An-Investigation-and-Conceptual-Model-of-SMS-Marketing by xiaohuicaicai

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									           Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences - 2004




         An Investigation and Conceptual Model of SMS Marketing
                         Astrid Dickinger, Parissa Haghirian
Vienna University of Economics & Business Administration, International Marketing and
    Management Department; {astrid.dickinger, parissa.haghirian}@wu-wien.ac.at
                                Jamie Murphy, Arno Scharl
                      University of Western Australia, Business School
                           {jmurphy, ascharl}@ecel.uwa.edu.au


                 Abstract                                As with most new technologies, mobile
                                                       usage differs geographically. Unlike the
Mobile marketing, also known as wireless               Internet, where the US led the adoption, Ja-
marketing, promises vast opportunities. Still          pan leads in mobile Internet technology,
in an experimental phase, businesses have              with a penetration of Internet enabled
little experience using this new marketing             phones of 72% as of June 2002. Europe and
tool. Mobile services offer companies pow-             North America lag at 45% and 25% respec-
erful marketing potential via direct commu-            tively, according to an A. T. Kearney and
nication with consumers, anytime and any-              University of Cambridge survey of 15 indus-
where, but little research on this subject ex-         trialized countries [2]. These differences in
ists. This paper discusses Short Message               mobile technology adoption relate to differ-
Services (SMS), which belong to the first              ences in the global development and pricing
and most successful forms of mobile data               of cell phones.
transmission. Based on a literature review               Japan introduced cell phones with constant
and exploratory qualitative research, this             Internet access in 1999. These devices let
paper defines mobile marketing, describes              customers receive and display messages,
its most popular application, text messaging,          figures and photographs. About 60 million
introduces a conceptual model of success               Japanese, or 47%, actually use Internet en-
factors for implementing mobile marketing,             abled mobile services [38]. The Japanese
and proposes future research avenues.                  market, which Europe and America may
                                                       follow, leads the world in the development
                                                       of mobile marketing, illustrated by the Japa-
                                                       nese cell phone display in Figure 1.
1. Introduction

  They live in the same house but their lives
contrast. Like many of her 16-year old
friends doted on by parents and grandpar-
ents, Ingrid Johnson has time to kill, money
to burn, follows trends and loves to shop.
Her dad, Bill Johnson, would kill for free
time, pinches pennies, ignores trends and
hates to shop. Yet they passionately agree on
one thing; they could not survive without
their cell phone. The quest for companies is                Figure 1. Japanese cell phone display
leveraging cell phone technology in order to            (www.j-phone.com/japanese/products/display.html)
effectively market to both Ingrid and Bill.
                                                         Development aside, an important question
Mobile devices increase consumer commu-
                                                       for companies in all countries is how to use
nication and challenge companies as to ap-
                                                       this personalized marketing tool effectively.
propriate marketing.




