C
                                                Client B

                                     FIGURE 4.25 TRAFFIC RULE EXAMPLE 1
An Internet provider has three clients connected to the same router. Client A is larger and without traffic control
would overwhelm the router to the exclusion of Clients B and C. The administrator decides to divide the flow out of
the router (to the Internet) into three portions: 50% guaranteed for Client A, and the rest divided equally between
Clients B and C. Since he does not want to limit Client A needlessly, the bandwidth Client A uses can be increased
on demand if the total bandwidth is not being used up by the other two clients. This is Bandwidth Reservation.




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The two clients with 25% bandwidth each are given lesser, but equal priorities. They can not share bandwidth or
steal it from Client A. However, each has the right to 25% of the total bandwidth on link 3 if it is needed. This is
Traffic Shaping.

Note that this rule list is applied to link 3, and not separately on links 0-2.

Steps for this configuration.

  1 Create a Traffic Rule list traffic_1.
  2 Create rules for each of the three source IP addresses.
  3 Enter into the configuration for link 3 and change the parameter CONFIG =>INTERFACE =><INTERFACE>
    =>TRAFFIC CONTROL =>GENERAL =>IP TRAFFIC CONTROL LIST = traffic_1.

Note that the bandwidth used for the percentage calculation is that set in CONFIG =>INTERFACE
=><INTERFACE> =>TRAFFIC CONTROL =>GENERAL =>BANDWIDTH, and not the actual bandwidth available
in the link. The configuration will look like this:

             Rules Lists
             Rule List Name Rule                         Default            List         Linked
                            Status                       Scope              Type         Rule
                                                                                         List
             traffic_1               Enabled                                Traffic

             Filter_list Name traffic_1

             Rule 0
             Status                                      Enabled
             Flow priority                               0
             Rule bandwidth                              50%
             Bandwidth priority                          1


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            Protocol                    0
            Source IP Operator          Equal
            Source IP start             11.11.11.0
            Source IP Mask              255.255.255.0
            Destination IP Operator     None
            Source Port Operator        None
            Destination Port Operator   None
            Rule 1
            Status                      Enabled
            Flow Priority               0
            Rule bandwidth              25%
            Bandwidth priority          2
            Protocol                    0
            Source IP Operator          Equal
            Source IP start             22.22.22.0
            Source IP Mask              255.255.255.0
            Destination IP Operator     None
            Source Port Operator        None
            Destination Port Operator   None
            Rule 2
            Status                      Enabled
            Flow Priority               0
            Rule bandwidth              25%
            Bandwidth priority          2
            Protocol                    0
            Source IP Operator          Equal
            Source IP start             33.33.33.0
            Source IP Mask              255.255.255.0
            Destination IP Operator     None
            Source Port Operator        None
            Destination Port Operator   None
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Of the traffic parameters, only the Reserved Bandwidth and Bandwidth Priority parameters are important in this
example. Flow Priority is not used.

An example showing the third type of traffic control is given in Figure 4.26. The network administrator wants to
prioritize the access to his web server. He also wants to prioritize e-mail sent by his SMTP server, but the priority
should be lower. All other traffic should have the lowest priority. For web server access, the important flow
direction is not the user requests, but rather the data requested. The traffic control rule must be placed on link 2. In
the case of e-mail, the important flow is the data leaving the e-mail server, and not the acknowledgements back.
This is also governed by link 2. (Note: flow control could be placed on the data request packets and the SMTP
acknowledgements by associating rules to link 1.)

                                                 E-mail Server

                                                                        Port: Any
                      Web Server
                                                                Back             il out
                                                        A   CKs          E   -ma

                                      ue   sts
                                  Req              Link 2           PR1000
                   Port: 80
                                      uested                        Link 1
                              a   Req
                          Dat                                        INTERNET
                                                                                            Port: 25 (SMTP)

                                                                       Port: Any

                                                                                              E-mail Server
                                                                               Web Client

                                     FIGURE 4.26 TRAFFIC RULE EXAMPLE 2
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The configured rules will appear as shown in the following listing.

            Rules Lists
            Rule List Name Rule                       Default         List      Linked
                           Status                     Scope           Type      Rule
                                                                                List
            web_access             Enabled                            Traffic
            Filter_list Name web_access
            Rule 0
            Status                                    Enabled
            Flow priority                             1
            Rule bandwidth                            0%
            Bandwidth priority                        0
            Protocol                                  TCP
            Source IP Operator                        None
            Destination IP Operator                   None
            Source Port Operator                      Equal
            Source Port Start                         80
            Destination Port Operator                 None
            Rule 1
            Status                                    Enabled
            Flow Priority                             2
            Rule bandwidth                            0%
            Bandwidth priority                        0
            Protocol                                  TCP
            Source IP Operator                        None
            Destination IP Operator                   None
            Source Port Operator                      None
            Destination Port Operator                 Equal
            Destination Port Start                    SMTP

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Note that for this type of traffic control, of the traffic-specific parameters only Flow Priority is used. The Reserved
Bandwidth and Bandwidth Priority parameters are not important. A system needing all three is conceivable, but
much too complicated to show in this manual.

Add Rule List Menu CONFIG =>RULES LIST =>IP =>ADD RULE LIST

Parameter             Description
Rule List Name        Name given to remember which rules are contained in the list. In the examples above,
                      exterior_in, exterior_out, and slot1_in were used.
Rule Status
Rule List Type     Filter lists apply IP filtering to messages passing into or out of an interface.
                   Radius lists are not associated to an interface. A Radius list is a group of filter lists used
                   by the Radius server for a class of user.
                   Traffic lists apply IP filtering when packets are placed in queues within the router.
Default Scope      Defines what the router will do with packets that do not match any of the rules in this Rule
                   List.
Linked Rule List   Applies to Filter Lists. A list can be made up of other lists for easier management. For
Name 1-4           example, if the router has three incoming links and one outgoing link, the incoming links
                   may have rules in common. A rule list called common can be created and included with
                   this parameter in the rule lists for the three separate links. An important note: The default
                   scope of the linked rule will be ignored. It is important that all rule lists linked together
                   have the same default scope so that the logic is consistent.
Incoming /         Applies to Radius lists. These filter lists are associated to an interface when a user is
Outgoing Rule List authenticated via the Radius server.
Name




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IP Add Rule Menu CONFIG =>RULES LIST =>IP =>CONFIGURE RULES =>ADD RULE

Parameter          Description
Insert as Rule     Shown for all but the first rule. The rules are applied in the order entered. To circumvent
Number             this order, choose the number of an existing rule here. This new rule will be placed before
                   the existing rule.
Rule Status        Enables the rule.
Scope              This scope is usually the opposite of the default scope chosen for the Rule list (or for the
                   parent rule list if this rule will be part of a linked list -- see explanation in CONFIG=>RULES
                   LIST=>IP=>ADD RULE LIST=>LINKED RULE LIST NAME). An extended discussion of
                   scope is given in the beginning of this section.
Flow Priority      Applies to Traffic Rule Lists. Indicates the relative priority of the packet for insertion into
Level              queues in the router. A packet with priority 1 will enter the queue if there is any space
                   available. A packet with priority 2 will enter the queue if at least 20% of the space is
                   available, and so on (40% free for priority 3, 60% free for priority 4, and 80% free for priority
                   5). All packets that do not enter the queue are DISCARDED. Priority 0 is similar to Priority
                   5, but these packets always enter the queue. Use this feature with caution!
Reserved           Applies to Traffic Rule Lists. Defines what percentage of the total bandwidth on an interface
Bandwidth          will be set aside for this kind of traffic.
Bandwidth          Applies to Traffic Rule Lists. When two traffic rules have the same priority, they cannot
Priority Level     share bandwidth when one kind of traffic does not need its entire allotment. When two
                   traffic rules have different priorities, the traffic with the higher priority can steal bandwidth
                   from the other when it is not in use. Priority is relative -- two rules with priorities 1 and 5 are
                   the same as two rules with priorities 3 and 4 (if there are no other rules).




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IP Add Rule Menu CONFIG =>RULES LIST =>IP =>CONFIGURE RULES =>ADD RULE -- Continued

Parameter             Description
Protocol              The protocol field in the packet.
                      TCP, UDP, ICMP – these protocols;
                      Others – the number of the protocol must be given;
                      None – any protocol.
Source/Destination IP Defines the filtering scheme for source/destination IP-address filtering.
Operator (two         Equal/Not Equal is used to match a particular IP address or IP network.
separate fields)      Less Than/Greater Than/Less or Equal/Greater or Equal – is used to define a range of
                      IP addresses bounded on one side.
                      Range/Outside Range – is used to define a range for inclusion or exclusion.
                      None – all source IP addresses.
IP Address Start &    Used with Source/Destination IP Operator, when needed.
IP Address End (two Note: For the Range operator, the addresses are inclusive. For the Outside Range
separate fields)      operator, the addresses are exclusive.
IP Address Start      Applies when IP Address Start is defined, to determine the range of IP Addresses
Mask                  included.
Source/Destination    Defines the filtering scheme for source/destination UDP/TCP packet filtering. See
Port Operator (two    Source/Destination IP Operator above for options.
separate fields)
Source/Destination    Used with Source/Destination Port Operator, when needed. Enter the port number or
Port Start &          type “?” to choose from a list of common applications: Ftp, Telnet, mail, SMTP, etc.
Source/Destination
Port End (four
separate fields)
Allow TCP             Allows TCP packets without the ACK bit set. This means that a TCP connection can
Connections           be initiated in this direction.
Allow Account         Applies to Filter Rule Lists. All packets that match this rule are logged.
Process


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CHAPTER 5 THE ETHERNET INTERFACE MENU
The Ethernet Interface Menu is the simplest of the interface menus. In this chapter, IP Bridges and IP Accounting
are also described. The Ethernet Interface Menu tree is given in Figure 5.1.
 Config       Interface      Ethernet      Encapsulation                     Ethernet
                                                                             MAC Address
                                           Network         IP                Active or Inactive
                                           Protocol                          Interface Unnumbered/
                                                                             Numbered
                                                                             Assign IP From Interface
                                                                             Primary IP Address
                                                                             Subnet Mask
                                                                             Secondary IP Address
                                                                             Subnet Mask
                                                                             IP MTU
                                                                             NAT
                                                                             ICMP Port
                                                                             Incoming Rule List Name
                                                                             Detailed Incoming IP Accounting
                                                                             Outgoing Rule List Name
                                                                             Detailed Outgoing IP Accounting
                                                                             Proxy ARP
                                                                             IP Bridge
                                                                             Initial IP Address to be Bridged
                                                                             Ending IP Address to be Bridged
                                                                             Broadcast Over the Link
                                                                             Bridge Over Link

                                                           Transparent       Status
                                                             Bridge          Port Priority
                                                                             Incoming Rule List Name
                                                                             Outgoing Rule List Name

                               FIGURE 5.1 ETHERNET INTERFACE MENU TREE
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                    Routing Protocol      RIP       Send RIP
                                                    Listen RIP
                                                    RIP2 Authentication
                                                    Rip2 Authentication Password

                                          OSPF      OSPF on This Interface
                                                    Advertise This Non-OSPF Interface
                                                    External Metric
                                                    External Metric Type
                                                    Area ID
                                                    Network Type
                                                    Router Priority
                                                    Transit Delay
                                                    Retransmit Interval
                                                    Hello Interval
                                                    Dead Interval
                                                    Poll Interval
                                                    Password
                                                    Metric
                                                    Advertise Secondary IP Address
                    Traffic Control       General   Bandwidth
                                                    IP Traffic Control List

                      FIGURE 5.1 (CONTINUED) ETHERNET INTERFACE MENU TREE




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A brief description of each principal item is given in the following table:

Ethernet Interface Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>ETHERNET

Menu Option      Description
Encapsulation    Activates the Ethernet interface. Allows change in MAC address when a router
                 configuration file is copied from one router to another (no longer necessary for CyROS
                 1.9.5 or higher). Note: the router's correct MAC address is pre-set at the factory, and the
                 value is indicated on the underside of the router case.
Network Protocol Provides menus for the IP and Transparent Bridge parameters, including rules to be
                 applied to this interface.
Routing Protocol Submenus for RIP and OSPF configuration.
Traffic Control  Sets the bandwidth of the connection for use with traffic control rules and associates a
                 traffic control rule list to this interface. See section 4.7 for more information on traffic
                 control rules.

The Network Protocol menu has sub-menus for IP and Transparent Bridge. IP Bridging is configured in the IP
sub-menu.




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Network Protocol Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ETHERNET =>NETWORK PROTOCOL =>IP

Parameter                  Description
Active or Inactive         Activates this interface.
Interface                  Unnumbered interfaces can be used for point-to-point connections.
Unnumbered
Assign IP From             Applies to Unnumbered interfaces. Applies the IP address of another router interface
Interface                  to this one.
Primary IP Address         Applies to Numbered interfaces. Address assigned to this interface.
Subnet Mask                Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of the network.
Secondary IP               Applies to Numbered interfaces. Indicates a second (or third, etc. up to eight) IP
Address                    address that can be used to refer to this interface. This parameter and the next are
                           repeated until no value is entered.
Subnet Mask                Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of Secondary IP Address.
IP MTU                     Assigns the size of the Maximum Transmission Unit for the interface. This determines
                           whether or not a given IP datagram is fragmented.
IP Fragmentation -         When this parameter is set to No, the DF (Do Not Fragment) bit in the IP header
Ignore Bit DF              causes IP to reject a packet that is oversized: the router sends an ICMP message
                           back to the sender. When this parameter is Yes, the DF bit is ignored, the packet is
                           fragmented, and no message is sent back to the sender.
NAT                        Does not apply to Extended NAT. Determines the type of IP address if NAT is being
                           used. Use Global otherwise. See section 4.3 for details on how to configure NAT.
ICMP Port                  Active causes the router to send ICMP Port Unreachable messages when it receives
                           UDP or TCP messages for ports that are not recognized. This type of message is
                           used by some traceroute applications, and if disabled, the router might not be identified
                           in the traceroute output. However, there are security and performance reasons to
                           leave this option Inactive.
Incoming Rule List         Filter rule list for incoming packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this
Name                       parameter should be set.
This table is continued.


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Network Protocol Menu (continued) CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ETHERNET =>NETWORK PROTOCOL =>IP

Parameter                Description
Detailed Incoming IP     Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of IP
Accounting               Accounting later in this chapter. IP Accounting for a rule requires that the parameter
                         CONFIG =>RULES LIST=>IP=>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD RULE=>ALLOW
                         ACCOUNT PROCESS also be set to Yes.
Outgoing Rule List       Filter rule list for outgoing packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this
Name                     parameter should be set.
Detailed Outgoing IP     Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of Detailed
Accounting               Incoming IP Accounting.
Routing of Broadcast     Activating this parameter causes the router to route broadcast messages from the
Messages                 LAN to the WAN and vice-versa. An individual interface can be excluded by setting
                         this parameter to Inactive, without effecting the broadcast of messages on the other
                         interfaces. This is necessary with applications that use Netbios.
Proxy ARP                Causes the router to answer ARP requests with its own MAC address for IP addresses
                         reachable on another interface.
IP Bridge
An IP Bridge is used to divide a network without subnetting. The advantage is that whenever a subnetwork is
created, two IP numbers are lost — one describing the network and the other reserved for broadcast. This does
not occur with an IP Bridge.




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                                                      200.240.240.9

                                      200.240.240.3
                                                                                                       ...
                           200.240.240.2
                200.240.240.1
                                                                                                      ETH0
                                                                                                                  PR4000

                                                                                            Link 1
                                                PR3000

                                                                                           ETH0
                                                                                    ....
                                                                              ......
                                                                        ......
                                                                  ......
                                                            ......
                                                      ......




                                                                                                       ...
                                                                                                                  200.240.240.8

                                                                                                  200.240.240.4

                                          FIGURE 5.2 IP BRIDGE EXAMPLE
In Figure 5.2, an example of the use of an IP Bridge is given. From the available IP addresses, the range
200.240.240.4 to 200.240.240.8 is bridged to another physical location. The following parameters apply only for
IP Bridge.




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Network Protocol Menu (Cont.) CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ETHERNET =>NETWORK PROTOCOL =>IP (IP
Bridge)
Parameter             Description
IP Bridge             Activates the IP Bridge functionality. Active for both the PR3000 and the PR4000 in the
                      example.
The following parameters apply only if IP Bridge is Active.
Initial IP Address to Indicates the start of the range of IP addresses to be transferred to another physical
be Bridged            location. This and the next three parameters are repeated in case the bridge is to be
                      broken up into various sections. Up to 8 sections can be defined. For the PR3000 in
                      the example, this value is 200.240.240.4. For the PR4000, the first range begins at
                      200.240.240.1 and the second range begins at 200.240.240.9.
Ending IP Address to Indicates the end of the range of IP addresses to be transferred to another physical
be Bridged            location. For the PR3000 in the example, this value is 200.240.240.8. For the
                      PR4000, the first range ends at 200.240.240.3 and the second range ends at
                      200.240.240.255.
Broadcast Over the    Allows propagation of broadcast IP packets over this bridge.
Link
Bridge Over Link      Indicates which link forms the other half of the bridge. In the example, link 1 is used
                      for both the PR3000 and the PR4000.

IP Accounting
IP Accounting is used to count the total number of packets allowed (or not) to pass through an interface. Statistics
are given for packets that meet the criterions defined in a rule. (Traffic Rules are not supported). To see all
packets, a special rule list permitting everything can be defined.

Two versions of the IP account table are available for viewing. The result of INFO =>SHOW ACCOUNT TABLE
=>SUMMARY is shown below for four filter rules.




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               IP Accounting Table

               Interface       Direction     Filter         Rule        Bytes      Packets
                                             List
               Ethernet        Outgoing      generic        0           24876      3072
               Ethernet        Incoming      generic        0           49254      3358
               slot 3          Outgoing      swan3out       17          21362      3223
               slot 3          Incoming      swan3in        15          32563      3131

Detailed information can be accessed via SNMP. The objects for the detailed table and the IP-based table are
shown in the following figures. The base SNMP number is: 1.3.6.1.4.1.2925.3.3.12

          Base +              SNMP Object
          .2.1                cyFullDetAcct: reg point
          .2.1.1              cyFullDetAcctTable: SEQUENCE OF CyFullDetAcctEntry
          .2.1.1.1            cyFullDetAcctEntry: SEQUENCE CyFullDetAcctEntry
          .2.1.1.1.1          cyFullDetAcctIndex: INTEGER
          .2.1.1.1.2          cyFullDetAcctInterface: INTEGER
          .2.1.1.1.3          cyFullDetAcctDirection: Enum
          .2.1.1.1.4          cyFullDetAcctFilterList: DisplayString
          .2.1.1.1.5          cyFullDetAcctRule: INTEGER
          .2.1.1.1.6          cyFullDetAcctSrcAddress: IpAddress
          .2.1.1.1.7          cyFullDetAcctDstAddress: IpAddress
          .2.1.1.1.8          cyFullDetAcctProtocol: INTEGER
          .2.1.1.1.9          cyFullDetAcctSrcPort: INTEGER
          .2.1.1.1.10         cyFullDetAcctDstPort: INTEGER
          .2.1.1.1.11         cyFullDetAcctPackets: Counter
          .2.1.1.1.12         cyFullDetAcctOctets: Counter
          .2.1.1.1.13         cyFullDetAcctId: INTEGER

                        FIGURE 5.3 DETAILED IP ACCOUNTING TABLE SNMP OBJECTS
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          Base +              SNMP Object
          .2.2                cyIpBasedDetAcct: reg point
          .2.2.1              cyIpBasedDetAcctTable: SEQUENCE OF CyIpBasedDetAcctEntry
          .2.2.1.1            cyIpBasedDetAcctEntry: SEQUENCE CyIpBasedDetAcctEntry
          .2.2.1.1.1          cyIpBasedDetAcctSrcAddress: IpAddress
          .2.2.1.1.2          cyIpBasedDetAcctDstAddress: IpAddress
          .2.2.1.1.3          cyIpBasedDetAcctPackets: Counter
          .2.2.1.1.4          cyIpBasedDetAcctOctets: Counter
          .2.2.1.1.5          cyIpBasedDetAcctId: INTEGER
                       FIGURE 5.4 DETAILED IP ACCOUNTING TABLE SNMP OBJECTS

Transparent Bridge Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ETHERNET =>NETWORK PROTOCOL
=>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE

Parameter           Description
Status              Activates the Transparent Bridge on this interface.
Port Priority       For the Spanning Tree Algorithm, a priority is given to each link in the router and to each
                    router in the transparent bridge. See CONFIG=>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE =>SPANNING
                    TREE for more information.
Incoming Rule       Transparent Bridge rule list name for incoming packets. Note: Rule lists for Transparent
List Name           Bridge and IP are created separately. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this rule list
                    is created.
Outgoing Rule       Filter rule list name for outgoing packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this rule
List Name           list is created.




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Types of RIP
CyROS supports three basic types of RIP:
  1 RIP1 [RFC 1058]
  2 RIP2 with broadcast (compatible with RIP1) [RFC 1723]
  3 RIP2 with multicast [RFC 1723]

The primary difference between RIP1 and RIP2 is that only RIP2 advertises subnet masks and next hops. If the
network contains equipment that understands only RIP1 packets, then RIP1 or RIP2 with broadcast should be
used. See RFC 1723, item 3.3 for more details. If only RIP2 is used, RIP2 with multicast is recommended.

RIP Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ETHERNET =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>RIP
Parameter           Description
Send RIP            Sets the type of RIP messages to be sent.
Listen RIP          Indicates which types of RIP messages should be accepted.
RIP2                Applies if RIP2 was chosen in one of the first two options. Activates RIP2 message
Authentication      authentication with a password.
RIP2                Applies if RIP2 Authentication is Active. Password used for both received and transmitted
Authentication      RIP2 messages.
Password


The OSPF Routing Protocol
Details of the OSPF configuration, with examples, are given in section 4.5. Contrary to most other protocols in
CyROS, OSPF must first be configured on each interface, then configured in the CONFIG =>IP =>OSPF menu.
Despite this, if you intend to use OSPF in CyROS, you should read section 4.5 FIRST, before setting the parameters
for the interfaces.




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OSPF Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ETHERNET =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>OSPF
Parameter           Description
OSPF on This        Activates OSPF. Enable Inactive is used to temporarily disable the OSPF protocol without
Interface           erasing the parameters set below. This is useful when OSPF is first configured, as the
                    general parameters must be set afterwards in CONFIG=>IP =>OSPF and OSPF cannot
                    function without them.
Parameters that apply only when OSPF on This Interface is Disabled.
Advertise This      Causes the router to include this interface in its advertisements through other interfaces (as
Non-OSPF            an external route).
Interface
External Metric     Defines the metric that will be advertised by OSPF.
External Metric     For Type 1, the total metric of this route is composed of the internal metric (inside the
Type                autonomous system) and the external metric (provided in the previous parameter). For
                    Type 2, the total metric of this route is the value provided in the previous parameter.
Parameters that apply only when OSPF on This Interface is Enable or Enable Inactive.
Area ID             Identifies the area to which the interface belongs. Areas are created here, then later
                    defined in CONFIG=>IP=>OSPF =>AREA. Has the format of an IP address, but is not
                    linked to any IP address in the system. Small OSPF networks will typically have only one
                    area (the backbone area represented by 0.0.0.0).
Network Type
Router Priority     Priority used by OSPF in multicast networks to elect the designated router. A priority of 1
                    will make this router the most likely to be chosen. A priority of 2 will make it second most
                    likely. Set it to 0 (zero) if this router should never be the designated router.
Transit Delay       Estimated transit time in seconds to route a packet through this interface. Use the preset
                    value (1) or increase the number for slow links
This table is continued.




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OSPF Menu CONFIG (continued) =>INTERFACE =>ETHERNET =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>OSPF
Parameter           Description
Retransmit          Time in seconds between link-state advertisement retransmissions for adjacencies
Interval*           belonging to this interface.
Hello Interval*     Time in seconds between the hello packets on this interface.
Dead Interval*      Inactivity time (seconds) before a neighbor router is considered down.
Poll Interval       Time in seconds between the hello packets sent to an inactive, non-broadcast, multi-
                    access neighbor.
Password*           String of up to 8 characters used to authenticate OSPF packages. The use of this
                    password is enabled in CONFIG
                    =>IP=>OSPF=>AREA=>AUTHENTICATION TYPE
Metric              Defines the cost for normal service. For consistent routing, this parameter should be
                    determined in the same manner for all routers in the OSPF Area. Normally, metric cost is
                    defined as an inverse function of interface throughput (e.g. 1 for 100Mbps, 10 for 10Mbps,
                    65 for T1, 1785 for 56kbps, etc).
Advertise           Causes the router to advertise additional addresses assigned to this interface. These are
Secondary IP        configured in CONFIG=> INTERFACE=>ETHERNET=>NETWORK PROTOCOL =>IP.
Address

* Inside a given area, these 4 parameters should be the same for all routers.




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CHAPTER 6 THE SWAN INTERFACE
The menus relating to the SWAN interface are given in this chapter. A summary menu tree is given in Figure 6.1.

        Config

        Interface

         SWAN            Encapsulation               Frame Relay            [menu shown in a later figure]
                                                     PPP                    [menu shown in a later figure]
                                                     X.25                   [menu shown in a later figure]
                                                     HDLC                   Keep Alive Interval
                                                     Inactive

                         Network Protocol            [menu shown in a later figure]
                         Routing Protocol            [menu shown in a later figure]

                         Physical                    Mode
                                                     Clock Source
                                                     Receive Clock
                                                     Speed
                                                     Media for SWAN Cable

                         Traffic Control             General                Bandwidth
                                                                            IP Traffic Control List
                         Authentication              Authentication Type
                                                     Username
                                                     Password
                                                     Authentication Server
                                                     Authentication Protocol

                       FIGURE 6.1 SWAN INTERFACE CONFIGURATION MENU TREE
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A brief description of each principal item appears in the following table.
SWAN Interface Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN

Menu Item        Description
Encapsulation    Determines the data-link layer protocol to be used for this communication link.
Network Protocol Provides menus for the IP and Transparent Bridge parameters, including rules to be
                 applied to this interface.
Routing Protocol Submenus for RIP and OSPF configuration.
Physical         Determines the media, type and speed of the connection.
Traffic Control  Sets the bandwidth of the connection for use with traffic control rules and associates a
                 traffic control rule list to this interface. See section 4.7 for more information on traffic
                 control rules.
Authentication   Determines the method used for authentication for connections on this line.

There are many encapsulation options on this interface.

For synchronous communication:
  Frame Relay,
  X.25, and
  HDLC.

For asynchronous or synchronous communication:
  PPP




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Encapsulation Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>SWAN =>ENCAPSULATION
Menu Option         Description
Frame Relay         The Frame Relay Protocol can be used only on synchronous lines. It is based on frame
                    switching and constructs a permanent virtual circuit (PVC) between two points.
PPP                 The PPP (Point-to-Point) protocol can be used on either synchronous or asynchronous
                    lines. Multilink PPP is also provided.
X.25                The X.25 Protocol is generally used to connect to a public network. The router can act
                    either as a DTE or a DCE.
HDLC                This protocol has only one parameter: HDLC Keepalive Interval. This is the time interval
                    between transmission of Keepalive messages. The receiver of these messages must send
                    keepalive messages with the same frequency or will be considered inoperative.
Inactive            This menu option must be chosen whenever the encapsulation is changed from one type to
                    another. One must be deactivated before another can be activated.




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Frame Relay
FR supports multiple connections over a single link. Each data link connection (DLC) has a unique DLCI (data link
connection identifier). This allows multiple logical connections to be multiplexed over a single channel. These are
called Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs). The DLCI has only local significance and each end of the logical connection
assigns its own DLCI from the available local numbers.

A public Frame Relay network connecting offices in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and Recife is shown in
Figures 6.2 and 6.3.
                      São Paulo                               Rio de Janeiro
                      Network: 192.168.200.0                  Network: 192.168.201.0




                         Router                                           Router

                          200.1.1.1                                   200.1.1.4

                                               FR Network


                          200.1.1.2                                   200.1.1.3
                         Router                                           Router




                         Salvador                                  Recife
                         Network: 192.168.203.0                    Network: 192.168.202.0
                           FIGURE 6.2 PUBLIC FRAME RELAY NETWORK EXAMPLE
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Each router will have a routing table pairing destination network with router interface and gateway. A Frame Relay
Address Map is also created (either statically or dynamically) to associate each DLCI with the destination router IP.
                         São Paulo                                  Rio de Janeiro
                         Network: 192.168.200.0                     Network: 192.168.201.0




                          Router                                           Router

                           200.1.1.1                                    200.1.1.4

                                                21
                                          11
                                               81
                           200.1.1.2                                    200.1.1.3
                          Router                                           Router




                         Salvador                                   Recife
                         Network: 192.168.203.0                     Network: 192.168.202.0
                      FIGURE 6.3 PERMANENT VIRTUAL CIRCUITS BETWEEN OFFICES
For the router in Salvador, the Frame Relay address map will look like this:
                                                    DLCI       IP
                                                     11     200.1.1.1
                                                     21     200.1.1.4
                                                     81     200.1.1.3

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These values are entered in the Add DLCI menu.

The Local Management Interface (LMI) Protocol provides services not available in simple Frame Relay. It is used for
controlling the connection between the user and the network. It monitors this link, maintains the list of DLCs, and sends
status messages about the PVCs. A separate virtual circuit is created to pass this information (DLCI 0).

Sub-Network Access Protocol (SNAP)
A normal Frame Relay Network header contains the NLPID (Network Level Protocol ID) field to identify which protocol
provided the information encapsulated in the data field.

                    flag    address - control        optional   NLPID   data     FCS       flag
                            including                pad
                            DLCI
                                  FIGURE 6.4 NORMAL HEADER USING NLPID
For those protocols which do not have an NLPID defined, the SNAP header must be used. The NLPID field remains,
but contains a value (0x80) that indicates that the SNAP information follows.

           flag    address - control      optional     NLPID    OUI      PID       data      FCS     flag
                   including              pad          = 0x80
                   DLCI
                                        FIGURE 6.5 HEADER USING SNAP
The three-octet Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) and the two-octet Protocol Identifier (PID) which follow define
a distinct protocol. See RFC 1490 for details.




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The Frame Relay Encapsulation Menu tree is shown in Figure 6.6.
        Config

      Interface

        SWAN       Encapsulation     Frame Relay         Encapsulation Type
                                                         SNAP IP
                                                         LMI
                                                         T391
                                                         N391
                                                         N392
                                                         N393
                                                         CIR
                                                         Bandwidth Reservation

                                                         Add DLCI            DLCI Number
                                                                             Frame Relay
                                                                             Address Map
                                                                             IP Address
                                                                             Enable Predictor
                                                                             Compression
                                                                             Number of Bits for
                                                                             Compression
                                                                             DLCI priority level
                                                                             Reserved Bandwidth
                                                                             Bandwidth Priority Level

                                                         Delete DLCI         Map Entry Number

                                                         Edit DLCI           Table Entry

                         FIGURE 6.6 FRAME RELAY ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE


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A detailed explanation of the Frame Relay parameters is given in the following tables.

Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPSULATION =>FRAME RELAY
Parameter          Description
Encapsulation      RFC1490 - IETF is the standard used by most equipment. The Cisco option should be used
Type               when the PR is communicating with a router configured to use the default Cisco standard.
SNAP IP            Applies when Encapsulation Type is RFC1490 - IETF above. Indicates that the Sub-
                   Network Access Protocol should be used. See description above. From a network
                   administrator's point of view, the router on the sending end must be using the same header
                   type (NLPID or SNAP) as the router on the receiving end.
LMI                Selects the Local Management Interface specification to be used. ANSI, Group of Four
                   (defined by the vendors that first implemented Frame Relay), Q933a (defined by ITU-T), and
                   None (used for a dedicated FR connection without a network).
T391               Interval between the LMI Status Enquiry messages.
N391               Full Status Polling Counter. Full Status Enquiry messages are sent every N391-th LMI
                   Status Enquiry message.
N392               Error Threshold. The network counts how many events occur within a given period and
                   considers an interface inactive when the number of events exceeds a threshold. N393 is the
                   number of events to be considered and N392 the number of errors within this period. If
                   N392 of the last N393 events are errors, the interface is deemed inactive. A successful
                   event is the receipt of a valid Status Enquiry message
N393               Monitored Events Count. See the description of N392. This value must be larger than N392.
CIR                Committed Information Rate, in percentage of total bandwidth (given in
                   CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN =>TRAFFIC CONTROL=>GENERAL=>BANDWIDTH).
                   Traffic above this rate may be discarded if the network is congested.
Bandwidth          Enables traffic control per DLCI. See the Add DLCI menu for more details.
Reservation

The following menu appears at the end of the Frame Relay parameter list. It can be reached by passing through all
parameters or by using the <ESC> key at any point in the parameter list.
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DLCI Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPSULATION =>FRAME RELAY=><ESC>
Menu Option         Description
Add DLCI            Adds a DLC for this interface to the DLCI table.
Delete DLCI         CyROS puts all DLCIs in a table. The list command (L) must be used to discover this
                    number in order to delete the DLCI.
Edit DLCI           CyROS puts all DLCIs in a table. The list command (L) must be used to discover this
                    number in order to edit the DLCI.
Traffic Control based on Data Link Connection
Traffic Control as described in section 4.7 can also be performed on a Frame Relay interface for each permanent
virtual connection. The parameters in the Add DLCI menu are used in the same manner as those described in section
4.7.

Add DLCI Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>SWAN =>ENCAPSULATION =>FRAME RELAY
=><ESC> =>ADD DLCI
Parameter           Description
DLCI Number         Used to identify the DLC. This number is supplied by the Public Frame Relay network
                    provider. The DLCIs are stored in a table which can be seen with the L command.
Frame Relay         Determines the method used for mapping the remote IP address to the Permanent Virtual
Address Map         Circuit. Static maps one IP address to this DLCI. Inverse ARP maps the IP address
                    dynamically, in a manner similar to the ARP table.
IP Address          Applies when Frame Relay Address Map is Static. Provides the IP address to be used for
                    static address mapping.
Enable Predictor Enables data compression using the Predictor algorithm. This feature should be enabled
Compression         only if Cyclades' equipment is being used on both ends of the connection because there is
                    no established standard for data compression interoperability. Data compression is very
                    CPU-intensive, making this feature effective only for links running at speeds under 1Mbps.
                    At higher speeds, the time necessary to compress data offsets the gains in throughput
                    achieved by data compression.
This table is continued.

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Add DLCI Frame Relay Menu (continued)
Parameter           Description
Number of Bits      Applies when Predictor Compression Enabled. Sixteen is fastest, but 10 must be used if
for Compression     the router on the other end is a PathRouter, for compatibility.
DLCI Priority       This is the equivalent of CONFIG=>RULES LIST=>IP =>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD
Level               RULE=>FLOW PRIORITY LEVEL. Indicates the relative priority of the frame for insertion
                    into queues in the router. A frame with priority 1 will enter the queue if there is any space
                    available. A frame with priority 2 will enter the queue if at least 20% of the space is
                    available, and so on (40% free for priority 3, 60% free for priority 4, and 80% free for priority
                    5). Frames with priority x + 1 will always enter after frames with priority x, x-1, etc. Priority
                    0 is similar to Priority 5, but these packets always enter the queue. All frames that do not
                    enter the queue are DISCARDED. Use this feature with caution!
Reserved            This is the equivalent of CONFIG=>RULES LIST=>IP =>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD
Bandwidth           RULE=>RESERVED BANDWIDTH. Defines what percentage of the total bandwidth on an
                    interface will be set aside for this DLC.
Bandwidth           This is the equivalent of CONFIG=>RULES LIST=>IP =>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD
Priority Level      RULE=>BANDWIDTH PRIORITY LEVEL. Two DLCs with the same priority cannot share
                    bandwidth when one DLC does not need its entire allotment. For two DLCs with different
                    priorities, the DLC with the higher priority can steal bandwidth from the other when it is not
                    in use. Priority is relative -- two DLCs with priorities 1 and 5 are the same as two DLCs
                    with priorities 3 and 4 (if there are no other DLCs).




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PPP
PPP is the only encapsulation option for the SWAN interface than can be either Synchronous or Asynchronous. It is
important to choose between them in CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>SWAN =>PHYSICAL before entering the Encapsulation
menu. The menu options depend on this choice.

Multilink PPP (MLPPP) is similar in functionality to the Multilink feature described in section 4.4, but it is implemented
at the data-link level instead of the network-protocol level. When compared to Multilink, MLPPP is slightly more efficient
and less generic (because it applies only to PPP encapsulation).

                                               Router A

                                                          Modem

                                     Modem                       Modem

                                           Modem                  Link 2 (Bundle 6)
                                                    Link 1
                                                (Bundle 6)
                                                                     Router B

                                      FIGURE 6.7 MULTILINK PPP EXAMPLE
In Figure 6.7, Router B connects to Router A via two modem connections to achieve a larger bandwidth. Router A
accepts the two physical connections, but treats them as one logical connection (one “bundle”). MLPPP must be
enabled on all interfaces that will form this bundle, (and on both sides of the connection), with the same bundle iden-
tifier specified for each.




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The PPP Encapsulation Menu tree is shown in Figure 6.8. A description of the parameters with values given for the
example is presented in the table.
        Config


      Interface


        SWAN        Encapsulation        PPP              MLPPP Active
                                                          Connection Type
                                                          Identification for This Bundle
                                                          Total Number of Lines for This Bundle
                                                          PPP Inactivity Timeout
                                                          Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression
                                                          Transmit Compressed Packets
                                                          Disable LCP ECHO Requests
                                                          Time Interval to Send Config Requests
                                                          Edit ACCM
                                                          Enable Predictor Compression
                                                          Number of Bits for Compression
                                                          Connection Type

                                 FIGURE 6.8 PPP ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE




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PPP Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>SWAN =>ENCAPSULATION =>PPP
Parameter             Description
MLPPP Active          Enables Multilink PPP on this interface.
Connection Type       Applies for MLPPP = Yes. Type of line used on this link.
Identification for    Applies for MLPPP = Yes and Dial-out or Leased. In the example, this value is 6.
This Bundle
Total Number of       Applies for MLPPP = Yes. Maximum number of links allowed in the bundle. In the
lines for This        example, this number is 2 or larger.
Bundle
PPP Inactivity        Applies to asynchronous connections only. The connection is closed when data does not
Timeout               pass through the line for this period of time.
Enable Van            Allows the link to receive compressed packets. This type of compression is useful for
Jacobson IP           low-speed links and/or small packets. It is not recommended for fast links, as it requires
Header                CPU time.
Compression
Transmit              Applies when Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression is Yes. This parameter
Compressed            causes the link to send compressed packets.
Packets
Disable LCP Echo      LCP (Link Control Protocol) messages are normally exchanged to monitor the status of
Requests              the link. Disabling these messages reduces traffic, but the link then has no way of
                      knowing if the other end is still connected.
Time Interval to      Config Request messages are used to negotiate the parameters at the start of a PPP
Send Config           connection. For a slow line, this time should be increased to allow the reply to return to
Requests              the sender. If not, the sender will assume it was lost and send another.
This table is continued.




