Ch 29 by xiaohuicaicai

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									               Marketing 29
           The Chapter Research Process
Conducting Market Research

• Section 29.1 The Marketing Research Process
• Section 29.2 The Marketing Survey
                     The Marketing Research Process
Key Terms
problem definition
primary data
                     Objectives
secondary data
survey method
                      Explain the steps in designing and
sample
                       conducting marketing research
observation method
point-of-sale
                      Compare primary and secondary data
research
experimental
                      Identify the elements in a marketing
method                 research report
data analysis
validity              Design a marketing research survey
reliability
open-ended            Administer a marketing research
questions              survey
forced-choice
questions

                     Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
           The Marketing Research Process

The five steps that a business follows when
conducting marketing research are:

                                           5           Apply the results

                                4          Recommendations

                    3           Analyze the data

           2        Obtain the data

      1   Define the problem

           Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
                     Step 1: Defining the Problem
problem
definition
The process by       Problem definition occurs when
which a business
clearly identifies   a business clearly identifies a
a problem and
what is needed       problem and what is needed to
to solve it.         solve it. Because money and time
                     are limited, businesses must
                     identify which problems and
                     issues are the most important to
                     address at a given time.


                     Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
                     Step 2: Obtaining Data
primary data         The word data means facts. There are two types
Data obtained for    of data used in marketing research:
the first time and
used specifically     • Primary data are facts obtained for the first
for the particular      time and used specifically for the particular
problem or issue
under study.
                        problem or issue under study.
secondary             • Secondary data have already been
data                    collected for some purpose other than the
Data that has           current study. They are less expensive to
already been
collected for
                        collect than primary data.
some purpose
other than the
                     There are many ways secondary data can be
current study.       obtained from both internal sources (within the
                     company) and external sources.

                     Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
How Secondary Data Are Obtained

Secondary data are most often
collected in the following ways:
•The Internet
•U.S. and state government sources
•Specialized research companies
•Business publications and trade
 organizations or journals

          Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
          How Secondary Data Are Obtained


The greatest advantage of secondary data is
that they can be obtained easily because of
how widely distributed they are.
There are two major disadvantages to
secondary data:
• The existing data may not be suitable for the
  problem under study.
• The data may sometimes be outdated and/or
  inaccurate.

          Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
                    How Primary Data Are Obtained
survey              Primary research data can be collected using
method              three methods:
A research
technique in         • survey
which
information is       • observation
gathered from
people through       • experimental
the use of
surveys or
questionnaires.     The survey method is a research technique in
sample              which information is gathered from people
A part of the       through the use of surveys or questionnaires. It
target population   is the most frequently used method of
that is assumed     collecting primary data.
to represent the
entire              A sample is a part of the target population that
population.
                    represents it accurately.
                    Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
How Primary Data Are Obtained
 Survey research can be conducted:
 • in person
 • by phone
 • by mail
 • using the Internet
 When the marketer has decided how to conduct the
 survey, he or she then writes the questions
 according to the specific needs of that survey type.
 Personal interviews can be done in focus groups,
 door-to-door, or randomly in central locations.
              Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
How Primary Data Are Obtained
 A focus group interview involves generally
 six to ten people who are brought together
 to evaluate advertising, a product, design,
 or marketing strategy under a skilled
 moderator.




           Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
How Primary Data Are Obtained
 A major advantage of personal interviews is
 that they get a much better and easier
 response than mail, phone, or Internet
 surveys.
                         Telephone interviews are
                         quick, efficient, and
                         relatively inexpensive.



          Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
How Primary Data Are Obtained


                                         While mailed surveys
                                         have low response
                                         rates, offering some
                                         type of incentive to
                                         complete them can
                                         help to convince more
                                         people to respond.



     Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
  How Primary Data Are Obtained
Internet-based surveys are
quick and eliminate the
need for data entry.
A drawback is that Internet
surveys are limited to
individuals who have
access to the Web. Also,
many people dislike
receiving uninvited e-mail
surveys.
          Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
                    How Primary Data Are Obtained
observation          The observation method is a
method
A research
                     research technique in which the
technique in         actions of people are watched
which the actions
of people are        and recorded either by cameras or
watched and
recorded either      by observers.
by cameras or by
observers.          A mystery shopper is a researcher
                    who poses as a customer. The
                    mystery shopper observes the
                    interactions between customers
                    and salespeople to evaluate the
                    effectiveness of sales staff.
                    Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
     How Primary Data Are Obtained
One disadvantage of the observation
method is that it cannot measure
attitudes or motivation.
Two advantages of the
observation method are
that it is faster than
personal interviews, and
people are unaware
that they are being
observed, so they act
as they normally would.
           Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
                  How Primary Data Are Obtained
experimental
method            The experimental method is a
A research
technique in
                  technique in which a researcher
which a           observes the results of changing
researcher
observes the      one or more marketing variables
results of
changing one or
                  while keeping others constant
more marketing
variables while
                  under controlled conditions. It is
keeping certain   not used frequently because of
other variables
constant under    the cost of setting up the research
controlled
conditions.
                  conditions and the inaccuracy of
                  the responses.
                  Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
                   Step 3: Analyzing the Data
data analysis
The process of
compiling,          Data analysis is the process of
analyzing, and
interpreting the
                    compiling, analyzing, and
results of
primary and
                    interpreting the results of
secondary data      primary and secondary data
collection.
                    collection.