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Despite the growing demand and marketing               According to the GSM Association, users
potential, there is little research on mobile          send more than 10 billion SMS messages
marketing. This paper helps fill that void by          each month [15]. This makes SMS the most
addressing four research questions. What is            popular mobile data application. In 2002,
mobile marketing? What do leading Euro-                580.2 million mobile messaging users sent
pean experts conclude about mobile market-             430.8 billion messages [59].
ing via its most successful application, Short           Current technology limits each message to
Message Services (SMS)? What model                     a maximum of 160 characters. With SMS as
helps explain effective mobile marketing?              a best effort service, all messages are deliv-
Finally, what fruitful marketing avenues and           ered as long as there is enough free capacity
theoretical approaches merit exploration?              in the network. If the mobile phone is off,
                                                       the message arrives when the user turns the
2. Defining Mobile Marketing                           mobile on. Future ‘always on’ devices
                                                       should overcome this real time transmission
   “Marketing management is the process of             bottleneck.
planning and executing the conception, pric-             A two-way information flow, sending and
ing, promotion and distribution of goods,              receiving messages, enhances service and
services, and ideas to create exchanges that           feedback between companies and consumers
satisfy individual and organizational goals”           [28]. Text messages are also popular for in-
[5, 1]. This American Marketing Associa-               terpersonal communication [17]. Cell
tion definition implies sequential marketing           phones let users of all ages easily maintain
stages as well as temporal and spatial sepa-           business and social contacts, although re-
ration of buyers and sellers. Mobile devices           search found that entry barriers to using
blur these boundaries and distinctions by              SMS were high for teachers and other adult
extending traditional marketing’s time-space           authority figures [56].
paradigm [62].                                           A key mobile marketing use is advertis-
   Cell phones, free from traditional land-            ing, in a push or pull model. Push advertis-
based Internet connections, amplify main               ing sends unsolicited messages, usually via
arguments of e-commerce, location inde-                an SMS alert. Pull advertising adds mes-
pendence and ubiquity [6; 8; 62]. Consum-              sages, usually promoting free information
ers who increasingly expect tailored and               such as traffic reports or weather forecasts,
location based services, reinforce the impor-          to browsed content the customer requested
tance of location, time and personalization            [54]. Recipients often pay for wireless ads
in mobile marketing [61].                              though, as they perceive the ads as content.
   One-to-one Marketing, addressing cus-               This mixed content blurs the line between
tomers individually, is well established in            advertising and service [29].
marketing and plays a central role in Cus-               Push, the predominant wireless delivery
tomer Relationship Management [31; 39;                 method, saves time and money compared to
44]. Although it can be expensive and time-            surfing the Internet via WAP, but the infor-
consuming to gather individual customer                mation should be relevant to the receiver
interests, customized information treats each          [46]. Yunos et al. state that most users view
individual uniquely [62]. As with other                wireless ads pushed to their mobile device
forms of digital marketing, mobile media               as intrusive and unwelcome [65].
incorporate interactivity and transcend tradi-           Summarizing the discussion above, the au-
tional communication, allowing for one-to-             thors define mobile marketing as “Using
one, many-to-many and mass communica-                  interactive wireless media to provide cus-
tion models [11; 26; 27].                              tomers with time and location sensitive, per-
   Text Messaging, in the UK, or Short Mes-            sonalized information that promotes goods,
sage Service (SMS) in other European coun-             services and ideas, thereby generating value
tries, the US and Australia, lets users send           for all stakeholders.”
and receive text messages via cell phones.




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3. Methodology
                                                         The taped interviews lasted between 40
  Given the little research on mobile media            and 70 minutes and took place in the inter-
and marketing, the authors used exploratory            viewees’ office or office building, as quali-
qualitative research [7; 23] for identifying           tative interviews should take place where the
variables and relationships among them.                interviewee feels comfortable [7; 23]. Two
Open-ended questions served as a flexible              interviewers participated, one leading the
guideline for interviews [52] that investi-            interview, the other taking notes and both
gated mobile marketing. Qualitative re-                transcribing the taped interviews that day.
search is complex, involving fieldwork for             After transcription, the interviewers coded,
prolonged periods of time, collecting word             categorized and summarized the data for
and pictures, analyzing the information in-            interpretation and analysis. The analysis,
ductively while focusing on participants’              combined with existing literature, led to the
views and writing about the process [16].              overview of text messaging and model in the
  While previous qualitative SMS research              next sections.
focused on interpersonal communication
[17], these interviews focused on SMS mar-             4. Text Messaging – A Mobile Mar-
keting. The interviewees, 15 European mo-                 keting Medium
bile marketing experts from industry and
academia provided a rich set of data.                     SMS marketing can be more cost effective
• Mobile Marketing Companies (Head of                  than other media as its main cost is buying
  Marketing, Team Manager, Business                    cell phone numbers. This is necessary if a
  Analyst, Head of Development & Re-                   company fails to convince customers to
  search, CEO),                                        “opt-in”, or give their permission to receive
• Advertising Agencies (Senior Manager,                wireless advertising. According to Forrester
                                                       Research, the price for 1,000 numbers can
  Art Director, New Media Expert),
                                                       be as high as 30$ in comparison to 1$ for
• Mobile Telephone Companies (Head of                  1,000 e-mail addresses [47]. According to
  Marketing, Head of SMS Advertising),                 experts, SMS’ effectiveness in reaching tar-
• Company using Mobile Marketing (Head                 get groups helps justify this higher price.
  of Research),                                           Furthermore, the response rate of consum-
• Consulting Company (Consultant and                   ers to mobile campaigns is higher compared
  Researcher),                                         to campaigns via other media [47] – a
• Location Based Service Provider (CEO),               WindWire report, for example, showed a
• Universities (Professor and Lecturer with            31% response rate [64]. The European ex-
  Research Focus on Mobile Commerce).                  perts interviewed confirmed this observa-
                                                       tion, adding that customers often respond to
  The seven interview topics stemmed from              messages instantly and even use the com-
this study's four broad research questions             plete set of 160 characters.
and voids found in the literature review of
consumer behavior, interactive technologies
                                                       5. Text Messaging Applications
and technology adoption [3; 11; 26; 27; 30;
31; 45; 49; 50; 51; 58; 62; 63].
                                                         Text message advertising integrates easily
•   Target groups for SMS advertisements,              into the media mix. Seven experts agreed
•   Success factors for SMS advertisement,             that SMS campaigns should complement
•   Effective SMS message design,                      other media. The 160-character limitation
•   SMS advertising possibilities,                     hinders the design of cell phone messages,
                                                       and SMS should not serve as the main media
•   Basics for SMS advertising success,
                                                       in a campaign [34]. Several companies (e.g.,
•   Barriers to SMS advertising,                       Flytxt's FXTrinity, Mindmatic’s Wireless
•   Wireless advertising trends.