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PPP Menu (Continued)
Parameter        Description
Edit ACCM        Applies to asynchronous connections only. Permits control character mapping negotiation
                 on asynchronous links. This is useful when you need to send a control character as data
                 (e.g. XON/XOFF, Crtl A, etc.) over an asynchronous link and do not want it interpreted by
                 the modem or other device in the middle. The map is built up with the following commands.
                 Clear – Resets the ACCM table toggle;
                 Toggle XON/XOFF – Add XON/XOFF control characters to the ACCM table;
                 Toggle Char – Add other control characters to the ACCM table, using their ASCII value.
                 Typing the option once (for example, X), includes it in the table. Typing it again excludes it
                 from the table. See note after table.
Enable Predictor Enables data compression using the Predictor algorithm. This feature should be enabled
Compression      only if Cyclades' equipment is being used on both ends of the connection because there is
                 no established standard for data compression interoperability. Data compression is very
                 CPU-intensive, making this feature effective only for links running at speeds under 1Mbps.
                 At higher speeds, the time necessary to compress data offsets the gains in throughput
                 achieved by data compression.
Number of Bits   Applies when Predictor Compression Enabled. Sixteen is fastest, but 10 must be used if
for Compression the router on the other end is a PathRouter, for compatibility.
Connection Type Applies to asynchronous connections only. NT-Serial Cable is a direct connection to a
                 Windows NT computer. This is necessary because NT requires a negotiation before the
                 beginning of the PPP negotiation. Direct is used for other connections using cables or
                 leased lines.

Note: Asynchronous Control Character Map (ACCM) mapping is done by codifying one control character as two
special characters. This permits transparent transmission of control characters as data. Thirty-two bits are encoded
in such a way that each bit indicates if the corresponding control character should or should not be mapped to the two
character sequence. If the bit is set to 1, the character will be mapped. For example, if bit 17 and 19 are set to 1, the
corresponding characters in the ASCII table (DC1 or XON and DC3 or XOFF) will be encoded, and the corresponding
ACCM will be: 00 0A 00 00 (hex), (binary: 00000000 00001010 00000000 00000000), the bits set to 1 are the 17th and
19th, if counting from right to left, starting from 0.
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X.25
A Cyclades Router can act either as a DTE (Data-terminal Equipment) connected to a public X.25 network or as a DTE
or DCE (Data circuit-terminating Equipment) as part of a private X.25 network. As seen in Figures 6.9 and 6.10, the
determination of DTE or DCE depends on the position and use of the router within the network.

Both Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) and Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs) can be defined. A PVC requires that two
DTEs be permanently connected.




                                                    Modem or
                                                    DSU/CSU


                     Router / DTE                                             Router / DTE



                                       Switch / DCE           Switch / DCE
                                                      X.25

                                 FIGURE 6.9 PUBLIC X.25 NETWORK EXAMPLE




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                                     Router A

                                      DTE                                     Router B
                                             Link 3   Link 1
                                                                    DTE
                                         DCE
                                                         DCE
                                      Router C                 Link 2
                                                   DCE

                                                                   DTE
                                                                          Router D



                                          FIGURE 6.10 PRIVATE WAN
In the Private WAN network example, the central router acts as a switch connecting the other three. A type of bridge
must be configured to allow switched virtual connections passing through the router. The “switch” must be configured
on both of the interfaces involved in the bridge. The X.25 parameters Packet Size and Window Sizes should be the
same on both interfaces to prevent bottlenecks.




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The first X.25 menu tree is shown in Figure 6.11
   Config



  Interface        SWAN          Encapsulation     X.25        X.121 (Local DTE) Address
                                                               Switch Mode Active
                                                               Incoming Calls...Forwarded
                                                               Destination DTE Can be Forwarded
                                                               Through This Link
                                                               Suppress Calling Address
                                                               Inactivity Timeout
                                                               Configure as DTE or DCE
                                                               Number of Virtual Circuits
                                                               Number of Permanent Virtual Circuits
                                                               PVCs Must Wait for Reset Packet
                                                               Layer 3 Window Size
                                                               Layer 2 Window Size
                                                               Packet Size
                                                               Number of Retries N2
                                                               TL
                                                               T2
                                                               T21
                                                               T23
                                                               Negotiable Facilities
                                                               Send Facility
                                                              Add DTE [shown in DTE Menu Diagram]
                                                              Delete DTE [shown in DTE Menu Diagram]
                                                              Edit DTE [shown in DTE Menu Diagram]
                                                               Terminal PAD for X.25
                                                              Encapsulation [shown in a later figure]
                                                              Network Protocol [shown in a later figure]
                                                              Physical [shown in a later figure]
                                                              Authentication [shown in a later figure]

                                         FIGURE 6.11 X.25 MENU TREE
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 Config


Interface      SWAN         Encapsulation   X.25      Add DTE        Type of Logical Address
                                                                     IP Address
                                                                     X.25 Socket Port
                                                                     X.121 (DTE) Address
                                                                     VC Number
                                                                     Packet Transaction
                                                                     Automatic Mode
                                                                     User Data Len
                                                                     User Data
                                                                     Enable Predictor Compression
                                                                     Number of Bits for Compression

                                                      Delete DTE     Host Number to Delete

                                                      Edit DTE       Host Number to Change

                                    FIGURE 6.12 X.25 DTE MENU TREE




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A detailed description of the X.25 parameters for the two examples given above is provided in the table below.

X.25 Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPSULATION =>X.25

Parameter               Description
X.121 (Local DTE)       Address assigned to this interface (provided by the public X.25 Network Provider).
Address                 Can be up to 15 digits.
Switch Mode Active      Private WAN: In the example, Router C is used to connect three internal X.25
                        networks. To allow bridging from Router B to Router D across Router C, this
                        parameter must be Yes on both link 1 and link 2 .
Incoming Calls          Applies when Switch Mode is Active. Private WAN: When Router C receives a
Received Over the       packet from Router B with an unknown address, it can take two actions: if this
Other X.25 Links With parameter is No on both link 2 and link 3, the packet is discarded. If either link 2 or link
Unknown                 3 has this parameter set to Yes, the packet is sent through that link. (If both are Yes,
Destination DTE Can the link with the lowest link number is chosen -- in this case link 2).
be Forwarded
Through This Link
Suppress Calling        Public X.25 Network: This parameter must be chosen according to the guidelines
Address                 given by the Public X.25 Network provider. When activated, the sender's Local DTE
                        address is not included in the Call Request Message. Private WAN: This parameter
                        will be No as the network will not keep track of the sender of each packet.
Inactivity Timeout      Time until connection is automatically terminated by the router if there is no traffic.
Configure as DTE or As mentioned above, the router can act either as the recipient of information (DTE), or
DCE                     as the passer-on of information (DCE). Public X.25 Network: Both routers are DTEs.
                        Private WAN: Routers A,B, and D are DTEs and Router C is a DCE.
Number of Virtual       Indicates the maximum number of virtual circuits (total of PVCs and SVCs) allowed on
Circuits                this interface. The maximum number for all X.25 interfaces combined is 128.
Number of Permanent Indicates the number of permanent virtual circuits that will be connected through this
Virtual Circuits        interface. This maximum is 128.
PVCs must wait for      Applies for PVCs. Should be set when line provider (or DCE) sends reset to initialize
reset packet            the PVC.
This table is continued
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X.25 Menu (continued)

Parameter             Description
Layer 3 Window Size The layer 3 (packet) level window represents the number of sequentially numbered
                      packets that can be sent before an acknowledgement must be received. This number
                      may be negotiated if the Window Size Facility is utilized (see last parameter in this
                      table).
Layer 2 Window Size The layer 2 (frame) level window represents the number of sequentially numbered
                      frames that can be sent before an acknowledgement must be received. The frame
                      numbers are independent of the packet numbers.
Packet Size           The packet size to be sent across the interface. This number may be negotiated if the
                      Packet Size Facility is utilized (see last parameter in this table).
Number of Retries N2 Number of times an information frame can be resent, without response, before the link
                      is considered down.
TL                    Time the frame level waits for an acknowledgement for a given frame before re-
                      sending it.
T2                    Time that can elapse, after receiving a frame, until the router must send an
                      acknowledgement.
T21                   Call Request response Timer. After this time has elapsed, the DTE sends a Clear
                      message.
T23                   Clear Request response Timer. After this time has elapsed, the DTE retransmits the
                      Clear message.
Negotiable Facilities Initiates facility negotiation during virtual circuit creation.
Send Facility         Determines which facilities are negotiated during virtual circuit creation: Packet size is
                      part of the flow control parameters negotiation, Throughput is part of the throughput
                      class negotiation, and N3 Window (Level 3 Window Size, above) is part of the flow
                      control parameters negotiation.

The following menu appears at the end of the X.25 parameter list. It can be reached by passing through all parameters
or by using the <ESC> key at any point in the parameter list. This menu creates a static routing table associating a
remote X.121 address to an IP address or a TCP Socket location.
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X.25 Add DTE Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPSULATION =>X.25=><ESC>=>Add DTE

 Parameter          Description
 Type of Logical    IP Address or TCP Socket. Users that intend to use the TCP Socket option should see
 Address            Appendix A.
 IP Address         Applies for IP Address Type. IP Address of remote DTE device.
 X.25 Socket Port   Applies for Socket Address Type. Must be a number in the interval defined by the
                    parameters CONFIG=>IP=>TCP=>X25 SOCKET START/END PORT RANGE.
 X.121 (DTE)        Address of remote DTE device.
 Address
 VC Number          Number assigned to this circuit, if it is a PVC. For SVCs, the value should be zero.
 Packet             Applies for Socket Address Type. See Appendix A.
 Transaction
 Automatic Mode   Applies for Packet Transaction = Yes. See Appendix A.
 User Data Len    Applies for Socket Address Type. Length of next parameter in bytes. The maximum is
                  32. See Appendix A.
 User Data        Applies for Socket Address Type. The value in the user data field of the Call Request
                  packet which determines which service on the remote host is being requested. 0xCC is
                  used for IP. See Appendix A.
 Enable Predictor Applies for IP Address Type. Enables data compression using the Predictor algorithm.
 Compression      This feature should be enabled only if Cyclades' equipment is being used on both ends of
                  the connection because there is no established standard for data compression
                  interoperability. Data compression is very CPU-intensive, making this feature effective
                  only for links running at speeds under 1Mbps. At higher speeds, the time necessary to
                  compress data offsets the gains in throughput achieved by data compression.
 Number of Bits   Applies when Predictor Compression Enabled. Sixteen is fastest, but 10 must be used if
 for Compression the router on the other end is a Cyclades PathRouter, for compatibility.




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PAD (Packet Assembler/Disassembler)
PAD acts as a protocol converter, allowing a user to access the packet-switched network via a serial terminal. This
asynchronous connection is then converted into synchronous communication with the router and the network beyond
(using the telnet application available in the router). Any user listed in the local user table can be connected this way,
and the menu options available to him are configured in the CONFIG =>SECURITY =>USERS =>ADD menu.
                       PC                    Asynchronous
                                              Connection

                                           Modem


                      X.28
                 Parameters                     PAD Public X.25                                         Synchronous
                                                                                                         Connection
                                                     Network

                                                                                                        PR3000
                                                          Link 1
                                              X.3
                                       Parameters                                                       ETH0
                                                                                                 ....
                                                                                           ......
                                                                                     ......
                                                                               ......
                                                                         ......
                                                                   ......




                                                                                                                 Server


                                            FIGURE 6.13 PAD EXAMPLE
CyROS provides for configuration of the X.3 parameters that define the connection between the PAD and the router.
When the PAD sends a connection request to the router, the router replies with the profile (the X.3 parameters) to be
used for the connection. The X.28 parameters that define the connection between the remote terminal and the PAD
are not considered. Link 1 of the Router in the PAD example must be configured for this type of access.

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With encapsulation type CHAR, pure X.25 is used. Optionally, PPP or PPPCHAR can run on top of X.25. These
protocols must be configured in the encapsulation menu, and related parameters are set in the Network Protocol,
Physical, and Authentication menus.

The PAD Encapsulation menu tree is shown in Figure 6.14.
     Config                                                PPP             PPP Inactivity Timeout
                                                                           Enable Van Jacobson
                                                                           IP Header Compression
     Interface                                                             Transmit Compressed Packets
                                                                           Disable LCP ECHO Requests
                                                                           Time interval to Send
                                                                           Config Requests
      SWAN                                                                 Edit ACCM

                                                           PPPChar         PPP Inactivity Timeout
  Encapsulation                                                            Enable Van Jacobson
                                                                           IP header Compression
                                                                           Transmit Compressed Packets
                  Terminal PAD       Encapsulation                         Disable LCP ECHO Requests
        X.25      for X.25                                                 Time Interval to Send
                                                                           Config Requests
                                                                           Edit ACCM
                                                                           Switch Session Character Code
                                                                           Escape Session Character Code

                                                           Char            Switch Session Character Code
                                                                           Escape Session Character Code
                                                           Inactive        Username
                            FIGURE 6.14 X.25 PAD ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE




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Details on the configuration of each parameter are given in the following table.

X.25 PAD PPP CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPS=>X.25=><ESC> =><ESC> =>ENCAPS =>PPP

Parameter           Description
PPP Inactivity      The connection is closed when data does not pass through the line for this period of time.
Timeout
Enable Van          Allows the link to receive compressed packets. This type of compression is useful for low-
Jacobson IP         speed links and/or small packets. It is not recommended for fast links, as it requires CPU
Header              time.
Compression
Transmit            Applies when Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression is Yes. This parameter
Compressed          causes the link to send compressed packets.
Packets
Disable LCP         LCP (Link Control Protocol) messages are normally exchanged to monitor the status of the
Echo Requests       link. Disabling these messages reduces traffic, but the link then has no way of knowing if
                    the other end is still connected.
Time Interval to    Config Request messages are used to negotiate the parameters at the start of a PPP
Send Config         connection. For a slow line, this time should be increased to allow the reply to return to the
Requests            sender. If not, the sender will assume it was lost and send another.
Edit ACCM           Applies to asynchronous connections only. Permits control character mapping negotiation
                    on asynchronous links. This is useful when you need to send a control character as data
                    (e.g. XON/XOFF, Crtl A, etc.) over an asynchronous link and do not want it interpreted by
                    the modem or other device in the middle. The map is built up with the following commands.
                    Clear – Resets the ACCM table toggle;
                    Toggle XON/XOFF – Add XON/XOFF control characters to the ACCM table;
                    Toggle Char – Add other control characters to the ACCM table, using their ASCII value.
                    Typing the option once (for example, X), includes it in the table. Typing it again excludes it
                    from the table. See note after CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN =>ENCAPSULATION
                    =>PPP table.


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X.25 PAD PPPCHAR Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPS=>X.25=> <ESC> =><ESC>
=>ENCAPS =>PPPCHAR
Parameter              Description
PPP Inactivity         The connection is closed when data does not pass through the line for this period of
Timeout                time.
Enable Van             Allows the link to receive compressed packets. This type of compression is useful for
Jacobson IP Header     low-speed links and/or small packets. It is not recommended for fast links, as it requires
Compression            CPU time.
Transmit               Applies when Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression is Yes. This parameter
Compressed             causes the link to send compressed packets.
packets
Disable LCP Echo       LCP (Link Control Protocol) messages are normally exchanged to monitor the status of
Requests               the link. Disabling these messages reduces traffic, but the link then has no way of
                       knowing if the other end is still connected.
Time Interval to       Config Request messages are used to negotiate the parameters at the start of a PPP
Send Config            connection. For a slow line, this time should be increased to allow the reply to return to
Requests               the sender. If not, the sender will assume it was lost and send another.
Edit ACCM              Please see explanation in previous table.
Switch Session         Control character used to switch sessions. 1 is Ctrl-A, 2 is Ctrl-B, etc. The value 254
Character Code         disables this option.
Escape Session         Control character used while in a telnet session, to return to the router menu without
Character Code         closing the session.

X.25 PAD CHAR Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>SWAN =>ENCAPS =>X.25 =><ESC> =><ESC> =>ENCAPS
=>CHAR
Parameter       Description
Switch Session  Control character used to switch sessions. 1 is Ctrl-A, 2 is Ctrl-B, etc. The value 254
Character Code disables this option.
Escape Session Control character used while in a telnet session, to return to the router menu without
Character Code closing the session.
Username        Must be entered into the local user table first. See section 4.3.
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The X.25 PAD Network Protocol menu applies to PPP or PPPCHAR Encapsulation only.
The PAD Network Protocol menu tree is shown in Figure 6.15.

        Config


        Interface


         SWAN


    Encapsulation                Terminal PAD       Network
                         X.25                                       Interface Unnumbered
                                 for X.25           Protocol
                                                                    Assign IP From Interface
                                                                    Primary IP Address
                                                                    Subnet Mask
                                                                    Secondary IP Address
                                                                    Enable Dynamic Local IP Address
                                                                    Remote IP Address Type
                                                                    Remote IP Address
                                                                    IP MTU
                                                                    IP Fragmentation
                                                                    NAT
                                                                    ICMP Port
                                                                    Incoming Rule List Name
                                                                    Detailed Incoming IP Accounting
                                                                    Outgoing Rule List Name
                                                                    Detailed Outgoing IP Accounting
                                                                    Routing of Broadcast Messages

                        FIGURE 6.15 X.25 PAD NETWORK PROTOCOL MENU TREE



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X.25 PAD Network Protocol Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>SWAN =>ENCAPS =>X.25=><ESC>=><ESC>
=>NETWORK PROTOCOL
Parameter           Description
Interface           Unnumbered interfaces can be used for point-to-point connections.
Unnumbered
Assign IP From      Applies to Unnumbered interfaces. Applies the IP address of another router interface to
Interface           this one.
Primary IP          Applies to Numbered interfaces. Address assigned to this interface.
Address
Subnet Mask         Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of the network.
Secondary IP        Applies to Numbered interfaces. Indicates a second (or third, etc.) IP address that can be
Address             used to refer to this interface. This parameter and the next are repeated until no value is
                    entered.
Subnet Mask         Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of Secondary IP Address.
Enable Dynamic The terminal connected through PAD assigns an IP address to the router for purposes of
Local IP Address their connection.
Remote IP           The terminal connected through PAD sends its IP address in the negotiation package.
Address Type        Fixed: The IP address sent must match the number set in the next parameter.
                    Same Net: The IP address sent must be an address in the network set in the next
                    parameter.
                    Any: The IP address can be any number that does not conflict with any local IP address.
                    None: Any IP address is accepted. This is not recommended.
Remote IP           If Remote IP Address Type not None. Used in conjunction with the previous parameter.
Address
IP MTU              Assigns the size of the Maximum Transmission Unit for the interface. This determines
                    whether or not a given IP datagram is fragmented.
This table is continued




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X.25 PAD Network Protocol Menu (continued)

Parameter        Description
IP Fragmentation When this parameter is set to No, the DF (Do Not Fragment) bit in the IP header causes IP
- Ignore Bit DF  to reject a packet that is oversized: the router sends an ICMP message back to the sender.
                 When this parameter is Yes, the DF bit is ignored, the packet is fragmented, and no
                 message is sent back to the sender.
NAT              Does not apply to Expanded NAT. Determines the type of IP address if NAT is being used.
                 Use Global otherwise. See section 4.3 for details on how to configure NAT.
ICMP Port        Active causes the router to send ICMP Port Unreachable messages when it receives UDP
                 or TCP messages for ports that are not recognized. This type of message is used by some
                 traceroute applications, and if disabled, the router might not be identified in the traceroute
                 output. However, there are security and performance reasons to leave this option Inactive.
Incoming Rule    Filter rule list for incoming packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this parameter
List Name        should be set.
Detailed         Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of IP Accounting
Incoming IP      later in this chapter. IP Accounting for a rule requires that the parameter CONFIG
Accounting       =>RULES LIST=>IP=>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD RULE=>ALLOW ACCOUNT
                 PROCESS also be Yes.
Outgoing Rule    Filter rule list for outgoing packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this parameter
List Name        should be set.
Detailed         Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of Detailed
Outgoing IP      Incoming IP Accounting.
Accounting
Routing of       Activating this parameter causes the router to route broadcast messages from the LAN to
Broadcast        the WAN and vice-versa. An individual interface can be excluded by setting this parameter
Messages         to Inactive, without effecting the broadcast of messages on the other interfaces. This is
                 necessary with applications that use Netbios.




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The PAD Physical and Authentication menu trees are shown in Figure 6.16.


         Config


        Interface


         SWAN


     Encapsulation        X.25      Terminal PAD
                                    for X.25             Physical          Number of PADs
                                                                           Send Profile
                                                                           Set X3 Parameters
                                                                           Select Reference Number
                                                                           Set Related Parameter
                                                                           Parameter Sent

                                                         Authentication    Authentication Type
                                                                           Authentication Server
                                                                           Authentication Protocol

                    FIGURE 6.16 X.25 PAD PHYSICAL AND AUTHENTICATION MENU TREES




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X.25 PAD Physical Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPS =>X.25=><ESC>=><ESC> =>PHYSICAL

Parameter        Description
Number of PADs Number of PAD connections that the router will accept simultaneously.
Send Profile     When the router receives a Connection Request from a PAD, the X.3 parameters can be
                 sent. Yes causes these parameters to be sent.
Set X3           Default parameters are shown in Figure 6.17. The PPP Profile parameters are usually
Parameters       used with PPP & PPPCHAR Encapsulation. Customize is used to set all/some X3
                 parameters individually.
Select Reference Applies for Customized X3 Parameters. To change the value of an X3 parameter, select its
Number           number from the table shown in Figure 6.17.
Set Related      Applies for Customized X3 Parameters. The new value.
Parameter
Parameter Sent Applies for Customized X3 Parameters. Change whether or not this parameter is sent
                 during connection negotiation.




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 Reference Number        Default Value   Send Profile   Description
         1                    3               Y         PAD recall using a character
         2                    0               Y         Echo
         3                    0               Y         Selection of "data forwarding" characters
         4                    1               Y         Selection of idle timer delay
         5                    0               Y         Flow control of the terminal
         6                    5               Y         Control of PAD service/command signals
         7                    21              Y         Operation of the PAD on reception of break signal
         8                    0               Y         Discard Output
         9                    0               Y         Padding
        10                    0               Y         Line Folding
        11                    3               Y         Binary Speed of Start/Stop mode
        12                    0               Y         Flow control of the PAD
        13                    0               Y         LF insertion after CR
        14                    0               Y         Padding after LF
        15                    0               Y         Editing
        16                    8               Y         Character Delete
        17                    24              Y         Line Delete
        18                    42              Y         Line Display
        19                    0              N          Editing PAD service signals
        20                    0              N          Echo mask
        21                    0              N          Parity treatment
        22                    0              N          Page wait
        23                    0              N          Size of input field
        24                    0              N          End of frame signals
        25                    0              N          Extended data forwarding signals
        26                    0              N          Display interrupt
        27                    0              N          Display interrupt confirm
        28                    0              N          Diacritic character coding
        29                    0              N          Extended echo mask
                                   FIGURE 6.17 PAD X3 PARAMETER LIST
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X.25 Authentication Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPS =>X.25=><ESC> =><ESC>
=>AUTHENTICATION
Parameter           Description
Authentication      Local uses the list of users defined in CONFIG=> SECURITY=>USERS=>ADD.
Type                Server uses either Radius or Tacacs to authenticate the user.
Authentication      Applies when Authentication Type is Server. Indicates that either a Radius or Tacacs
Server              server is used for validation. The location and other parameters of the server must be
                    configured in CONFIG=> SECURITY. See section 4.3.
Authentication      Applies when Authentication Type is Local or Server. Either PAP or CHAP or both can be
Protocol            used for authentication.

Returning to the SWAN Interface Configuration, the Network Protocol Menu tree is shown in Figure 6.18.
  Config                                 Network        IP                 Active or Inactive
               Interface         SWAN
                                         Protocol                          Interface Unnumbered/Numbered
                                                                           Assign IP from Interface
                                                                           Primary IP address
                                                                           Subnet Mask
                                                                           Secondary IP Address
                                                                           Subnet Mask
                                                                           IP MTU
                                                                           IP Fragmentation
                                                                           NAT
                                                                           ICMP Port
                                                                           Incoming Rule List Name
                                                                           Detailed Incoming IP Accounting
                                                                           Outgoing Rule List Name
                                                                           Detailed Outgoing IP Accounting
                                                                           Routing of Broadcast Messages

                                                        Transparent        Status
                                                        Bridge             Port Priority
                                                                           Incoming Rule List Name
                                                                           Outgoing Rule List Name
                                 FIGURE 6.18 NETWORK PROTOCOL MENU TREE
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The Network Protocol parameters are explained in more detail in the following tables.

Network Protocol (IP) Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>NETWORK PROTOCOL=>IP

Parameter            Description
Active or Inactive   Activates this interface.
Interface            Unnumbered interfaces can be used for point-to-point connections.
Unnumbered
Assign IP From       Applies to Unnumbered interfaces. Applies the IP address of another router interface to
Interface            this one.
Primary IP           Applies to Numbered interfaces. Address assigned to this interface.
Address
Subnet Mask      Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of the network.
Secondary IP     Applies to Numbered interfaces. Indicates a second (or third, etc. up to eight) IP address
Address          that can be used to refer to this interface. This parameter and the next are repeated until
                 no value is entered.
Subnet Mask      Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of Secondary IP Address.
IP MTU           Assigns the size of the Maximum Transmission Unit for the interface. This determines
                 whether or not a given IP datagram is fragmented.
IP Fragmentation When this parameter is set to No, the DF (Do Not Fragment) bit in the IP header causes IP
- Ignore Bit DF  to reject a packet that is oversized: the router sends an ICMP message back to the sender.
                 When this parameter is Yes, the DF bit is ignored, the packet is fragmented, and no
                 message is sent back to the sender.
NAT              Does not apply to Expanded NAT. Determines the type of IP address if NAT is being used.
                 Use Global otherwise. See section 4.3 for details on how to configure NAT.
ICMP Port        Active causes the router to send ICMP Port Unreachable messages when it receives UDP
                 or TCP messages for ports that are not recognized. This type of message is used by some
                 traceroute applications, and if disabled, the router might not be identified in the traceroute
                 output. However, there are security and performance reasons to leave this option Inactive.



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Network Protocol (IP) Menu (continued)

Parameter           Description
Incoming Rule       Filter rule list for incoming packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this parameter
List Name           should be set.
Detailed            Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of IP Accounting
Incoming IP         later in this chapter. IP Accounting for a rule requires that the parameter CONFIG
Accounting          =>RULES LIST=>IP=>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD RULE=>ALLOW ACCOUNT
                    PROCESS also be Yes.
Outgoing Rule       Filter rule list for outgoing packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this parameter
List Name           should be set.
Detailed            Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of Detailed
Outgoing IP         Incoming IP Accounting.
Accounting
Routing of          Activating this parameter causes the router to route broadcast messages from the
Broadcast           LAN to the WAN and vice-versa. An individual interface can be excluded by setting
Messages            this parameter to Inactive, without effecting the broadcast of messages on the other
                    interfaces. This is necessary with applications that use Netbios.

Transparent Bridge Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>NETWORK PROTOCOL=>TRANSPARENT
BRIDGE

Parameter           Description
Status              Activates the Transparent Bridge on this interface.
Port Priority       For the Spanning Tree Algorithm, a priority is given to each link in the router and to each
                    router in the network. See CONFIG=>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE =>SPANNING TREE for
                    more information.
Incoming Rule       Transparent Bridge rule list name for incoming packets. Note: Rule lists for Transparent
List Name           Bridge and IP are created separately. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this rule list
                    is created.
Outgoing Rule       Filter rule list name for outgoing packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this rule
List Name           list is created.
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The Routing Protocol Menu tree is shown in Figure 6.19.

    Config                                 Routing
                 Interface       SWAN                     RIP    Send RIP
                                           Protocol
                                                                 Listen RIP
                                                                 RIP2 Authentication
                                                                 Rip2 Authentication Password
                                                          OSPF   OSPF on This Interface
                                                                 Advertise This Non-OSPF Interface
                                                                 External Metric
                                                                 External Metric Type
                                                                 Area ID
                                                                 Network Type
                                                                 Router Priority
                                                                 Transit Delay
                                                                 Retransmit Interval
                                                                 Hello Interval
                                                                 Dead Interval
                                                                 Poll Interval
                                                                 Password
                                                                 Metric
                                                                 Advertise Secondary IP Address

                                 FIGURE 6.19 ROUTING PROTOCOL MENU TREE




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The Routing Protocol parameters are explained in more detail in the following tables.

Routing Protocol Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>RIP

Parameter           Description
Send RIP            Sets the type of RIP messages to be sent.
Listen RIP          Indicates which types of RIP messages are accepted.
RIP2                Applies if RIP2 was chosen in one of the first two options. Activates RIP2 message
Authentication      authentication with a password.
RIP2                Applies if RIP2 Authentication is Active. Password used for both received and transmitted
Authentication      RIP2 messages.
Password

OSPF Protocol Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ROUTING PROTOCOL=>OSPF
Parameter           Description
OSPF on This        Activates OSPF. Enable Inactive is used to temporarily disable the OSPF protocol without
Interface           erasing the parameters set below. This is useful when OSPF is first configured, as the
                    general parameters must be set afterwards in CONFIG=>IP =>OSPF and OSPF cannot
                    function without them.
Parameters that apply only when OSPF on This Interface is Disabled.
Advertise This      Causes the router to include this interface in its advertisements through other interfaces (as
Non-OSPF            an external route).
Interface
External Metric     Defines the metric that will be advertised by OSPF.
External Metric     For Type 1, the total metric of this route is composed of the internal metric (inside the
Type                autonomous system) and the external metric (provided in the previous parameter). For
                    Type 2, the total metric of this route is the value provided in the previous parameter.
Parameters that apply only when OSPF on This Interface is Enable or Enable Inactive.
this table continued


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OSPF Protocol Menu (continued)
Parameter           Description
Area ID             Identifies the area to which the interface belongs. Areas are created here, then later
                    defined in CONFIG=>IP=>OSPF =>AREA. Has the format of an IP address, but is not
                    linked to any IP address in the system. Small OSPF networks will typically have only one
                    area (the backbone area represented by 0.0.0.0).
Router Priority     Priority used by OSPF in multicast networks to elect the designated router. A priority of 1
                    will make this router the most likely to be chosen. A priority of 2 will make it second most
                    likely. Set it to 0 (zero) if this router should never be the designated router.
Transit Delay       Estimated transit time in seconds to route a packet through this interface. Use the preset
                    value (1) or increase the number for slow links
Retransmit          Time in seconds between link-state advertisement retransmissions for adjacencies
Interval*           belonging to this interface.
Hello Interval*     Time in seconds between the hello packets on this interface.
Dead Interval*      Inactivity time (seconds) before a neighbor router is considered down.
Poll Interval       Time in seconds between the hello packets sent to an inactive, non-broadcast, multi-
                    access neighbor.
Password*           String of up to 8 characters used to authenticate OSPF packages. The use of this
                    password is enabled in CONFIG
                    =>IP=>OSPF=>AREA=>AUTHENTICATION TYPE
Metric              Defines the cost for normal service. For consistent routing, this parameter should be
                    determined in the same manner for all routers in the OSPF Area. Normally, metric cost is
                    defined as an inverse function of interface throughput (e.g. 1 for 100Mbps, 10 for 10Mbps,
                    65 for T1, 1785 for 56kbps, etc).
Advertise           Causes the router to advertise additional addresses assigned to this interface. These are
Secondary IP        configured in CONFIG=> INTERFACE=>SWAN=>NETWORK PROTOCOL =>IP.
Address

* Inside a given area, these 4 parameters should be the same for all routers.


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Physical Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>PHYSICAL
Parameter      Description
Mode           Asynchronous or Synchronous
Clock Source   Applies for Synchronous Mode. Whether this interface provides clock for the device at the
               other end of the cable or vice-versa.
Receive Clock  Applies for Internal Clock Source. When this interface provides clock, it can either compare
               incoming messages with the clock it is generating (Internal) or with the clock it receives
               from the sender along with the message (External).
Speed          Applies for Internal Clock Source. Determines at which speed the data will be sent across
               the line.
Media for SWAN Type of cable -- RS-232 or V.35.
Cable

The following menu is only relevant when PPP Encapsulation is used.
Authentication Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>AUTHENTICATION
Parameter           Description
Authentication      Local uses the list of users defined in CONFIG=> SECURITY=>USERS=>ADD.
Type                Server uses either Radius or Tacacs to authenticate the user.
                    Remote is when this interface is considered to be the user and the other end of the
                    connection performs the authentication.
Username            Applies when Authentication Type is Remote. The username the remote device expects to
                    receive.
Password            Applies when Authentication Type is Remote. The password the remote device expects to
                    receive.
Authentication      Applies when Authentication Type is Server. Indicates that either a Radius or Tacacs
Server              server is used for validation. The location and other parameters of the server must be
                    configured in CONFIG=> SECURITY. See section 4.3.
Authentication      Applies when Authentication Type is Local or Server. Either PAP or CHAP or both can be
Protocol            used for authentication.
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Bibliography
PPP:
STD0051 and RFCs 1661 and 1662

Frame Relay:
Smith, Philip, Frame Relay Principles and Applications, Addison-Wesley, 1993
RFC 1490, Multiprotocol Interconnect over Frame Relay (explains NLP ID and SNAP)

X.25:
Thorpe, Nicolas and Derek Ross, X.25 Made Easy, Prentice Hall, 1992.




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CHAPTER 7 THE Z-BUS INTERFACE
The Z-Bus Card is used in conjunction with either the Cyclades-Synchronous Serial Expander (8 ports) or the
Cyclades-Serial Expander 16. The SSE8 can be used for either synchronous or asynchronous communication,
on a port by port basis, while the SE16 is only for asynchronous communication. The asynchronous menu
options will be discussed first. The Z-Bus Interface Menu tree is given in Figure 7.1.
    Config


   Interface        Zbus          Zbus Card    Number of Serial Expanders
                                               First Logical Link

                                  One Port     Zbus Port
                                               Encapsulation
                                               Network Protocol
                                               Routing Protocol
                                               Physical
                                               Traffic Control     General        Bandwidth
                                                                                  IP Traffic Control List

                                               Authentication      Authentication Type
                                                                   Username
                                                                   Password
                                                                   Authentication Server
                                                                   Authentication Protocol
                                               Wizards

                                  Range        Zbus Port Range Begin
                                               Zbus Port Range End
                                               Same Parameters as One Port

                                  All Ports    Same Parameters as One Port

                                   FIGURE 7.1 Z-BUS INTERFACE MENU TREE

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                                                     Cyclades-PR3000
                                                                        Slot 2       Slot 1
                                                                                              PR3000

                                                                         Z-Bus           Z-Bus
                                                     Cable                          Cable

        Serial
   Expander 1
                     Logical Links 17 - 32                       SE16            Logical Links 1 - 8       SSE8
                                             Cable


         Serial
    Expander 2
                  Logical Links 33 - 48                          SE16

                     FIGURE 7.2 PR3000 WITH Z-BUS CARDS AND SERIAL EXPANDERS

More than one Z-Bus card can be installed in the PR3000 and more than one SE16 can be attached to a Z-
Bus. Even with two separate Z-Bus cards, the Z-Bus Ports are numbered consecutively. The example in
Figure 7.2 shows one SSE8 with ports numbered 1 through 8 and two SE16s with ports numbered 17-48. The
starting port number in configured with the CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =>Z-BUS CARD =>FIRST
LOGICAL LINK parameter.




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CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-BUS
Menu Option          Description
Z-Bus Card           This menu contains two parameters: the Number of Serial Expanders (when more than
                     one SE16 is used), and the First Logical Link, explained in the example.
One Port             Allows configuration of all the parameters that apply to a single port. If more than one port
                     will have the same or a similar configuration, the menus Range and All Ports will be faster.
Range                Allows configuration of all port parameters for a range of ports.
All Ports            Allows configuration of all port parameters at once. If a typical configuration is planned
                     (Terminal Server, Remote Access Server, or Lan-to-Lan), see CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-
                     BUS=><PORT>=>WIZARDS for automated definition of parameters.

NOTE: In this chapter, the expression <PORT> refers to One Port, Range, or All Ports in the menu above,
whichever is applicable.

Asynchronous Port Menus
This section applies to the SE16 and any SSE8 port used for asynchronous communication. The
Encapsulation and Physical menus are very different for the asynchronous and synchronous modes. All mode-
independent menus will be described later in this chapter.

The Physical Menu tree for asynchronous ports is shown in Figure 7.3.

        Config         Interface       Z-Bus       <Port>        Physical          Speed
                                                                                   Flow Control
                                                                                   Modem Connection
                                                                                   Modem String Index
                                                                                   RTS Mode
                                                                                   Input Signal DCD On
                                                                                   Input Signal DSR On
                                                                                   Input Signal CTS On

                        FIGURE 7.3 ASYNCHRONOUS PORT PHYSICAL MENU TREE
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Asynchronous Port Physical Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>PHYSICAL
Parameter                Description
Speed                    Valid options can be seen using the ? command.
Parity                   Applies for Char Encapsulation.
Character Size           Applies for Char Encapsulation.
Stop Bits                Applies for Char Encapsulation.
Flow Control             Hardware or Software Flow Control, or None.
Modem Connection         Determines whether or not a modem is connected to this port.
Modem String Index       Applies when Modem Connection = Yes. Selects the modem profile as defined in the
                         modem strings table, (CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>MODEMS=>TABLE).
RTS Mode                 Applies for Flow Control not Hardware. Determines how the Request to Send (RTS)
                         signal is interpreted. For Normal Flow Control, the RTS signal is always 1, and for
                         Legacy Half Duplex, it is 1 only when data is being transmitted, indicating that the
                         receiving end must wait.
Input Signal DCD On      Defines line as operational if the Data Carrier Detected signal is received.
Input Signal DSR On      Defines line as operational if the Data Set Ready signal is received.
Input Signal CTS On      Defines line as operational if the Clear to Send signal is received. Hardware flow
                         control cannot be used with this option.

           If more than one input signal is chosen, all those chosen must be received for the line to be
           considered operational.



The encapsulation options are shown in the following table. A menu tree will be given for each item.




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Asynchronous Port Encapsulation Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ENCAPSULATION
Menu Options        Description
PPP                 The PPP (Point-to-Point) protocol can be used on either synchronous or asynchronous
                    lines. Multilink PPP is also provided.
PPPCHAR             Sends a character login prompt, but automatically switches to PPP if requested. Please
                    see the description of the PPP and CHAR protocols for more information.
CHAR                Sends a login prompt and accepts only character-mode connections.
Slip                Provides a Slip connection. This encapsulation option has no parameters.
SlipCHAR            Sends a character login prompt, but automatically switches to Slip if a Slip frame is
                    received. This encapsulation option has no parameters.
Inactive            This menu option must be chosen whenever the encapsulation is changed from one type to
                    another. One must be deactivated before another can be activated.