                   Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
Step 4: Recommending Solutions to the Problem
  Solution recommendations must be clear
  and well-supported by the research data.
  A typical research report includes the
  following:
  •Title page
  •Acknowledgments of people who assisted
  •Table of contents
  •List of tables, figures, charts, and
   graphs
           Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
Step 5: Applying the Results

  Managers use the research report to
  make decisions about marketing
  strategies to address the researched
  problem or issue.
  After the research is completed and
  changes are made, a business should
  carefully monitor the results to know if
  the actions are successful.

         Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.1
      Constructing the
       Questionnaire

                      A questionnaire has validity when the
validity              questions asked measure what was
When questions        intended to be measured.
asked on a
questionnaire         Reliability exists when a research
measure what          technique produces nearly identical
was intended to
be asked.             results in repeated trials. It requires that
                      the questions ask for the same type of
reliability           information from all respondents.
When a research
technique
                      To be valid and reliable, a questionnaire
produces nearly       must be properly:
identical results
in repeated trials.    • Written
                       • Formatted
                       • Administered
                      Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.2
                      Writing Questions
open-ended            Open-ended questions ask respondents
questions
Questions that        to construct their own response to a
require               question.
respondents to
construct their
own answers.
                      Forced-choice questions (structured)
forced-choice         ask respondents to choose answers from
questions             possibilities on a questionnaire.
Questions that
ask respondents
to choose
                      Yes/No questions should be used only
answers from          when asking for a response on one issue,
possibilities given
on a
                      for example, “Was our facility well
questionnaire.        maintained?” Having a question that asks
                      about more than one issue decreases
                      validity and reliability.
                      Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.2
                     The Marketing Survey
Multiple Choice Questions
  Multiple choice questions give the respondent several
  choices. When constructing multiple choice questions,
  it is important that the options are made
  comprehensive enough to include every possible
  response. Examples might include list, category or
  quantity questions.
Level of Agreement Questions
 When assessing attitudes or opinions, it is often a
 good idea to write statements that reflect those attitudes
 or opinions. Then you can ask respondents for their
 level of agreement with the statements. Examples might
 include ranking or scale/grid questions.
The Marketing Survey
Multiple Choice Questions
   List Which of the following did you eat at your
        last meal? Check all that apply:
   Cooked vegetables
   Salad
   Boiled or mashed potatoes
   Roast potatoes
   Chips
   Fresh fruit
                                      The Marketing Survey
 Multiple Choice Questions
  Category Please indicate your age?

                      Less than 18

                      18 - 24

                      25 34

                      35 - 44

                      45- above

Note: Questions of age are considered by some as embarrassing
and best asked as a category rather than the direct question “What
is your age?”
                 The Marketing Survey
Multiple Choice Questions
 Quantity: How many times did you eat chips
 last week?     Please circle one.
 Not at All   Once      Twice     3-4 times

Level of Agreement Questions
 Ranking: Place the following in the order of
 importance, number 1 being the most important
    ____ A well stocked library
    ____ Well equipped laboratories
    ____ Up to date computing facilities
                                            The Marketing Survey
Level of Agreement Questions
   Scale/Grid:                                  Neither
                             Strongly   Agree   agree      Disagree   Strongly
                             agree              nor                   disagree
                                                disagree

The laboratory classes in
this module were well
organized
There were sufficient
tutorials/seminars in this
module
The lectures in this
module were clearly
presented
                 The Marketing Survey
Yes/No Questions
Two-choice questions give the respondent
  only two options, usually yes or no. Yes/No
  questions should be used only when asking for
  a response on one issue. Yes/No questions
  are often used as filter questions. Filter
  questions help to guide respondents to
  answer only those questions that apply.

1. Do you frequently attend sporting events?
            Yes     No
   If yes, please answer questions a - e below.
Basic Guidelines for Writing Questions
  • Each question should be clearly written and
    as brief as possible.
  • Use consistent ranking scales for all similar
    questions.
  • Avoid leading questions and introducing
    biases.
  • Do not use questions that make your
    respondent guess.



           Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.2
           Formatting
The survey should:
   use dark ink on light paper
   use a font that is easy to read
   be brief
   have section headings or numbers on all
  individual survey sections
   have numbers for each question


           Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.2
                     Formatting



  Section headings




Question numbers
        Formatting


General demographic questions about
gender, age, ethnicity, and education
are typically grouped together at the
end of the survey. That is because
respondents are more likely to answer
personal questions after completing the
other questions.



       Marketing Essentials Chapter 29, Section 29.2
This chapter has helped prepare you to meet the
following DECA performance indicators:
• Identify information monitored for marketing
  decision making
• Describe sources of secondary data
• Search the Internet for marketing information
• Monitor internal records for marketing information
• Collect marketing information from others (e.g.,
  customers, staff, vendors)
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