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Interactive Box, UCP’s Mobile Media Plat-              5.3. Mobile CRM
form, and the Chordiant Marketing Director
Suite [13] illustrated in Figure 2) already               Text messaging supports Customer Rela-
integrate SMS with other media.                        tionship activities such as receiving free
                                                       newsletters, pictures, ring tones, bonus
                                                       points and coupons after joining a customer
                                                       program. Mobile telephone companies plan
                                                       to use SMS for customer relationship man-
                                                       agement, sending their clients information
                                                       on where to get cheap pre-paid phone cards
                                                       when their credits are running low.
                                                          One expert said that his cell phone com-
                                                       pany plans to use mobile marketing for cus-
                                                       tomer relationship management by "sending
                                                       SMS based reminders if clients do not pay
                                                       their bills on time. This kind of reminder is
                                                       more effective and less expensive for us as
  Figure 2. User interface of the Chordiant            operators. Of course the legal consequences
      Five Mobile Marketing Director                   need to be checked first.”
5.1. Mobile Couponing                                  5.4. Branding
   Companies can send coupons to cell                    Mobile marketing is a branding tool. For
phones via SMS. Mobile couponing offers at             over a century, branding efforts have at-
least three advantages: targeting based on             tempted to link images and emotions with a
customer cell phone numbers; time sensitiv-            brand in order to gain a competitive edge
ity, e.g. receiving a 20% discount on pur-             beyond utilitarian differences [4; 12; 60].
chases immediately after entering a shop;              Brands, usually a company’s most stable
and efficient handling by scanning the cou-            asset [14] and a fundamental tenet of busi-
pon’s bar-code at the cash desk.                       ness success [53], simplify consumers
   Raskino predicts that consumers will use            choice with a brand name that links closely
mobile coupons 300 times more often than               to a product category [53]. For example,
ordinary paper coupons [48]. Customers                 when most people think of fast food,
keep their cell phone with them and there-             McDonald’s comes to mind. Barwise et al.
fore the coupon too.                                   [10] posit that trusted brands are more im-
                                                       portant in the virtual world where they in-
5.2. Information Services                              fluence online purchases, generate customer
                                                       loyalty [14], and attract customers to their
   Advertising funded information services             Web sites [24]. This ‘virtual branding’ effect
include news, weather, traffic, market rates,          may apply to SMS as well.
horoscopes, or songs just played on the ra-              Wella, a leading seller of hair cosmetics
dio. The receiver of the services would pay            and fragrances in over 150 countries, con-
little or nothing for this relevant and person-        ducted a campaign that sent a message with
alized information. Three advertising agency           a kiss to all their clients that gave permission
experts noted that a prerequisite for increas-         to receive SMS messages from Wella. The
ing this advertising method's success is a             customers liked the Wella kiss so much that
strong relation between the required infor-            they forwarded it to their friends. This viral
mation and the advertisement. Accordingly,             impact created a high effect for a low cost
companies should only send advertisements              [20]. Wella paid for text messages sent to
that complement customer interests.                    the opt-in clients but paid nothing for the
                                                       messages passed on to friends [1].