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PPP is used for both synchronous and asynchronous connections, and will be described in the mode-independent
menus section. The parameters for PPPCHAR are a combination of those for PPP and CHAR. The PPPCHAR
Menu tree is shown in Figure 7.4.
 Config


Interface

 Z- Bus       <Port>       Encapsulation   PPPCHAR            MLPPP Active
                                                              Connection Type
                                                              Identification for This Bundle
                                                              Total Number of Lines for This Bundle
                                                              PPP Inactivity Timeout
                                                              Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression
                                                              Transmit Compressed Packets
                                                              Disable LCP ECHO Requests
                                                              Time Interval to Send Config Requests
                                                              Edit ACCM
                                                              Enable Predictor Compression
                                                              Number of Bits for Compression
                                                              Switch Session Character Code
                                                              Escape Session Character Code

                            FIGURE 7.4 PPPCHAR ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE




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The CHAR Encapsulation Menu tree is shown in Figure 7.5, and the table that follows gives a brief description
of the related parameters.

 Config


Interface       Z-Bus         <Port>      Encapsulation      CHAR          Device Type
                                                                           TCP Keep Alive Timer
                                                                           Terminal Type
                                                                           Switch Session Character Code
                                                                           Escape Session Character Code
                                                                           Username
                                                                           Wait For or Start a Connection
                                                                           Destination Hostname
                                                                           Filter Null Char After CR Char
                                                                           Idle Timeout
                                                                           DTR On
                                                                           Device Will Send Echo

                                  FIGURE 7.5 CHAR ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE




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CHAR Encapsulation Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ENCAPSULATION =>CHAR

Parameter            Description
Device Type          Determines whether a Terminal, Printer, or Socket device will be connected to this port.
TCP Keep Alive       The delay between Keep Alive messages sent by TCP.
Timer
Terminal Type       For a terminal, ANSI is generally used. For a printer, dumblp is generally used.
Switch Session      Applies for Terminal Device Type. Control character used to switch sessions. 1 is Ctrl-A, 2
Character Code      is Ctrl-B, etc. The value 254 disables this option.
Escape Session      Applies for Terminal Device Type. Control character used while in a telnet session, to
Character Code      return to the router menu without closing the session.
Username            Applies for Terminal Device Type. Must be entered into the local user table first. See
                    section 4.3. If this parameter is left blank, the user will have to enter a username.
Wait for or Start a Applies for Socket Device Type. Wait is used when the remote application will start the
Connection          communication. When Start is used, a connection is attempted as soon as the line is
                    considered operational.
Destination         Applies for Socket Device Type. The remote hostname to which the socket will be
Hostname            connected, if the previous parameter was start. This name must have been defined in the
                    host table. See section 4.2, menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>HOSTS.
Filter Null Char    Applies for Socket Device Type. Interprets a CR NULL sequence, received on a TCP
after CR Char       connection, as CR (only).
Idle Timeout in     Applies for Socket Device Type. The connection is broken if this time passes with no
Minutes             traffic.
DTR ON Only if Applies for Socket Device Type. If False, the Data Terminal Ready line is switched on
Socket              when the router is booted.
Connection
Established
Device Attached Applies for Socket Device Type. Yes if the device attached to the socket will echo the
to This Port Will characters sent to it.
Send ECHO


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Synchronous Port Menus
This section applies only to SSE8 ports used for synchronous communication. The Encapsulation and Physical
menus are presented, along with the encapsulation options which are only available in synchronous mode.
The Physical Menu tree for synchronous ports is shown in Figure 7.6.

        Config        Interface       Z-Bus        <Port>       Physical           Mode
                                                                                   Clock Source
                                                                                   Speed
                                                                                   Media for Z-Bus Cable

                         FIGURE 7.6 SYNCHRONOUS PORT PHYSICAL MENU TREE

Synchronous Port Physical Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>PHYSICAL

Parameter            Description
Mode                 Asynchronous or Synchronous
Clock Source         Whether this interface provides clock for the device at the other end of the cable or vice-
                     versa.
Speed                Applies for Internal Clock Source. Determines at which speed the data will be sent across
                     the line.
Media for Z-Bus      Type of cable -- RS-232 or V.35.
Cable

The encapsulation options are shown in the following table. A menu tree will be given for each item. PPP is
used for both synchronous and asynchronous connections, and will be described in the mode-independent
menus section.




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Synchronous Port Encapsulation Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ENCAPSULATION

Menu Option         Description
Frame Relay         The Frame Relay Protocol is based on frame switching and constructs a permanent virtual
                    circuit (PVC) between two points.
PPP                 The PPP (Point-to-Point) protocol can be used on either synchronous or asynchronous
                    lines. Multilink PPP is also provided.
X.25                The X.25 Protocol is generally used to connect to a public X.25 network. The router can
                    act either as a DTE or a DCE.
HDLC                This protocol has only one parameter: HDLC Keepalive Interval. This is the time interval
                    between transmission of Keepalive messages. The receiver of these messages must send
                    keepalive messages with the same frequency or will be considered inoperative.
Inactive            This menu option must be chosen whenever the encapsulation is changed from one type to
                    another. One must be deactivated before another can be activated.




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Frame Relay
FR supports multiple connections over a single link. Each data link connection (DLC) has a unique DLCI (data
link connection identifier). This allows multiple logical connections to be multiplexed over a single channel.
These are called Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs). The DLCI has only local significance and each end of the
logical connection assigns its own DLCI from the available local numbers. A public Frame Relay network
connecting offices in Rome, Milan, Palermo, and Florence is shown in Figures 7.7 and 7.8.

                            Rome                             Florence
                            Network: 192.168.200.0           Network: 192.168.201.0




                           Router                                   Router
                           200.1.1.1                              200.1.1.4

                                            FR Network

                           200.1.1.2                              200.1.1.3
                           Router                                   Router




                            Palermo                           Milan
                            Network: 192.168.203.0            Network: 192.168.202.0

                           FIGURE 7.7 PUBLIC FRAME RELAY NETWORK EXAMPLE



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Each router will have a routing table pairing destination network with router interface and gateway. A Frame Relay
Address Map is also created (either statically or dynamically) to associate each DLCI with the destination router IP.
                             Rome                                 Florence
                             Network: 192.168.200.0               Network: 192.168.201.0




                           Router                                        Router
                           200.1.1.1                                   200.1.1.4

                                                21
                                          11
                                               81
                           200.1.1.2                                   200.1.1.3
                           Router                                        Router




                             Palermo                              Milan
                             Network: 192.168.203.0               Network: 192.168.202.0

                     FIGURE 7.8 PERMANENT VIRTUAL CIRCUITS BETWEEN OFFICES
For the router in Palermo, the Frame Relay address map will look like this:
                                                    DLCI      IP
                                                     11    200.1.1.1
                                                     21    200.1.1.4
                                                     81    200.1.1.3

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These values are entered in the Add DLCI menu.

The Local Management Interface (LMI) Protocol provides services not available in simple Frame Relay. It is used
for controlling the connection between the user and the network. It monitors this link, maintains the list of DLCs,
and sends status messages about the PVCs. A separate virtual circuit is created to pass this information (DLCI
0).

Sub-Network Access Protocol (SNAP)
A normal Frame Relay Network header contains the NLPID (Network Level Protocol ID) field to identify which
protocol provided the information encapsulated in the data field.

                    flag      address - control        optional   NLPID   data   FCS     flag
                              including                pad
                              DLCI

                                  FIGURE 7.9 NORMAL HEADER USING NLPID
For those protocols which do not have an NLPID defined, the SNAP header must be used. The NLPID field
remains, but contains a value (0x80) that indicates that the SNAP information follows.

           flag       address - control     optional     NLPID    OUI     PID    data    FCS      flag
                      including             pad          = 0x80
                      DLCI

                                      FIGURE 7.10 HEADER USING SNAP
The three-octet Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) and the two-octet Protocol Identifier (PID) which follow
define a distinct protocol. See RFC 1490 for details.




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The Frame Relay Encapsulation Menu tree is shown in Figure 7.11.
 Config


Interface

                                            Frame
 Z-Bus        <Port>       Encapsulation                  Encapsulation Type
                                            Relay
                                                          SNAP IP
                                                          LMI
                                                          T391
                                                          N391
                                                          N392
                                                          N393
                                                          CIR
                                                          Bandwidth Reservation

                                                         Add DLCI         DLCI Number
                                                                          Frame Relay
                                                                          Address Map
                                                                          IP Address
                                                                          Enable Predictor
                                                                          Compression
                                                                          Number of Bits for
                                                                          Compression
                                                                          DLCI priority level
                                                                          Reserved Bandwidth
                                                                          Bandwidth Priority Level

                                                         Delete DLCI      Map Entry Number

                                                         Edit DLCI        Table Entry
                                                                          Rest same as Add DLCI

                          FIGURE 7.11 FRAME RELAY ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE
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A detailed explanation of the Frame Relay parameters is given in the following tables.

Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>ENCAPSULATION =>FRAME RELAY

Parameter            Description
Encapsulation        RFC1490 - IETF is the standard used by most equipment. The Cisco option should be used
Type                 when the PR is communicating with a router configured to use the default Cisco standard.
SNAP IP              Applies when Encapsulation Type is RFC1490 - IETF above. Indicates that the Sub-
                     Network Access Protocol should be used. See description above. From a network
                     administrator's point of view, the router on the sending end must be using the same header
                     type (NLPID or SNAP) as the router on the receiving end.
LMI                  Selects the Local Management Interface specification to be used. ANSI, Group of Four
                     (defined by the vendors that first implemented Frame Relay), Q933a (defined by ITU-T),
                     and None (used for a dedicated FR connection without a network).
T391                 Interval between the LMI Status Enquiry messages.
N391                 Full Status Polling Counter. Full Status Enquiry messages are sent every N391-th LMI
                     Status Enquiry message.
N392                 Error Threshold. The network counts how many events occur within a given period and
                     considers an interface inactive when the number of events exceeds a threshold. N393 is
                     the number of events to be considered and N392 the number of errors within this period. If
                     N392 of the last N393 events are errors, the interface is deemed inactive. A successful
                     event is the receipt of a valid Status Enquiry message
N393                 Monitored Events Count. See the description of N392. This value must be larger than
                     N392.
CIR                  Committed Information Rate, in percentage of total bandwidth (given in
                     CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-BUS=><PORT> =>TRAFFIC CONTROL =>GENERAL
                     =>BANDWIDTH). Traffic above this rate may be discarded if the network is congested.
Bandwidth            Enables traffic control per DLCI. See the Add DLCI menu for more details.
Reservation



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The following menu appears at the end of the Frame Relay parameter list. It can be reached by passing through all
parameters or by using the <ESC> key at any point in the parameter list.

DLCI Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>ENCAPSULATION =>FRAME
RELAY=><ESC>

Menu Option         Description
Add DLCI            Adds a DLC for this interface to the DLCI table.
Delete DLCI         CyROS puts all DLCIs in a table. The list command (L) must be used to discover this
                    number in order to delete the DLCI.
Edit DLCI           CyROS puts all DLCIs in a table. The list command (L) must be used to discover this
                    number in order to edit the DLCI.

Traffic Control based on Data Link Connection
Traffic Control as described in section 4.7 can also be performed on a Frame Relay interface for each
permanent virtual connection. The parameters in the Add DLCI menu are used in the same manner as those
described in section 4.7.

Add DLCI Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>Z-BUS=><PORT> =>ENCAPS=>FRAME RELAY
=><ESC> =>ADD DLCI

Parameter           Description
DLCI Number         Used to identify the DLC. This number is supplied by the Public Frame Relay network
                    provider. The DLCIs are stored in a table which can be seen with the L command.
Frame Relay         Determines the method used for mapping the remote IP address to the Permanent Virtual
Address Map         Circuit. Static maps one IP address to this DLCI. Inverse ARP maps the IP address
                    dynamically, in a manner similar to the ARP table.
IP Address          Applies when Frame Relay Address Map is Static. Provides the IP address to be used for
                    static address mapping.
This table is continued.

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Add DLCI Frame Relay Menu (continued)
Enable Predictor Enables data compression using the Predictor algorithm. This feature should be enabled
Compression      only if Cyclades' equipment is being used on both ends of the connection because there is
                 no established standard for data compression interoperability. Data compression is very
                 CPU-intensive, making this feature effective only for links running at speeds under 1Mbps.
                 At higher speeds, the time necessary to compress data offsets the gains in throughput
                 achieved by data compression.
Number of Bits   Applies when Predictor Compression Enabled. Sixteen is fastest, but 10 must be used if
for Compression the router on the other end is a PathRouter, for compatibility.
DLCI Priority    This is the equivalent of CONFIG=>RULES LIST=>IP =>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD
Level            RULE=>FLOW PRIORITY LEVEL. Indicates the relative priority of the frame for insertion
                 into queues in the router. A frame with priority 1 will enter the queue if there is any space
                 available. A frame with priority 2 will enter the queue if at least 20% of the space is
                 available, and so on (40% free for priority 3, 60% free for priority 4, and 80% free for priority
                 5). Frames with priority x + 1 will always enter after frames with priority x, x-1, etc. Priority
                 0 is similar to Priority 5, but these packets always enter the queue. All frames that do not
                 enter the queue are DISCARDED. Use this feature with caution!
Reserved         This is the equivalent of CONFIG=>RULES LIST=>IP =>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD
Bandwidth        RULE=>RESERVED BANDWIDTH. Defines what percentage of the total bandwidth on an
                 interface will be set aside for this DLC.
Bandwidth        This is the equivalent of CONFIG=>RULES LIST=>IP =>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD
Priority Level   RULE=>BANDWIDTH PRIORITY LEVEL. Two DLCs with the same priority cannot share
                 bandwidth when one DLC does not need its entire allotment. For two DLCs with different
                 priorities, the DLC with the higher priority can steal bandwidth from the other when it is not
                 in use. Priority is relative -- two DLCs with priorities 1 and 5 are the same as two DLCs
                 with priorities 3 and 4 (if there are no other DLCs).




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X.25
A Cyclades Router can act either as a DTE (Data-terminal Equipment) connected to a public X.25 network or
as a DTE or DCE (Data circuit-terminating Equipment) as part of a private X.25 network. As seen in Figures
7.12 and 7.13, the determination of DTE or DCE depends on the position and use of the router within the
network.

Both Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) and Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs) can be defined. A PVC requires
that two DTEs be permanently connected.




                                                   Modem or
                                                   DSU/CSU


                      Router / DTE                                           Router / DTE



                                        Switch / DCE          Switch / DCE
                                                       X.25

                                  FIGURE 7.12 PUBLIC X.25 NETWORK EXAMPLE




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                             Router A

                                                                                          Router B
                                  DTE
                                          Link 3       Link 1
                                                                              DTE

                                        DCE
                                                          DCE
                                   Router C
                                                                         Link 2
                                                    DCE


                                                                        DTE
                                                                                  Router D




                                          FIGURE 7.13 PRIVATE WAN
In the Private WAN network example, the central router acts as a switch connecting the other three. A type of brid-
ge must be configured to allow switched virtual connections passing through the router. The “switch” must be
configured on both of the interfaces involved in the bridge. The X.25 parameters Packet Size and Window Sizes
should be the same on both interfaces to prevent bottlenecks.




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The first X.25 menu tree is shown in Figure 7.14
      Config


     Interface

      Z-Bus        <Port>         Encapsulation    X.25      X.121 (Local DTE) Address
                                                             Switch Mode Active
                                                             Incoming Calls...Forwarded
                                                             Suppress Calling Address
                                                             Inactivity Timeout
                                                             Configure as DTE or DCE
                                                             Number of Virtual Circuits
                                                             Number of Permanent Virtual Circuits
                                                             PVCs Must Wait for Reset Packet
                                                             Layer 3 Window Size
                                                             Layer 2 Window Size
                                                             Packet Size
                                                             Number of Retries N2
                                                             TL
                                                             T2
                                                             T21
                                                             T23
                                                             Negotiable Facilities
                                                             Send Facility
                                                            Add DTE [shown in DTE Menu Diagram]
                                                            Delete DTE [shown in DTE Menu Diagram]
                                                            Edit DTE [shown in DTE Menu Diagram]
                                                             Terminal PAD for X.25
                                                            Encapsulation [shown in a later figure]
                                                            Network Protocol [shown in a later figure]
                                                            Physical [shown in a later figure]
                                                            Authentication [shown in a later figure]
                                         FIGURE 7.14 X.25 MENU TREE
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 Config


Interface

 Z-Bus        <Port>        Encapsulation   X.25      Add DTE         Type of Logical Address
                                                                      IP Address
                                                                      X25 Socket Port
                                                                      X.121 (DTE) Address
                                                                      VC Number
                                                                      Packet Transaction
                                                                      Automatic Mode
                                                                      User Data Len
                                                                      User Data
                                                                      Enable Predictor Compression
                                                                      Number of Bits for Compression

                                                      Delete DTE      Host Number to Delete

                                                      Edit DTE        Host Number to Change

                                     FIGURE 7.15 X.25 DTE MENU TREE




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A detailed description of the X.25 parameters for the two examples given above is provided in the table below.

X.25 Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>ENCAPSULATION =>X.25
Parameter            Description
X.121 (Local         Address assigned to this interface (provided by the public X.25 Network Provider). Can be
DTE) Address         up to 15 digits.
Switch Mode          Private WAN: In the example, Router C is used to connect three internal X.25 networks.
Active               To allow bridging from Router B to Router D across Router C, this parameter must be Yes
                     on both link 1 and link 2 .
Incoming Calls       Applies when Switch Mode is Active. Private WAN: When Router C receives a packet
Received Over        from Router B with an unknown address, it can take two actions: if this parameter is No on
the Other X.25       both link 2 and link 3, the packet is discarded. If either link 2 or link 3 has this parameter
Links With           set to Yes, the packet is sent through that link. (If both are Yes, the link with the lowest link
Unknown              number is chosen -- in this case link 2).
Destination DTE
Can be
Forwarded
Through This
Link
Suppress Calling Public X.25 Network: This parameter must be chosen according to the guidelines given
Address             by the Public X.25 Network provider. When activated, the sender's Local DTE address is
                    not included in the Call Request Message. Private WAN: This parameter will be No as
                    the network will not keep track of the sender of each packet.
Inactivity Timeout Time until connection is automatically terminated by the router if there is no traffic.
Configure as        As mentioned above, the router can act either as the recipient of information (DTE), or as
DTE or DCE          the passer-on of information (DCE). Public X.25 Network: Both routers are DTEs .
                    Private WAN: Routers A,B, and D are DTEs and Router C is a DCE.
Number of Virtual Indicates the maximum number of virtual circuits (total of PVCs and SVCs) allowed on this
Circuits            interface. The maximum number for all X.25 interfaces combined is 128.
this table continued

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X.25 Menu (continued)
Parameter            Description
Number of            Indicates the number of permanent virtual circuits that will be connected through this
Permanent            interface. This maximum is also 128.
Virtual Circuits
PVCs must wait      Applies for PVCs. Should be set when line provider (or DCE) sends reset to initialize the
for reset packet    PVC.
Layer 3 Window      The layer 3 (packet) level window represents the number of sequentially numbered packets
Size                that can be sent before an acknowledgement must be received. This number may be
                    negotiated if the Window Size Facility is utilized (see last parameter in this table).
Layer 2 Window      The layer 2 (frame) level window represents the number of sequentially numbered frames
Size                that can be sent before an acknowledgement must be received. The frame numbers are
                    independent of the packet numbers.
Packet Size         The packet size to be sent across the interface. This number may be negotiated if the
                    Packet Size Facility is utilized (see last parameter in this table).
Number of           Number of times an information frame can be resent, without response, before the link is
Retries N2          considered down.
TL                  Time the frame level waits for an acknowledgement for a given frame before re-sending it.
T2                  Time that can elapse, after receiving a frame, until the router must send an
                    acknowledgement.
T21                 Call Request response Timer. After this time has elapsed, the DTE sends a Clear
                    message.
T23                 Clear Request response Timer. After this time has elapsed, the DTE retransmits the Clear
                    message.
Negotiable          Applies when the total number of virtual circuits is greater than the number of permanent
Facilities          virtual circuits. Initiates facility negotiation during virtual circuit creation.
Send Facility       Applies when the total number of VCs is greater than the number of PVCs. Determines
                    which facilities are negotiated during virtual circuit creation: Packet size is part
                    of the flow control parameters negotiation, Throughput is part of the throughput class
                    negotiation, and N3 Window (Level 3 Window Size, above) is part of the flow control
                    parameters negotiation.
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The following menu appears at the end of the X.25 parameter list. It can be reached by passing through all
parameters or by using the <ESC> key at any point in the parameter list. This menu creates a static routing table
associating a remote X.121 address to an IP address or a TCP Socket location.

X.25 Add DTE Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>ENCAPSULATION
=>X.25=><ESC>=>Add DTE
Parameter            Description
Type of Logical      IP Address or TCP Socket. Users that intend to use the TCP Socket option should see
Address              Appendix A.
IP Address           Applies for IP Address Type. IP Address of remote DTE device.
X.25 Socket Port     Applies for Socket Address Type. Must be a number in the interval defined by the
                     parameters CONFIG=>IP=>TCP =>X25 SOCKET START/END PORT RANGE.
X.121(DTE)           Address of remote DTE device.
Address
VC Number            Number assigned to this circuit, if it is a PVC. For SVCs, the value should be zero.
Packet               Applies for Socket Address Type. See Appendix A.
Transaction
Automatic Mode   Applies for Packet Transaction = Yes. See Appendix A.
User Data Len    Applies for Socket Address Type. Length of next parameter in bytes. The maximum is 32.
                 See Appendix A.
User Data        Applies for Socket Address Type. The value in the user data field of the Call Request
                 packet which determines which service on the remote host is being requested. 0xCC is
                 used for IP. See Appendix A.
Enable Predictor Applies for IP Address Type. Enables data compression using the Predictor algorithm.
Compression      This feature should be enabled only if Cyclades' equipment is being used on both ends of
                 the connection because there is no established standard for data compression
                 interoperability. Data compression is very CPU-intensive, making this feature effective only
                 for links running at speeds under 1Mbps. At higher speeds, the time necessary to
                 compress data offsets the gains in throughput achieved by data compression.
Number of Bits   Applies when Predictor Compression Enabled. Sixteen is fastest, but 10 must be used if
for Compression the router on the other end is a Cyclades PathRouter, for compatibility.
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PAD (Packet Assembler/Disassembler)
PAD acts as a protocol converter, allowing a user to access the packet-switched network via a serial terminal. This
asynchronous connection is then converted into synchronous communication with the router and the network
beyond (using the telnet application available in the router). Any user listed in the local user table can be connected
this way, and the menu options available to him are configured in the CONFIG=>SECURITY =>USERS=>ADD
menu.

                      PC                    Asynchronous
                                             Connection

                                           Modem


                      X.28
                 Parameters                    PAD Public X.25                                         Synchronous
                                                                                                        Connection
                                                    Network

                                                                                                       PR3000
                                                         Link 1
                                             X.3
                                      Parameters                                                       ETH0
                                                                                                ....
                                                                                          ......
                                                                                    ......
                                                                              ......
                                                                        ......
                                                                  ......




                                                                                                                Server

                                           FIGURE 7.16 PAD EXAMPLE




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CyROS provides for configuration of the X.3 parameters that define the connection between the PAD and the
router. When the PAD sends a connection request to the router, the router replies with the profile (the X.3
parameters) to be used for the connection. The X.28 parameters that define the connection between the remote
terminal and the PAD are not considered. Link 1 of the Router in the PAD example must be configured for this type
of access.

With encapsulation type CHAR, pure X.25 is used. Optionally, PPP or PPPCHAR can run on top of X.25.
These protocols must be configured in the encapsulation menu, and related parameters are set in the Network
Protocol, Physical, and Authentication menus.




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The PAD Encapsulation menu tree is shown in Figure 7.17.
       Config

      Interface

        Z-Bus

        <Port>                                             PPP        PPP Inactivity Timeout
                                                                      Enable Van Jacobson
   Encapsulation                                                      IP Header Compression
                                                                      Transmit Compressed Packets
                   Terminal PAD                                       Disable LCP ECHO Requests
        X.25                        Encapsulation
                   for X.25                                           Time interval to Send
                                                                      Config Requests
                                                                      Edit ACCM

                                                           PPPChar    PPP Inactivity Timeout
                                                                      Enable Van Jacobson
                                                                      IP header Compression
                                                                      Transmit Compressed Packets
                                                                      Disable LCP ECHO Requests
                                                                      Time Interval to Send
                                                                      Config Requests
                                                                      Edit ACCM
                                                                      Switch Session Character Code
                                                                      Escape Session Character Code

                                                           Char       Switch Session Character Code
                                                                      Escape Session Character Code
                                                                      Username
                                                           Inactive

                            FIGURE 7.17 X.25 PAD ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE
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Details on the configuration of each parameter are given in the following table.

X.25 PAD PPP Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>ENCAPS =>X.25 => <ESC> =><ESC>
=>ENCAPS =>PPP

Parameter            Description
PPP Inactivity       The connection is closed when data does not pass through the line for this period of time.
Timeout
Enable Van           Allows the link to receive compressed packets. This type of compression is useful for low-
Jacobson IP          speed links and/or small packets. It is not recommended for fast links, as it requires CPU
Header               time.
Compression
Transmit             Applies when Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression is Yes. This parameter
Compressed           causes the link to send compressed packets.
Packets
Disable LCP          LCP (Link Control Protocol) messages are normally exchanged to monitor the status of the
Echo Requests        link. Disabling these messages reduces traffic, but the link then has no way of knowing if
                     the other end is still connected.
Time Interval to     Config Request messages are used to negotiate the parameters at the start of a PPP
Send Config          connection. For a slow line, this time should be increased to allow the reply to return to the
Requests             sender. If not, the sender will assume it was lost and send another.
Edit ACCM            Applies to asynchronous connections only. Permits control character mapping negotiation
                     on asynchronous links. This is useful when you need to send a control character as data
                     (e.g. XON/XOFF, Crtl A, etc.) over an asynchronous link and do not want it interpreted by
                     the modem or other device in the middle. The map is built up with the following commands.
                     Clear – Resets the ACCM table toggle;
                     Toggle XON/XOFF – Add XON/XOFF control characters to the ACCM table;
                     Toggle Char – Add other control characters to the ACCM table, using their ASCII value.
                     Typing the option once (for example, X), includes it in the table. Typing it again excludes it
                     from the table. See note after CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-BUS=><PORT>
                     =>ENCAPSULATION =>PPP table.

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X.25 PAD PPPCHAR Menu CONFIG=>INTERF =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ENCAPS =>X.25 =><ESC> =><ESC>
=>ENCAPS =>PPPCHAR

Parameter            Description
PPP Inactivity       The connection is closed when data does not pass through the line for this period of time.
Timeout
Enable Van           Allows the link to receive compressed packets. This type of compression is useful for low-
Jacobson IP          speed links and/or small packets. It is not recommended for fast links, as it requires CPU
Header               time.
Compression
Transmit             Applies when Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression is Yes. This parameter
Compressed           causes the link to send compressed packets.
Packets
Disable LCP          LCP (Link Control Protocol) messages are normally exchanged to monitor the status of the
Echo Requests        link. Disabling these messages reduces traffic, but the link then has no way of knowing if
                     the other end is still connected.
Time Interval to     Config Request messages are used to negotiate the parameters at the start of a PPP
Send Config          connection. For a slow line, this time should be increased to allow the reply to return to the
Requests             sender. If not, the sender will assume it was lost and send another.
Edit ACCM            Please see explanation in previous table.
Switch Session       Control character used to switch sessions. 1 is Ctrl-A, 2 is Ctrl-B, etc. The value 254
Character Code       disables this option.
Escape Session       Control character used while in a telnet session, to return to the router menu without
Character Code       closing the session.




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X.25 PAD CHAR Menu CONFIG=>INTERF =>Z-BUS=><PORT> =>ENCAPS =>X.25 =><ESC> =><ESC>
=>ENCAPS=>CHAR

Parameter            Description
Switch Session       Control character used to switch sessions. 1 is Ctrl-A, 2 is Ctrl-B, etc. The value 254
Character Code       disables this option.
Escape Session       Control character used while in a telnet session, to return to the router menu without
Character Code       closing the session.
Username             Must be entered into the local user table first. See section 4.3. If this parameter is left
                     blank, the user will have to enter a username.




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The X.25 PAD Network Protocol menu, which applies to PPP or PPPCHAR Encapsulation only, is shown in Figure
7.18.
      Config


     Interface

      Z-Bus

      <Port>

  Encapsulation       X.25        Terminal PAD   Network        Interface
                                  for X.25       Protocol       Assign IP From Interface
                                                                Primary IP Address
                                                                Subnet Mask
                                                                Secondary IP Address
                                                                Enable Dynamic Local IP Address
                                                                Remote IP Address Type
                                                                Remote IP Address
                                                                IP MTU
                                                                IP Fragmentation Ignore bit DF
                                                                 NAT
                                                                ICMP Port
                                                                Incoming Rule List Name
                                                                Detailed Incoming IP Accounting Process
                                                                Outgoing Rule List Name
                                                                Detailed Outgoing IP Accounting Process
                                                                Routing of Broadcast Messages

                         FIGURE 7.18 X.25 PAD NETWORK PROTOCOL MENU TREE



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X.25 PAD Network Protocol Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ENCAPS =>X.25 =><ESC>
=><ESC> =>NW PROTOCOL

Parameter            Description
Interface            Unnumbered interfaces can be used for point-to-point connections.
Unnumbered
Assign IP From       Applies to Unnumbered interfaces. Applies the IP address of another router interface to
Interface            this one.
Primary IP           Applies to Numbered interfaces. Address assigned to this interface.
Address
Subnet Mask         Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of the network.
Secondary IP        Applies to Numbered interfaces. Indicates a second (or third, etc.) IP address that can be
Address             used to refer to this interface. This parameter and the next are repeated until no value is
                    entered.
Subnet Mask         Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of Secondary IP Address.
Enable Dynamic The terminal connected through PAD assigns an IP address to the router for purposes of
Local IP Address their connection.
Remote IP           The terminal connected through PAD sends its IP address in the negotiation package.
Address Type        Fixed: The IP address sent must match the number set in the next parameter.
                    Same Net: The IP address sent must be an address in the network set in the next
                    parameter.
                    Any: The IP address can be any number that does not conflict with any local IP address.
                    None: Any IP address is accepted. This is not recommended.
Remote IP           If Remote IP Address Type not None. Used in conjunction with the previous parameter.
Address
IP MTU              Assigns the size of the Maximum Transmission Unit for the interface. This determines
                    whether or not a given IP datagram is fragmented.
This table is continued




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X.25 PAD Network Protocol Menu (continued)

Parameter        Description
IP Fragmentation When this parameter is set to No, the DF (Do Not Fragment) bit in the IP header causes IP
- Ignore Bit DF  to reject a packet that is oversized: the router sends an ICMP message back to the sender.
                 When this parameter is Yes, the DF bit is ignored, the packet is fragmented, and no
                 message is sent back to the sender.
NAT              Does not apply to Expanded NAT. Determines the type of IP address if NAT is being used.
                 Use Global otherwise. See section 4.3 for details on how to configure NAT.
ICMP Port        Active causes the router to send ICMP Port Unreachable messages when it receives UDP
                 or TCP messages for ports that are not recognized. This type of message is used by some
                 traceroute applications, and if disabled, the router might not be identified in the traceroute
                 output. However, there are security and performance reasons to leave this option Inactive.
Incoming Rule    Filter rule list for incoming packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this parameter
List             should be set.
Detailed         Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of IP Accounting
Incoming IP      later in this chapter. IP Accounting for a rule requires that the parameter CONFIG
Accounting       =>RULES LIST=>IP=>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD RULE=>ALLOW ACCOUNT
                 PROCESS also be Yes.
Outgoing Rule    Filter rule list for outgoing packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this parameter
List Name        should be set.
Detailed         Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of Detailed
Outgoing IP      Incoming IP Accounting.
Accounting
Routing of       Activating this parameter causes the router to route broadcast messages from the
Broadcast        LAN to the WAN and vice-versa. An individual interface can be excluded by setting
Messages         this parameter to Inactive, without effecting the broadcast of messages on the other
                 interfaces. This is necessary with applications that use Netbios.




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The PAD Physical and Authentication menu trees are shown in Figure 7.19.

   Config


  Interface

   Z-Bus

   <Port>

Encapsulation                     Terminal PAD        Physical             Number of PADs
                      X.25
                                  for X.25                                 Send Profile
                                                                           Set X3 Parameters
                                                                           Select Reference Number
                                                                           Set Related Parameter
                                                                           Parameter Sent

                                                      Authentication       Authentication Type
                                                                           Authentication Server
                                                                           Authentication Protocol

                  FIGURE 7.19 X.25 PAD PHYSICAL AND AUTHENTICATION MENU TREES




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X.25 PAD Physical Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ENCAPS =>X.25 =><ESC> =><ESC>
=>PHYSICAL

Parameter        Description
Number of PADs Number of PAD connections that the router will accept simultaneously.
Send Profile     When the router receives a Connection Request from a PAD, the X.3 parameters can be
                 sent. Yes causes these parameters to be sent.
Set X3           Default parameters are shown in Figure 7.20. The PPP Profile parameters are usually
Parameters       used with PPP & PPPCHAR Encapsulation. Customize is used to set all/some X3
                 parameters individually.
Select Reference Applies for Customized X3 Parameters. To change the value of an X3 parameter, select its
Number           number from the table shown in Figure 7.20.
Set Related      Applies for Customized X3 Parameters. The new value.
Parameter
Parameter Sent Applies for Customized X3 Parameters. Change whether or not this parameter is sent
                 during connection negotiation.

              Reference Default        Send      Description
               Number         Value    Profile
                    1           3        Y       PAD recall using a character
                    2           0        Y       Echo
                    3           0        Y       Selection of "data forwarding" characters
                    4           1        Y       Selection of idle timer delay
                    5           0        Y       Flow control of the terminal
                    6           5        Y       Control of PAD service/command signals
                    7          21        Y       Operation of the PAD on reception of break signal
                    8           0        Y       Discard Output
              This table is continued.

                                   FIGURE 7.20 PAD X3 PARAMETER LIST

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                   9              0        Y    Padding
                   10             0        Y    Line Folding
                   11             3        Y    Binary Speed of Start/Stop mode
                   12             0        Y    Flow control of the PAD
                   13              0       Y    LF insertion after CR
                   14             0        Y    Padding after LF
                   15             0        Y    Editing
                   16             8        Y    Character Delete
                   17             24       Y    Line Delete
                   18             42       Y    Line Display
                   19             0        N    Editing PAD service signals
                   20              0       N    Echo mask
                   21              0       N    Parity treatment
                   22             0        N    Page wait
                   23              0       N    Size of input field
                   24              0       N    End of frame signals
                   25              0       N    Extended data forwarding signals
                   26             0        N    Display interrupt
                   27              0       N    Display interrupt confirm
                   28             0        N    Diacritic character coding
                   29              0       N    Extended echo mask


                                       FIGURE 7.20 PAD X3 PARAMETER LIST




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X.25 PAD Authentication Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>Z-BUS =><PORT>=>ENCAPS=>X.25
=><ESC>=><ESC>=>AUTHENT.

Parameter            Description
Authentication       Local uses the list of users defined in CONFIG=> SECURITY=>USERS=>ADD.
Type                 Server uses either Radius or Tacacs to authenticate the user.
Authentication       Applies when Authentication Type is Server. Indicates that either a Radius or Tacacs
Server               server is used for validation. The location and other parameters of the server must be
                     configured in CONFIG=> SECURITY. See section 4.3.
Authentication       Applies when Authentication Type is Local or Server. Either PAP or CHAP or both can be
Protocol             used for authentication.

Mode-Independent Menus
PPP
PPP is the only encapsulation option for the Z-Bus interface than can be either Synchronous or Asynchronous.
It is important to choose between them in CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-Bus =><PORT> =>PHYSICAL before
entering the Encapsulation menu. The menu options depend on this choice.

Multilink PPP (MLPPP) is similar in functionality to the Multilink feature described in section 4.4, but it is
implemented at the data-link level instead of the network-protocol level. When compared to Multilink, MLPPP is
slightly more efficient and less generic (because it applies only to PPP encapsulation).




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                          Server
                          (MLPPP Active)                                                                           PR2000
                                                                                                             (MLPPP Active)
                                  Modem

             Modem
                                                                                               Modem
                                   Telephone
                                   Network                                                                                    Modem




                                                                                                                  Bundle 6
                                      1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16




                                                                           Connected to
                                                                            a PR3000

                                    FIGURE 7.21 MULTILINK PPP EXAMPLE

In the example in Figure 7.21, ports 1 through 5 are connected through modems to 5 phone lines which use the
same trunk number. The remote user has two modems which are configured to dial out using MLPPP. When the
remote user dials in to the PR3000 using the trunk number, two of the five ports will accept the connections. Be-
cause of MLPPP, the two ports will be considered to be one link (logical connection). Looking at the same figure,
ports 15 and 16 are dial-out ports which connect to two interfaces on the router via modems. In this situation, a
bundle must be defined for these ports.
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The PPP Encapsulation Menu tree is shown in Figure 7.22
   Config


  Interface


   Z-Bus        <Port>        Encapsulation    PPP        MLPPP Active
                                                          Connection Type
                                                          Identification for This Bundle
                                                          Total Number of Lines for This Bundle
                                                          PPP Inactivity Timeout
                                                          Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression
                                                          Transmit Compressed Packets
                                                          Disable LCP ECHO Requests
                                                          Time Interval to Send Config Requests
                                                          Edit ACCM
                                                          Enable Predictor Compression
                                                          Number of Bits for Compression

                                  FIGURE 7.22 PPP ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE




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A description of the parameters with values given for the example is presented in the table.

PPP Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ENCAPSULATION =>PPP
Parameter           Description
MLPPP               Enables Multilink PPP on this interface.
Connection Type Applies for MLPPP = Yes. Type of line used on this link. Leased indicates that there is no
                    modem between the links. Dial-in means the link will only receive calls and there is no
                    need to specify the bundle, which is defined by the dial-out side. Dial-out means the link
                    will place calls.
Identification for Applies for MLPPP = Yes and Dial-out or Leased. In the example, this value is 6.
This Bundle
Total Number of Applies for MLPPP = Yes. Maximum number of links allowed in the bundle. In the
lines for This      example, this number is 2 or larger.
Bundle
PPP Inactivity      Applies to asynchronous connections only. The connection is closed when data does not
Timeout             pass through the line for this period of time. The value 0 deactivates the timer.
Enable Van          Allows the link to receive compressed packets. This type of compression is useful for low-
Jacobson IP         speed links and/or small packets. It is not recommended for fast links, as it requires CPU
Header              time.
Compression
Transmit            Applies when Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression is Yes. This parameter
Compressed          causes the link to send compressed packets.
Packets
Disable LCP         LCP (Link Control Protocol) messages are normally exchanged to monitor the status of the
Echo Requests       link. Disabling these messages reduces traffic, but the link then has no way of knowing if
                    the other end is still connected.
Time Interval to    Config Request messages are used to negotiate the parameters at the start of a PPP
Send Config         connection. For a slow line, this time should be increased to allow the reply to return to the
Requests            sender. If not, the sender will assume it was lost and send another.
this table continued

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PPP Menu (continued)
Parameter        Description
Edit ACCM        Applies to asynchronous connections only. Permits control character mapping negotiation
                 on asynchronous links. This is useful when you need to send a control character as data
                 (e.g. XON/XOFF, Crtl A, etc.) over an asynchronous link and do not want it interpreted by
                 the modem or other device in the middle. The map is built up with the following commands.
                 Clear – Resets the ACCM table toggle;
                 Toggle XON/XOFF – Add XON/XOFF control characters to the ACCM table;
                 Toggle Char – Add other control characters to the ACCM table, using their ASCII value.
                 Typing the option once (for example, X), includes it in the table. Typing it again excludes it
                 from the table. See note after table.
Enable Predictor Enables data compression using the Predictor algorithm. This feature should be enabled
Compression      only if Cyclades' equipment is being used on both ends of the connection because there is
                 no established standard for data compression interoperability. Data compression is very
                 CPU-intensive, making this feature effective only for links running at speeds under 1Mbps.
                 At higher speeds, the time necessary to compress data offsets the gains in throughput
                 achieved by data compression.
Number of Bits   Applies when Predictor Compression Enabled. Sixteen is fastest, but 10 must be used if
for Compression the router on the other end is a PathRouter, for compatibility.

Note: Asynchronous Control Character Map (ACCM) mapping is done by codifying one control character as two
special characters. This permits transparent transmission of control characters as data. Thirty-two bits are
encoded in such a way that each bit indicates if the corresponding control character should or should not be
mapped to the two character sequence. If the bit is set to 1, the character will be mapped. For example, if bit 17
and 19 are set to 1, the corresponding characters in the ASCII table (DC1 or XON and DC3 or XOFF) will be
encoded, and the corresponding ACCM will be: 00 0A 00 00 (hex), (binary: 00000000 00001010 00000000
00000000), the bits set to 1 are the 17th and 19th, if counting from right to left, starting from 0.




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Returning to the Z-Bus Interface Configuration, the Network Protocol Menu tree is shown in Figure 7.23.

    Config


   Interface

    Z-Bus        <Port>           Network Protocol    IP                   Interface Unnumbered/Numbered
                                                                           Assign IP from Interface
                                                                           Primary IP address
                                                                           Subnet Mask
                                                                           Secondary IP Address
                                                                           Subnet Mask
                                                                           IP MTU
                                                                           IP Fragmentation Ignore bit DF
                                                                           NAT
                                                                           ICMP Port
                                                                           Incoming Rule List Name
                                                                           Detailed Incoming IP Accounting
                                                                           Outgoing Rule List Name
                                                                           Detailed Outgoing IP Accounting
                                                                           Routing of Broadcast Messages

                                                      Transparent          Status
                                                      Bridge               Port Priority
                                                                           Incoming Rule List Name
                                                                           Outgoing Rule List Name


                                  FIGURE 7.23 NETWORK PROTOCOL MENU TREE




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The Network Protocol parameters are explained in more detail in the following tables.

Network Protocol Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>NETWORK PROTOCOL =>IP

Parameter            Description
Interface            Unnumbered interfaces can be used for point-to-point connections.
Unnumbered
Assign IP From       Applies to Unnumbered interfaces. Applies the IP address of another router interface to
Interface            this one.
Primary IP           Applies to Numbered interfaces. Address assigned to this interface.
Address
Subnet Mask         Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of the network.
Secondary IP        Applies to Numbered interfaces. Indicates a second (or third, etc. up to eight) IP address
Address             that can be used to refer to this interface. This parameter and the next are repeated until
                    no value is entered.
Subnet Mask         Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of Secondary IP Address.
IP MTU              Assigns the size of the Maximum Transmission Unit for the interface. This determines
                    whether or not a given IP datagram is fragmented.
IP Fragmentation When this parameter is set to No, the DF (Do Not Fragment) bit in the IP header causes IP
- Ignore Bit DF     to reject a packet that is oversized: the router sends an ICMP message back to the sender.
                    When this parameter is Yes, the DF bit is ignored, the packet is fragmented, and no
                    message is sent back to the sender.
NAT                 Does not apply to Expanded NAT. Determines the type of IP address if NAT is being used.
                    Use Global otherwise. See section 4.3 for details on how to configure NAT.
ICMP Port           Active causes the router to send ICMP Port Unreachable messages when it receives UDP
                    or TCP messages for ports that are not recognized. This type of message is used by some
                    traceroute applications, and if disabled, the router might not be identified in the traceroute
                    output. However, there are security and performance reasons to leave this option Inactive.
Incoming Rule       Filter rule list for incoming packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this parameter
List                should be set.
this table continued

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Network Protocol Menu (continued)

Parameter            Description
Detailed             Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of IP Accounting
Incoming IP          later in this chapter. IP Accounting for a rule requires that the parameter CONFIG
Accounting           =>RULES LIST=>IP=>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD RULE=>ALLOW ACCOUNT
                     PROCESS also be Yes.
Outgoing Rule        Filter rule list for outgoing packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this parameter
List Name            should be set.
Detailed             Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of Detailed
Outgoing IP          Incoming IP Accounting.
Accounting
Routing of           Activating this parameter causes the router to route broadcast messages from the
Broadcast            LAN to the WAN and vice-versa. An individual interface can be excluded by setting
Messages             this parameter to Inactive, without effecting the broadcast of messages on the other
                     interfaces. This is necessary with applications that use Netbios.

Transparent Bridge Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>NETWORK PROTOCOL
=>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE

Parameter            Description
Status               Activates the Transparent Bridge on this interface.
Port Priority        For the Spanning Tree Algorithm, a priority is given to each link in the router and to each
                     router in the network. See CONFIG=>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE =>SPANNING TREE for
                     more information.
Incoming Rule        Transparent Bridge rule list name for incoming packets. Note: Rule lists for Transparent
List Name            Bridge and IP are created separately. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this rule list
                     is created.
Outgoing Rule        Filter rule list name for outgoing packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this rule
List Name            list is created.



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The Routing Protocol Menu tree is shown in Figure 7.24.
 Config

                                         Routing
Interface      Z-Bus         <Port>                       RIP    Send RIP
                                         Protocol
                                                                 Listen RIP
                                                                 RIP2 Authentication
                                                                 Rip2 Authentication Password

                                                          OSPF   OSPF on This Interface
                                                                 Advertise This Non-OSPF Interface
                                                                 External Metric
                                                                 External Metric Type
                                                                 Area ID
                                                                 Network Type
                                                                 Router Priority
                                                                 Transit Delay
                                                                 Retransmit Interval
                                                                 Hello Interval
                                                                 Dead Interval
                                                                 Poll Interval
                                                                 Password
                                                                 Metric
                                                                 Advertise Secondary IP Address

                                  FIGURE 7.24 ROUTING PROTOCOL MENU TREE




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The Routing Protocol parameters are explained in more detail in the following tables.

Routing Protocol Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>RIP

Parameter            Description
Send RIP             Sets the type of RIP messages to be sent.
Listen RIP           Indicates which types of RIP messages are accepted.
RIP2                 Applies if RIP2 was chosen in one of the first two options. Activates RIP2 message
Authentication       authentication with a password.
RIP2                 Applies if RIP2 Authentication is Active. Password used for both received and transmitted
Authentication       RIP2 messages.
Password

OSPF Protocol Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>OSPF

Parameter           Description
OSPF on This        Activates OSPF. Enable Inactive is used to temporarily disable the OSPF protocol without
Interface           erasing the parameters set below. This is useful when OSPF is first configured, as the
                    general parameters must be set afterwards in CONFIG=>IP =>OSPF and OSPF cannot
                    function without them.
Parameters that apply only when OSPF on This Interface is Disabled.
Advertise This      Causes the router to include this interface in its advertisements through other interfaces (as
Non-OSPF            an external route).
Interface
External Metric     Defines the metric that will be advertised by OSPF.
External Metric     For Type 1, the total metric of this route is composed of the internal metric (inside the
Type                autonomous system) and the external metric (provided in the previous parameter). For
                    Type 2, the total metric of this route is the value provided in the previous parameter.
this table continued




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OSPF Protocol Menu (continued)
Parameter         Description
Parameters that apply only when OSPF on This Interface is Enable or Enable Inactive.
Area ID           Identifies the area to which the interface belongs. Areas are created here, then later
                  defined in CONFIG=>IP=>OSPF =>AREA. Has the format of an IP address, but is not
                  linked to any IP address in the system. Small OSPF networks will typically have only one
                  area (the backbone area represented by 0.0.0.0).
Router Priority   Priority used by OSPF in multicast networks to elect the designated router. A priority of 1
                  will make this router the most likely to be chosen. A priority of 2 will make it second most
                  likely. Set it to 0 (zero) if this router should never be the designated router.
Transit Delay in Estimated transit time in seconds to route a packet through this interface. Use the preset
Seconds           value (1) or increase the number for slow links
Retransmit        Time in seconds between link-state advertisement retransmissions for adjacencies
Interval in       belonging to this interface.
Seconds*
Hello Interval in Time in seconds between the hello packets on this interface.
Seconds*
Dead Interval in Inactivity time (seconds) before a neighbor router is considered down.
Seconds*
Poll Interval in  Time in seconds between the hello packets sent to an inactive, non-broadcast, multi-
Seconds           access neighbor.
Password*         String of up to 8 characters used to authenticate OSPF packages. The use of this
                  password is enabled in CONFIG=>IP=>OSPF=>AREA=>AUTHENTICATION TYPE
Metric            Defines the cost for normal service. For consistent routing, this parameter should be
                  determined in the same manner for all routers in the OSPF Area. Normally, metric cost is
                  defined as an inverse function of interface throughput (e.g. 1 for 100Mbps, 10 for 10Mbps,
                  65 for T1, 1785 for 56kbps, etc).
Advertise         Causes the router to advertise additional addresses assigned to this interface. These are
Secondary IP      configured in CONFIG=> INTERFACE=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>NETWORK PROTOCOL
Address           =>IP.

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The following menu is only relevant when Char (terminal or socket option) or PPP encapsulation is used.

Authentication Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>Z-BUS =><PORT> =>AUTHENTICATION

Parameter            Description
Authentication       Local uses the list of users defined in CONFIG=> SECURITY=>USERS=>ADD.
Type                 Server uses either Radius or Tacacs to authenticate the user.
                     Remote is when this interface is considered to be the user and the other end of the
                     connection performs the authentication
Username             Applies when Authentication Type is Remote. The username the remote device expects to
                     receive.
Password             Applies when Authentication Type is Remote. The password the remote device expects to
                     receive.
Authentication       Applies when Authentication Type is Server. Indicates that either a Radius or Tacacs
Server               server is used for validation. The location and other parameters of the server must be
                     configured in CONFIG=> SECURITY. See section 4.3.
Authentication       Applies when Authentication Type is Local or Server and Encapsulation is PPP or
Protocol             PPPCHAR. Either PAP or CHAP or both can be used for authentication.

Wizards were created to simplify the Z-Bus configuration for popular uses of the PR3000. Wizards are
available for configuration of a Terminal Server, a Remote Access Server, and a Lan-to-Lan Router. A utility
that copies a configuration from one port to another is also provided in the Wizard Menu.

           Which parameters are set automatically by the Wizards? These are given in the following tables for
           each Wizard option. After the Wizard sets the options as shown, the port configuration can be
           changed further if a variation is desired. Study the tables below before using a Wizard.




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A typical application of the Terminal Server Wizard is shown in Figure 7.25. The parameters that are automatically
set by the wizard are given in the table following the figure.

                                   Server
                          Server




                                                                                     Terminal
                            Ethernet                                                 Server
                            TCP/IP
                                                                              ....
                                                                        ......
                                                                  ......
                                                            ......
                                                      ......
                                                ......




                                            Telnet



                                                                                                Terminals

    FIGURE 7.25 APPLICATION THAT CAN TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE TERMINAL SERVER WIZARD




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               Encapsulation: CHAR          Device Type                     Terminal
                                            TCP KeepAlive Timer             Inactive
                                            Terminal Type                   ANSI
                                            Switch Session Character Code   11
                                            Escape Session Character Code   1
                                            *Username
               Network Protocol: Inactive
               Routing Protocol: None
               Physical                     Mode                            Async
                                            *Speed
                                            Parity                          None
                                            Character Size                  8 bits
                                            Stop Bits                       1
                                            Flow Control                    Software
                                            Modem Connection                None
                                            RTS Mode                        Normal Flow
                                                                            Control
                                            Input Signal DCD                No
                                            Input Signal DSR                Yes
                                            Input Signal CTS                No
               Traffic Control: No
               parameters set
               Authentication               Authentication Type             Local


         FIGURE 7.26 PARAMETERS SET AUTOMATICALLY BY THE TERMINAL SERVER WIZARD




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A typical application of the RAS Wizard is shown in Figure 7.27. The parameters that are automatically set by the
wizard are given in the table following the figure.




                                  Authentication
                                     Server
                             Server                         Router

                                                                                                   Remote
                                                                                            ....
                                                                                                   Access
                                                                                                   Server
                                                                                      ......
                                                                                ......
                                                                          ......
                                                                    ......
                                                              ......




                                                                                                    Modem n

                                                        Modem 01




                                                          PCs Using Telephone Lines

             FIGURE 7.27 APPLICATION THAT CAN TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE RAS WIZARD




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               Encapsulation: PPPCHAR        PPP Inactivity Timeout            None
                                             Van Jacobson IP Header            Disabled
                                             Compression
                                             LCP Echo Requests                 Enabled
                                             Time Interval to send Config      1
                                             Requests
                                             ACCM                              000A0000
                                             Predictor Compression             Disabled
                                             Switch Session Character Code     11
                                             Escape Session Character Code     1
               Network Protocol: IP Active   Unnumbered / Numbered             Unnumbered
                                             Assign IP from Interface          1
                                             Enable Dynamic Local IP Address   N
                                             Remote IP Address Type            Fixed
                                             *Remote IP Address
                                             IP MTU                            1500
                                             NAT                               Global
                                             ICMP Port                         Inactive
                                             Incoming Rule List Name           None
                                             Outgoing Rule List Name           None

                  FIGURE 7.28 PARAMETERS SET AUTOMATICALLY BY THE RAS WIZARD




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               Network Protocol: TB
               Inactive
               Routing Protocol: None
               Physical                 Mode                      Async
                                        *Speed
                                        Flow Control              Hardware
                                        Modem Connection          Connected
                                        *Modem String Index
                                        RTS Mode                  Normal Flow
                                                                  Control
                                        Input Signal DCD          Y
                                        Input Signal DSR          N
                                        Input Signal CTS          N
               Traffic Control: No
               parameters set
               Authentication           Authentication Type       Server
                                        Authentication Server     Tacacs
                                        Authentication Protocol   PAP

         FIGURE 7.28 PARAMETERS SET AUTOMATICALLY BY THE RAS WIZARD (CONTINUED)




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A typical application of the Lan-to-Lan Wizard is shown in Figure 7.29. The parameters that are automatically set
by the wizard are given in the two tables that follow the figure.

                                                    Windows 95
                                         Server

                                                                                                    LAN 2
                                                                                                    Ethernet TCP/IP
                                                                                                    PR3000
                                                                                                    Remote
                                                                                                    Access
                                                                                            ....
                                                                                      ......
                                                                                ......




                                                                                                                  Server
                                                                          ......
                                                                    ......
                                                              ......




                                  Windows 95                                                        Server
                      Server

                                                                                                         Router
                                                        PPP
                                                                                                   PPP

                     LAN 1                                                                               LAN 3
                     Ethernet TCP/IP           Router                                                    Ethernet TCP/IP

         FIGURE 7.29 APPLICATION THAT CAN TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE LAN-TO-LAN WIZARD




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               Encapsulation: PPP            MLPPP Active                   N
                                             PPP Inactivity Timeout         None
                                             Van Jacobson IP Header         Disabled
                                             Compression
                                             LCP Echo Requests              Enabled
                                             Time Interval to send Config   1
                                             Requests
                                             ACCM                           00000000
                                             Predictor Compression          Disabled
               Network Protocol: IP Active   Unnumbered / Numbered          Numbered
                                             *Primary IP Address
                                             *Subnet Mask
                                             *Secondary IP Address
                                             *Remote IP Address Type
                                             *Remote IP Address
                                             IP MTU                         1500
                                             NAT                            Global
                                             ICMP Port                      Inactive
                                             Incoming Rule List Name        None
                                             Outgoing Rule List Name        None
               Network Protocol: TB
               Inactive
               Routing Protocol: None
               this table continued

    FIGURE 7.31 PARAMETERS SET AUTOMATICALLY BY THE LAN-TO-LAN WIZARD FOR THE SE16




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               Physical              Mode                      Async
                                     *Speed
                                     Flow Control              Hardware
                                     Modem Connection          No
                                     RTS Mode                  Normal Flow
                                                               Control
                                     Input Signal DCD          Y
                                     Input Signal DSR          N
                                     Input Signal CTS          N
               Traffic Control: No
               parameters set
               Authentication        Authentication Type       None

    FIGURE 7.31 PARAMETERS SET AUTOMATICALLY BY THE LAN-TO-LAN WIZARD FOR THE SE16
                                     (CONTINUED)




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               Encapsulation: PPP            MLPPP Active                   N
                                             Van Jacobson IP Header         Disabled
                                             Compression
                                             LCP Echo Requests              Enabled
                                             Time Interval to send Config   1
                                             Requests
                                             Predictor Compression          Disabled
               Network Protocol: IP Active   Unnumbered / Numbered          Numbered
                                             *Primary IP Address
                                             *Subnet Mask
                                             *Secondary IP Address
                                             *Remote IP Address Type
                                             *Remote IP Address
                                             IP MTU                         1500
                                             NAT                            Global
                                             ICMP Port                      Inactive
                                             Incoming Rule List Name        None
                                             Outgoing Rule List Name        None
               Network Protocol: TB
               Inactive
               Routing Protocol: None
               Physical                      Mode                           Synch
                                             Clock Source                   External
                                             Media for Z-Bus Cable          V.35
               Traffic Control: No
               parameters set
               Authentication                Authentication Type            None

     FIGURE 7.32 PARAMETERS SET AUTOMATICALLY BY THE LAN-TO-LAN WIZARD FOR THE SSE8

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The Wizard Menu tree is shown in Figure 7.33 and its parameters are explained in the table that follows.

   Config


  Interface      Zbus       One Port     Wizards         TS Profile                   Speed
                                                                                      Username

                                                         RAS Profile                  Speed
                                                                                      Modem String Index
                                                                                      Remote IP Address

                                                         LAN-to-LAN Profile           Speed
                                                                                      Primary IP Address
                                                                                      Subnet Mask
                                                                                      Secondary IP Address
                                                                                      Remote IP Address Type
                                                                                      Remote IP Address

                                                         Copy From Port               Copy From Slot
                                                                                      Copy From Port

                                       FIGURE 7.33 WIZARD MENU TREE




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Wizards Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>Z-BUS=><PORT>=>WIZARDS
Menu Items           Description
TS Profile           Used to create a local host Terminal Server. The only parameters are the Username and
                     Speed. The automatically set parameters are given in a table below. Note: this wizard
                     defines all communication to be asynchronous.
RAS Profile          Used to set up a PPP Remote Access Server using modems and dial-up lines. The
                     Modem String Index, Speed, and Remote IP Address of the first port are the only
                     parameters. If the Wizard is used for a range or all ports, the following ports will be
                     numbered consecutively. The automatically set parameters are given in a table below.
                     Note: this wizard defines all communication to be asynchronous.
Lan-to-Lan           Used to connect two LANs. The only parameters are the Primary IP Address, the Subnet
Profile              Mask, any Secondary IP Addresses and Subnet Masks, the Remote IP Address Type and
                     Address, and the Speed (for asynchronous). The automatically set parameters are given in
                     a table below. Note: this wizard defines all communication to be synchronous for the
                     SSE8 and asynchronous for the SS16.
Copy From Port       Used to copy an entire configuration from one port to another, while changing the IP
                     address so that the ports are numbered consecutively.


Bibliography

PPP:
STD0051 and RFCs 1661 and 1662

Frame Relay:
Smith, Philip, Frame Relay Principles and Applications, Addison-Wesley, 1993
RFC 1490, Multiprotocol Interconnect over Frame Relay (explains NLP ID and SNAP)

X.25:
Thorpe, Nicolas and Derek Ross, X.25 Made Easy, Prentice Hall, 1992.

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CHAPTER 8 THE E1 AND T1 INTERFACES, WITHOUT SIGNALING
The menus relating to configuration of the E1 and T1 interfaces without signaling are given in this chapter. T1 is a
standard used in the United States, Canada, and Japan. It has a clock speed of 1.5MHz and has 24 channels of 64K
each. One of the channels is reserved for signaling when ISDN/PRI is used. E1 is a standard used in Europe and
many other countries. It has a clock speed of 2MHz and has 32 channels with two reserved for signaling. Aside from
this, there are few differences between the two standards in terms of configuration.

There are, however, differences between the PR4000, which supports signaling, and the PR3000 which does not.
These differences are confined to the CONFIG =>CONTROLLER menu, which is the first step in the configuration of
a T1/E1 line. The Controller menu tree for the PR3000 is shown in figure 8.1.
   Config       Controller     T1/E1       Global Parameters          Frame Mode
                                                                      Line Code
                                                                      Clock Mode
                                                                      Line Build Out
                                                                      Receiver Sensitivity

                                           Channel Groups         Add Group           Timeslot
                                                                                      Timeslot Allocation
                                                                                      Timeslot Start
                                                                                      Timeslot End
                                                                                      Timeslot N

                                                                  Delete Group        Channel Group Number

                                                                  Edit Group          Channel Group Number

                                                                  Clear All Groups

                               FIGURE 8.1 PR3000 CONTROLLER MENU TREE




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The Controller menu tree for the PR4000 (except for Signaling Mode = ISDN/PRI which is covered in chapter 9) is
shown in figure 8.2

      Config       Controller      T1/E1                Frame Mode
                                                        Line Code
                                                        Signaling Mode
                                                        Clock Mode
                                                        Receiver Sensitivity
                                                        Companding Mode
                                                        Tone Signaling
                                                        Country Signaling
                                                        Switch Type
                                                        Add Group               Timeslot
                                                                                Timeslot Allocation
                                                                                Timeslot Start
                                                                                Timeslot End
                                                                                Timeslot N

                                                        Delete Group            Channel Group Number

                                                        Edit Group              Channel Group Number

                                                        Clear All Groups

                                FIGURE 8.2 PR4000 CONTROLLER MENU TREE




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The controller parameters are explained in the table that follows.

Controller Menu CONFIG=>CONTROLLER=>T1/E1

Parameter                Description
Frame Mode               T1: ESF (Extended Super Frame, the most common) and D4 are the options.
                         E1: CRC4 (the most common) and Non-CRC4 are the options.
Line Code                T1: B8ZS (Bipolar 8 Zero Substitution, the most common) and AMI (Alternate Mark
                         Inversion). E1: HDB3 (High-Density Bipolar) and AMI.
Signaling Mode           Only appears for the PR4000. None for channelized lines without signaling,
                         otherwise, see chapter 9.
Clock Mode               Selects the clock mode: Master or Slave.
Line Build Out           Applies only to T1. Sets the attenuation on the TX line. The T1 service provider
                         should supply this parameter.
Receiver Sensitivity     Short haul is usually used. Long haul is necessary if attenuation prevents reception of
                         data, usually when the router is installed more than 2000 feet from the cable
                         termination.

           For the CCS Signaling Mode (ISDN-PRI) and the CAS Signaling Mode, read chapter 9 INSTEAD of
           this chapter.


The T1/E1 interface can be broken up into channels, defined by timeslots. Each timeslot is a slice of time allotted to
throughput from a particular source. The configuration can be done in three ways:

  1 Full T1/E1: Only one channel group is defined and no others are allowed. All timeslots are allocated automatically
    to this channel.
  2 Fractional T1/E1: Only one channel group is defined. One or more timeslots are allocated to this channel. The
    number of timeslots can be increased at a later time.
  3 Channelized T1/E1: Many channels are defined, with one or more timeslots allocated to each channel.

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This assigning of channel groups is done in the channel groups menu, shown in Figures 8.1 and 8.2. Note that the path
leading to this menu is slightly different for the PR3000 and the PR4000.

Add Channel Group Menu CONFIG =>CONTROLLER =>T1/E1 =>CHANNEL GROUPS =>ADD GROUP

Parameter                Description
Timeslot                 Full is used for Full T1/E1 as described above. Fractional is for Fractional or
                         Channelized T1/E1 as described above.
Timeslot Allocation      Contiguous allows configuration of a range of timeslots while Manual presents each
                         available timeslot one by one.
Timeslot Start           Applies for Contiguous Timeslot Allocation. Defines the beginning of the range.
Timeslot End             Applies for Contiguous Timeslot Allocation. Defines the end of the range.
Timeslot N               Applies for Manual Timeslot Allocation. Allows inclusion of this timeslot in the channel.




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Each E1/T1 channel is configured in the CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> menu. A summary menu
tree is given in Figure 8.3.
    Config


    Interface     T1/E1        Channel        Encapsulation      Frame Relay [menu shown in a later figure]
                          (if Channelized)                       PPP [menu shown in a later figure]
                                                                 X.25 [menu shown in a later figure]

                                                                 HDLC                  Keep Alive Interval
                                                                 Inactive

                                              Network Protocol [menu shown in a later figure]
                                              Routing Protocol [menu shown in a later figure]

                                              Traffic Control    General               Bandwidth
                                                                                       IP Traffic Control List
                                              Authentication     Authentication Type
                                                                 Username
                                                                 Password
                                                                 Authentication Server
                                                                 Authentication Protocol

                        FIGURE 8.3 E1/T1 INTERFACE CONFIGURATION MENU TREE




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A brief description of each principal item appears in the following table.

E1/T1 Interface Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>T1/E1=><CHANNEL>

Menu Item                 Description
Encapsulation             Determines the data-link layer protocol to be used for this communication link.
Network Protocol          Provides menus for the IP and Transparent Bridge parameters, including rules to be
                          applied to this interface.
Routing Protocol          Submenus for RIP and OSPF configuration.
Traffic Control           Sets the bandwidth of the connection for use with traffic control rules and associates a
                          traffic control rule list to this interface. See section 4.7 for more information on traffic
                          control rules.
Authentication            Determines the method used for authentication for connections on this line.

There are many encapsulation options on this interface.
For full and fractionalT1/E1:

  •   Frame Relay,
  •   PPP,
  •   X.25, and
  •   HDLC.

For channelized T1/E1:

  • PPP and HDLC.




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Encapsulation Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPSULATION

Menu Option              Description
Frame Relay              The Frame Relay Protocol is based on frame switching and constructs a permanent
                         virtual circuit (PVC) between two points.
PPP                      The PPP (Point-to-Point) protocol and Multilink PPP are provided.
X.25                     The X.25 Protocol is generally used to connect to a public X.25 network. The router
                         can act either as a DTE or a DCE.
HDLC                     This protocol has only one parameter: HDLC Keepalive Interval. This is the time
                         interval between transmission of Keepalive messages. The receiver of these
                         messages must send keepalive messages with the same frequency or will be
                         considered inoperative.
Inactive                 This menu option must be chosen whenever the encapsulation is changed from one
                         type to another. One must be deactivated before another can be activated.

Frame Relay
FR supports multiple connections over a single link. Each data link connection (DLC) has a unique DLCI (data link
connection identifier). This allows multiple logical connections to be multiplexed over a single channel. These are
called Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs). The DLCI has only local significance and each end of the logical connection
assigns its own DLCI from the available local numbers.




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A public Frame Relay network connecting offices in London, Glasgow, Manchester, and Nottingham is shown in
Figures 8.4 and 8.5.
                                   London                         Glasgow
                            Network: 192.168.200.0          Network: 192.168.201.0



                                Router                                  Router
                                200.1.1.1                            200.1.1.4

                                                    FR Network

                                200.1.1.2                            200.1.1.3
                                Router                                  Router



                                 Manchester                      Nottingham
                            Network: 192.168.203.0      .   Network: 192.168.202.0

                           FIGURE 8.4 PUBLIC FRAME RELAY NETWORK EXAMPLE




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Each router will have a routing table pairing destination network with router interface and gateway. A Frame Relay
Address Map is also created (either statically or dynamically) to associate each DLCI with the destination router IP.

                                    London                             Glasgow
                             Network: 192.168.200.0              Network: 192.168.201.0



                                 Router                                      Router
                                 200.1.1.1                                200.1.1.4
                                                        21
                                                11
                                                     81
                                 200.1.1.2                                200.1.1.3
                                 Router                                      Router



                                  Manchester                          Nottingham
                             Network: 192.168.203.0              Network: 192.168.202.0

                     FIGURE 8.5 PERMANENT VIRTUAL CIRCUITS BETWEEN OFFICES

For the router in Manchester, the Frame Relay address map will look like this:

                                                 DLCI           IP
                                                  11         200.1.1.1
                                                  21         200.1.1.4
                                                  81         200.1.1.3


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These values are entered in the Add DLCI menu.

The Local Management Interface (LMI) Protocol provides services not available in simple Frame Relay. It is used for
controlling the connection between the user and the network. It monitors this link, maintains the list of DLCs, and sends
status messages about the PVCs. A separate virtual circuit is created to pass this information (DLCI 0).

Sub-Network Access Protocol (SNAP)
A normal Frame Relay Network header contains the NLPID (Network Level Protocol ID) field to identify which protocol
provided the information encapsulated in the data field.

                     flag   address - control     optional NLPID      data     FCS      flag
                            including             pad
                            DLCI

                                  FIGURE 8.6 NORMAL HEADER USING NLPID

For those protocols which do not have an NLPID defined, the SNAP header must be used. The NLPID field remains,
but contains a value (0x80) that indicates that the SNAP information follows. The three-octet Organizationally Unique
Identifier (OUI) and the two-octet Protocol Identifier (PID) which follow define a distinct protocol. See RFC 1490 for
details.

              flag   address - control     optional NLPID      OUI      PID      data     FCS     flag
                     including             pad      = 0x80
                     DLCI

                                        FIGURE 8.7 HEADER USING SNAP




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The Frame Relay Encapsulation Menu tree is shown in Figure 8.8.

   Config


  Interface     T1/E1       Encapsulation       Frame Relay       Encapsulation Type
                                                                  SNAP IP
                                                                  LMI
                                                                  T391
                                                                  N391
                                                                  N392
                                                                  N393
                                                                  CIR
                                                                  Bandwidth Reservation
                                                                  Add DLCI        DLCI Number
                                                                                  Frame Relay
                                                                                  Address Map
                                                                                  IP Address
                                                                                  Enable Predictor
                                                                                  Compression
                                                                                  Number of Bits for
                                                                                  Compression
                                                                                  DLCI priority level
                                                                                  Reserved Bandwidth
                                                                                  Bandwidth Priority Level

                                                                  Delete DLCI     Map Entry Number

                                                                  Edit DLCI       Table Entry

                          FIGURE 8.8 FRAME RELAY ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE




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A detailed explanation of the Frame Relay parameters is given in the following tables.

Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPSULATION =>FRAME RELAY

Parameter           Description
Encapsulation       RFC1490 - IETF is the standard used by most equipment. The Cisco option should be used
Type                when the PR is communicating with a router configured to use the default Cisco standard.
SNAP IP             Applies when Encapsulation type is RFC1490 - IETF above. Indicates that the Sub-
                    Network Access Protocol should be used. See description above. From a network
                    administrator's point of view, the router on the sending end must be using the same header
                    type (NLPID or SNAP) as the router on the receiving end.
LMI                 Selects the Local Management Interface specification to be used. ANSI, Group of Four
                    (defined by the vendors that first implemented Frame Relay), Q933a (defined by ITU-T),
                    and None (used for a dedicated FR connection without a network).
T391                Interval between the LMI Status Enquiry messages.
N391                Full Status Polling Counter. Full Status Enquiry messages are sent every N391-th LMI
                    Status Enquiry message.
N392                Error Threshold. The network counts how many events occur within a given period and
                    considers an interface inactive when the number of events exceeds a threshold. N393 is
                    the number of events to be considered and N392 the number of errors within this period. If
                    N392 of the last N393 events are errors, the interface is deemed inactive. A successful
                    event is the receipt of a valid Status Enquiry message
N393                Monitored Events Count. See the description of N392. This value must be larger than
                    N392.
CIR                 Committed Information Rate, in percentage of total bandwidth (given in
                    CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>E1/T1 =>TRAFFIC CONTROL=>GENERAL=>BANDWIDTH).
                    Traffic above this rate may be discarded if the network is congested.
Bandwidth           Enables traffic control per DLCI. See the Add DLCI menu for more details.
Reservation



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The following menu appears at the end of the Frame Relay parameter list. It can be reached by passing through all
parameters or by using the <ESC> key at any point in the parameter list.

DLCI Frame Relay Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPSULATION =>FRAME
RELAY =><ESC>

Menu Option         Description
Add DLCI            Adds a DLC for this interface to the DLCI table.
Delete DLCI         CyROS puts all DLCIs in a table. The list command (L) must be used to discover this
                    number in order to delete the DLCI.
Edit DLCI           CyROS puts all DLCIs in a table. The list command (L) must be used to discover this
                    number in order to edit the DLCI.

Traffic Control based on Data Link Connection
Traffic Control as described in section 4.7 can also be performed on a Frame Relay interface for each permanent
virtual connection. The parameters in the Add DLCI menu are used in the same manner as those described in section
4.7.

Add DLCI Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPS =>FRAME RELAY
=><ESC> =>ADD DLCI

Parameter            Description
DLCI Number          Used to identify the DLC. This number is supplied by the Public Frame Relay network
                     provider. The DLCIs are stored in a table which can be seen with the L command.
Frame Relay          Determines the method used for mapping the remote IP address to the Permanent Virtual
Address Map          Circuit. Static maps one IP address to this DLCI. Inverse ARP maps the IP address
                     dynamically, in a manner similar to the ARP table.
IP Address           Applies when Frame Relay Address Map is Static. Provides the IP address to be used for
                     static address mapping.
this table is continued

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Add DLCI Frame Relay Menu (Continued)

Parameter        Description
Enable Predictor Enables data compression using the Predictor algorithm. This feature should be enabled
Compression      only if Cyclades' equipment is being used on both ends of the connection because there is
                 no established standard for data compression interoperability. Data compression is very
                 CPU-intensive, making this feature effective only for links running at speeds under 1Mbps.
                 At higher speeds, the time necessary to compress data offsets the gains in throughput
                 achieved by data compression.
Number of Bits   Applies when Predictor Compression Enabled. Sixteen is fastest, but 10 must be used if
for Compression the router on the other end is a PathRouter, for compatibility.
DLCI Priority    This is the equivalent of CONFIG=>RULES LIST=>IP =>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD
Level            RULE=>FLOW PRIORITY LEVEL. Indicates the relative priority of the frame for insertion
                 into queues in the router. A frame with priority 1 will enter the queue if there is any space
                 available. A frame with priority 2 will enter the queue if at least 20% of the space is
                 available, and so on (40% free for priority 3, 60% free for priority 4, and 80% free for priority
                 5). Frames with priority x + 1 will always enter after frames with priority x, x-1, etc. Priority
                 0 is similar to Priority 5, but these packets always enter the queue. All frames that do not
                 enter the queue are DISCARDED. Use this feature with caution!
Reserved         This is the equivalent of CONFIG=>RULES LIST=>IP =>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD
Bandwidth        RULE=>RESERVED BANDWIDTH. Defines what percentage of the total bandwidth on an
                 interface will be set aside for this DLC.
Bandwidth        This is the equivalent of CONFIG=>RULES LIST=>IP =>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD
Priority Level   RULE=>BANDWIDTH PRIORITY LEVEL. Two DLCs with the same priority cannot share
                 bandwidth when one DLC does not need its entire allotment. For two DLCs with different
                 priorities, the DLC with the higher priority can steal bandwidth from the other when it is not
                 in use. Priority is relative -- two DLCs with priorities 1 and 5 are the same as two DLCs
                 with priorities 3 and 4 (if there are no other DLCs).




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PPP
Multilink PPP (MLPPP) is similar in functionality to the Multilink feature described in section 4.4, but it is implemented
at the data-link level instead of the network-protocol level. When compared to Multilink, MLPPP is slightly more efficient
and less generic (because it applies only to PPP encapsulation).

                                             Router A

                                                          Modem

                                                                  Modem
                                     Modem

                                            Modem                  Link 2 (Bundle 6)
                                                       Link 1
                                                   (Bundle 6)
                                                                       Router B

                                      FIGURE 8.9 MULTILINK PPP EXAMPLE

In Figure 8.9, Router B connects to Router A via two modem connections to achieve a larger bandwidth. Router A
accepts the two physical connections, but treats them as one logical connection (one “bundle”). MLPPP must be
enabled on all interfaces that will form this bundle, (and on both sides of the connection), with the same bundle iden-
tifier specified for each. The PPP Encapsulation Menu tree is shown in Figure 8.10.




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 Config

Interface       T1/E1        Encapsulation         PPP            MLPPP Active
                                                                  Identification for This Bundle
                                                                  Total Number of Lines for This Bundle
                                                                  Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression
                                                                  Transmit Compressed Packets
                                                                  Disable LCP ECHO Requests
                                                                  Time Interval to Send Config Requests
                                                                  Edit ACCM
                                                                  Enable Predictor Compression
                                                                  Number of Bits for Compression

                               FIGURE 8.10 PPP ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE

A description of the parameters with values given for the example is presented in the table.

PPP Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>T1/E1=><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPSULATION =>PPP

Parameter             Description
MLPPP                 Enables Multilink PPP on this interface.
Identification for    Applies for MLPPP = Yes and Dial-out or Leased. In the example, this value is 6.
This Bundle
Total Number of       Applies for MLPPP = Yes. Maximum number of links allowed in the bundle. In the
lines for This        example, this number is 2 or larger.
Bundle
PPP Inactivity        Applies to asynchronous connections only. The connection is closed when data does not
Timeout               pass through the line for this period of time.
This table is continued



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PPP Menu (continued)
Parameter           Description
Enable Van          Allows the link to receive compressed packets. This type of compression is useful for low-
Jacobson IP         speed links and/or small packets. It is not recommended for fast links, as it requires CPU
Header              time.
Compression
Transmit            Applies when Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression is Yes. This parameter
Compressed          causes the link to send compressed packets.
Packets
Disable LCP         LCP (Link Control Protocol) messages are normally exchanged to monitor the status of the
Echo Requests       link. Disabling these messages reduces traffic, but the link then has no way of knowing if
                    the other end is still connected.
Time Interval to    Config Request messages are used to negotiate the parameters at the start of a PPP
Send Config         connection. For a slow line, this time should be increased to allow the reply to return to the
Requests            sender. If not, the sender will assume it was lost and send another.
Edit ACCM           Applies to asynchronous connections only. Permits control character mapping negotiation
                    on asynchronous links. This is useful when you need to send a control character as data
                    (e.g. XON/XOFF, Crtl A, etc.) over an asynchronous link and do not want it interpreted by
                    the modem or other device in the middle. The map is built up with the following commands.
                    Clear – Resets the ACCM table toggle;
                    Toggle XON/XOFF – Add XON/XOFF control characters to the ACCM table;
                    Toggle Char – Add other control characters to the ACCM table, using their ASCII value.
                    Typing the option once (for example, X), includes it in the table. Typing it again excludes it
                    from the table. See note after table.
Enable Predictor Enables data compression using the Predictor algorithm. This feature should be enabled
Compression         only if Cyclades' equipment is being used on both ends of the connection because there is
                    no established standard for data compression interoperability. Data compression is very
                    CPU-intensive, making this feature effective only for links running at speeds under 1Mbps.
                    At higher speeds, the time necessary to compress data offsets the gains in throughput
                    achieved by data compression.
This table is continued
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PPP Menu (continued)
Parameter            Description
Number of Bits       Applies when Predictor Compression Enabled. Sixteen is fastest, but 10 must be used if
for Compression      the router on the other end is a PathRouter, for compatibility.
Connection Type      Applies to asynchronous connections only. NT-Serial Cable is a direct connection to a
                     Windows NT computer. This is necessary because NT requires a negotiation before the
                     beginning of the PPP negotiation. Direct is used for other connections using cables or
                     leased lines.