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5.5. Entertainment                                    the advertising agency experts, were sure
                                                      that creating emotions was possible through
  Entertainment services can increase cus-            this medium. Broadband access and ad-
tomer loyalty and add value for the cus-              vanced mobile devices will enable multime-
tomer. As most people have a natural play-            dia content and thus increase image cam-
fulness, providing games and prizes via text          paign possibilities.
messaging yields high participation, noted a
mobile marketing expert. Sending games                5.7. Location Based Services
and prizes to the customer’s cell phone is a
fun way to attract and keep customers.                   Location based services that connect to a
  Warner Brothers Movie World in Ger-                 distinct location are highly relevant for local
many, for example, invited customers to               advertising – i.e., a person might receive a
send a certain message to three friends as            text message including directions to the
quickly as possible, asking them to forward           nearest Italian restaurant or train station.
the message to Warner Brothers. The first             Companies can send advertisements to a
five teams to complete the cycle received             registered client when this client passes the
free tickets to Warner Brothers’ Movie                point of purchase, illustrating the time sensi-
World entertainment park [37].                        tiveness of this approach. Two experts using
  A Siemens Survey and Gartner Research               location based services pointed out that as
found that entertainment applications espe-           this service is time sensitive, clients should
cially appeal to the “generation @” segment           receive the message when in front of the
– young World Wide Web users between 12               shop and not half an hour later.
and 16 years old [25]. Young people are
heavy users of SMS services but often fail to         6. A Conceptual Model of Effective
realize how much text messaging and                      SMS Marketing
voicemail cost. The Communications Law
Center in Australia found that a quarter of             A conceptual model summarizes the re-
young people have difficulties paying their           sults of this exploratory study and previous
mobile phone bills and frequently end up in           research. Figure 3 groups the independent
debt [35]. Organizations must consider this           variables of mobile marketing success into
ethical issue when targeting teenagers with           two categories, message characteristics and
mobile marketing.                                     media characteristics. Descriptions of these
                                                      success factors (independent variables) and
5.6. Product Launches                                 the success measures (dependent variables)
                                                      follow.
   Mobile marketing also supports product
launches, especially services. Twelve of the
fifteen experts believe that mobile marketing
activities are more beneficial when introduc-
ing services than introducing consumer or
industrial goods. As mentioned earlier, all
experts agreed that wireless advertising suc-
ceeds only if embedded appropriately in the
marketing mix.
   There was no agreement, however, among
experts about using text messaging for an
image campaign. Three experts from adver-
tising agencies thought that image cam-
paigns were impossible via SMS. Four other
experts, those with more experience con-
                                                            Figure 3. Effective SMS Marketing
ducting mobile marketing campaigns than