Note: Asynchronous Control Character Map (ACCM) mapping is done by codifying one control character as two
special characters. This permits transparent transmission of control characters as data. Thirty-two bits are encoded
in such a way that each bit indicates if the corresponding control character should or should not be mapped to the two
character sequence. If the bit is set to 1, the character will be mapped. For example, if bit 17 and 19 are set to 1, the
corresponding characters in the ASCII table (DC1 or XON and DC3 or XOFF) will be encoded, and the corresponding
ACCM will be: 00 0A 00 00 (hex), (binary: 00000000 00001010 00000000 00000000), the bits set to 1 are the 17th and
19th, if counting from right to left, starting from 0.




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X.25
A Cyclades Router can act either as a DTE (Data-terminal Equipment) connected to a public X.25 network or as a DTE
or DCE (Data circuit-terminating Equipment) as part of a private X.25 network. As seen in Figures 8.11 and 8.12, the
determination of DTE or DCE depends on the position and use of the router within the network.
Both Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) and Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs) can be defined. A PVC requires that two
DTEs be permanently connected.




                                                        Modem or
                                                        DSU/CSU


                     Router / DTE                                              Router / DTE



                                        Switch / DCE           Switch / DCE
                                                        X.25

                               FIGURE 8.11 PUBLIC X.25 NETWORK EXAMPLE




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In the Private WAN network example, the central router acts as a switch connecting the other three. A type of bridge
must be configured to allow switched virtual connections passing through the router. The “switch” must be configured
on both of the interfaces involved in the bridge. The X.25 parameters Packet Size and Window Sizes should be the
same on both interfaces to prevent bottlenecks.

                                     Router A

                                      DTE                                     Router B
                                             Link 3     Link 1
                                                                      DTE
                                          DCE
                                                          DCE
                                      Router C                   Link 2
                                                   DCE

                                                                     DTE
                                                                            Router D



                                           FIGURE 8.12 PRIVATE WAN




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The first X.25 menu tree is shown in Figure 8.13

   Config


   Interface       T1/E1        Encapsulation           X.25   X.121 (Local DTE) Address
                                                               Switch Mode Active
                                                               Incoming Calls...Forwarded
                                                               Suppress Calling Address
                                                               Inactivity Timeout
                                                               Configure as DTE or DCE
                                                               Number of Virtual Circuits
                                                               Number of Permanent Virtual Circuits
                                                               PVCs Must Wait for Reset Packet
                                                               Layer 3 Window Size
                                                               Layer 2 Window Size
                                                               Packet Size
                                                               Number of Retries N2
                                                               TL
                                                               T2
                                                               T21
                                                               T23
                                                               Negotiable Facilities
                                                               Send Facility
                                                               Add DTE [shown in DTE Menu Diagram]
                                                               Delete DTE [shown in DTE Menu Diagram]
                                                               Edit DTE [shown in DTE Menu Diagram]
                                                               Terminal PAD for X.25
                                                               Encapsulation [shown in a later figure]
                                                               Network Protocol [shown in a later figure]
                                                               Physical [shown in a later figure]
                                                               Authentication [shown in a later figure]

                                         FIGURE 8.13 X.25 MENU TREE

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A detailed description of the X.25 parameters for the two examples given above is provided in the table below.

X.25 Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPSULATION =>X.25
Parameter                  Description
X.121 (Local DTE)          Address assigned to this interface (provided by the public X.25 Network Provider).
Address                    Can be up to 15 digits.
Switch Mode Active         Private WAN: In the example, Router C is used to connect three internal X.25
                           networks. To allow bridging from Router B to Router D across Router C, this
                           parameter must be Yes on both link 1 and link 2 .
Incoming Calls Received Applies when Switch Mode is Active. Private WAN: When Router C receives a
Over the Other X.25 Links packet from Router B with an unknown address, it can take two actions: if this
With Unknown               parameter is No on both link 2 and link 3, the packet is discarded. If either link 2
Destination DTE Can be     or link 3 has this parameter set to Yes, the packet is sent through that link. (If
Forwarded Through This both are Yes, the link with the lowest link number is chosen -- in this case link 2).
Link
Suppress Calling Address Public X.25 Network: This parameter must be chosen according to the
                           guidelines given by the Public X.25 Network provider. When activated, the
                           sender's Local DTE address is not included in the Call Request Message. Private
                           WAN: This parameter will be No as the network will not keep track of the sender
                           of each packet.
Inactivity Timeout         Time until connection is automatically terminated by the router if there is no traffic.
Configure as DTE or DCE As mentioned above, the router can act either as the recipient of information
                           (DTE), or as the passer-on of information (DCE). Public X.25 Network: Both
                           routers are DTEs . Private WAN: Routers A,B, and D are DTEs and Router C is
                           a DCE.
Number of Virtual Circuits Indicates the maximum number of virtual circuits (total of PVCs and SVCs)
                           allowed on this interface. The maximum number for all X.25 interfaces is 128.
Number of Permanent        Indicates the number of permanent virtual circuits that will be connected through
Virtual Circuits           this interface. This maximum is also 128.
This table is continued

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X.25 Menu (continued)
PVCs Must Wait for Reset Only if the router is a DTE. PVCs become active only after a reset packet is
Packet                   received.
Layer 3 Window Size      The layer 3 (packet) level window represents the number of sequentially
                         numbered packets that can be sent before an acknowledgement must be
                         received. This number may be negotiated if the Window Size Facility is utilized
                         (see last parameter in this table).
Layer 2 Window Size      The layer 2 (frame) level window represents the number of sequentially numbered
                         frames that can be sent before an acknowledgement must be received. The
                         frame numbers are independent of the packet numbers.
Packet Size              The packet size to be sent across the interface. This number may be negotiated if
                         the Packet Size Facility is utilized (see last parameter in this table).
Number of Retries N2     Number of times an information frame can be resent, without response, before the
                         link is considered down.
TL                       Time the frame level waits for an acknowledgement for a given frame before re-
                         sending it.
T2                       Time that can elapse, after receiving a frame, until the router must send an
                         acknowledgement.
T21                      Call Request response Timer. After this time has elapsed, the DTE sends a Clear
                         message.
T23                      Clear Request response Timer. After this time has elapsed, the DTE retransmits
                         the Clear message.
Negotiable Facilities    Initiates facility negotiation during virtual circuit creation.
Send Facility            Determines which facilities are negotiated during virtual circuit creation: Packet
                         size is part of the flow control parameters negotiation, Throughput is part of the
                         throughput class negotiation, and N3 Window (Level 3 Window Size, above) is
                         part of the flow control parameters negotiation.




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The following menu appears at the end of the X.25 parameter list. It can be reached by passing through all parameters
or by using the <ESC> key at any point in the parameter list. This menu creates a static routing table associating a
remote X.121 address to an IP address or a TCP Socket location.
   Config


  Interface      T1/E1       Encapsulation        X.25        Add DTE           Type of Logical Address
                                                                                IP Address
                                                                                X25 Socket Port
                                                                                X.121 (DTE) Address
                                                                                VC Number
                                                                                Packet Transaction
                                                                                Automatic Mode
                                                                                User Data Len
                                                                                User Data
                                                                                Enable Predictor Compression
                                                                                Number of Bits for Compression


                                                              Delete DTE        Host Number to Delete

                                                              Edit DTE          Host Number to Change

                                      FIGURE 8.14 X.25 DTE MENU TREE




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X.25 Add DTE Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPS =>X.25 =><ESC> =>Add
DTE
Parameter                Description
Type of Logical          IP Address or TCP Socket. Users that intend to use the TCP Socket option should see
Address                  Appendix A.
IP Address               Applies for IP Address Type. IP Address of remote DTE device.
X.25 Socket Port         Applies for Socket Address Type. Must be a number in the interval defined by the
                         parameters CONFIG=>IP=>TCP=>X25 SOCKET START/END PORT RANGE.
X.121(DTE) Address       Address of remote DTE device.
VC Number                Number assigned to this circuit, if it is a PVC. For SVCs, the value should be zero.
Packet Transaction       Applies for Socket Address Type. See Appendix A.
Automatic Mode           Applies for Packet Transaction = Yes. See Appendix A.
User Data Len            Applies for Socket Address Type. Length of next parameter in bytes. The maximum is
                         32. See Appendix A.
User Data                Applies for Socket Address Type. The value in the user data field of the Connection
                         Request packet which determines which service on the remote host is being
                         requested. 0xCC is used for IP. See Appendix A.
Enable Predictor         Applies for IP Address Type. Enables data compression using the Predictor algorithm.
Compression              This feature should be enabled only if Cyclades' equipment is being used on both ends
                         of the connection because there is no established standard for data compression
                         interoperability. Data compression is very CPU-intensive, making this feature effective
                         only for links running at speeds under 1Mbps. At higher speeds, the time necessary to
                         compress data offsets the gains in throughput achieved by data compression.
Number of Bits for       Applies when Predictor Compression Enabled. Sixteen is fastest, but 10 must be used
Compression              if the router on the other end is a PathRouter, for compatibility.




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PAD (Packet Assembler/Disassembler)
PAD acts as a protocol converter, allowing a user to access the packet-switched network via a serial terminal. This
asynchronous connection is then converted into synchronous communication with the router and the network beyond
(using the telnet application available in the router). Any user listed in the local user table can be connected this way,
and the menu options available to him are configured in the CONFIG=>SECURITY =>USERS=>ADD menu.


                                              Asynchronous
                         PC                    Connection
                                           Modem


                          X.28                 PAD Public X.25                                           Synchronous
                     Parameters                     Network                                               Connection

                                                                                                           PR3000
                                                           Link 1
                                              X.3
                                       Parameters                                                          ETH0
                                                                                                  ....
                                                                                            ......
                                                                                      ......
                                                                                ......
                                                                          ......
                                                                    ......




                                                                                                                    Server



                                            FIGURE 8.15 PAD EXAMPLE




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The PAD Encapsulation menu tree is shown in Figure 8.16.

      Config

     Interface

        T1/E1                                              PPP        PPP Inactivity Timeout
                                                                      Enable Van Jacobson
                                                                      IP Header Compression
  Encapsulation                                                       Transmit Compressed Packets
                                                                      Disable LCP ECHO Requests
                  Terminal PAD         Encapsulation                  Time interval to Send
        X.25
                  for X.25                                            Config Requests
                                                                      Edit ACCM

                                                           PPPChar    PPP Inactivity Timeout
                                                                      Enable Van Jacobson
                                                                      IP header Compression
                                                                      Transmit Compressed Packets
                                                                      Disable LCP ECHO Requests
                                                                      Time Interval to Send
                                                                      Config Requests
                                                                      Edit ACCM
                                                                      Switch Session Character Code
                                                                      Escape Session Character Code

                                                           Char       Switch Session Character Code
                                                                      Escape Session Character Code
                                                                      Username

                                                           Inactive

                            FIGURE 8.16 X.25 PAD ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE

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CyROS provides for configuration of the X.3 parameters that define the connection between the PAD and the router.
When the PAD sends a connection request to the router, the router replies with the profile (the X.3 parameters) to be
used for the connection. The X.28 parameters that define the connection between the remote terminal and the PAD
are not considered. Link 1 of the Router in the PAD example must be configured for this type of access.

With encapsulation type CHAR, pure X.25 is used. Optionally, PPP or PPPCHAR can run on top of X.25. These
protocols must be configured in the encapsulation menu, and related parameters are set in the Network Protocol,
Physical and Authentication menus. Details on the configuration of each parameter are given in the following table.




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X.25 PAD PPP Menu CONFIG =>INTERF =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPS =>X.25 =><ESC> =><ESC>
=>ENCAPS =>PPP
Parameter             Description
PPP Inactivity        The connection is closed when data does not pass through the line for this period of
Timeout               time.
Enable Van Jacobson   Allows the link to receive compressed packets. This type of compression is useful for
IP Header             low-speed links and/or small packets. It is not recommended for fast links, as it
Compression           requires CPU time.
Transmit Compressed   Applies when Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression is Yes. This parameter
Packets               causes the link to send compressed packets.
Disable LCP Echo      LCP (Link Control Protocol) messages are normally exchanged to monitor the status of
Requests              the link. Disabling these messages reduces traffic, but the link then has no way of
                      knowing if the other end is still connected.
Time Interval to Send Config Request messages are used to negotiate the parameters at the start of a PPP
Config Requests       connection. For a slow line, this time should be increased to allow the reply to return
                      to the sender. If not, the sender will assume it was lost and send another.
Edit ACCM             Applies to asynchronous connections only. Permits control character mapping
                      negotiation on asynchronous links. This is useful when you need to send a control
                      character as data (e.g. XON/XOFF, Crtl A, etc.) over an asynchronous link and do not
                      want it interpreted by the modem or other device in the middle. The map is built up
                      with the following commands.
                      Clear – Resets the ACCM table toggle;
                      Toggle XON/XOFF – Add XON/XOFF control characters to the ACCM table;
                      Toggle Char – Add other control characters to the ACCM table, using their ASCII
                      value.
                      Typing the option once (for example, X), includes it in the table. Typing it again
                      excludes it from the table. See note after CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN
                      =>ENCAPSULATION =>PPP table.




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X.25 PAD PPPCHAR Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>T1/E1=><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPS=>X.25
=><ESC>=><ESC>=>ENCAPS=>PPPCHAR
Parameter             Description
PPP Inactivity        The connection is closed when data does not pass through the line for this period of
Timeout               time.
Enable Van Jacobson   Allows the link to receive compressed packets. This type of compression is useful for
IP Header             low-speed links and/or small packets. It is not recommended for fast links, as it
Compression           requires CPU time.
Transmit Compressed   Applies when Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression is Yes. This parameter
Packets               causes the link to send compressed packets.
Disable LCP Echo      LCP (Link Control Protocol) messages are normally exchanged to monitor the status of
Requests              the link. Disabling these messages reduces traffic, but the link then has no way of
                      knowing if the other end is still connected.
Time Interval to Send Config Request messages are used to negotiate the parameters at the start of a PPP
Config Requests       connection. For a slow line, this time should be increased to allow the reply to return
                      to the sender. If not, the sender will assume it was lost and send another.
Edit ACCM             Please see explanation in previous table.
Switch Session        Control character used to switch sessions. 1 is Ctrl-A, 2 is Ctrl-B, etc. The value 254
Character Code        disables this option.
Escape Session        Control character used while in a telnet session, to return to the router menu without
Character Code        closing the session.

X.25 PAD CHAR Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>T1/E1=><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPS=>X.25=><ESC>
=><ESC>=>ENCAPS=>CHAR
Parameter                Description
Switch Session           Control character used to switch sessions. 1 is Ctrl-A, 2 is Ctrl-B, etc. The value 254
Character Code           disables this option.
Escape Session           Control character used while in a telnet session, to return to the router menu without
Character Code           closing the session.
Username                 Must be entered into the local user table first. See section 4.3.
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The X.25 PAD Network Protocol menu applies to PPP or PPPCHAR Encapsulation only.

The PAD Network Protocol menu tree is shown in Figure 8.17.
     Config

    Interface

     T1/E1

 Encapsulation                  Terminal PAD            Network
                     X.25                                          Interface
                                for X.25                Protocol
                                                                   Assign IP From Interface
                                                                   Primary IP Address
                                                                   Subnet Mask
                                                                   Secondary IP Address
                                                                   Enable Dynamic Local IP Address
                                                                   Remote IP Address Type
                                                                   Remote IP Address
                                                                   IP MTU
                                                                   IP Fragmentation Ignore bit DF
                                                                   NAT
                                                                   ICMP Port
                                                                   Incoming Rule List Name
                                                                   Detailed Incoming IP Accounting Process
                                                                   Outgoing Rule List Name
                                                                   Detailed Outgoing IP Accounting Process
                                                                   Routing of Broadcast Messages

                         FIGURE 8.17 X.25 PAD NETWORK PROTOCOL MENU TREE




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X.25 PAD Network Protocol Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>T1/E1=><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPS=>X.25=><ESC>
=><ESC>=>NW PRTCL
Parameter           Description
Interface           Unnumbered interfaces can be used for point-to-point connections.
Unnumbered
Assign IP From      Applies to Unnumbered interfaces. Applies the IP address of another router interface to
Interface           this one.
Primary IP          Applies to Numbered interfaces. Address assigned to this interface.
Address
Subnet Mask         Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of the network.
Secondary IP        Applies to Numbered interfaces. Indicates a second (or third, etc.) IP address that can be
Address             used to refer to this interface. This parameter and the next are repeated until no value is
                    entered.
Subnet Mask         Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of Secondary IP Address.
Enable Dynamic The terminal connected through PAD assigns an IP address to the router for purposes of
Local IP Address their connection.
Remote IP           The terminal connected through PAD sends its IP address in the negotiation package.
Address Type        Fixed: The IP address sent must match the number set in the next parameter.
                    Same Net: The IP address sent must be an address in the network set in the next
                    parameter.
                    Any: The IP address can be any number that does not conflict with any local IP address.
                    None: Any IP address is accepted. This is not recommended.
Remote IP           If Remote IP Address Type not None. Used in conjunction with the previous parameter.
Address
IP MTU              Assigns the size of the Maximum Transmission Unit for the interface. This determines
                    whether or not a given IP datagram is fragmented.
This table is continued




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X.25 PAD Network Protocol Menu (Continued)
ICMP Port           Active causes the router to send ICMP Port Unreachable messages when it receives UDP
                    or TCP messages for ports that are not recognized. This type of message is used by
                    traceroute applications, and if disabled, the router will not be identified in the traceroute
                    output. However, there are security reasons to leave this option Inactive.
Incoming Rule       Filter rule list for incoming packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this parameter
List                should be set.
Detailed            Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of IP Accounting
Incoming IP         later in this chapter. IP Accounting for a rule requires that the parameter CONFIG
Accounting          =>RULES LIST=>IP=>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD RULE=>ALLOW ACCOUNT
                    PROCESS also be set toYes.
Outgoing Rule       Filter rule list for outgoing packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this parameter
List Name           should be set.
Detailed            Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of Detailed
Outgoing IP         Incoming IP Accounting.
Accounting
Routing of          Activating this parameter causes the router to route broadcast messages from the LAN to
Broadcast           the WAN and vice-versa. An individual interface can be excluded by setting this parameter
Messages            to Inactive, without effecting the broadcast of messages on the other interfaces. This is
                    necessary with applications that use Netbios.




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The PAD Physical and Authentication menu trees are shown in Figure 8.18

          Config


         Interface

           T1/E1

      Encapsulation                  Terminal PAD
                          X.25                          Physical          Number of PADs
                                     for X.25
                                                                          Send Profile
                                                                          Set X3 Parameters
                                                                          Select Reference Number
                                                                          Set Related Parameter
                                                                          Parameter Sent

                                                        Authentication    Authentication Type
                                                                          Authentication Server
                                                                          Authentication Protocol

                   FIGURE 8.18 X.25 PAD PHYSICAL AND AUTHENTICATION MENU TREES




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X.25 PAD Physical Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPS =>X.25 =><ESC>
=><ESC> =>PHYSICAL

Parameter        Description
Number of PADs Number of PAD connections that the router will accept simultaneously.
Send Profile     When the router receives a Connection Request from a PAD, the X.3 parameters can be
                 sent. Yes causes these parameters to be sent.
Set X3           Default parameters are shown in Figure 6.17. The PPP Profile parameters are usually
Parameters       used with PPP & PPPCHAR Encapsulation. Customize is used to set all/some X3
                 parameters individually.
Select Reference Applies for Customized X3 Parameters. To change the value of an X3 parameter, select its
Number           number from the table shown in Figure 6.17.
Set Related      Applies for Customized X3 Parameters. The new value.
Parameter
Parameter Sent Applies for Customized X3 Parameters. Change whether or not this parameter is sent
                 during connection negotiation.




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 Reference Number        Default Value     Send Profile   Description
         1                    3                Y          PAD recall using a character
         2                    0                Y          Echo
         3                    0                Y          Selection of "data forwarding" characters
         4                    1                Y          Selection of idle timer delay
         5                    0                Y          Flow control of the terminal
         6                    5                Y          Control of PAD service/command signals
         7                    21               Y          Operation of the PAD on reception of break signal
         8                    0                Y          Discard Output
         9                    0                Y          Padding
        10                    0                Y          Line Folding
        11                    3                Y          Binary Speed of Start/Stop mode
        12                    0                Y          Flow control of the PAD
        13                    0                Y          LF insertion after CR
        14                    0                Y          Padding after LF
        15                    0                Y          Editing
        16                    8                Y          Character Delete
        17                    24               Y          Line Delete
        18                    42               Y          Line Display
        19                    0                N          Editing PAD service signals
        20                    0                N          Echo mask
        21                    0                N          Parity treatment
        22                    0                N          Page wait
        23                    0                N          Size of input field
        24                    0                N          End of frame signals
        25                    0                N          Extended data forwarding signals
        26                    0                N          Display interrupt
        27                    0                N          Display interrupt confirm
        28                    0                N          Diacritic character coding
        29                    0                N          Extended echo mask

                                    FIGURE 8.19 PAD X3 PARAMETER LIST
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X.25 Authentication Menu CONFIG =>INTERF =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPS=>X.25 =><ESC> =><ESC>
=>AUTHENTICATION
Parameter             Description
Authentication Type   Local uses the list of users defined in CONFIG=> SECURITY=>USERS=>ADD.
                      Server uses either Radius or Tacacs to authenticate the user.
Authentication Server Applies when Authentication Type is Server. Indicates that either a Radius or Tacacs
                      server is used for validation. The location and other parameters of the server must be
                      configured in CONFIG=> SECURITY. See section 4.3.
Authentication        Applies when Authentication Type is Local or Server. Either PAP or CHAP or both can
Protocol              be used for authentication.

Returning to the E1/T1 Interface Configuration, the Network Protocol Menu tree is shown in Figure 8.20.




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Config       Interface      T1/E1       Network Protocol   IP        Active
                                                                     Interface Unnumbered/Numbered
                                                                     Assign IP from Interface
                                                                     Primary IP address
                                                                     Subnet Mask
                                                                     Secondary IP Address
                                                                     Subnet Mask
                                                                     IP MTU
                                                                     IP Fragmentation Ignore bit DF
                                                                     NAT
                                                                     ICMP Port
                                                                     Incoming Rule List Name
                                                                     Detailed Incoming IP Accounting
                                                                     Outgoing Rule List Name
                                                                     Detailed Outgoing IP Accounting
                                                                     Routing of Broadcast Protocol

                                                           Transparent     Status
                                                           Bridge          Port Priority
                                                                           Incoming Rule List Name
                                                                           Outgoing Rule List Name

                               FIGURE 8.20 NETWORK PROTOCOL MENU TREE




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The Network Protocol parameters are explained in more detail in the following tables.

Network Protocol (IP) Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>NETWORK PROTOCOL =>IP
Parameter                 Description
Active or Inactive        Activates this interface.
Interface                 Unnumbered interfaces can be used for point-to-point connections.
Unnumbered
Assign IP From            Applies to Unnumbered interfaces. Applies the IP address of another router interface
Interface                 to this one.
Primary IP Address        Applies to Numbered interfaces. Address assigned to this interface.
Subnet Mask               Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of the network.
Secondary IP              Applies to Numbered interfaces. Indicates a second (or third, etc. up to eight) IP
Address                   address that can be used to refer to this interface. This parameter and the next are
                          repeated until no value is entered. Note: to remove a Secondary IP Address, type
                          0.0.0.0 instead of a space.
Subnet Mask               Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of Secondary IP Address.
IP MTU                    Assigns the size of the Maximum Transmission Unit for the interface. This determines
                          whether or not a given IP datagram is fragmented.
IP Fragmentation -        When this parameter is set to No, the DF (Do Not Fragment) bit in the IP header
Ignore Bit DF             causes IP to reject a packet that is oversized: the router sends an ICMP message
                          back to the sender. When this parameter is Yes, the DF bit is ignored, the packet is
                          fragmented, and no message is sent back to the sender.
NAT                       Does not apply to Expanded NAT. Determines the type of IP address if NAT is being
                          used. Use Global otherwise. See section 4.3 for details on how to configure NAT.
ICMP Port                 Active causes the router to send ICMP Port Unreachable messages when it receives
                          UDP or TCP messages for ports that are not recognized. This type of message is
                          used by some traceroute applications, and if disabled, the router might not be identified
                          in the traceroute output. However, there are security and performance reasons to
                          leave this option Inactive.
This table is continued

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Network Protocol (IP) Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>NETWORK PROTOCOL =>IP
(continued)
Parameter                Description
Incoming Rule List       Filter rule list for incoming packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this
                         parameter should be set.
Incoming IP              Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of IP
Accounting               Accounting later in this chapter. IP Accounting for a rule requires that the parameter
                         CONFIG =>RULES LIST=>IP=>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD RULE=>ALLOW
                         ACCOUNT PROCESS also be set toYes.
Outgoing Rule List       Filter rule list for outgoing packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this
Name                     parameter should be set.
Detailed Outgoing IP     Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of Detailed
Accounting               Incoming IP Accounting.
Routing of Broadcast     Activating this parameter causes the router to route broadcast messages from the LAN
Messages                 to the WAN and vice-versa. An individual interface can be excluded by setting this
                         parameter to Inactive, without effecting the broadcast of messages on the other
                         interfaces. This is necessary with applications that use Netbios.

Transparent Bridge Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>NETWORK PROTOCOL
=>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE

Parameter                Description
Status                   Activates the Transparent Bridge on this interface.
Port Priority            For the Spanning Tree Algorithm, a priority is given to each link in the router and to
                         each router in the network. See CONFIG=>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE =>SPANNING
                         TREE for more information.
Incoming Rule List       Transparent Bridge rule list name for incoming packets. Note: Rule lists for
Name                     Transparent Bridge and IP are created separately. See section 4.7 for instructions on
                         how this rule list is created.
Outgoing Rule List       Filter rule list name for outgoing packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this
Name                     rule list is created.
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The Routing Protocol Menu tree is shown in Figure 8.21.

 Config



Interface        T1/E1        Routing Protocol          RIP    Send RIP
                                                               Listen RIP
                                                               RIP2 Authentication
                                                               Rip2 Authentication Password

                                                        OSPF   OSPF on This Interface
                                                               Advertise This Non-OSPF Interface
                                                               External Metric
                                                               Area ID
                                                               External Metric Type
                                                               Network Type
                                                               Router Priority
                                                               Transit Delay
                                                               Retransmit Interval
                                                               Hello Interval
                                                               Dead Interval
                                                               Poll Interval
                                                               Password
                                                               Metric
                                                               Advertise Secondary IP Address

                               FIGURE 8.21 ROUTING PROTOCOL MENU TREE




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The Routing Protocol parameters are explained in more detail in the following tables.

Routing Protocol Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>RIP
Parameter                Description
Send RIP                 Sets the type of RIP messages to be sent.
Listen RIP               Indicates which types of RIP messages are accepted.
RIP2 Authentication      Applies if RIP2 was chosen in one of the first two options. Activates RIP2 message
                         authentication with a password.
RIP2 Authentication      Applies if RIP2 Authentication is Active. Password used for both received and
Password                 transmitted RIP2 messages.

OSPF Protocol Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>OSPF
Parameter               Description
OSPF on This            Activates OSPF. Enable Inactive is used to temporarily disable the OSPF protocol
Interface               without erasing the parameters set below. This is useful when OSPF is first
                        configured, as the general parameters must be set afterwards in CONFIG=>IP
                        =>OSPF and OSPF cannot function without them.
Parameters that apply only when OSPF on This Interface is Disabled.
Advertise This Non-     Causes the router to include this interface in its advertisements through other
OSPF Interface          interfaces (as an external route).
External Metric         Defines the metric that will be advertised by OSPF.
External Metric Type For Type 1, the total metric of this route is composed of the internal metric (inside the
                        autonomous system) and the external metric (provided in the previous parameter). For
                        Type 2, the total metric of this route is the value provided in the previous parameter.
Parameters that apply only when OSPF on This Interface is Enable or Enable Inactive.
Area ID                 Identifies the area to which the interface belongs. Areas are created here, then later
                        defined in CONFIG=>IP=>OSPF =>AREA. Has the format of an IP address, but is
                        not linked to any IP address in the system. Small OSPF networks will typically have
                        only one area (the backbone area represented by 0.0.0.0).
This table is continued
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OSPF Protocol Menu (continued)

Router Priority        Priority used by OSPF in multicast networks to elect the designated router. A priority of
                       1 will make this router the most likely to be chosen. A priority of 2 will make it second
                       most likely. Set it to 0 (zero) if this router should never be the designated router.
Transit Delay in       Estimated transit time in seconds to route a packet through this interface. Use the
Seconds                preset value (1) or increase the number for slow links
Retransmit Interval in Time in seconds between link-state advertisement retransmissions for adjacencies
Seconds*               belonging to this interface.
Hello Interval in      Time in seconds between the hello packets on this interface.
Seconds*
Dead Interval in       Inactivity time (seconds) before a neighbor router is considered down.
Seconds*
Poll Interval in       Time in seconds between the hello packets sent to an inactive, non-broadcast, multi-
Seconds                access neighbor.
Password*              String of up to 8 characters used to authenticate OSPF packages. The use of this
                       password is enabled in CONFIG=>IP=>OSPF=>AREA=>AUTHENTICATION TYPE
Metric                 Defines the cost for normal service. For consistent routing, this parameter should be
                       determined in the same manner for all routers in the OSPF Area. Normally, metric cost
                       is defined as an inverse function of interface throughput (e.g. 1 for 100Mbps, 10 for
                       10Mbps, 65 for T1, 1785 for 56kbps, etc).
Advertise Secondary Causes the router to advertise additional addresses assigned to this interface. These
IP Address             are configured in CONFIG=> INTERFACE=>T1/E1=><CHANNEL>=>NETWORK
                       PROTOCOL =>IP.

* Inside a given area, these 4 parameters should be the same for all routers.




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The following menu is only relevant when PPP Encapsulation is used.

Authentication Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>AUTHENTICATION

Parameter             Description
Authentication Type   Local uses the list of users defined in CONFIG=> SECURITY=>USERS=>ADD.
                      Server uses either Radius or Tacacs to authenticate the user.
                      Remote is when this interface is considered to be the user and the other end of the
                      connection performs the authentication
Username              Applies when Authentication Type is Remote. The username the remote device
                      expects to receive.
Password              Applies when Authentication Type is Remote. The password the remote device
                      expects to receive.
Authentication Server Applies when Authentication Type is Server. Indicates that either a Radius or Tacacs
                      server is used for validation. The location and other parameters of the server must be
                      configured in CONFIG=> SECURITY. See section 4.3.
Authentication        Applies when Authentication Type is Local or Server. Either PAP or CHAP or both can
Protocol              be used for authentication.

Bibliography
PPP:
STD0051 and RFCs 1661 and 1662

Frame Relay:
Smith, Philip, Frame Relay Principles and Applications, Addison-Wesley, 1993
RFC 1490, Multiprotocol Interconnect over Frame Relay (explains NLP ID and SNAP)

X.25:
Thorpe, Nicolas and Derek Ross, X.25 Made Easy, Prentice Hall, 1992.

E1 and T1 lines:
Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Computer Networks, Prentice-Hall, Inc.,1996.
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CHAPTER 9 THE E1 AND T1 INTERFACES, WITH SIGNALING
Two varieties of signaling are available. The older mode, called CAS, and the newer mode, called CCS (which is used
for ISDN-PRI). The first step in the configuration process is to configure the channels using the Controller menu. The
Controller Menu tree is shown in Figure 9.1. The parameters are described in the table that follows.
                       Config         Controller        E1/T1            Frame Mode
                                                                         Line Code
                                                                         Signaling Mode
                                                                         Clock Mode
                                                                         Receiver Sensitivity
                                                                         Companding Mode
                                                                         Signaling Type
                                                                         Tone Signaling
                                                                         Country Signaling
                                                                         Block Collect Calls
                                                                         Answer2 Timer
                                                                         On-Hook Timer
                                                                         Switch Type

                                  FIGURE 9.1 THE CONTROLLER MENU TREE




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Controller Menu CONFIG=>CONTROLLER=>T1/E1
Parameter            Description
Frame Mode           T1: ESF (Extended Super Frame, the most common) and D4 are the options.
                     E1: CRC4 (the most common) and Non-CRC4 are the options.
Line Code            T1: B8ZS (Bipolar 8 Zero Substitution, the most common) and AMI (Alternate Mark
                     Inversion). E1: HDB3 (High-Density Bipolar) and AMI.
Signaling Mode       None for channelized lines without signaling (see chapter 8), CCS for ISDN-PRI and CAS
                     for analog, modem-based remote access (usually used with telephone networks that do not
                     support ISDN).
Clock Mode           Selects the clock mode: Master or Slave.
Line Build Out       Applies only to T1. Sets the attenuation on the TX line. The T1 service provider should
                     supply this parameter.
Receiver             Short haul is usually used. Long haul is necessary if attenuation prevents reception of
Sensitivity          data, usually when the router is installed more than 2000 feet from the cable termination.
Companding           Defines the compression mode to be used. Depends on the telephone exchange and the
Mode                 E1/T1 provider should supply this parameter. A-law is usually used for E1 lines and u-law
                     is usually used for T1 lines.
Tone Signaling       Applies when Signaling Mode is CAS. Will depend on what is expected by the line provider.
                     DTMF is the most common tone signaling for T1 and MFR2 Compelled is the most
                     common for E1.
Country              Applies when Signaling Mode is CAS. Determines country-dependent signaling
Signaling            parameters.
Block Collect        Applies when Signaling Mode is CAS and Country is Brazil. Causes the PR4000 to block
Calls                collect calls by keeping the line on-hook for a short period of time after answering the call.
Answer2 Timer        Applies when previous parameter is Yes. Corresponds to the time the channel remains in
                     answer state before moving to the on-hook state after the line is answered.
On-Hook Timer        Applies when Block Collect Calls is Yes. Corresponds to the time the channel remains in
                     the on-hook state before definitively answering the call. This time should be long enough to
                     reject collect calls, but not long enough to reject normal calls.
Switch Type          Applies when Signaling Mode is CCS. Selects the signaling protocol. This should be
                     supplied by the service provider.
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The CCS Signaling Mode (ISDN-PRI)
ISDN, the Integrated Services Digital Network, was intended to be a digital upgrade to the current analog telephone
system. The ISDN discussed in this chapter is N-ISDN, where the N is for Narrow Band. A Broad Band ISDN also
exists. There are two ISDN interfaces:

  • BRI — Basic Rate Interface — used for residential or small-business access.
  • PRI — Primary Rate Interface — used to provide access or used by large businesses for access.

Two PRI interfaces are provided on the PR4000 via E1 or T1 ports with CCS Signaling. These connections can be
digital or analog (via a modem). The data layer protocols CHAR, PPPCHAR and Slip are used with a modem connection.

A typical application in an Internet Service Provider is shown in Figure 9.2.



                             Application     Integrated
                                                RAS            ISDN Line
                               Server
                                                                          Telephone/
                                                                        ISDN Network

                                                                                       Analog Line
                                                                     BRI Line
                    Router
                                                          PC
                                                                                Remote Users
                                                 PC

                                 FIGURE 9.2 ISDN-PRI APPLICATION EXAMPLE



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After the channel groups are defined, the ISDN line and channels must be configured. The ISDN-PRI Interface
Configuration Menu tree is shown in Figure 9.3.
  Config        Interface         T1/E1           ISDN            Main Phone
                               (ISDN-PRI)                         Idle Timeout
                                                                  T200
                                                                  N200
                                                                  T203
                                                                  Send Channel ID in the First Response
                                                                  Store Channel ID in Outgoing Calls
                                                                 Add Entry                Destination IP Address
                                                                                          DestinationPhone #
                                                                                          Slot N Channel #
                                                                 Delete Entry
                                                                 Edit Entry               Same as Add Entry
                                                                 Clear All Entries
                                                 One             Encapsulation
                                                Channel          Network Protocol
                                                                 Routing Protocol
                                                                 ISDN
                                                                 Traffic Control          Bandwidth
                                                                                          IP Traffic Control List

                                                                 Authentication           Authentication Type
                                                                                          Username
                                                                                          Password
                                                                                          Authentication Server
                                                                 Wizards                  Authentication Protocol

                                                  Range               Same Parameters as One Channel
                                                  All Channels              Same Parameters as One Channel

                      FIGURE 9.3 ISDN-PRI INTERFACE CONFIGURATION MENU TREE

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The general ISDN options are explained first.

ISDN General Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>T1/E1(ISDN-PRI)=>ISDN
Parameter         Description
Main Phone #      Principal phone number assigned to the ISDN trunk line. Leave this parameter blank if this
                  number should not be confirmed by the router. This is recommended when the provider
                  does not send the trunk line number in the incoming call message.
Idle Timeout      Time, in minutes, for the connection to time out if there is no traffic. For this to work, any
                  status messages, like PPP's LCP Echo Requests, must be disabled. The value 0 disables
                  the timeout function.
Send Channel ID Some switches require that the terminal answers all incoming calls with the channel ID that
in the First      will be used. This option causes the link to send the channel ID in the first response to a
Response          connection request.
Store Channel ID This option causes the ISDN line to get a free B-channel, store it, and include the channel
in Outgoing Calls ID in the message when an outgoing call is requested. This may be necessary if the switch
                  considers the channel ID a mandatory information element in a connection request
                  message.
T200              Data-layer timer. When the router sends a command, this timer determines how long it
                  should wait for a response.
N200              Data-layer number of re-tries. When the T200 period passes without a response, the
                  command is re-sent up to N200 times.
T203              When no messages are received for T203 seconds, an enquiry (RR or RNR) is sent.

At the end of this parameter list appears the menu for the dial-out table. It can also be reached by using the <ESC> key
at any time during the parameter list. Each entry is an association between a channel and the IP Address and Phone
number at the other end of the connection. The router uses the IP information stored here in its routing table. When
a packet arrives at the router, and the IP is listed in the dial-out table, the router will attempt a connection on the slot
indicated using the associated phone number. The parameters for each entry are given next.



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Add Entry Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1(ISDN-PRI)= >ISDN =><ESC> =>ADD ENTRY
Parameter            Description
Destination IP       IP Address assigned to the remote connection.
Address
Destination          Phone number assigned to the remote connection
Phone #
Slot N Channel #     Channel used to reach this destination.

The CAS Signaling Mode
A typical application that uses CAS Signaling is shown in Figure 9.4.



                             Application    Integrated    CAS Line
                               Server          RAS

                                                                        Telephone
                                                                         Network
                                                                                    Analog Line
                       Router                                     Analog Line

                                                          PC
                                                                                Remote Users
                                                  PC

                                    FIGURE 9.4 CAS APPLICATION EXAMPLE




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The CAS Signaling Mode does not have a menu equivalent to the CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1(ISDN-PRI)
=>ISDN menu described above. Both signaling modes have a mode-specific menu at the channel level, with different
names, but basically the same function. This menu, CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>SIGNALING,
will be described in the next section. The Interface Configuration tree for E1/T1 with CAS Signaling is shown in Figure
9.5

  Config      Interface     E1/T1 (CAS)          One Channel         Encapsulation
                                                                     Network Protocol
                                                                     Routing Protocol
                                                                     Signaling
                                                                     Traffic Control      Bandwidth
                                                                                          IP Traffic Control List
                                                                     Authentication       Authentication Type
                                                                                          Username
                                                                                          Password
                                                                                          Authentication Server
                                                                     Wizards              Authentication Protocol


                                                 Range                Same Parameters as One Channel
                                                 All Channels         Same Parameters as One Channel

                          FIGURE 9.5 CAS INTERFACE CONFIGURATION MENU TREE




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Parameters Independent of Signaling Mode
The channel specific parameters can be set for each channel individually, for a range of channels, or for all channels.
Wizards are available to automatically configure the channels for typical applications. The notation <CHANNEL> will
be used to represent One Channel, Range, or All Channels where appropriate. The following menu options are
available for each channel:

Channel Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>T1/E1=><CHANNEL>
Menu Option               Description
Encapsulation             Determines the data-link layer protocol to be used for this communication link.
Network Protocol          Provides menus for the IP and Transparent Bridge parameters, including rules to be
                          applied to this interface.
Routing Protocol          Configures RIP parameters.
ISDN(CCS) /               Sets parameters particular to the signaling mode, and determines the phone number
Signaling (CAS)           and modem profile.
Traffic Control           Sets the Bandwidth of the connection for use with traffic control rules and associates a
                          Traffic Control Rule List to this interface. See section 4.7 for more information on
                          traffic control rules.
Authentication            Determines the method used for authentication for connections on this line.
Wizards                   Tools that aid in the configuration of the interface for common applications.




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The encapsulation options are shown in the following table.

Encapsulation Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPSULATION
Menu Options             Description
PPP                      The PPP (Point-to-Point) protocol and Multilink PPP are provided.
PPPCHAR                  Sends a character login prompt, but automatically switches to PPP if requested.
                         Please see the description of the PPP and CHAR protocols for more information.
CHAR                     Sends a login prompt and accepts only character-mode connections.
Slip                     Provides a Slip connection. This encapsulation option has no parameters.
SlipCHAR                 Sends a character login prompt, but automatically switches to Slip if a Slip frame is
                         received. This encapsulation option has no parameters.
Inactive                 This menu option must be chosen whenever the encapsulation is changed from one
                         type to another. One must be deactivated before another can be activated.




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Multilink PPP (MLPPP) is similar in functionality to the Multilink feature described in section 4.4, but it is implemented
at the data-link level instead of the network-protocol level. When compared to Multilink, MLPPP is slightly more efficient
and less generic (because it applies only to PPP encapsulation).

                                                                              Terminal
                        Terminal
                 (MLPPP ACTIVE)
                                                       Modem
                                                                                    ISDN-BRI Modem
                                      Modem                                         (MLPPP ACTIVE)
                                                          Telephone
                                                          Network

                                                                   ISDN-PRI



                                                                          T1/E1
                                                              PR4000



                                      FIGURE 9.6 MULTILINK PPP EXAMPLE
The example in Figure 9.6 is the most common use for MLPPP. The T1/E1 line has 23/30 channels with the same
trunk phone number. Sometimes more than one T1/E1 line is included in a trunk. A terminal with an ISDN-BRI ter-
minal adapter or two modems, configured to connect using MLPPP, can connect to the PR4000 by calling the trunk
phone number. Any of the T1/E1 channels can receive the calls, but the RAS will consider these channels one logi-
cal link. The first channel called will be the primary link and only its configuration will be considered.



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When a trunk contains more than two T1/E1 lines, more than one PR4000 is required. One multilink connection is
made by one PR4000 while another is made by another PR4000, so they cannot function independently. In this
situation, Multichassis Multilink PPP (MCPPP) must be activated. See chapter 4 for more details.

The PPP Encapsulation Menu tree is shown in Figure 9.7

    Config

   Interface    T1/E1     <Slot>     Encapsulation     PPP      MLPPP Active
                                                                Connection Type
                                                                Identification for This Bundle
                                                                Total Number of Lines for This Bundle
                                                                PPP Inactivity Timeout
                                                                Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression
                                                                Transmit Compressed Packets
                                                                Disable LCP ECHO Requests
                                                                Time Interval to Send Config Requests
                                                                Edit ACCM
                                                                Enable Predictor Compression
                                                                Number of Bits for Compression

                                   FIGURE 9.7 PPP ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE
A description of the parameters with values given for the example is presented in the table.




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PPP Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPSULATION =>PPP

Parameter                    Description
MLPPP                        Enables Multilink PPP on this interface.
Connection Type              Applies for MLPPP = Yes. Type of line used on this link.
                             Applies for MLPPP = Yes and Dial-out. In the example, this value is 6
Identification for This Bundle
Total Number of lines for    Applies for MLPPP = Yes. Maximum number of links allowed in the bundle. In
This Bundle                  the example, this number is 2 or larger.
PPP Inactivity Timeout       Applies to asynchronous connections only. The connection is closed when data
                             does not pass through the line for this period of time.
Enable Van Jacobson IP       Allows the link to receive compressed packets. This type of compression is
Header Compression           useful for low-speed links and/or small packets. It is not recommended for fast
                             links, as it requires CPU time.
Transmit Compressed          Applies when Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression is Yes. This
Packets                      parameter causes the link to send compressed packets.
Disable LCP Echo Requests LCP (Link Control Protocol) messages are normally exchanged to monitor the
                             status of the link. Disabling these messages reduces traffic, but the link then
                             has no way of knowing if the other end is still connected.
Time Interval to Send Config Config Request messages are used to negotiate the parameters at the start of a
Requests                     PPP connection. For a slow line, this time should be increased to allow the
                             reply to return to the sender. If not, the sender will assume it was lost and send
                             another.
This table is continued.




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PPP Menu (Continued)

Parameter                        Description
Edit ACCM                        Applies to asynchronous connections only. Permits control character mapping
                                 negotiation on asynchronous links. This is useful when you need to send a
                                 control character as data (e.g. XON/XOFF, Crtl A, etc.) over an asynchronous
                                 link and do not want it interpreted by the modem or other device in the middle.
                                 The map is built up with the following commands.
                                 Clear – Resets the ACCM table toggle;
                                 Toggle XON/XOFF – Add XON/XOFF control characters to the ACCM table;
                                 Toggle Char – Add other control characters to the ACCM table, using their
                                 ASCII value.
                                 Typing the option once (for example, X), includes it in the table. Typing it again
                                 excludes it from the table. See note after table.
Enable Predictor                 Enables data compression using the Predictor algorithm. This feature should
Compression                      be enabled only if Cyclades' equipment is being used on both ends of the
                                 connection because there is no established standard for data compression
                                 interoperability. Data compression is very CPU-intensive, making this feature
                                 effective only for links running at speeds under 1Mbps. At higher speeds, the
                                 time necessary to compress data offsets the gains in throughput achieved by
                                 data compression.
Number of Bits for               Applies when Predictor Compression Enabled. Sixteen is fastest, but 10 must
Compression                      be used if the router on the other end is a PathRouter, for compatibility.

Note: Asynchronous Control Character Map (ACCM) mapping is done by codifying one control character as two
special characters. This permits transparent transmission of control characters as data. Thirty-two bits are encoded
in such a way that each bit indicates if the corresponding control character should or should not be mapped to the two
character sequence. If the bit is set to 1, the character will be mapped. For example, if bit 17 and 19 are set to 1, the
corresponding characters in the ASCII table (DC1 or XON and DC3 or XOFF) will be encoded, and the corresponding
ACCM will be: 00 0A 00 00 (hex), (binary: 00000000 00001010 00000000 00000000), the bits set to 1 are the 17th and
19th, if counting from right to left, starting from 0.

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The parameters for PPPCHAR are a combination of those for PPP and CHAR. The PPPCHAR Menu tree is shown
in Figure 9.8. See the tables for the PPP and CHAR options for descriptions of the PPPCHAR parameters.

   Config

  Interface    E1/T1    <Channel>     Encapsulation    PPPCHAR   MLPPP Active
                                                                 Connection Type
                                                                 Identification for This Bundle
                                                                 Total Number of Lines for This Bundle
                                                                 PPP Inactivity Timeout
                                                                 Enable Van Jacobson IP Header
                                                                 Compression
                                                                 Transmit Compressed Packets
                                                                 Disable LCP ECHO Requests
                                                                 Time Interval to Send Config Requests
                                                                 Edit ACCM
                                                                 Enable Predictor Compression
                                                                 Number of Bits for Compression
                                                                 Switch Session Character Code
                                                                 Escape Session Character Code

                             FIGURE 9.8 PPPCHAR ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE




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The CHAR Encapsulation Menu tree is shown in Figure 9.9, and the table that follows gives a brief description of the
related parameters.

        Config

      Interface    T1/E1     <Channel>      Encapsulation    CHAR         Device Type
                                                                          Connection Type
                                                                          Number of Rings
                                                                          TCP Keep Alive Timer
                                                                          Terminal Type
                                                                          Switch Session Character Code
                                                                          Escape Session Character Code
                                                                          Username
                                                                          Wait For or Start a Connection
                                                                          Destination Hostname
                                                                          Filter Null Char After CR Char
                                                                          Idle Timeout In Minutes
                                                                          DTR On
                                                                          Device Will Send Echo

                               FIGURE 9.9 CHAR ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE.




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CHAR Encapsulation Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ENCAPSULATION =>CHAR

Parameter                 Description
Device Type               Determines whether a Terminal, Socket device, or Command Socket will be connected
                          to this port. Command Socket is used to send AT commands to control the
                          DSPs/modems. See table later in this chapter for acceptable AT commands.
Connection Type           Applies only to CAS. Whether the line will be used to receive (dial-in) or send (dial-
                          out) messages, or both.
Number of rings on        Applies only to CAS. Applies for Device Type Command Socket and Connection Type
which to answer           Dial-in or Both. Number of rings after which the DSP/modem answers automatically.
TCP Keep Alive            The delay between Keep Alive messages sent by TCP.
Timer
Terminal Type            For a terminal, ANSI is generally used. For a printer, dumblp is generally used.
Switch Session           Applies for Terminal Device Type. Control character used to switch sessions. 1 is
Character Code           Ctrl-A, 2 is Ctrl-B, etc. The value 254 disables this option.
Escape Session           Applies for Terminal Device Type. Control character used while in a telnet session, to
Character Code           return to the router menu without closing the session.
Username                 Applies for Terminal Device Type. Must be entered into the local user table first. See
                         section 4.3. If this parameter is left blank, the user will have to enter a username.
Wait for or Start a      Applies for Socket Device Type. Wait is used when the remote application will start
Connection               the communication. When Start is used, a connection is attempted as soon as the line
                         is considered operational.
Destination Hostname Applies for Socket Device Type. The remote hostname to which the socket will be
                         connected, if the previous parameter was start. This name must have been defined in
                         the host table. See section 4.2, menu CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>HOSTS.
Filter Null Char after Applies for Socket Device Type. Interprets a CR NULL sequence, received on a TCP
CR Char                  connection, as CR (only).
This table is continued.




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Idle Timeout in           Applies for Socket Device Type. The connection is broken if this time passes with no
Minutes                   traffic.
DTR ON Only if            Applies for Socket Device Type. If False, the Data Terminal Ready line is switched on
Socket Connection         when the router is booted.
Established
Device Attached to        Applies for Socket Device Type. Yes if the device attached to the socket will echo the
This Port Will Send       characters sent to it.
ECHO


The Network Protocol Menu tree is shown in figure 9.10, and its parameters are explained in the table that follows.

     Config

    Interface     E1/T1      <Channel>       Network Protocol     IP       Interface Unnumbered/Numbered
                                                                           Assign IP from Interface
                                                                           Primary IP address
                                                                           Subnet Mask
                                                                           Secondary IP Address
                                                                           Subnet Mask
                                                                           Enable Dynamic Local IP Address
                                                                           Remote IP Address Type
                                                                           Remote IP Address
                                                                           IP MTU
                                                                           IP Fragmentation Ignore Bit DF
                                                                           NAT
                                                                           ICMP Port
                                                                           Incoming Rule List Name
                                                                           Detailed Incoming IP Accounting
                                                                           Outgoing Rule List Name
                                                                           Detailed Outgoing IP Accounting
                                                                           Routing of Broadcast Messages

                               FIGURE 9.10 NETWORK PROTOCOL MENU TREE
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Network Protocol Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>NETWORK PROTOCOL =>IP

Parameter              Description
Interface              Unnumbered interfaces can be used for point-to-point connections.
Unnumbered
Assign IP From         Applies to Unnumbered interfaces. Applies the IP address of another router interface to
Interface              this one.
Primary IP Address     Applies to Numbered interfaces. Address assigned to this interface.
Subnet Mask            Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of the network.
Secondary IP           Applies to Numbered interfaces. Indicates a second (or third, up to eight) IP address that
Address                can be used to refer to this interface. This parameter and the next are repeated until no
                       value is entered. To remove an address that was entered here, type 0.0.0.0.
Subnet Mask            Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of Secondary IP Address.
Enable Dynamic         The terminal assigns an IP address to the router for purposes of their connection.
Local IP Address
Remote IP Address The terminal sends its IP address in the negotiation package.
Type                  Fixed: The IP address sent must match the number set in the next parameter.
                      Same Net: The IP address sent must be an address in the network set in the next
                      parameter.
                      Any: The IP address can be any number that does not conflict with any local IP address.
                      None: Any IP address is accepted. This is not recommended.
Remote IP Address If Remote IP Address Type not None. Used in conjunction with the previous parameter.
IP MTU                Assigns the size of the Maximum Transmission Unit for the interface. This determines
                      whether or not a given IP datagram is fragmented.
IP Fragmentation - When this parameter is set to No, the DF (Do Not Fragment) bit in the IP header causes
Ignore Bit DF         IP to reject a packet that is oversized: the router sends an ICMP message back to the
                      sender. When this parameter is Yes, the DF bit is ignored, the packet is fragmented, and
                      no message is sent back to the sender.
NAT                   Does not apply for Expanded NAT. Determines the type of IP address if NAT is being
                      used. Use Global otherwise. See section 4.3 for details on how to configure NAT.
This table is continued

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Network Protocol Menu (Continued)
Parameter              Description
ICMP Port              Active causes the router to send ICMP Port Unreachable messages when it receives
                       UDP or TCP messages for ports that are not recognized. This type of message is used
                       by some traceroute applications, and if disabled, the router might not be identified in the
                       traceroute output. However, there are security and performance reasons to leave this
                       option Inactive.
Incoming Rule List     Filter rule list for incoming packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this
                       parameter should be set.
Detailed Incoming      Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of IP
IP Accounting          Accounting later in this chapter. IP Accounting for a rule requires that the parameter
                       CONFIG =>RULES LIST=>IP=>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD RULE=>ALLOW
                       ACCOUNT PROCESS also be Yes.
Outgoing Rule List     Filter rule list for outgoing packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this
Name                   parameter should be set.
Detailed Outgoing      Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of Detailed
IP Accounting          Incoming IP Accounting.
Routing of             Activating this parameter causes the router to route broadcast messages from the
Broadcast              LAN to the WAN and vice-versa. An individual interface can be excluded by setting
Messages               this parameter to Inactive, without effecting the broadcast of messages on the other
                       interfaces. This is necessary with applications that use Netbios.

The only Routing Protocol available is RIP. The RIP Menu tree is shown in Figure 9.11.

   Config      Interface     T1/E1     <Channel>       Routing      RIP
                                                       Protocol                 Send RIP
                                                                                Listen RIP
                                                                                RIP2 Authentication
                                                                                Rip2 Authentication Password

                                FIGURE 9.11 ROUTING PROTOCOL MENU TREE

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Network Protocol Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =>RIP
Parameter           Description
Send RIP            Causes the router to transmit RIP messages.
Listen RIP          Causes the router to accept RIP messages.
RIP2 Authentication Applies if RIP2 was chosen in the first two options. Activates RIP message
                    authentication with a password.
RIP2 Authentication Applies if RIP2 Authentication is Active. Password used for both received and
Password            transmitted RIP messages.

For each channel, certain signaling parameters must be configured. This menu tree is shown in Figure 9.12.

  Config         Interface         E1/T1         <Channel>       ISDN/               Connection Type
                                                                SIgnaling            Number of Rings
                                                                                     Phone #
                                                                                     Increment By
                                                                                     Digital Modem Profile ID
                                                                                     Automatic Dial Out
                                                                                     Use DSP to Dial-Out

                          FIGURE 9.12 CHANNEL ISDN (OR SIGNALING) MENU TREE




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Channel ISDN Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>T1/E1(ISDN-PRI)=><CHANNEL>=>ISDN
Channel Signaling Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>T1/E1(CAS)=><CHANNEL>=>SIGNALING

Parameter          Description
Connection Type    Applies only for ISDN. Whether the line will be used to receive (dial-in) or send (dial-out)
                   messages, or both.
Number of rings on Applies for Device Type Command Socket and Connection Type Dial-in or Both and for
which to answer    ISDN. Number of rings after which the DSP/modem answers automatically.
Phone # for this   Applies for Dial-in, or Both. If a specific phone number is assigned to each channel,
Channel            enter it here. Usually this does not happen.
Increment By       Applies when all channels or a group of channels is being configured. The phone
                   number above is applied to the first channel and the following channels will be assigned
                   phone numbers consecutively, with the Increment By value determining the value for
                   each following channel.
Digital Modem      Applies for Dial-in, or Both. The modem profiles are defined in CONFIG =>SYSTEM
Profile ID         =>MODEMS =>DIGITAL MODEM.
Automatic Dial Out Applies only for ISDN and Dial-out. If Yes, the router will try to connect with the first
                   destination listed in the dial-out table as soon as the ISDN line is up and synchronized. If
                   No, the connection will occur only on demand.
Use DSP to Dial    Applies only for ISDN and Dial-out or Both. If Yes, the connection will be analog
Out                (modem). If No, digital.

Below is a table of AT commands used to control the DSPs/modems for the Command Socket Device Type mentioned
above.

+++                   Escapes to the on-line command mode
A/                    Executes again the last command issued. Used primarily to redial.
AT                    Used alone to test for OK results. Also used as a command prefix.
A                     Manual answer : goes off hook in answer mode.
D# or DT#             Dials the specified phone number.
This table is continued.

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C#                    Sets local echo. #=0 - echo OFF, #=1 - echo ON *
H#                    Control ON/OFF hook. #=0 - hangs up (goes on hook), #=1 - goes off
I0                    Not defined.
I1                    Displays current modem settings.
I2                    Displays current P-register settings.
I3                    Displays current status register settings.
O                     Returns on-line after escape sequence.
Pr=#                  Sets special P-register r to value . Accepts hexadecimal values when = is followed by x.
                      Ex : ATP1=1 P19=xEE3C means set the P-register 1 to value 1 and P-register 19 to
                      value 0xEE3C. The P-registers are defined in documentation on modem parameters.
Q#                    Displays/ suppresses result codes. #=0 - result codes displayed * , #=1 - result codes
                      hidden.
Sr?                   Displays decimal contents of S-register r
Sr=#                  Sets S-register r to value #. Accepts hexadecimal values when = is followed by x. Ex:
                      ATS1=1 S2=x2b means set S-register 1 to value 1 and S-register 2 to value 0x2b.
S0=#                  Sets the number of rings after which auto answer mode takes over. When set to 0, auto
                      answer is disabled. 0 is the default value.
S1=#                  Counts and stores the number of rings from a incoming call. (S0 must be greater than 0.)
                      0 is the default value.
S2=#                  Stores the ASCII decimal code for the escape code character. 43, representing "+", is the
                      default value.
S3=#                  Stores the ASCII decimal code for the Carriage Return character. 13 is the default value.
S4=#                  Stores the ASCII decimal code for the Line Feed character. 10 is the default value.
S5=#                  Stores the ASCII decimal code for the Backspace character. 8 is the default value.
S6=#                  Sets the duration, in units of 10 ms, of the guard time for the escape code sequence.
                      100 is the default value.
X#                    Sets result code displayed.
X0                    "CONNECT"
X1                    "CONNECT <speed>"
This table is continued.

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X2                     "CONNECT <speed> CALLER_ID <number>"
X3                     "CONNECT <speed> CALLER_ID <number>",
                       "NO CARRIER Cause 0xnn", "BUSY Cause 0xnn"
                       where <speed> = carrier family, connection speed Rx/Tx, compression protocol.
Z                      Resets the modem.
R#                     Reserve the channel for future use. In this state, the channel cannot accept incoming
                       calls. #=0 Releases the channel and #=1 reserves the channel.
&N#                    Sets the connection speed. If the connection cannot be established at this speed,
                       the modem will hang up.
&N0                    Variable rate, which is the default.
&N1                    300 bps
&N2                    600 bps
&N3                    1,200 bps
&N4                    2,400 bps
&N5                    4,800 bps
&N6                    7,200 bps
&N7                    9,600 bps




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The Authentication Menu Tree, which appears only for PPP and PPPCHAR encapsulation (and CHAR encaptulation
for terminal or socket), is shown in Figures 9.4 and 9.5.

Authentication Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1=><CHANNEL> =>AUTHENTICATION
Parameter             Description
Authentication Type   Local uses the list of users defined in CONFIG=> SECURITY=>USERS=>ADD.
                      Server uses either Radius or Tacacs to authenticate the user.
                      Remote is when this interface is considered to be the user and the other end of the
                      connection performs the authentication
Username              Applies when Authentication Type is Remote. The username the remote device
                      expects to receive.
Password              Applies when Authentication Type is Remote. The password the remote device
                      expects to receive.
Authentication Server Applies when Authentication Type is Server. Indicates that either a Radius or Tacacs
                      server is used for validation. The location and other parameters of the server must be
                      configured in CONFIG=> SECURITY. See section 4.3.
Authentication        Applies when Authentication Type is Local or Server and PPP or PPPCHAR
Protocol              encapsulation is used. Either PAP or CHAP or both can be used for authentication.




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Wizards were created to simplify the E1/T1 configuration for common applications. The Wizards Menu tree is shown
in Figure 9.13, and its parameters are explained in the next table. The parameters set automatically are given in the
tables that follow.

   Config

  Interface     T1/E1      <Channel>       Wizards        TS Profile                   Phone #
                                                                                       Digital Modem Profile ID
                                                                                       Username

                                                          RAS Profile                  Phone #
                                                                                       Digital Modem Profile ID
                                                                                       Remote IP Address
                                                          LAN-to-LAN Profile           Phone #
                                                                                       Digital Modem Profile ID
                                                                                       Primary IP Address
                                                                                       Subnet Mask
                                                                                       Secondary IP Address
                                                                                       Subnet Mask
                                                                                       Remote IP Address Type
                                                                                       Remote IP Address

                                                          Copy From Channel            Channel

                                       FIGURE 9.13 WIZARDS MENU TREE




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Wizards Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>T1/E1 =><CHANNEL> =>WIZARDS

Menu Items               Description
TS Profile               Used to create a local host Terminal Server. For CCS, the only parameter is the
                         Username. For CAS, the parameters are the Username, the Phone Number for the
                         channel, and the Digital Modem Profile ID.
RAS Profile              Used to set up a PPP Remote Access Server using modems and dial-up lines. The
                         Remote IP Address of the first port is the only parameter, for CCS. For CAS, the
                         parameters are Remote IP Address, the Phone Number for the channel, and the
                         Digital Modem Profile ID. If the Wizard is used for a range or all ports, the following
                         ports will be the numbered consecutively.
Lan-to-Lan Profile       Used to connect two LANs. The only parameters are the Primary IP Address, the
                         Subnet Mask, any Secondary IP Addresses and Subnet Masks, the Remote IP
                         Address Type and the Address. For CAS, the parameters Phone Number and Digital
                         Modem Profile ID are also requested.
Copy From Channel        Used to copy an entire configuration from one channel to another, while changing the
                         IP address so that the ports are numbered consecutively.

The parameters automatically configured by the terminal server wizard are shown in Figure 9.14.

                     Encapsulation                        CHAR
                     Device Type                          Terminal
                     TCP KeepAlive                        Inactive
                     Terminal Type                        ANSI
                     Escape Session Character Code        1
                     Switch Session Character Code        11
                     Direct Login User                    ***
                     Dial-Out                             Non-Automatic (CCS only)
                     Phone #                              *** for CAS
                     Digital Modem Profile ID #           *** for CAS

                             FIGURE 9.14 PARAMETERS SET BY THE TS WIZARD
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The parameters automatically configured by the RAS wizard are shown in Figure 9.15.
                  Encapsulation                            PPPCHAR
                  IP Protocol                              Active
                  Interface                                Unnumbered
                  Primary IP Address                       ***
                  Subnet Mask                              *Depends on the IP
                  Remote IP Address Type                   Fixed
                  Remote IP Address                        ***
                  IP MTU                                   1500
                  NAT - Address Scope                      Global
                  ICMP Port                                Inactive
                  Incoming Filter List                     None
                  Outgoing Filter List None                None
                  Interface Transparent Bridge             Inactive
                  Bandwidth                                0
                  IP Traffic Control List                  None
                  Van Jacobson IP Header Compression       Disabled
                  LCP ECHO Requests                        Enabled
                  Time Interval to Send Config Requests:   1
                  ACCM for Reception:                      000A0000
                  Escape Session Character Code            1
                  Switch Session Character Code            11
                  Predictor Compression                    Disabled
                  Inactivity Timeout                       None
                  Link Authentication Method               PAP/CHAP Local Authenticator
                  Connection                               Dial-In
                  Phone #                                  *** for CAS
                  Digital Modem Profile ID #               *** for CAS

                             FIGURE 9.15 PARAMETERS SET BY THE RAS WIZARD

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The parameters automatically set by the Lan-to-Lan wizard are shown in Figure 9.16.

                  Encapsulation                            PPP
                  IP Protocol                              Active
                  Interface                                Numbered
                  Primary IP Address                       ***
                  Subnet Mask                              ***
                  Secondary IP Address                     ***
                  Secondary Subnet Mask                    ***
                  Remote IP Address Type                   ***
                  Remote IP Address                        ***
                  IP MTU                                   1500
                  NAT - Address Scope                      Global
                  ICMP Port                                Inactive
                  Incoming Filter List                     None
                  Outgoing Filter List None                None
                  Interface Transparent Bridge             Inactive
                  Bandwidth                                0
                  IP Traffic Control List                  None
                  Van Jacobson IP Header Compression       Disabled
                  LCP ECHO Requests                        Enabled
                  Time Interval to Send Config Requests:   1
                  ACCM for Reception:                      00000000
                  Predictor Compression                    Disabled
                  Inactivity Timeout                       None
                  Link Authentication Method               None
                  Connection                               Dial-In
                  Phone #                                  *** for CAS
                  Digital Modem Profile ID #               *** for CAS

                        FIGURE 9.16 PARAMETERS SET BY THE LAN-TO-LAN WIZARD

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CHAPTER 10 THE ISDN-BRI INTERFACE
Note: Please contact Cyclades directly for sales information about this product.
ISDN, the Integrated Services Digital Network, was intended to be a digital upgrade to the current analog telephone
system. The ISDN discussed in this chapter is N-ISDN, where the N is for Narrow Band. A Broad Band ISDN also
exists. There are two ISDN interfaces:

  BRI — Basic Rate Interface — used for residential or small-business access.
  PRI — Primary Rate Interface — used to provide access or used by large businesses for access.

The BRI interface is available on the PR3000. It accepts only digital connections. A summary menu tree for the
ISDN-BRI Interface is given in Figure 10.1.
  Config

  Interface     ISDN-BRI          Encapsulation     <Channel>       Frame Relay [menu shown in a later figure]
                                                                    PPP [menu shown in a later figure]
                                                                    X.25 [menu shown in a later figure]
                                                                    HDLC              Keep Alive Interval
                                                                    Inactive

                 Network Protocol        <Channel> [menu shown in a later figure]
                 Routing Protocol        <Channel> [menu shown in a later figure]
                 ISDN [menu shown in a later figure]      <Channel>        General       Bandwidth
                                                                                         IP Traffic Control List
                 Traffic Control        <Channel>       Authentication Type
                                                        Username
                                                        Password
                 Authentication                         Authentication Server
                                                        Authentication Protocol
                     FIGURE 10.1 ISDN-BRI INTERFACE CONFIGURATION MENU TREE
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A brief description of each principal item appears in the following table.

ISDN-BRI Interface Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>ISDN-BRI
Menu Item                Description
Encapsulation            Determines the data-link layer protocol to be used for this communication link.
Network Protocol         Provides menus for the IP and Transparent Bridge parameters, including rules to be
                         applied to this interface.
Routing Protocol         Submenus for RIP and OSPF configuration.
ISDN                     Defines the ISDN-specific parameters for this interface.
Traffic Control          Sets the bandwidth of the connection for use with traffic control rules and associates a
                         traffic control rule list to this interface. See section 4.7 for more information on traffic
                         control rules.
Authentication           Determines the method used for authentication for connections on this line.

There are many synchronous encapsulation options on this interface: Frame Relay, PPP, X.25, and HDLC.

Encapsulation Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>ENCAPSULATION =><CHANNEL>
Menu Option              Description
Frame Relay              The Frame Relay Protocol is based on frame switching and constructs a permanent
                         virtual circuit (PVC) between two or more points.
PPP                      The PPP (Point-to-Point) protocol and Multilink PPP are provided.
X.25                     The X.25 Protocol is generally used to connect to a public network. The router can act
                         either as a DTE or a DCE.
HDLC                     This protocol has only one parameter: HDLC Keepalive Interval. This is the time
                         interval between transmission of Keepalive messages. The receiver of these
                         messages must send keepalive messages with the same frequency or will be
                         considered inoperative.
Inactive                 This menu option must be chosen whenever the encapsulation is changed from one
                         type to another. One must be deactivated before another can be activated.

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Frame Relay
FR supports multiple connections over a single link. Each data link connection (DLC) has a unique DLCI (data
link connection identifier). This allows multiple logical connections to be multiplexed over a single channel.
These are called Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs). The DLCI has only local significance and each end of the
logical connection assigns its own DLCI from the available local numbers.

A public Frame Relay network connecting offices in Ottawa, Montréal, Saskatoon, and Vancouver is shown in
Figures 10.2 and 10.3.

                              Ottawa                         Montréal
                              Network: 192.168.200.0         Network: 192.168.201.0



                                  Router                            Router
                                  200.1.1.1                       200.1.1.4
                                                FR Network
                                                 200.1.1.0
                                  200.1.1.2                       200.1.1.3
                                  Router                            Router



                                  Saskatoon                  Vancouver
                                  Network: 192.168.203.0     Network: 192.168.202.0

                          FIGURE 10.2 PUBLIC FRAME RELAY NETWORK EXAMPLE



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Each router will have a routing table pairing destination network with router interface and gateway. A Frame Relay
Address Map is also created (either statically or dynamically) to associate each DLCI with the destination router
IP.

                              Ottawa                          Montréal
                              Network: 192.168.200.0          Network: 192.168.201.0



                                  Router                              Router
                                  200.1.1.1                         200.1.1.4
                                                       21
                                              11
                                                      81
                                  200.1.1.2                         200.1.1.3
                                  Router                              Router



                                  Saskatoon                   Vancouver
                                  Network: 192.168.203.0      Network: 192.168.202.0

                     FIGURE 10.3 PERMANENT VIRTUAL CIRCUITS BETWEEN OFFICES
For the router in Saskatoon, the Frame Relay address map will look like this:

                                                   DLCI        IP
                                                    11      200.1.1.1
                                                    21      200.1.1.4
                                                    81      200.1.1.3



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These values are entered in the Add DLCI menu.

The Local Management Interface (LMI) Protocol provides services not available in simple Frame Relay. It is used
for controlling the connection between the user and the network. It monitors this link, maintains the list of DLCs,
and sends status messages about the PVCs. A separate virtual circuit is created to pass this information (DLCI
0).

Sub-Network Access Protocol (SNAP)
A normal Frame Relay Network header contains the NLPID (Network Level Protocol ID) field to identify which
protocol provided the information encapsulated in the data field.

                            flag address - control optional NLPID data FCS flag
                                 including         pad
                                 DLCI
                                  FIGURE 10.4 NORMAL HEADER USING NLPID
For those protocols which do not have an NLPID defined, the SNAP header must be used. The NLPID field
remains, but contains a value (0x80) that indicates that the SNAP information follows.

                      flag address - control optional NLPID OUI PID data FCS flag
                           including         pad      = 0x80
                           DLCI
                                      FIGURE 10.5 HEADER USING SNAP
The three-octet Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) and the two-octet Protocol Identifier (PID) which follow
define a distinct protocol. See RFC 1490 for details.




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The Frame Relay Encapsulation Menu tree is shown in Figure 10.6.

   Config

  Interface
 ISDN-BRI       Encapsulation     <Channel>   Frame Relay          SNAP IP
                                                                   LMI
                                                                   T391
                                                                   N391
                                                                   N392
                                                                   N393
                                                                   CIR
                                                                   Bandwidth Reservation
                                                                   Add DLCI      DLCI Number
                                                                                 Frame Relay
                                                                                 Address Map
                                                                                 IP Address
                                                                                 Enable Predictor
                                                                                 Compression
                                                                                 Number of Bits for
                                                                                 Compression
                                                                                 DLCI priority level
                                                                                 Reserved Bandwidth
                                                                                 Bandwidth Priority Level
                                                                   Delete DLCI   Map Entry Number
                                                                   Edit DLCI     Table Entry

                         FIGURE 10.6 FRAME RELAY ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE




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A detailed explanation of the Frame Relay parameters is given in the following tables.

Frame Relay Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>ENCAPSULATION =><CHANNEL> =>FRAME
RELAY
Parameter           Description
SNAP IP             Indicates that the Sub-Network Access Protocol should be used. See description above.
                    From a network administrator's point of view, the router on the sending end must be using
                    the same header type (NLPID or SNAP) as the router on the receiving end.
LMI                 Selects the Local Management Interface specification to be used. ANSI, Group of Four
                    (defined by the vendors that first implemented Frame Relay), Q933a (defined by ITU-T),
                    and None (used for a dedicated FR connection without a network).
T391                Interval between the LMI Status Enquiry messages.
N391                Full Status Polling Counter. Full Status Enquiry messages are sent every N391-th LMI
                    Status Enquiry message.
N392                Error Threshold. The network counts how many events occur within a given period and
                    considers an interface inactive when the number of events exceeds a threshold. N393 is
                    the number of events to be considered and N392 the number of errors within this period. If
                    N392 of the last N393 events are errors, the interface is deemed inactive. A successful
                    event is the receipt of a valid Status Enquiry message
N393                Monitored Events Count. See the description of N392. This value must be larger than
                    N392.
CIR                 Committed Information Rate, in percentage of total bandwidth (given in CONFIG
                    =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>TRAFFIC CONTROL=> <CHANNEL> =>GENERAL
                    =>BANDWIDTH). Traffic above this rate may be discarded if the network is congested.
Bandwidth           Enables traffic control per DLCI. See the Add DLCI menu for more details.
Reservation

The following menu appears at the end of the Frame Relay parameter list. It can be reached by passing through
all parameters or by using the <ESC> key at any point in the parameter list.


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DLCI Frame Relay Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>ENCAPS =><CHANNEL> =>FRAME
RELAY =><ESC>

Menu Option          Description
Add DLCI             Adds a DLC for this interface to the DLCI table.
Delete DLCI          CyROS puts all DLCIs in a table. The list command (L) must be used to discover this
                     number in order to delete the DLCI.
Edit DLCI            CyROS puts all DLCIs in a table. The list command (L) must be used to discover this
                     number in order to edit the DLCI.

Traffic Control based on Data Link Connection
Traffic Control as described in section 4.7 can also be performed on a Frame Relay interface for each permanent
virtual connection. The parameters in the Add DLCI menu are used in the same manner as those described in
section 4.7.

Add DLCI Frame Relay Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>ISDN-BRI=>ENCAPS =><CHANNEL> =>FRAME
RELAY =><ESC> =>ADD DLCI

Parameter           Description
DLCI Number         Used to identify the DLC. This number is supplied by the Public Frame Relay network
                    provider. The DLCIs are stored in a table which can be seen with the L command.
Frame Relay         Determines the method used for mapping the remote IP address to the Permanent Virtual
Address Map         Circuit. Static maps one IP address to this DLCI. Inverse ARP maps the IP address
                    dynamically, in a manner similar to the ARP table.
IP Address          Applies when Frame Relay Address Map is Static. Provides the IP address to be used for
                    static address mapping.
this table continued




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Add DLCI Frame Relay Menu (continued)

Enable Predictor Enables data compression using the Predictor algorithm. This feature should be enabled
Compression      only if Cyclades' equipment is being used on both ends of the connection because there is
                 no established standard for data compression interoperability. Data compression is very
                 CPU-intensive, making this feature effective only for links running at speeds under 1Mbps.
                 At higher speeds, the time necessary to compress data offsets the gains in throughput
                 achieved by data compression.
Number of Bits   Applies when Predictor Compression Enabled. Sixteen is fastest, but 10 must be used if
for Compression the router on the other end is a PathRouter, for compatibility.
DLCI Priority    This is the equivalent of CONFIG=>RULES LIST=>IP =>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD
Level            RULE=>FLOW PRIORITY LEVEL. Indicates the relative priority of the frame for insertion
                 into queues in the router. A frame with priority 1 will enter the queue if there is any space
                 available. A frame with priority 2 will enter the queue if at least 20% of the space is
                 available, and so on (40% free for priority 3, 60% free for priority 4, and 80% free for priority
                 5). Frames with priority x + 1 will always enter after frames with priority x, x-1, etc. Priority
                 0 is similar to Priority 5, but these packets always enter the queue. All frames that do not
                 enter the queue are DISCARDED. Use this feature with caution!
Reserved         This is the equivalent of CONFIG=>RULES LIST=>IP =>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD
Bandwidth        RULE=>RESERVED BANDWIDTH. Defines what percentage of the total bandwidth on an
                 interface will be set aside for this DLC.
Bandwidth        This is the equivalent of CONFIG=>RULES LIST=>IP =>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD
Priority Level   RULE=>BANDWIDTH PRIORITY LEVEL. Two DLCs with the same priority cannot share
                 bandwidth when one DLC does not need its entire allotment. For two DLCs with different
                 priorities, the DLC with the higher priority can steal bandwidth from the other when it is not
                 in use. Priority is relative -- two DLCs with priorities 1 and 5 are the same as two DLCs
                 with priorities 3 and 4 (if there are no other DLCs).




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PPP
Multilink PPP (MLPPP) is similar in functionality to the Multilink feature described in section 4.4, but it is implemented
at the data-link level instead of the network-protocol level. When compared to Multilink, MLPPP is slightly more
efficient and less generic (because it applies only to PPP encapsulation).