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6.1. Message Success Factors                           6.1.3. Personalization. Targeted advertising
                                                       based on client profiles enhances the experi-
6.1.1. Content. The copy of an SMS adver-              ence for mobile owners and brands. Person-
tisement is important. A UK survey of one              alizing the message increases its impact. A
thousand Greater London cell phone owners              structured and well-maintained database is
identified six advertisement types: brand              crucial for targeting customers effectively.
building, special offers, timely media teas-           To build such a database for SMS cam-
ers, requests, competitions, and polls [11].           paigns, clients must disclose information
Across these categories, the authors found             about their habits, interests and preferences.
that good advertisements were short/straight           Common attributes include leisure activities,
to the point (28%), funny/entertaining                 number of holidays taken within a particular
(26%), relevant to the target group (20%),             interval, music interests, favorite newspa-
eye catching (13%), and informative about              pers, favorite radio, Internet access, occupa-
prizes and promotions (12%). A message                 tion, marital status, car ownership and in-
should contain an attractive underlying idea,          come [11].
be concise, use language understood by the                Obtaining explicit data from consumers,
target group and use the available 160 char-           rather than leveraging existing databases,
acters effectively [11].                               increases the message’s relevance [11].
   Another important aspect is information             Many clients, however, resist sharing per-
on how the customer can stop receiving fu-             sonal details. This illustrates an inevitable
ture company messages. Finally, when ad-               trade-off between personalization and con-
dressing young people, messages should be              trol granted to the consumer. Gathering data
entertaining and show familiarity with the             for tailored messages raises privacy con-
abbreviations and the spitfire conversational          cerns, which the following section discusses.
style typical of SMS and instant Internet              Corporate policies must consider general
messaging [33].                                        guidelines for sending SMS messages as
                                                       well as the validity of electronic signatures
6.1.2. Time of Transmission. SMS mes-                  and electronic contracts. Seven experts who
sages are less intrusive than phone calls as           experienced customer resistance welcomed
recipients can read the message at their lei-          European initiatives to restrict unsolicited
sure and choose whether to respond [18].               SMS. They argued that a company sending
Nevertheless, organizations must consider              unsolicited messages negatively affects the
the time and frequency to send messages,               wireless advertising industry.
based on both the target group and the topic.
One interviewee, the CEO of the biggest                6.1.4. Consumer Control, Permission and
mobile marketing company in the German                 Privacy. Even though SMS offers myriad
speaking part of Europe, stressed that “mes-           marketing possibilities, there are practical
sages should only be sent between 09.00 and            limitations. Sending high loads of data via
19.30 on weekdays. Addressing students,                text messaging is time consuming. Content
messages should not be sent before noon,               restrictions – i.e., messages may not exceed
because at this time students can either not           160 characters – might inhibit consumers
be reached efficiently or might get into trou-         from signing up for SMS. Web-based in-
ble receiving messages during their classes.”          formation systems, by contrast, offer easier
  Real time transmission, whereby the mes-             registration. Their display devices’ bigger
sage appears on the potential consumer’s               screens and higher resolutions offer more
screen within seconds, will further increase           convenient access to privacy policies and
mobile marketing success. These instanta-              legal frameworks such as MindMatics’ Red-
neous broadcasts offer opportunities, such as          Alertz (http://www.redalertz.co.uk/).
ordering songs played on the radio instantly             A simple registration process also helps
after hearing them.                                    gain permission. Without consent, clients
                                                       will refuse to accept messages [22]. Permis-




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sion, a relatively new marketing term but              come this limitation [41]. Phones with
actually an old concept, has come of age               higher resolutions and multicolor-displays,
thanks to e-mail [21]. Both the customer and           already common in Japan (see Figure 1 ear-
the company benefit from permission mar-               lier), can include visual elements for innova-
keting. While marketers get an audience in-            tive marketing strategies. The different de-
terested in their message, customers receive           vices however, are incompatible with little
fewer and more relevant messages [45].                 agreement on common standards.
   Research on permission marketing via
email is emerging. A study that investigated           6.2.2. Transmission Process. Seven experts
permission campaigns across media found                identified technical barriers in sending text
that a print campaign yielded opt-in e-mail            messages. First, a text message may never
addresses, especially with hand-addressed              arrive. The technology for text messages is a
envelopes [57]. Against expectations, a lux-           “best effort” service; there is no guarantee
ury hotel’s permission e-mail campaign                 that the data arrive within the next minute.
showed that personalized messages had                  Two interviewees working for grid operators
poorer results than standardized messages              and four more experts estimated probability
[36]. This may have stemmed from using e-              of arrival of a text message on the user’s
mail addresses collected at check-in and fail-         active mobile phone as high as 99%.
ing to establish an e-mail relationship.                  A second technical barrier is arrival de-
   The advertiser must have permission be-             lays. The text message should arrive a few
fore sending advertisements to consumers.              minutes after sending, but delays of a couple
Unwanted messages, commonly known as                   of hours are possible according to the ex-
spam, annoy the consumer and no matter                 perts. This is a major problem for time sen-
which medium (e.g., telephone, fax, elec-              sitive content such as customer account
tronic mail, mobile communication, etc.) are           changes, last-minute tickets, product avail-
illegal in some countries. Frequent spams              ability notifications and weather reports.
stifle user acceptance; this argument may be           Online booking services and airlines, for
even stronger with mobile marketing.                   example, already use SMS to notify travel-
   All 15 experts cited fear of spam as the            ers of flight status [40]. New technologies
strongest negative influence on customer               may help solve this issue.
attitudes towards SMS advertising. Dread of
unwanted messages and privacy fears may                6.2.3. Product Fit. Their distinctive charac-
prevent consumers from registering for SMS             teristics position SMS advertising as better
ads. Unlike changing one’s email address               for frequently purchased low-ticket items
hosted by free Web-based services such as              rather than infrequently purchased high-
Yahoo! or Hotmail, changing one’s cell                 value products [11]. Nine experts agreed
phone number is far more difficult.                    that SMS is particularly useful for promot-
                                                       ing technical goods and services, or those
6.2. Media Success Factors                             that appeal to a young target group such as
                                                       event or party announcements.
6.2.1. Device Technology. A major problem
of European mobile marketers has been                  6.2.4. Direct and Indirect Impact. SMS
SMS' graphical limitations. Designing at-              usually urge the recipient to “Act on the
tractive text messages with only 160 charac-           spot”. As all experts claimed that almost all
ters is difficult. This limitation challenges          recipients would read the message, it is im-
marketers and limits possibilities to convey           perative to induce the customer to act, such
the messages. All experts agreed that text             as attending the party that night. The mes-
messaging is only an additional element in             sage's impact vanishes quickly.
their marketing media mix.                               Another important impact is the viral ef-
  Emerging technologies such as the Multi-             fect of appealing text messages. Recipients
media Messaging Service (MMS) help over-               may forward messages to their friends, thus