                                               Router A

                                                          Modem

                                     Modem                       Modem

                                           Modem                  Link 2 (Bundle 6)
                                                     Link 1
                                                 (Bundle 6)
                                                                     Router B

                                     FIGURE 10.7 MULTILINK PPP EXAMPLE

In figure 10.7, Router B connects to Router A via two modem connections to achieve a larger bandwidth. Router
A accepts the two physical connections, but treats them as one logical connection (one “bundle”). MLPPP must
be enabled on all interfaces that will form this bundle, (and on both sides of the connection), with the same bundle
identifier specified for each.

The PPP Encapsulation Menu tree is shown in Figure 10.8. A description of the parameters with values given for
the example is presented in the table.




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PPP Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPSULATION=>PPP
Parameter                 Description
MLPPP                     Enables Multilink PPP on this interface.
Dial-in, etc.             Applies for MLPPP = Yes. Type of line used on this link.
Identification for This   Applies for MLPPP = Yes and Dial-out or Leased. In the example, this value is 6.
Bundle
Total Number of lines Applies for MLPPP = Yes. Maximum number of links allowed in the bundle. In the
for This Bundle       example, this number is 2 or larger.
Enable Van Jacobson   Allows the link to receive compressed packets. This type of compression is useful for
IP Header             low-speed links and/or small packets. It is not recommended for fast links, as it
Compression           requires CPU time.
Transmit Compressed   Applies when Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression is Yes. This parameter
Packets               causes the link to send compressed packets.
Disable LCP Echo      LCP (Link Control Protocol) messages are normally exchanged to monitor the status of
Requests              the link. Disabling these messages reduces traffic, but the link then has no way of
                      knowing if the other end is still connected.
Time Interval to Send Config Request messages are used to negotiate the parameters at the start of a PPP
Config Requests       connection. For a slow line, this time should be increased to allow the reply to return
                      to the sender. If not, the sender will assume it was lost and send another.
Enable Predictor      Enables data compression using the Predictor algorithm. This feature should be
Compression           enabled only if Cyclades' equipment is being used on both ends of the connection
                      because there is no established standard for data compression interoperability. Data
                      compression is very CPU-intensive, making this feature effective only for links running
                      at speeds under 1Mbps. At higher speeds, the time necessary to compress data
                      offsets the gains in throughput achieved by data compression.
Number of Bits for    Applies when Predictor Compression Enabled. Sixteen is fastest, but 10 must be used
Compression           if the router on the other end is a PathRouter, for compatibility.




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Note: Asynchronous Control Character Map (ACCM) mapping is done by codifying one control character as two
special characters. This permits transparent transmission of control characters as data. Thirty-two bits are
encoded in such a way that each bit indicates if the corresponding control character should or should not be
mapped to the two character sequence. If the bit is set to 1, the character will be mapped. For example, if bit 17
and 19 are set to 1, the corresponding characters in the ASCII table (DC1 or XON and DC3 or XOFF) will be
encoded, and the corresponding ACCM will be: 00 0A 00 00 (hex), (binary: 00000000 00001010 00000000
00000000), the bits set to 1 are the 17th and 19th, if counting from right to left, starting from 0.

      Config


     Interface

     ISDN-BRI      Encapsulation      <Channel>   PPP       MLPPP Active
                                                            Dial-in, etc.
                                                            Identification for This Bundle
                                                            Total Number of Lines for This Bundle
                                                            Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression
                                                            Transmit Compressed Packets
                                                            Disable LCP ECHO Requests
                                                            Time Interval to Send Config Requests
                                                            Enable Predictor Compression
                                                            Number of Bits for Compression

                                  FIGURE 10.8 PPP ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE

X.25
A Cyclades Router can act either as a DTE (Data-terminal Equipment) connected to a public X.25 network or as
a DTE or DCE (Data circuit-terminating Equipment) as part of a private X.25 network. As seen in Figures 10.9 and
10.10, the determination of DTE or DCE depends on the position and use of the router within the network.



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Both Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) and Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs) can be defined. A PVC requires that
two DTEs be permanently connected.




                                                   Modem or
                                                   DSU/CSU


                      Router / DTE                                         Router / DTE



                                        Switch / DCE        Switch / DCE
                                                   X.25


                                  FIGURE 10.9 PUBLIC X.25 NETWORK EXAMPLE




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                                    Router A

                                    DTE                                    Router B
                                           Link 3   Link 1
                                                                  DTE
                                        DCE
                                                       DCE
                                    Router C                 Link 2
                                                 DCE

                                                                 DTE
                                                                        Router D


                                        FIGURE 10.10 PRIVATE WAN
In the Private WAN network example, the central router acts as a switch connecting the other three. A type of
bridge must be configured to allow switched virtual connections passing through the router. The “switch” must be
configured on both of the interfaces involved in the bridge. The X.25 parameters Packet Size and Window Sizes




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should be the same on both interfaces to prevent bottlenecks.

The first X.25 menu tree is shown in Figure 10.11

 Config

Interface    ISDN-BRI       Encapsulation   <Channel>     X.25   X.121 (Local DTE) Address
                                                                 Switch Mode Active
                                                                 Incoming Calls...Forwarded
                                                                 Suppress Calling Address
                                                                 Inactivity Timeout
                                                                 Configure as DTE or DCE
                                                                 Number of Virtual Circuits
                                                                 Number of Permanent Virtual Circuits
                                                                 Layer 3 Window Size
                                                                 Layer 2 Window Size
                                                                 Packet Size
                                                                 Number of Retries N2
                                                                 TL
                                                                 T2
                                                                 T21
                                                                 T23
                                                                 Negotiable Facilities
                                                                 Send Facility
                                                                 Add DTE [shown in DTE Menu Diagram]
                                                                 Delete DTE [shown in DTE Menu Diagram]
                                                                 Edit DTE [shown in DTE Menu Diagram]
                                                                 Terminal PAD for X.25
                                                                 Encapsulation [shown in a later figure]
                                                                 Network Protocol [shown in a later figure]
                                                                 Physical [shown in a later figure]
                                                                 Authentication [shown in a later figure]

                                       FIGURE 10.11 X.25 MENU TREE

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    Config

   Interface

  ISDN-BRI       Encapsulation     <Channel>      X.25      Add DTE         Type of Logical Address
                                                                            IP Address
                                                                            X25 Socket Port
                                                                            X.121 (DTE) Address
                                                                            VC Number
                                                                            Packet Transaction
                                                                            Automatic Mode
                                                                            User Data Len
                                                                            User Data
                                                                            Enable Predictor Compression
                                                                            Number of Bits for Compression



                                                            Delete DTE     Host Number to Delete

                                                            Edit DTE      Host Number to Change

                                   FIGURE 10.12 X.25 DTE MENU TREE
A detailed description of the X.25 parameters for the two examples given above is provided in the table below.




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X.25 Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>ENCAPS =><CHANNEL> =>X.25
Parameter             Description
X.121 (Local DTE)     Address assigned to this interface (provided by the public X.25 Network Provider).
Address               Can be up to 15 digits.
Switch Mode Active    Private WAN: In the example, Router C is used to connect three internal X.25
                      networks. To allow bridging from Router B to Router D across Router C, this
                      parameter must be Yes on both link 1 and link 2 .
Incoming Calls        Applies when Switch Mode is Active. Private WAN: When Router C receives a
Received Over the     packet from Router B with an unknown address, it can take two actions: if this
Other X.25 Links With parameter is No on both link 2 and link 3, the packet is discarded. If either link 2 or link
Unknown               3 has this parameter set to Yes, the packet is sent through that link. (If both are Yes,
Destination DTE Can the link with the lowest link number is chosen -- in this case link 2).
be Forwarded
Through This Link
Suppress Calling      Public X.25 Network: This parameter must be chosen according to the guidelines
Address               given by the Public X.25 Network provider. When activated, the sender's Local DTE
                      address is not included in the Call Request Message. Private WAN: This parameter
                      will be No as the network will not keep track of the sender of each packet.
Inactivity Timeout    Time until connection is automatically terminated by the router if there is no traffic.
Configure as DTE or As mentioned above, the router can act either as the recipient of information (DTE), or
DCE                   as the passer-on of information (DCE). Public X.25 Network: Both routers are DTEs
                      . Private WAN: Routers A,B, and D are DTEs and Router D is a DCE.
Number of Virtual     Indicates the maximum number of virtual circuits (total of PVCs and SVCs) allowed on
Circuits              this interface. The maximum is 64.
Number of Permanent Indicates the number of permanent virtual circuits that will be connected through this
Virtual Circuits      interface. This maximum is also 64.
this table continued




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X.25 Menu (Continued)
Parameter             Description
Layer 3 Window Size The layer 3 (packet) level window represents the number of sequentially numbered
                      packets that can be sent before an acknowledgement must be received. This number
                      may be negotiated if the Window Size Facility is utilized (see last parameter in this
                      table).
Layer 2 Window Size The layer 2 (frame) level window represents the number of sequentially numbered
                      frames that can be sent before an acknowledgement must be received. The frame
                      numbers are independent of the packet numbers.
Packet Size           The packet size to be sent across the interface. This number may be negotiated if the
                      Packet Size Facility is utilized (see last parameter in this table).
Number of Retries N2 Number of times an information frame can be resent, without response, before the link
                      is considered down.
TL                    Time the frame level waits for an acknowledgement for a given frame before re-
                      sending it.
T2                    Time that can elapse, after receiving a frame, until the router must send an
                      acknowledgement.
T21                   Call Request response Timer. After this time has elapsed, the DTE sends a Clear
                      message.
T23                   Clear Request response Timer. After this time has elapsed, the DTE retransmits the
                      Clear message.
Negotiable Facilities Initiates facility negotiation during virtual circuit creation.
Send Facility         Determines which facilities are negotiated during virtual circuit creation: Packet size is
                      part of the flow control parameters negotiation, Throughput is part of the throughput
                      class negotiation, and N3 Window (Level 3 Window Size, above) is part of the flow
                      control parameters negotiation.

The following menu appears at the end of the X.25 parameter list. It can be reached by passing through all
parameters or by using the <ESC> key at any point in the parameter list. This menu creates a static routing table
associating a remote X.121 address to an IP address or a TCP Socket location.

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X.25 Add DTE Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>ENCAPS =><CHANNEL> =>X.25 => <ESC>
=>Add DTE
Parameter                Description
Type of Logical          IP Address or TCP Socket. Users that intend to use the TCP Socket option should see
Address                  Appendix A.
IP Address               Applies for IP Address Type. IP Address of remote DTE device.
X.25 Socket Port         Applies for Socket Address Type. Must be a number in the interval defined by the
                         parameters CONFIG=>IP=>TCP PORT RANGES=>X25 SOCKET START/END PORT
                         RANGE.
X.121(DTE) Address       Address of remote DTE device.
VC Number                Number assigned to this circuit, if it is a PVC. For SVCs, the value should be zero.
Packet Transaction       Applies for Socket Address Type. See Appendix A.
Automatic Mode           Applies for Packet Transaction = Yes. See Appendix A.
User Data Len            Applies for Socket Address Type. Length of next parameter in bytes. See Appendix
                         A.
User Data                Applies for Socket Address Type. The value in the user data field of the Call Request
                         packet which determines which service on the remote host is being requested. 0xCC
                         is used for IP. See Appendix A.
Enable Predictor         Applies for IP Address Type. Enables data compression using the Predictor algorithm.
Compression              This feature should be enabled only if Cyclades' equipment is being used on both ends
                         of the connection because there is no established standard for data compression
                         interoperability. Data compression is very CPU-intensive, making this feature effective
                         only for links running at speeds under 1Mbps. At higher speeds, the time necessary to
                         compress data offsets the gains in throughput achieved by data compression.
Number of Bits for       Applies when Predictor Compression Enabled. Sixteen is fastest, but 10 must be used
Compression              if the router on the other end is a Cyclades PathRouter, for compatibility.




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PAD (Packet Assembler/Disassembler)
PAD acts as a protocol converter, allowing a user to access the packet-switched network via a serial terminal.
This asynchronous connection is then converted into synchronous communication with the router and the network
beyond (using the telnet application available in the router). Any user listed in the local user table can be connected
this way, and the menu options available to him are configured in the CONFIG=>SECURITY =>USERS=>ADD
menu.

CyROS provides for configuration of the X.3 parameters that define the connection between the PAD and the
router. When the PAD sends a connection request to the router, the router replies with the profile (the X.3 parameters)
to be used for the connection. The X.28 parameters that define the connection between the remote terminal and
the PAD are not considered. Link 1 of the Router in the PAD example must be configured for this type of access.




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With encapsulation type CHAR, pure X.25 is used. Optionally, PPP or PPPCHAR can run on top of X.25. These
protocols must be configured in the encapsulation menu, and related parameters are set in the Network Protocol,
Physical, and Authentication menus.

                                          Asynchronous
                        PC                 Connection
                                       Modem


                         X.28              PAD Public X.25                                         Synchronous
                    Parameters                  Network                                             Connection

                                                                                                     PR3000
                                                     Link 1
                                           X.3
                                    Parameters                                                       ETH0
                                                                                            ....
                                                                                      ......
                                                                                ......
                                                                          ......
                                                                    ......
                                                              ......




                                                                                                              Server


                                       FIGURE 10.13 PAD EXAMPLE




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     Config

    Interface
                                                           PPP        PPP Inactivity Timeout
                                                                      Enable Van Jacobson
   ISDN-BRI                                                           IP Header Compression
                                                                      Transmit Compressed Packets
                                                                      Disable LCP ECHO Requests
  Encapsulation                                                       Time interval to Send
                                                                      Config Requests
  <Channel>       X.25      Terminal PAD   Encapsulation              Edit ACCM
                            for X.25


                                                           PPPChar       PPP Inactivity Timeout
                                                                         Enable Van Jacobson
                                                                         IP header Compression
                                                                         Transmit Compressed Packets
                                                                         Disable LCP ECHO Requests
                                                                         Time Interval to Send
                                                                         Config Requests
                                                                         Edit ACCM
                                                                         Switch Session Character Code
                                                                         Escape Session Character Code

                                                           Char         Switch Session Character Code
                                                                        Escape Session Character Code
                                                                        Username

                                                           Inactive
                           FIGURE 10.14 X.25 PAD ENCAPSULATION MENU TREE




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The PAD Encapsulation menu tree is shown in Figure 10.14. Details on the configuration of each parameter are
given in the following table.

X.25 PAD PPP Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>ISDN-BRI =>ENCAPS =><CHANNEL> =>X.25 =><ESC>
=><ESC> =>ENCAPS =>PPP
Parameter             Description
PPP Inactivity        The connection is closed when data does not pass through the line for this period of
Timeout               time.
Enable Van Jacobson   Allows the link to receive compressed packets. This type of compression is useful for
IP Header             low-speed links and/or small packets. It is not recommended for fast links, as it
Compression           requires CPU time.
Transmit Compressed   Applies when Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression is Yes. This parameter
Packets               causes the link to send compressed packets.
Disable LCP Echo      LCP (Link Control Protocol) messages are normally exchanged to monitor the status of
Requests              the link. Disabling these messages reduces traffic, but the link then has no way of
                      knowing if the other end is still connected.
Time Interval to Send Config Request messages are used to negotiate the parameters at the start of a PPP
Config Requests       connection. For a slow line, this time should be increased to allow the reply to return
                      to the sender. If not, the sender will assume it was lost and send another.
Edit ACCM             Applies to asynchronous connections only. Permits control character mapping
                      negotiation on asynchronous links. This is useful when you need to send a control
                      character as data (e.g. XON/XOFF, Crtl A, etc.) over an asynchronous link and do not
                      want it interpreted by the modem or other device in the middle. The map is built up
                      with the following commands.
                      Clear – Resets the ACCM table toggle;
                      Toggle XON/XOFF – Add XON/XOFF control characters to the ACCM table;
                      Toggle Char – Add other control characters to the ACCM table, using their ASCII
                      value.
                      Typing the option once (for example, X), includes it in the table. Typing it again
                      excludes it from the table. See note after CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN
                      =>ENCAPSULATION =>PPP table.
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X.25 PAD PPPCHAR Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>ISDN-BRI=>ENCAPS =><CHANNEL>=>X.25 => <ESC>
><ESC> =>ENCAPS =>PPPCHAR
Parameter             Description
PPP Inactivity        The connection is closed when data does not pass through the line for this period of
Timeout               time.
Enable Van Jacobson   Allows the link to receive compressed packets. This type of compression is useful for
IP Header             low-speed links and/or small packets. It is not recommended for fast links, as it
Compression           requires CPU time.
Transmit Compressed   Applies when Enable Van Jacobson IP Header Compression is Yes. This parameter
Packets               causes the link to send compressed packets.
Disable LCP Echo      LCP (Link Control Protocol) messages are normally exchanged to monitor the status of
Requests              the link. Disabling these messages reduces traffic, but the link then has no way of
                      knowing if the other end is still connected.
Time Interval to Send Config Request messages are used to negotiate the parameters at the start of a PPP
Config Requests       connection. For a slow line, this time should be increased to allow the reply to return
                      to the sender. If not, the sender will assume it was lost and send another.
Edit ACCM             Please see explanation in previous table.
Switch Session        Control character used to switch sessions. 1 is Ctrl-A, 2 is Ctrl-B, etc. The value 254
Character Code        disables this option.
Escape Session        Control character used while in a telnet session, to return to the router menu without
Character Code        closing the session.

X.25 PAD CHAR Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>ISDN-BRI=>ENCAPS =><CHANNEL> =>X.25=> <ESC>
=><ESC> =>ENCAPS =>CHAR
Parameter              Description
Switch Session         Control character used to switch sessions. 1 is Ctrl-A, 2 is Ctrl-B, etc. The value 254
Character Code         disables this option.
Escape Session         Control character used while in a telnet session, to return to the router menu without
Character Code         closing the session.
Username               Must be entered into the local user table first. See section 4.3.
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The X.25 PAD Network Protocol menu applies to PPP or PPPCHAR Encapsulation only. The PAD Network
Protocol menu tree is shown in Figure 10.15.
    Config

   Interface

  ISDN-BRI                                           Interface
                                                     Assign IP From Interface
Encapsulation                                        Primary IP Address
                                                     Subnet Mask
 <Channel>        X.25     Terminal PAD   Network    Secondary IP Address
                           for X.25       Protocol   Enable Dynamic Local IP Address
                                                     Remote IP Address Type
                                                     Remote IP Address
                                                     IP MTU
                                                     NAT
                                                     ICMP Port
                                                     Incoming Rule List Name
                                                     Detailed Incoming IP Accounting Process
                                                     Outgoing Rule List Name
                                                     Detailed Outgoing IP Accounting Process

                         FIGURE 10.15 X.25 PAD NETWORK PROTOCOL MENU TREE




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X.25 PAD Network Protocol Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>ISDN-BRI=>ENCAPS =><CHANNEL> =>X.25
=><ESC> =><ESC> =>NW PROTOCOL
Parameter              Description
Interface              Unnumbered interfaces can be used for point-to-point connections.
Unnumbered
Assign IP From       Applies to Unnumbered interfaces. Applies the IP address of another router interface to
Interface            this one.
Primary IP Address   Applies to Numbered interfaces. Address assigned to this interface.
Subnet Mask          Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of the network.
Secondary IP         Applies to Numbered interfaces. Indicates a second (or third, etc.) IP address that can
Address              be used to refer to this interface. This parameter and the next are repeated until no
                     value is entered.
Subnet Mask          Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of Secondary IP Address.
Enable Dynamic       The terminal connected through PAD assigns an IP address to the router for purposes of
Local IP Address     their connection.
Remote IP Address The computer connected through PAD sends its IP address in the negotiation package.
Type                 Fixed: The IP address sent must match the number set in the next parameter.
                     Same Net: The IP address sent must be an address in the network set in the next
                     parameter.
                     Any: The IP address can be any number that does not conflict with any local IP address.
                     None: Any IP address is accepted. This is not recommended.
Remote IP Address If Remote IP Address Type not None. Used in conjunction with the previous parameter.
IP MTU               Assigns the size of the Maximum Transmission Unit for the interface. This determines
                     whether or not a given IP datagram is fragmented.
NAT                  Determines the type of IP address if NAT is being used. Use Global otherwise. See
                     section 4.3 for details on how to configure NAT.
this table continued




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X.25 PAD Network Protocol Menu (continued)
ICMP Port              Active causes the router to send ICMP Port Unreachable messages when it receives
                       UDP or TCP messages for ports that are not recognized. This type of message is used
                       by some traceroute applications, and if disabled, the router might not be identified in the
                       traceroute output. However, there are security and performance reasons to leave this
                       option Inactive.
Incoming Rule List     Filter rule list for incoming packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this
                       parameter should be set.
Detailed Incoming      Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of IP
IP Accounting          Accounting later in this chapter. IP Accounting for a rule requires that the parameter
                       CONFIG =>RULES LIST=>IP=>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD RULE=>ALLOW
                       ACCOUNT PROCESS also be Yes.
Outgoing Rule List     Filter rule list for outgoing packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this
Name                   parameter should be set.
Detailed Outgoing      Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of Detailed
IP Accounting          Incoming IP Accounting.




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The PAD Physical and Authentication menu trees are shown in Figure 10.16.

           Config

          Interface

         ISDN-BRI

        Encapsulation

         <Channel>        X.25    Terminal PAD         Physical             Number of PADs
                                  for X.25                                  Send Profile
                                                                            Set X3 Parameters
                                                                            Select Reference Number
                                                                            Select Reference Number
                                                                            Set Related Parameter
                                                                            Parameter Sent

                                                      Authentication        Authentication Type
                                                                            Authentication Server
                                                                            Authentication Protocol

                 FIGURE 10.16 X.25 PAD PHYSICAL AND AUTHENTICATION MENU TREES




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X.25 Physical Menu CONFIG=>INTERF=>ISDN-BRI =>ENCAPS=><CHANNEL>=>X.25=><ESC>=><ESC>
=>PHYSICAL
Parameter        Description
Number of PADs Number of PAD connections that the router will accept simultaneously.
Send Profile     When the router receives a Connection Request from a PAD, the X.3 parameters can be
                 negotiated. Yes allows this negotiation.
Set X3           Default parameters are shown in Figure 6.17. The PPP Profile parameters are usually
Parameters       used with PPP & PPPCHAR Encapsulation. Customize is used to set all/some X3
                 parameters individually.
Select Reference Applies for Customized X3 Parameters. To change the value of an X3 parameter, select its
Number           number from the table shown in Figure 6.17.
Set Related      Applies for Customized X3 Parameters. The new value.
Parameter
Parameter Sent Applies for Customized X3 Parameters. Change whether or not this parameter is sent
                 during connection negotiation.




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 Reference Number        Default Value   Send Profile   Description
           1                   3              Y         PAD recall using a character
           2                  0               Y         Echo
           3                   0              Y         Selection of "data forwarding" characters
           4                   1              Y         Selection of idle timer delay
           5                   0              Y         Flow control of the terminal
           6                   5              Y         Control of PAD service/command signals
           7                  21              Y         Operation of the PAD on reception of break signal
           8                   0              Y         Discard Output
           9                   0              Y         Padding
          10                   0              Y         Line Folding
          11                   3              Y         Binary Speed of Start/Stop mode
          12                   0              Y         Flow control of the PAD
          13                   0              Y         LF insertion after CR
          14                   0              Y         Padding after LF
          15                   0              Y         Editing
          16                   8              Y         Character Delete
          17                  24              Y         Line Delete
          18                  42              Y         Line Display
          19                   0             N          Editing PAD service signals
          20                   0             N          Echo mask
          21                   0             N          Parity treatment
          22                   0             N          Page wait
          23                   0             N          Size of input field
          24                   0             N          End of frame signals
          25                   0             N          Extended data forwarding signals
this table continued

                                  FIGURE 10.17 PAD X3 PARAMETER LIST

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 Reference Number        Default Value   Send Profile   Description
        26                    0              N          Display interrupt
        27                    0              N          Display interrupt confirm
        28                    0              N          Diacritic character coding
        29                    0              N          Extended echo mask

                            FIGURE 10.17 PAD X3 PARAMETER LIST (CONTINUED)

X.25 Authentication Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>ISDN-BRI=>ENCAPS=><CHANNEL> =>X.25 =><ESC>
=><ESC> =>AUTHENTICATION
Parameter             Description
Authentication Type   Local uses the list of users defined in CONFIG=> SECURITY=>USERS=>ADD.
                      Server uses either Radius or Tacacs to authenticate the user.
Authentication Server Applies when Authentication Type is Server. Indicates that either a Radius or Tacacs
                      server is used for validation. The location and other parameters of the server must be
                      configured in CONFIG=> SECURITY. See section 4.3.
Authentication        Applies when Authentication Type is Local or Server. Either PAP or CHAP or both can
Protocol              be used for authentication.

Returning to the ISDN-BRI Interface Configuration, the Network Protocol Menu tree is shown in Figure 10.18.




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     Config     Interface    ISDN-BRI   Network    <Channel>
                                        Protocol
                                                             IP      Active
                                                                     Interface Unnumbered/Numbered
                                                                     Assign IP from Interface
                                                                     Primary IP address
                                                                     Subnet Mask
                                                                     Secondary IP Address
                                                                     Subnet Mask
                                                                     IP MTU
                                                                     NAT
                                                                     Enable Dynamic Local IP Address
                                                                     Remote IP Address Type
                                                                     Remote IP Adress
                                                                     ICMP Port
                                                                     Incoming Rule List Name
                                                                     Detailed Incoming IP Accounting
                                                                     Outgoing Rule List Name
                                                                     Detailed Outgoing IP Accounting

                                                              Transparent       Status
                                                                Bridge          Port Priority
                                                                                Incoming Rule List Name
                                                                                Outgoing Rule List Name

                              FIGURE 10.18 NETWORK PROTOCOL MENU TREE
The Network Protocol parameters are explained in more detail in the following tables.




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Network Protocol (IP) Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>NETWORK PROTOCOL
=><CHANNEL> =>IP

Parameter                Description
Active or Inactive       Activates this interface.
Interface                Unnumbered interfaces can be used for point-to-point connections.
Unnumbered
Assign IP From           Applies to Unnumbered interfaces. Applies the IP address of another router interface
Interface                to this one.
Primary IP Address       Applies to Numbered interfaces. Address assigned to this interface.
Subnet Mask              Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of the network.
Secondary IP             Applies to Numbered interfaces. Indicates a second (or third, etc. up to eight) IP
Address                  address that can be used to refer to this interface. This parameter and the next are
                         repeated until no value is entered.
Subnet Mask              Applies to Numbered interfaces. Subnet mask of Secondary IP Address.
IP MTU                   Assigns the size of the Maximum Transmission Unit for the interface. This determines
                         whether or not a given IP datagram is fragmented.
NAT                      Determines the type of IP address if NAT is being used. Use Global otherwise. See
                         section 4.3 for details on how to configure NAT.
Enable Dynamic           The remote terminal assigns an IP address to the router for purposes of their
Local IP Address         connection.
Remote IP Address        The remote computer sends its IP address in the negotiation package.
Type                     Fixed: The IP address sent must match the number set in the next parameter.
                         Same Net: The IP address sent must be an address in the network set in the next
                         parameter.
                         Any: The IP address can be any number that does not conflict with any local IP
                         address.
                         None: Any IP address is accepted. This is not recommended.
this table continued



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Network Protocol (IP) Menu (Continued)
Remote IP Address        If Remote IP Address Type not None. Used in conjunction with the previous
                         parameter.
ICMP Port                Active causes the router to send ICMP Port Unreachable messages when it receives
                         UDP or TCP messages for ports that are not recognized. This type of message is
                         used by some traceroute applications, and if disabled, the router might not be identified
                         in the traceroute output. However, there are security and performance reasons to
                         leave this option Inactive.
Incoming Rule List       Filter rule list for incoming packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this
                         parameter should be set.
Detailed Incoming IP     Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of IP
Accounting               Accounting later in this chapter. IP Accounting for a rule requires that the parameter
                         CONFIG =>RULES LIST=>IP=>CONFIGURE RULES=>ADD RULE=>ALLOW
                         ACCOUNT PROCESS also be Yes.
Outgoing Rule List       Filter rule list for outgoing packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this
Name                     parameter should be set.
Detailed Outgoing IP     Applies when a list is selected in the previous parameter. See explanation of Detailed
Accounting               Incoming IP Accounting.
Transparent Bridge Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>ISDN-BRI=>NETWORK PROTOCOL =><CHANNEL>
=>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE
Parameter                Description
Status                   Activates the Transparent Bridge on this interface.
Port Priority            For the Spanning Tree Algorithm, a priority is given to each link in the router and to
                         each router in the network. See CONFIG=>TRANSPARENT BRIDGE =>SPANNING
                         TREE for more information.
Incoming Rule List       Transparent Bridge rule list name for incoming packets. Note: Rule lists for
Name                     Transparent Bridge and IP are created separately. See section 4.7 for instructions on
                         how this rule list is created.
Outgoing Rule List       Filter rule list name for outgoing packets. See section 4.7 for instructions on how this
Name                     rule list is created.
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 Config

Interface      ISDN-BRI       Routing     <Channel>         RIP         Send RIP
                              Protocol                                  Listen RIP
                                                                        RIP2 Authentication
                                                                        Rip2 Authentication Password
                                                           OSPF         OSPF on This Interface
                                                                        Advertise This Non-OSPF Interface
                                                                        External Metric
                                                                        External Metric Type
                                                                        Area ID
                                                                        Network Type
                                                                        Router Priority
                                                                        Transit Delay
                                                                        Retransmit Interval
                                                                        Hello Interval
                                                                        Dead Interval
                                                                        Poll Interval
                                                                        Password
                                                                        Metric
                                                                        Advertise Secondary IP Address

                              FIGURE 10.19 ROUTING PROTOCOL MENU TREE
The Routing Protocol Menu tree is shown in Figure 10.19 and is explained in more detail in the following tables.




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Routing Protocol Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =><CHANNEL>
=>RIP
Parameter                Description
Send RIP                 Causes the router to transmit RIP messages.
Listen RIP               Causes the router to accept RIP messages.
RIP2 Authentication      Applies if RIP2 was chosen in the first two options. Activates RIP message
                         authentication with a password.
RIP2 Authentication      Applies if RIP2 Authentication is Active. Password used for both received and
Password                 transmitted RIP messages.

OSPF Protocol Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>ROUTING PROTOCOL =><CHANNEL>
=>OSPF

Parameter              Description
OSPF on This           Activates OSPF. Enable Inactive is used to temporarily disable the OSPF protocol
Interface              without erasing the parameters set below. This is useful when OSPF is first
                       configured, as the general parameters must be set afterwards in CONFIG=>IP
                       =>OSPF and OSPF cannot function without them.
Parameters that apply only when OSPF on This Interface is Disabled.
Advertise This Non-    Causes the router to include this interface in its advertisements through other
OSPF Interface         interfaces (as an external route).
External Metric        Defines the metric that will be advertised by OSPF.
External Metric Type For Type 1, the total metric of this route is composed of the internal metric (inside the
                       autonomous system) and the external metric (provided in the previous parameter). For
                       Type 2, the total metric of this route is the value provided in the previous parameter.
this table continued




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OSPF Protocol Menu (continued)
Parameter              Description
Parameters that apply only when OSPF on This Interface is Enable or Enable Inactive.
Area ID                Identifies the area to which the interface belongs. Areas are created here, then later
                       defined in CONFIG=>IP=>OSPF =>AREA. Has the format of an IP address, but is
                       not linked to any IP address in the system. Small OSPF networks will typically have
                       only one area (the backbone area represented by 0.0.0.0).
Router Priority        Priority used by OSPF in multicast networks to elect the designated router. A priority of
                       1 will make this router the most likely to be chosen. A priority of 2 will make it second
                       most likely. Set it to 0 (zero) if this router should never be the designated router.
Transit Delay in       Estimated transit time in seconds to route a packet through this interface. Use the
Seconds                preset value (1) or increase the number for slow links
Retransmit Interval in Time in seconds between link-state advertisement retransmissions for adjacencies
Seconds*               belonging to this interface.
Hello Interval in      Time in seconds between the hello packets on this interface.
Seconds*
Dead Interval in       Inactivity time (seconds) before a neighbor router is considered down.
Seconds*
Poll Interval in       Time in seconds between the hello packets sent to an inactive, non-broadcast, multi-
Seconds                access neighbor.
Password*              String of up to 8 characters used to authenticate OSPF packages. The use of this
                       password is enabled in CONFIG=>IP =>OSPF =>AREA=>AUTHENTICATION TYPE
Metric                 Defines the cost for normal service. For consistent routing, this parameter should be
                       determined in the same manner for all routers in the OSPF Area. Normally, metric cost
                       is defined as an inverse function of interface throughput (e.g. 1 for 100Mbps, 10 for
                       10Mbps, 65 for T1, 1785 for 56kbps, etc).
Advertise Secondary Causes the router to advertise additional addresses assigned to this interface. These
IP Address             are configured in CONFIG=> INTERFACE=>ISDN-BRI=>NETWORK PROTOCOL
                       <CHANNEL> =>IP.

* Inside a given area, these 4 parameters should be the same for all routers.
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The ISDN-BRI interface has a special menu for configuration of signaling parameters. This menu is shown in
Figure 10.20. The parameters are explained in the table.

Config          Interface         ISDN-BRI     ISDN           My Phone Number 1
                                                              SPID 1
                                                              Circuit Type
                                                              Check Caller ID on Incomming Call
                                                              Switch Type
                                                              Idle Timeout to Hang Up
                                                              T200
                                                              N200
                                                              T203
                                                              List, Add, Delete or Modify
                                                              Logical Link
                                                              IP Address
                                                              Phone Number

                                  FIGURE 10.20 ISDN PARAMETERS MENU




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ISDN Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>ISDN
Parameter                Description
My Phone #               Principal phone number assigned to the ISDN trunk line.
SPID #                   The SPID is the link identifier. It is similar to the telefone number, with some extra
                         digits.
Circuit Type             Multipoint is used when the PR3000 is connected to the ISDN line in parallel with other
                         devices.
Check Caller ID on       The router verifies that the caller's phone number is in the dial-out table.
Incoming Call
Switch Type              Defines which telephone service is being used. Type ? to see which options are
                         available for each country.
Idle Timeout             Time, in minutes, for the connection to time out if there is no traffic. For this to work,
                         any status messages, like PPP's LCP Echo Requests, must be disabled. The value 0
                         disables the timeout function.
T200                     Data-layer timer. When the router sends a command, this timer determines how long it
                         should wait for a response.
N200                     Data-layer number of re-tries. When the T200 period passes without a response, the
                         command is re-sent up to N200 times.
T203                     When no messages are received for T203 seconds, an enquiry (RR or RNR) is sent.
List, Add, Delete or     Does not appear the first time through the menu -- Add is assumed in this case. Adds,
Modify                   modifies, etc. the dial-out table. This and the next three parameters are repeated until
                         <ESC> is used.
Logical Link             Channel used to reach this destination.
IP Address               IP Address assigned to the remote connection.
Phone Number             Phone number assigned to the remote connection

The following menu is only relevant when PPP Encapsulation is used.




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Authentication Menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =>ISDN-BRI =>AUTHENTICATION =><CHANNEL>
Parameter             Description
Authentication Type   Local uses the list of users defined in CONFIG=> SECURITY=>USERS=>ADD.
                      Server uses either Radius or Tacacs to authenticate the user.
                      Remote is when this interface is considered to be the user and the other end of the
                      connection performs the authentication
Username              Applies when Authentication Type is Remote. The username the remote device
                      expects to receive.
Password              Applies when Authentication Type is Remote. The password the remote device
                      expects to receive.
Authentication Server Applies when Authentication Type is Server. Indicates that either a Radius or Tacacs
                      server is used for validation. The location and other parameters of the server must be
                      configured in CONFIG=> SECURITY. See section 4.3.
Authentication        Applies when Authentication Type is Local or Server. Either PAP or CHAP or both can
Protocol              be used for authentication.


Bibliography
PPP:
STD0051 and RFCs 1661 and 1662

Frame Relay:
Smith, Philip, Frame Relay Principles and Applications, Addison-Wesley, 1993
RFC 1490, Multiprotocol Interconnect over Frame Relay (explains NLP ID and SNAP)

X.25:
Thorpe, Nicolas and Derek Ross, X.25 Made Easy, Prentice Hall, 1992.




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CHAPTER 11 APPLICATION MENU
The application menu is available from the main menu. It is structured as shown in the following diagram:

                          Applications         Telnet            Open Session
                                                                 Close Session
                                                                 Switch Session
                                                                 Set Binary Mode
                                                                 Set Text Mode
                                                                 Set Text Line Mode

                                               Ping              IP         Host
                                                                            Packet Size
                                                                            Count
                                                                            Interval

                                               Traceroute         Host

                                   FIGURE 11.1 APPLICATION MENU TREE
It contains three applications, available to both the super-user and regular users (at the discretion of the super-
user).

Application Menu

Menu Option              Description
Telnet                   Establishes a Telnet session with a host connected to the IP network via the LAN or
                         the WAN
Ping                     Uses ICMP echo request and echo reply packets to validate the link. It checks if the
                         host specified in the ping command is reachable.
Traceroute               Identifies most of the routers (hops) between the router and the destination host



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Choosing Telnet leads to the following parameter list:

Telnet Menu APPLICATIONS=>TELNET

Menu Option              Description
Open Session             Specify either the host name or the IP address.
                         To return to the Telnet Menu without closing the session, press <Ctrl A>. Up to 4
                         Telnet sessions can be established simultaneously.
Close Session            Closes the current telnet session.
Switch Session           Switch between sessions. The sessions are identified by the numbers 1 through 4.
Set Binary Mode          In this mode, control characters will not be interpreted. This option is used for file
                         transfers (when using zmodem, for example).
Set Text Mode            In this mode, control characters (such as control keys) are interpreted. Use this mode
                         to emulate a telnet session.
Set Text Line Mode       In this mode, all characters are stored by the router until a line feed is received. Upon
                         receiving a line feed, the characters are sent in a single packet.

Ping can be done on an IP network or on an IPX network. The IP Ping menu looks like this:

IP Ping Menu APPLICATIONS=>PING=>IP

Parameter      Valid Values                Description
Host                                       The host name or its IP address.
Packet Size    32 to 1600                  The size of the packets that will be sent, in bytes.
Count          0 if forever, or 5 to 30000 The number of packets that will be sent to the destination host.
Interval       20 to 60000 ms              The time interval between two successive ICMP echo requests sent
                                           to the destination host.
                                           The range 20-99 results in a ping flush (an onslaught of ping
                                           messages), whereas the range 100-60000 results in a normal ping.



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Traceroute APPLICATIONS=>TRACEROUTE
The Traceroute utility requests only the destination host name or IP address. It prints out the following listing:

                              T R A C I N G           I N       P R O G R E S S
                 1        0 ms           0   ms        0 ms                  200.246.93.2
                 2      180 ms         440   ms      300 ms                  200.245.96.125
                 3      540 ms         430   ms      470 ms                  200.230.17.25
                 4      440 ms         440   ms      930 ms                  200.230.0.106
                 5           *         490   ms           *                  204.189.152.181
                 6      630 ms         870   ms      620 ms                  204.70.2.1

The first column is the number of the “hop”. Three packets are sent to each intermediate computer, and the next
three columns display the time that each packet takes to return to the router. When an * appears instead of a
number, the attempt was unsucessful. The last column is the IP address of the intermediate computer. This utility
is useful when Ping is not able to reach another computer. The traceroute shows at which point along the way the
packet hung up.

             If traceroute does not print out any information, make sure a default gateway is set up. See the
             section on configuration of static routes in chapter 4.




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CHAPTER 12 DEBUG MENU
The Debug Menu is intended for use by Cyclades’ Technical Support. Most of the listings will have no significance
to the user. Two menu items, however, can be interpreted before a call to Technical Support is made.

DEBUG=>TRACE
On occasion, Cyclades’ Technical Support will request an electronic copy of the output of this command to resolve
router problems.

DEBUG=>EVENT LOGS=>DISPLAY
These logs are for diagnostic use by Cyclades’ technicians. If there are messages here, they could indicate the
source of the problem.

DEBUG=>BUFFER REPORT=>GENERAL BUFFERS
This table shows the buffer usage and the state of the buffer. A failed buffer will be shown here.

DEBUG=>HARDWARE TESTS
Tests all router interfaces. When the test finishes, it will indicate any problems that were discovered.

DEBUG=>MESSAGE TRACE
Assists in diagnosis of specific problems for various protocols and services.




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 CHAPTER 13 INFO MENU
The Info Menu shows both static and dynamic information. The router configuration is contained in the Show
Configuration sub-menu. Statistical information is shown in the Show Statistics sub-menu and status information
is shown in most of the remaining menus. The Info Menu tree is shown in Figure 13.1.
  Info        Show Configuration        All
                                        Interface               Ethernet
                                                                Slot 1
                                                                Slot 2
                                        Static Routes           Slot 3
                                        System
                                        Security                All
                                                                Users
                                                                NAT                      Options and Timers
                                                                Radius                   Global Addresses
                                                                Tacacs                   Local Addresses
                                                                Default Usr Menu         Static Translations
                                        Multilink               LAN IP Backup
                                        IP                      VPN
                                        Transparent Bridge
                                        Rules List              IP                       Rules List
                                        Voice                                            Rules
                                                                                         Link Rules
              Show Statistics           IP                                               Flow Priorization
                                        TCP
                                        NAT                     Transparent Bridge       Rules List
                                        SNMP                                             Rules
                                        VPN
                                        OSPF
                                        Ethernet
                                        Slot 1
                                        Slot 2
                                        Slot 3
                                      FIGURE 13.1 INFO MENU TREE
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             Show Status                     Slot 1
                                             Slot 2
             Show ARP Cache                  Slot 3
             Show Routing Table
             Show System
             Show Active Sessions
             Authentication Servers Status   Radius Servers Status
                                             Tacacs Servers Status
             Event Programming
             Show CPU Utilization
             LAN IP Backup
             Show Account Table              Summary
                                             Detail
             Traffic Control
             Show OSPF
             Show MCPPP Links
             Show MCPPP Neighbors
             Show BGP                        Show RIB
                                             Show BGP Routes
                                             Show Neighbor Status
                                             Show Neighbor Routes
                                             Show Neighbor Advertise

             Show Voice                      VoFR/FRF.11
                                             Jitter Buffer
                                             CoFR Switch
                                             Fragmentation
                                             Application

                              FIGURE 13.1 INFO MENU TREE (CONTINUED)




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The menu options are described in the following table.

Info Menu INFO

Menu Option        Description
Show               Lists all router parameters. After completing the configuration of your router, print out a
Configuration      copy of this listing and save it for future reference. For most configuration menus, the L
                   command will list all parameters configured in that menu. The L command is usually more
                   convenient.
Show Statistics    Shows statistics for IP, TCP, NAT, SNMP,VPN, OSPF, IPX, and the interfaces.
Show Status        Lists the serial interface control signals: (DCD, DSR, CTS, RTS, DTR) and the logical
                   status for each slot.
Show ARP           The ARP (Address resolution protocol) Cache contains the MAC addresses corresponding
Cache              to IP address on the LAN.
Show Routing       Shows the routing tables for IP, or other IP-level protocols.
Table
Show System        Displays the router’s physical configuration, including RAM and FLASH memory firmware,
                   and the boot code version.
Show Active        Indicates which users are logged in to the router, where they are logged in from, and what
Sessions           kind of sessions they have open.
Auth. Servers      Shows the status of the authentication servers (Radius and Tacacs).
Status
Event              Lists events programmed into the router. The menu option ADMIN=>EVENT
Programming        PROGRAMMING=>L gives more complete information and should be used instead.
                   Please see chapter 13 for more details.
Show CPU           Calculates router CPU utilization rate.
Utilization
LAN IP Backup       Indicates if backup is available and/or being used.
Show Account        Displays summary or detailed accounting information.
Table
This table is continued

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Info Menu INFO (continued)

Traffic Control    Shows status of each traffic control rule.
Show OSPF          Displays status of OSPF routing protocol.
Show MCPPP         Shows status and statistics for MCPPP packets.
Links
Show MCPPP         Displays the IP addresses of neighbor MCPPP devices.
Neighbors
Show BGP           Displays the BGP routing table, along with neighbor statuses and statistics.
Show Voice         Displays voice card and switch statistics and statuses.




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CHAPTER 14 ADMIN MENU
The Administration Menu is used to perform various run-time tasks. Its menu tree is given in Figure 14.1.

        Admin         Reboot                       Reboot
                                                   Reboot and Save

                      Enable Features              IPX
                                                   VPN
                                                   SNA

                      Disable Features             IPX
                                                   VPN
                                                   SNA

                      Load Configuration           Factory Defaults
                                                   Flash
                                                   TFTP Server
                                                   FTP Server

                      Write Configuration          To Flash                    Configuration Filename
                                                   To TFTP Server              Host

                                                   To FTP Server               Description
                                                                               FTP Server
                      Clear                        Arp Cache                   File Name
                                                   Statistics                  Directory
                      Start/Stop Interface         Buffer Report               User Name
                                                   TB Forward Table            Passaword
                      Save Alt. Boot Code          Radius Server Status        Account
                                                   Tacacs Server Status
                      Port Conversation            IP Account Table
                                                   Inverse ARP
                                     FIGURE 14.1 ADMIN MENU TREE

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                          Download CyROS           FTP Server
                                                   File name
                                                   Directory
                                                   User name
                                                   Password
                                                   Account

                          Upload CyROS             Same as Download CyROS

                          Kill Virtual             Console
                                                   Rtelnet/SSH-1
                                                   Slot N
                                                   Logout All

                          Send Messages            Console or Rtelnet/SSH-1
                                                   Slot N
                          Clear interface Config   All Terminals      Message

                          Event Programing         Program          Number of Event
                                                                    Event First Date
                                                                    Event First Time
                                                                    Repetition Period
                                                                    Shortcut String

                                                   Clear            Number of Event

                          Date & Time              Date
                                                   Time
                          Kill Virtual Session



                              FIGURE 14.1 ADMIN MENU TREE (CONTINUED)


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                                       Restart BGP Peer             Neighbor Name

                                       Start/Stop Dig. Modem        Modem ID

                                       Reboot Dig. Modem            Modem ID

                                       Block CAS Channels           Slot
                                                                    Link
                                                                    Block/Unblock

                                 FIGURE 14.1 ADMIN MENU TREE (CONTINUED)
A brief description of each item is given in the following table:




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Administration Menu ADMIN
Menu Option               Description
Reboot                    The first option, reboot, discards the run configuration vector and reboots, returning to
                          the configuration vector saved in flash memory. The second option, reboot and save,
                          differs from the first only when the router has been configured to boot from the
                          network--the firmware boot file is saved in flash memory. See the section in chapter 4
                          on CONFIG=>SYSTEM=>FIRMWARE BOOT=>BOOT FROM = N
Enable Features           Enables the optional features available for the Power Router Line, including IPX, VPN
                          and SNA. Causes hidden menus to appear.
Disable Features          Disables the optional features available for the Power Router Line. Causes hidden
                          menus to disappear.
Load Configuration        Loads the router configuration (parameters) from flash memory, from another
                          computer, or resets all parameters to the factory pre-set values.
Write Configuration       Writes the current run configuration to flash memory or to another computer using
                          TFTP or FTP.
Clear                     Erases specific router statistics and tables (ARP cache, logs, etc).
Start/Stop Interface      Turns the interface off (administratively down) or on (administratively up). The state of
                          each interface appears in the output of INFO=>SHOW STATUS=>SLOT N.
Save Alt. Boot Code       The Alternate Boot Code is downloaded together with CyROS when the router is
                          booted from the Network. It can be saved in flash memory for the next reboot using
                          this command.
Port Conversation         Used to send commands to a modem. A virtual terminal (console, telnet) is connected
                          to the interface. "Esc" closes the session.
Download CyROS            Replaces the current version of CyROS with a version stored in another location.
this table continued




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Administration Menu ADMIN (continued)
Menu Option            Description
Upload CyROS           Saves the current version of CyROS in a separate location. This should be done
                       before downloading a different version of CyROS in case the change needs to be
                       undone.
Kill Session           Kills sessions or logs users out of the router.
Send Messages          Broadcasts messages to all or a subset of users. Could be used before rebooting to
                       advise users to log out.
Clear Interface Config Use this option to reset all parameters for a slot. The parameters are reset to the
                       factory defaults.
Event Programming      Allows the creation of macros that can be programmed to run at a later time or
                       periodically.
Date & Time            Sets the internal date (using the format mm/dd/aa) and time (using the format
                       hh:mm:ss).
Kill Virtual Session   Applies only to the PR4000. Displays all MLPPP secondary links (virtual links) whose
                       primary link resides in this PR4000. If a valid virtual session number is entered, the
                       connection represented by that session number will be dropped.
Restart BGP Peer       Restarts a BGP connection with the specified neighbor.
Start/Stop Dig Modem Used to activate/inactivate the modem selected. Sets it administratively down or up
Reboot Dig Modem       Applies only to the PR4000. Resets and reinitializes the modem--usually used when a
                       modem locks up.
Block CAS Channels Applies only to the PR4000 used with an R2-digital E1 line. Blocking a channel causes
                       it to not receive calls. Either a slot or a link can be blocked. To block all links, set the
                       link value to 0.

          All options in the ADMIN=>LOAD CONFIGURATION menu will result in the loss of the current run
          configuration. You may want to make a back-up using ADMIN=>WRITE CONFIGURATION=>TO
          FTP SERVER or ADMIN=>WRITE CONFIGURATION=>TO TFTP SERVER. See this chapter for
          more information.


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Load Configuration Menu ADMIN=>LOAD CONFIGURATION
Menu Option               Description
Factory Defaults          Resets the configuration to factory pre-set values.
Flash                     Copies the configuration saved in flash on top of the run configuration.
TFTP Server               Copies a configuration saved on a remote server. After the file is retrieved, the
                          following information is displayed: date and time when saved, CyROS version, and a
                          file description.
                          Note: Press <esc> to stop searching for a file containing the router configuration.
FTP Server                Copies a configuration from a remote server using FTP.

In all options except the second (Flash), you have the option of saving the new configuration as the run configuration,
as both the run and flash configurations, or canceling the request.

There are two configuration vectors at any given time. One, the boot configuration, is saved in flash memory. The
other configuration vector is the run configuration, which is stored in RAM in the router. Each time the router is
rebooted, any differences between this configuration vector and the boot vector are lost and the router returns to
the boot configuration unless the run configuration is explicitly saved before rebooting using ADMIN =>WRITE
CONFIGURATION =>TO FLASH. The run configuration vector can also be saved to a file anywhere on the
network for later use.

Write to TFTP Server Menu ADMIN=>WRITE CONFIGURATION=>TO TFTP SERVER
Parameter                 Description
Configuration             The filename (including path) for the configuration file.
Filename
Host                      The remote host name or IP address where the configuration should be saved.




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Write to FTP Server Menu ADMIN=>WRITE CONFIGURATION=>TO FTP SERVER
Parameter                 Description
Description               Type a description (maximum 256 characters) to be associated with the configuration
                          file. This description will be shown when you download the file. Use the “|” (pipe)
                          character to insert a new line. Press <Enter> to finish the description.
FTP Server                The remote host name or IP address where the configuration should be saved.
File Name                 The filename for the configuration file.
Directory                 Directory name, if necessary.
User Name                 User name to access the FTP server.
Password                  Password to access the FTP server, if necessary.
Account                   Account number to access the FTP server, if necessary.

Clear Menu ADMIN=>CLEAR
Menu Option              Description
Arp Cache                The ARP (Address resolution protocol) Cache contains the MAC address
                         corresponding to each IP address on the LAN, and is built up over time through normal
                         message passing. A refresh is done automatically by the operating system, so this
                         option is no longer necessary. When cleared, the table is gradually built up again.
Statistics               Resets the type of statistic selected: Ethernet, IP, TCP, NAT, SNMP, VPN, OSPF, or
                         Slot(s) statistics.
Buffer Report            Recalculates the Max Used and Fail columns in the Buffer Report. Please see the
                         section on DEBUG=>BUFFER REPORT in chapter 11.
TB Forward Table         Clears the Transparent Bridge forwarding Table.
Radius Server Status Clears Radius Server statistics.
Tacacs Server Status Clears Tacacs Server statistics.
IP Account Table         Erases all data in the IP accounting table. Please see section 4.7 for more information
                         on IP Accounting.
This table is continued.



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Clear Menu ADMIN=>CLEAR (continued)
Menu Option               Description
Inverse ARP               Applies only when Frame Relay is configured for some interface. The inverse-ARP
                          Cache contains the DLCI (Data Link Connection Identifier) corresponding to each IP
                          address on the LAN, and is built up over time through normal message passing. When
                          cleared, the table is gradually built up again.

Download / Upload CyROS Menus ADMIN=>DOWNLOAD CyROS / UPLOAD CyROS
Parameter                 Description
FTP Server                The remote host name or IP address where the firmware boot file should be saved.
File Name                 The filename for the firmware boot file.
Directory                 Directory name, if necessary.
User Name                 User name to access the FTP server.
Password                  Password to access the FTP server, if necessary.
Account                   Account number to access the FTP server, if necessary.

Kill session is useful when a user’s terminal has frozen and he cannot kill the session himself.

Kill session ADMIN=>KILL SESSION
Menu Option               Description
Rtelnet/SSH-1 or          Kills telnet or SSH on console sessions to router, depending on which option appears.
Console
Slot N                    Terminates sessions connected through slot N (where N is 1, 2, or 3)
Logout All                Terminates all router sessions except the one invoking the command.




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Kill Session Menu 1 ADMIN=>KILL SESSION=>RTELNET/SSH-1 OR CONSOLE
Parameter                 Description
Session                   0 – Kills all sessions, without logging the user out.
                          1 to 4 – Terminates the session with the corresponding number. These can be seen in
                          the info menu, INFO=>SHOW ACTIVE SESSIONS in the columns labeled sess1
                          through sess4.
                          5 – Logs the user out of the system. The user can optionally log in again at the log-in
                          prompt.

Kill Session Menu 2 ADMIN=>KILL SESSION=>SLOT N (ZBUS/T1/E1) OR X.25/PAD
Parameter                 Description
ZBus/E1/T1 Port or        0 – kills all ports of a ZBUS or X.25/PAD slot.
X.25/PAD Port             1 to NN – kills only a specific port.

Session                   0 – Kills all sessions on the given port, without logging the user out.
                          1 to 4 – Terminates the session with the corresponding number. These can be seen in
                          the info menu, INFO=>SHOW ACTIVE SESSIONS in the columns labeled sess1
                          through sess4.
                          5 – Logs the user out of the system. The user can optionally log in again at the log-in
                          prompt.

Event programming can be used to reboot the router during the night when it is not busy, periodically change filter
definitions, or automate any repeated task.

          To see details of programmed events, use the list command in the Event Programming Menu
          (ADMIN=>EVENT PROGRAMMING=>L).




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EVENT PROGRAMMING MENU ADMIN=> EVENT PROGRAMMING=>PROGRAM

Menu Option            Description
Upload CyROS           Saves the current version of CyROS in a separate location. This should be done
                       before downloading a different version of CyROS in case the change needs to be
                       undone.
Kill Session           Kills sessions or logs users out of the router.
Send Messages          Broadcasts messages to all or a subset of users. Could be used before rebooting to
                       advise users to log out.
Clear Interface Config Use this option to reset all parameters for a slot. The parameters are reset to the
                       factory defaults.
Event Programming      Allows the creation of macros that can be programmed to run at a later time or
                       periodically.
Date & Time            Sets the internal date (using the format mm/dd/aa) and time (using the format
                       hh:mm:ss).
Kill Virtual Session   Applies only to the PR4000. Displays all MLPPP secondary links (virtual links) whose
                       primary link resides in this PR4000. If a valid virtual session number is entered, the
                       connection represented by that session number will be dropped.
Restart BGP Peer       Restarts a BGP connection with the specified neighbor.
Start/Stop Dig Modem Used to activate/inactivate the modem selected. Sets it administratively down or up
Reboot Dig Modem       Applies only to the PR4000. Resets and reinitializes the modem--usually used when a
                       modem locks up.
Block CAS Channels Applies only to the PR4000 used with an R2-digital E1 line. Blocking a channel causes
                       it to not receive calls. Either a slot or a link can be blocked. To block all links, set the
                       link value to 0.




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APPENDIX A APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE (API) FOR X.25 WITH TCP SOCKETS
This appendix explains how to use the socket API to converse with a router connected to a X.25 network,
without using IP. An example of the use of the socket API is shown in Figure A.1.

            Application
            Running On
              Server


                                  PR2000                                                  Remote
                                               DTE                                         DTE
                                                                  X.25


                            FIGURE A.1 USE OF THE SOCKET API BY AN APPLICATION

If TCP Socket is chosen as the Type of Logical Address in the X.25 Add DTE Menu, three modes of operation
are available:

  1 Automatic mode, without packet transaction,
  2 Automatic mode, with packet transaction, and
  3 Manual mode, with packet transaction.




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The mode is defined in the following menu for each DTE:

X.25 Add DTE Menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPSULATION =>X.25=><ESC>=>Add DTE

Parameter             Description
Type of Logical       Choose TCP Socket.
Address
X.25 Socket Port      Must be a number in the interval defined by the parameters CONFIG=>IP=>TCP PORT
                      RANGES=>X25 SOCKET START/END PORT RANGE.
X.121(DTE)            Address of remote DTE device.
Address
VC Number             Number assigned to this circuit, if it is a PVC. For SVCs, the value should be zero.
Packet                Yes for modes 2 and 3. No for mode 1.
Transaction
Automatic Mode        Applies for Packet Transaction = Yes. Should be Yes for mode 2.
User Data Len         Length of next parameter in bytes.
User Data             The value in the user data field of the Call Request packet which determines which
                      service on the remote host is being requested. 0xCC is used for IP. It is also expected in
                      received incoming call packets.

Automatic mode
When the application opens a socket connection, the router automatically attempts to establish a connection
with the remote DTE. If an incoming call arrives from the remote DTE, and is neither IP nor PAD, the
connection will not be accepted if the socket is not already connected. When this happens, a clear indication
message will be sent with cause = 0x00 and diagnostic = 0x05. If an established X.25 connection is broken,
the socket will be closed automatically.

After the connection (socket and X.25), data flows normally.




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When packet transaction is not used, the packets between the router and the application contain only data.
When packet transaction is used, the first two bytes of the packet contain the packet size and the Q and More
bits. The data field can contain either data or commands, but only data is utilized in automatic mode. The
format is as shown in Figure A.2.

                   Q bit     X      More bit Reserved       L11       L10      L9        L8
                    L7       L6       L5        L4          L3        L2       L1        L0
                                               Data

    FIGURE A.2 PACKET FORMAT FOR MANUAL MODE AND FOR AUTOMATIC MODE WITH PACKET
                                     TRANSACTION

X = 0 indicates a data packet and X = 1 indicates a command packet.
The reserved bit might be used in later versions, and should be set to 0.
The Li indicate the size of the packet (up to 2048 bytes).

Manual Mode (mode 3)
The packet format for the manual mode is that shown in Figure A.2. The data field contains either data or
commands as indicated by the X bit. The application determines when a call request or clear request should
be sent, rather than the router.

After the connection (socket and X.25), data flows normally. If an incoming call arrives from the remote DTE,
and is neither IP nor PAD, the connection will not be accepted if the socket is not already connected. When
this happens, a clear indication message will be sent with cause = 0x00 and diagnostic = 0x05.

The commands sent between the application and the router will now be described. The first two bytes of all
messages are as shown in Figure A.2. The command information is placed in the data field. The first message
sent from the application to the router is the S_CONFIG message.


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                    APPLICATION
                  RUNNING ON HOST          ROUTER            X.25 LINE




                               S_CON
                                    FIG




                                    CONFIGURATION SAVED




                               FIGURE A.3 S_CONFIG MESSAGE




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         Command Identifier                                            0x01
         Virtual Circuit                                      0 - SVC, 1 to 96 - PVC
         Port of Router to be Used                           see Figure A.5 for details
         DTE Address                            most significant digit
         DTE Address, Continued
         DTE Address, Continued
         DTE Address, Continued
         DTE Address, Continued
         DTE Address, Continued
         DTE Address, Continued
         DTE Address, Continued                                               least significant digit
         Call User Data Length                                     0 to 16 bytes
         Call User Data                                              xxxxxxxx
         Call User Data, Continued                                   xxxxxxxx
         Call User Data, Continued                                   xxxxxxxx


                     FIGURE A.4 S_CONFIG MESSAGE FORMAT (ONE LINE PER BYTE)

A table relating the router’s TCP port with the remote DTE exists in the router’s memory. This command
creates an entry in the list, using the port and DTE values given in the message. The DTE address field should
be filled in as in the following example:




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DTE = 1234567 is equivalent to:
     0xff
     0xff
     0xff
     0xff
     0x12
     0x23
     0x56
     0x7f

The DTE address field can be set to zero, which will enable the application to listen to all incoming calls on the
TCP Port specified. This will prevent the application from making call requests, however, since no DTE will be
listed in the table as the destination. See the section Details of the Implementation of the TCP Port / DTE Table
in CyROS at the end of this chapter for more information.

                              Slot Name                     Slot Number     Port
     PR2000                   WAN 1                               1         0
                              Asynch                              2         not applicable
                              WAN 2                               3         2
     PR3000                   Slot 1                              1         0
                              Slot 1                              2         1
                              Slot 1                              3         2
     PR3000 with SSE8         Slot 1, port 1 of SSE8              1         00000101
                              Slot 1, port 2 of SSE8              1         00001001
                              Slot X, port M of SSE8              N         MMMMMMXX (in binary)
     PR4000                   E1/T1 port 1                        1         0
                              E1/T1 port 2                        2         1
                              Slot                                3         2

                FIGURE A.5 DEFINITION OF LINK BYTE FOR DIFFERENT POWER ROUTERS

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Outgoing Calls

The messages shown in figure A.6 are sent when the application initiates a call.

                    APPLICATION
                  RUNNING ON HOST                     ROUTER                           X.25 LINE


                                     S_CON
                                          REQ
                                                                   Call Re
                                                                          quest

                                                                           cept
                                                                    Call Ac
                                          CNF
                                     S_CON

                                                                             ation
                                                                  Clear Indic

                                           IND                   Clear C
                                      S_DIS                             onfirma
                                                                                tion




          FIGURE A.6 CALL INITIATION BY APPLICATION AND RECEIPT OF CLEAR INDICATION




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The Connection Request message has the format shown in Figure A.7

                    Command Identifier                                   0x02

                     FIGURE A.7 S_CONREQ MESSAGE FORMAT (ONE LINE PER BYTE)



When the router receives this message, it sends a call request message to the DTE connected to the port
specified in the S_CONFIG message. When the router receives the call accept message from the DTE, it
sends a message to the application indicating that the connection has been confirmed. This message is shown
in Figure A.8.

                    Command Identifier                                   0x10

                     FIGURE A.8 S_CONCNF MESSAGE FORMAT (ONE LINE PER BYTE)

When the router receives a clear indication message from the X.25 line, it replies with a clear confirmation and
sends a disconnection indication message to the application. The format of this message is shown in Figure
A.9.

                    Command Identifier                                   0x30
                    Cause                                               cause
                    Diagnostic                                        diagnostic

                      FIGURE A.9 S_DISIND MESSAGE FORMAT (ONE LINE PER BYTE)




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Incoming Calls
The messages shown in Figure A.10 are sent when the router receives an incoming call.
                    APPLICATION
                  RUNNING ON HOST                   ROUTER                          X.25 LINE



                                                                        Call
                                                               Incoming
                                           IND
                                      S_CON                      Call Ac
                                                                         cept

                                      S_DIS
                                           REQ
                                                               Clear R
                                                                      equest

                                                                            ation
                                                              Clear Confirm

                                               NF
                                      S_DISC




                            FIGURE A.10 INCOMING CALL RECEIVED BY THE ROUTER




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When an incoming call message is received by the router, the router replies with a call accept message and
sends a connection indication message to the application. The format of this message is shown in Figure A.11.

                    Command Identifier                                   0x20
                    DTE Address                       most significant
                                                           digit
                    DTE Address, Continued
                    DTE Address, Continued
                    DTE Address, Continued
                    DTE Address, Continued
                    DTE Address, Continued
                    DTE Address, Continued
                    DTE Address, Continued                              least significant digit
                    Call User Data Length                         0 to 16 bytes
                    Call User Data                                  xxxxxxxx
                    Call User Data, Continued                       xxxxxxxx
                    Call User Data, Continued                       xxxxxxxx

                     FIGURE A.11 S_CONIND MESSAGE FORMAT (ONE LINE PER BYTE)

If the application does not want to accept the call, it sends a disconnection request message to the router. The
format of this message is shown in Figure A.12.

                    Command Identifier                                0x03
                    Cause                                            cause
                    Diagnostic                                     diagnostic

                     FIGURE A.12 S_DISREQ MESSAGE FORMAT (ONE LINE PER BYTE)

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The router then sends a clear request message to the X.25 line. The X.25 line confirms with a clear
confirmation message to the router. Upon receipt of this message, the router sends a disconnection
confirmation message to the application. The format of this message is shown in Figure A.13.

            If the TCP Port / DTE table entry previously contained a DTE value of zero, the application must
            resend the S_CONFIG message. When the incoming call message is received by the router, the
            router changes the TCP Port / DTE table entry, replacing it with the value present in the incoming
            message under the assumption that the message will be accepted.

                    Command Identifier                                0x40

                     FIGURE A.13 S_DISCNF MESSAGE FORMAT (ONE LINE PER BYTE)

Status Messages
The application can query the router as to the state of the X.25 connection. The sequence of messages is
shown in Figure A.14.

                    APPLICATION
                  RUNNING ON HOST                     ROUTER                        X.25 LINE


                                     S_STA
                                          TREQ


                                           TRSP
                                      S_STA




                                      FIGURE A.14 STATUS MESSAGES
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The application first sends a status request message. The format of this message is shown in Figure A.15.

                    Command Identifier                                   0x04

                    FIGURE A.15 S_STATREQ MESSAGE FORMAT (ONE LINE PER BYTE)

The router responds with a status response message, as shown in Figure A.16.

                    Command Identifier                                   0x50
                    Status

                    FIGURE A.16 S_STATRSP MESSAGE FORMAT (ONE LINE PER BYTE)

Details of the implementation of the TCP Port / DTE table in CyROS
In the menu CONFIG=>INTERFACE=>SWAN=>ENCAPSULATION =>X.25=><ESC>=>Add DTE, when TCP
socket is chosen as the logical address type, an entry is created in the TCP Port/ DTE table. This table has 64
visible entries (entries that can be manipulated via CyROS menus). The table also has 32 additional positions
in dynamic memory that are not visible.

When the router receives a S_CONFIG message, it checks the existing entries (in both the visible and hidden
portions of the table). If the TCP port is not listed, the router creates a hidden entry for the TCP port / DTE pair.
If the router is rebooted, this information is lost.

The number of X.25 connections possible using this API is sixty-four. However, there are only 32 dynamic
entries available in the hidden portion of the table. In order to take advantage of all sixty-four connections, at
least 32 TCP Port / DTE pairs must be configured manually using the menu mentioned above.




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APPENDICE B IPX
IPX is an alternative to IP, proprietary to Novell. When IPX is activated, many new menus appear to allow
configuration of this type of network. IP and IPX can both be active in the router simultaneously, and an interface
can have both IP and IPX traffic passing through it. IPX is not discussed in the other chapters of this manual to
avoid confusion for those who are using IP.

                                            Server Named “Colombo”
                                            Novell Network Management Station
                                            Mac Address: 00: 60: 2E: 00: 11: 11
        IPX Network                         Internal Network Number: 00000003
   Number: 00A0B000
                                       PR2000
                                  ETH0                                                                Static Route
                     Internal Network       Slot 1
                     Number: 00000001

                                   IPXWAN Network
                                   Number: 00B0C000
                                                                PR3000                                               Windows Network with
                                           Internal Network      .....
                                                                      .....
                                                                           .....
                                                                                .....
                                                                                     .....
                                                                                          .....
                                                                                               ....

                                                                                                                     Network Number: 00010001
                                        Number: 00000002
                         Mac Address: 00: 60: 2E: 00: 11: 00




                                    FIGURE B.1 IPX NETWORK EXAMPLE




Appendice B - IPX                                                                                                                            369
CyROS                                                                                            Reference Guide

Enabling IPX
The first step is to activate the IPX feature in the router. This is accomplished using the menu option ADMIN
=>ENABLE FEATURES => IPX. The IPX protocol must also be activated in the menu CONFIG =>IPX => GENE-
RAL. In this menu, the Internal Network Number (the unique number assigned to the router) and the Maximum
Number of Hops must be defined. The maximum number of hops defines how many routers can be on the path
from this router to the destination of any packet sent through this interface.

Configuring the Ethernet Interface
The example in Figure B.1 will be used to explain the remaining parameters that must be configured. The Ethernet
interface for the PR2000 is examined first. In the menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE => ETHERNET =>
ENCAPSULATION, the Ethernet interface must be activated. The MAC address should be correct, as it is preset
at the factory. For IPX, the Encapsulation parameter should be set according to the value used by the servers on
the network..

In the menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE => ETHERNET => NETWORK PROTOCOL => IPX, the protocol should be
activated and the LAN Network Number (00A0B000 in the example) set. All other parameters are explained in
chapter 5.

Configuring Other Interfaces
This stage depends on which board is occupying slot 1 and which encapsulation will be used. Each encapsulation
option will be discussed separately. Read the chapter describing the configuration for the appropriate interface,
consulting this section for details on IPX-specific parameters.




Appendice B - IPX                                                                                            370
CyROS                                                                                             Reference Guide

PPP
The parameters for the PPP data-link protocol are discussed in the chapter for the specific interface. Only the
parameters particular to the IPX protocol will be described here. The are located in the CONFIG =>INTERFACE
=><INTERFACE> =>ENCAPSULATION =>PPP. The first parameter is the IPXWAN Network Number, shown in
Figure B.1 as 00B0C000. IPX Compression can be enabled, and if so the Number of Compression Slots determined.
If enabled, it must be used on both sides of the link (both routers in Figure B.1) in order for the link to work.

The parameter Send SAP Update can be set to Demand, Periodic, or None. This parameter affects both SAP and
RIP. Periodic causes the router to send these messages every minute, while choosing Demand will cause the
router to send messages only when a message request is received.

Frame Relay
Frame Relay parameters are explained in in the chapter for the specific interface. The IPX-protocol-specific
parameters are the same as those described in the preceding section, but are located in the menu CONFIG
=>INTERFACE =><INTERFACE> =>ENCAPSULATION =>FRAME RELAY => <ESC> => ADD DLCI.

X.25
X.25 is explained in in the chapter for the specific interface. The IPX-protocol-specific parameters are the same
as those described in the PPP section, but are located in the menu CONFIG =>INTERFACE =><INTERFACE>
=>ENCAPSULATION =>X25 => <ESC> => ADD DTE.

Routing
Routing can be done statically, by configuring static routes, or dynamically using RIP. RIP is described in in the
chapter for the specific interface. To create a static route, as shown in Figure B.1, navigate to the menu CONFIG
=> STATIC ROUTES => IPX =>ADD ROUTE. The parameters for the system shown in the example are the
following:



Appendice B - IPX                                                                                             371
CyROS                                                                                        Reference Guide

Add IPX Static Route Menu CONFIG => STATIC ROUTES => IPX =>ADD ROUTE
Parameter                Value for the Example
Destination Network 00010001
Number
Interface                Slot 1
Next Hop Node            00602e001100
Number of Hops           1 (one router is between the router being configured and the network to be reached)
Number of Ticks          1 (related to the time necessary to reach the network)
The routing table is displayed by the menu option INFO => SHOW ROUTING TABLE => IPX. For the example,
and using only the static route created above, the routing table appears as in Figure B.2.
            Destination Interface/ Subinterface/             hops    ticks     Type
                        Remote address
            00000001                                         0       1         PrimaryNet
            00A0B000    Ethernet                             0       1         Connected
            00010001    Slot1 Node 00602E001100              1       1         Static
            00B0C000    Slot1                                0       1         Connected

                           FIGURE B.2 ROUTING TABLE FOR THE EXAMPLE




Appendice B - IPX                                                                                       372
CyROS                                                                                             Reference Guide

The SAP (Service Advertisement Protocol) Table
In Novell networks, a given server can provide various services. In order for the router to identify these servers,
their locations and services are entered into a SAP table in the router. This is done using the menu CONFIG
=>IPX => SAP TABLE. The parameters for each entry are shown in the table.

SAP Table Menu CONFIG =>IPX => SAP TABLE
Parameter               Description
Service Type            Service this server offers. ? provides a list of valid codes. For the server Columbo, in
                        the example, this code is 0166.
Server Name             In the example, the name is Columbo.
Service Network         00000003
Number
Server Node             00602e001111
Server Socket           ? provides a list of valid codes.
Number
Number of Hops          Number of routers between this router and the server. 0 in the example.




Appendice B - IPX                                                                                              373
CyROS                                                                                                                     Reference Guide


                                                              Index
A                                          F                                                    Menu
                                                                                                 admin menu 347
ACCM 142                                   Firmware Boot 34                                      application menu 339
                                           Flash Memory 20                                       config menu 23
B                                          Frame Relay                                           controller menu
Bandwidth Reservation 108                     see the chapter for the interface                     PR3000 227
Buffers 342                                Ftp Site 17                                              PR4000 228
                                           H                                                     controller menu, with signaling 271
C
                                                                                                 debug menu 342
CAS Signaling Mode 276                     HDLC                                                  E1/T1 interface configuration menu
CCS Signaling Mode 273                       see the chapter for the interface                      with signaling 278
CHAR Encapsulation                         Host Names 35                                            without signaling 231
  see the chapter for the interface        Hot Keys                                              ethernet interface menu 117
Clear Interface Configuration 348, 349       esc - moving between menus 20                       info menu 343
Cyclades                                     L - list current configuration 20                   IP configuration menu 72
  telephones 17                                                                                  ISDN-BRI interface configuration menu 299
                                           I
Cyclades-Serial Expander 16 168                                                                  navigation 19
Cyclades-Synchronous Serial Expander 168   IP Accounting 123                                     rules list menu 97
CyROS menus 19                             IP Bridges 121                                        security configuration menu 51
                                           IP Filter Rules 100                                   static routes menu 25
D                                          ISDN-BRI Interface 299                                super-user main menu 21
Default User Main Menu 22                  ISDN-PRI, see E1 and T1 Interfaces, with signaling    SWAN interface configuration menu 129
Dial-Out Table 36                                                                                system configuration menu 29
                                           K                                                     transparent bridge menu 94
Downloading CyROS 354
                                           Kill Session 354                                      user main menu 22
E                                                                                                Z-Bus interface menu 168
                                           L                                                    Menu Navigation 19
E1 and T1 Interfaces
  bibliography 270                         Link Backup 65                                       MIB 39
  channelized T1/E1 229                    Load Backup 65                                       Modem Strings Table 37
  fractional T1/E1 229                     Load Balancing 65                                    Multilink
  full T1/E1 229                           Load Configuration 352                                multichassis, multilink PPP (MCPPP) 84
  with signaling 271                       Lucent Portmaster 3 84                               Multilink Circuits 65
     lan-to-lan wizard 298                                                                       link backup 65
     RAS wizard 297                        M                                                     load backup 65
     terminal server wizard 296            MAC Transparent Bridge, see Transparent Bridge        load balancing 65
  without signaling 227                    Main Menu 21                                         Multilink PPP
Enable Features 347                        Memory                                                see the PPP section for the interface
                                            flash 20


Index                                                                                                                                        374
CyROS                                                                                                                    Reference Guide




N                                         Rules Lists 97                                 U
                                            interface configuration 120, 121
NAT 55                                    Run Configuration 20                           UDP Commands 38
Navigation 19                                                                            Uploading CyROS 354
Network Address Translation, see NAT 55   S                                              Using CyROS menus 19
O                                         Saving Changes                                 V
                                            to flash 20
Open Shortest Path First, see OSPF          to flash at a later time 20                  Version
OSPF 78                                     to run configuration 20                        of CyROS 2
  areas 79                                SE16 168                                            newest, via ftp 14
  autonomous system 79                    Service Prioritization 108                       of manual 2
  interface configuration 126             Simple Network Management Protocol, see SNMP        newest, via ftp 14
  virtual links 84                        SNMP 39                                        W
P                                           alarms 45
                                            and IP accounting 124                        Write Configuration 347
Ping 340                                    communities 43                               Write to
PPPCHAR                                     events 48                                     FTP Server 353
  see the chapter for the interface         traps 44                                      TFTP Server 352
                                          Spanning Tree Algorithm 96
R                                                                                        X
                                          SSE8 168
Radius                                    Static Routes 25                               X.25
  callback 60                             SWAN Interface 129                               see the chapter for the interface
  servers 60                                                                             X.25 PAD
  supported attributes 61                 T                                                see the chapter for the inteface
Radius Rule Lists 106                     T1 Interface, see E1 and T1 Interfaces
Reboot 347                                                                               Z
                                          Tacacs Server 62
Remote Network Monitoring, see RMON       Technical Support 17                           Z-Bus Interface 168
Reserved IP Addresses 55                  Telephone Numbers 17                             asynchronous port menus 170
RIP                                       Telnet 340                                       lan-to-lan wizard 221
  interface configuration 126             Trace 342                                        mode-independent menus 204
  types of RIP 126                        Traceroute 341                                   RAS wizard 218
RMON 48                                   Traffic Rule Lists 108                           synchronous port menus 176
  history 50                              Traffic Shaping 108                              terminal server wizard 216
  statistics 50                           Transparent Bridges 94
Router Description 34, 35                   spanning tree algorithm 96
Routing Protocol
  OSPF, see OSPF
  RIP, see RIP


Index                                                                                                                               375
  Cyclades Corporation          Cyclades Europe             Cyclades South America
   41829 Albrae Street           Kenzestrasse 9              Av. Santa Catarina, 155
Fremont, CA 94538 - USA    D-85737 Ismaning - Germany    04635-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
  Phone: (510) 770-9727   Phone: +49 (0)89 96 99 74-40      Phone: 55-11- 5033-3333
   Fax: (510) 770-0355     Fax: +49 (0)89 96 99 74-55         Fax 55-11-5033-3388
   www.cyclades.com             www.cyclades.de              www.cyclades.com.br

				
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