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increasing the overall impact. This effect             7. Conclusion
though, is difficult to plan, as it depends on
consumer trends. Viral effects [20] amplify               Based on a literature review and qualita-
the success of an SMS marketing campaign.              tive research of European experts, this paper
                                                       suggests an exploratory SMS marketing
6.3. Success Measures of SMS Marketing                 model of two independent variables, mes-
                                                       sage and media success factors, which influ-
6.3.1. Consumer Attention. Rodgers and                 ence three dependent measures of success:
Thorson [49] provide an extensive summary              consumer attention, consumer behaviors and
of online advertising, building on Wells’              advertising cost ratios. The paper also pro-
measures of effectiveness in traditional me-           poses a definition of mobile marketing, its
dia [63]. A key aspect is attention. The user          instruments and marketing applications. The
may forget a mobile ad, ignore it, or skip it.         analysis sheds light on the perceptions of
Gaining attention helps initiate consumer              managers working with nascent forms of
behaviors.                                             mobile marketing. Future research chal-
                                                       lenges remain, such as improving the model
6.3.2. Consumer Behavior. Consumer reac-               and hypotheses testing of the success factors
tions to mobile marketing messages include             and their influence on the attitude towards
clicking a link, e-mailing the advertiser,             SMS marketing.
phoning and purchasing [9]. Call-throughs                 Text messaging represents the first and
redirect the user to the advertiser's phone            most basic form of addressing consumers
number in a single click. Similarly, the con-          via mobile devices. In Asia and Europe,
sumer may send an e-mail or text message to            where picture SMS is already a reality, more
the company. Compared to click-through                 complex challenges await mobile marketing
rates of less than 1% for online advertising           companies. The development of i-mode in
[24; 64], wireless click-through rates and             Japan showed that a strong brand, an active
call-through rates are 19% and 12%, respec-            company image, high acceptance of value
tively [64].                                           adding services and a critical mass of de-
   Based on another interactive medium, the            vices are important success factors. Further
World Wide Web, Koufaris shows that the                conceptual work in this field is imperative,
shopping experience and perceived useful-              such as the diffusion of innovations [51; 55].
ness of Web sites are important measures                  The approach by Pedersen and Ling sug-
related to the consumer's intention to return          gests developing a comprehensive model of
to the site [32]. Recent research on media             mobile service adoption. They propose ex-
metrics should also be applied to measure              tending traditional adoption models based
the success of mobile marketing [42; 58].              on diffusion, uses and gratifications, and
                                                       domestication research [43]. Gilbert and
6.3.3. Cost Ratios. Cost per thousand or               Kendall found that value is a central issue in
cost per click, traditional measures for mass          wireless services adoption. They argue that
media advertising such as Web sites, TV,               due to the nature of the wireless medium,
newspapers and radio [30], can gauge wire-             few marketing lessons from mass media or
less advertising’s effectiveness. Comprehen-           electronic commerce apply to mobile mar-
sive and current databases are a prerequisite          keting [19]. Future research should explore
for targeted campaigns (see section on “Per-           the acceptance of and attitude towards mo-
sonalization” above), and five interviewees            bile services. Possible approaches include
highlighted the importance of calculating a            Aijzen's and Fishbein's Theory of Planned
campaign's potential gains against the costs           Behavior [3] and Rogers' model of innova-
of data maintenance.                                   tion adoption [51].




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