Grading: Your grade on the laboratory report will be based on the results obtained including
analysis of unknown samples, a demonstration of an understanding of the procedure, and the
effectiveness of communicating what you did. Organization and presentation of results will
certainly be a factor. Truly superior reports exhibit the utilization of sources other than the
minimal references given in the handouts.

Warning: All write-ups exclusive of the data analysis must represent an individual effort.
This means that copying of reports with cosmetic alterations of the language will result in a
grade of F for both submitters.

 Each experiment is designed to illustrate some theoretical principle. The most credit for the
lab will be received when these principles are cited and comparisons made between what theory
predicts and what you observed.
 Laboratory reports will be submitted in the form of memoranda. A suggested style for each
format is given below.
 Grades for laboratory reports will be based on accuracy and completeness of experimental
data, conclusions, and effectiveness of communicating the results of the experiments. The latter
includes the format of the report, adherence to the style requested, and accuracy of observations
and conclusions.
 Supporting evidence from outside literature sources always add value to the report.
                                   Chemistry XXX Laboratory
Date :       September 1, 1999
To:          Dr. Gary L. Asleson
From:       Josephine College ( Smith, Jones )               include lab partner(s) names in
Results for Experiment 29: Construction of a 100 GeV Nuclear Accelerator
Executive Summary: (summarize results in this section - report values, conclusions, etc.)
        A high energy nuclear accelerator was built from parts available at the local Kroger
supermarket. Particle production approaching 95% of theoretical yield was obtained at beam
currents specified in the procedure. Production of zipons was approximately 2.0×104
particles/cm2 but showed a drop as the beam current exceeded 0.333 amps. This procedure
appeared to work as described except that ground wires needed to be added to the source module
to keep from electrocuting the experimenters.

(break experiments into component parts - report results and reasons for conclusions - multiple
measurements are best reported in tables or graphs - be brief but complete)
1.   Part 1: Measurement of Plate Voltages
       Careful measurements of accelerator plate voltages gave the following:
                      Source plate                   200.3 ± 0.5 V
                      Dynode 1                       351.0 ± 1.5 V
                      Dynode 2                       620 ± 10 V
                      Anode                        1200 ± 50 V
2.   Part 2: Measurement of Beam Currents
       Beam currents were measured with a Radio Shack digital multimeter that had been
modified to withstand high radiation fields. Beam current measurements are listed in Table 1
below. A complete list of measurements is attached as Appendix A.
Be sure to format tables and center in report. Use merge cells command to but a caption for your
                              (Table caption should be formatted into table.)

                                     Table 1: Beam Current
                                    Time (hrs)        Current (A)
                                          0.00             0.000
                                          2.00             0.123
                                          6.00             0.491
                                         12.00             0.494
                                         18.50             0.494
Figure 1 below shows the beam current as a function of time (in hours). It is clearly seen that the
current is quite constant after an initial warm-up period.
                                1           eam       vs.       urs).
                         Figure 1. Plot of be current v time (hou
                                 p              ion         w             ram.)
                         (Always put figure capti below below plot or diagr

        T             b         nt                   urs      94         mps     pare
        The average beam curren from 5.00 to 30.00 hou was 0.49 ± 0.003 am as comp
         eoretical valu of 0.500 amps.(2)
to the the            ue         a

3.      t           e          n         ction of Beam Current
     Part 3: Particle Production as a Func           m

         T           elow shows a plot of the number of s
         The figure be                                    sub-atomic z zipons measu ured as a
function of beam cur              t            icle        ion
                     rrent. Note that the parti producti dropped at a beam cu       urrent value of
0.333 am mps. Zipon th                         e          n
                      heory states that particle production should rise to a value of 5000
particles/ 2 at a bea current above 0.500 amps and re main consta until appr
          /cm         am         a              a                     ant           roximately 11.000
     (3)                                              2
         O           um           s
amp. Our maximu value was 2000 partic                    We           hat
                                               cles/cm . W believe th our data r   reflects an
          h          nt
external heating even in the vacu uum tank.
                    F                       p                       m
                    Figure 2. Plot of zipon production r ate vs. beam current.
                                p              ion         w             ram.)
                        (Always put figure capti below below plot or diagr

       or         s
The majo references for this work were:

                                            N          uild         ar      or    mmon
               (1) I. M. Proton and U. R. Neutron, "Bu a Nuclea Accelerato from Com
                   Household Pa             C
                               arts", J. of Cheap Phys., 1991, 55, 122-123.

               (2) I. R. Shocked U. R. Shoc             Missing, "H
                                            cked, H. R. M                    e           om
                                                                  High Voltage Sources fro
                   F           atteries", Ann Rev. Hom Sci., 1988 23, 351-49
                   Flashlight Ba            n.        me           8,         98.

                   S           Are       o                     ",          of         ics,
               (3) S. U. Vee, "A Zipons to Fast to be Measured?" Int. Rev. o Fast Physi
                   1993, 44, 108

A memor            esigned to co
        randum is de           ommunicate essential in
                                         e           nformation ab             ject
                                                                   bout the proj in as bri ief
        ough a mann as possib Assume that the add
and thoro          ner        ble.                                competent sc
                                                     dressee is a c           cientist who
understan the philoosophy of the experimen

The summ             b          f
         mary at the beginning of the memo should conv the succe or failure of the proje
                                            s           vey        ess        e          ect,
        t           n           btained, and any signific
pertinent information that was ob                                 mendations th need to b
                                                        cant recomm           hat       be

Each parragraph in the memorand             a
                               dum should address spec                ns         ocedure. Any
                                                         cific question in the pro            y
         quipment, modification in protocol, or unusual r
special eq          m                                                 ld
                                                         results shoul be noted. Significant data
should be exhibited in the memo with a comp
         e           i                                   data         d
                                            plete set of d attached as an appen   ndix. Don't
        w           d,          ur
explain what you did present you results.
If a graph is required to answer a specific point, insert a clearly labeled and scaled graph in the
memo and cite the important features in the memo or attach the graph as an appendix.

Do not put a graph and data into a memo. Decide whether a graph or a data table presents the
measurements in the most understandable way. Include the other in the appendix.

Be sure to cite significant references at end of the memo or in an appendix if the citations are in
addition to those specified in the procedure.

For this course, both report formats should include the following appendices if the
   information is not part of the report:

       Appendix A: Spreadsheets and calculation data. Be sure to format data to the
             correct number of significant figures and clearly label or highlight
             important results.

       Appendix B: Graphical data. Be sure to give the graph a title and label the axes
             with the appropriate units. Use a drawing program to annotate significant

       Appendix C: Additional references, comments, web resources used, etc.


1.   Always proof read your work before turning it in. You may make small corrections by
      hand. Nothing is worse than a glaring error.

2.   Watch capitalization. Names of elements and chemicals are not capitalized except for the
      first word in a sentence or a trade name.

3.   Refer to supplementary data in your report as Appendix 1, Table 2, and Figure 3. These
      items are capitalized. Do not spell out the numbers.

4.   You may write formulas as H3PO4 or HNO3 rather than H3PO4 and HNO3. However,
       make sure that you include all relevant charges such as HPO4(2-) for HPO4 or CO3(2-)
       for CO32-.

5.   Never start a sentence with a number that is a value.

               One sample of HCl was titrated. (OK)

               5.00 mL of HCl was titrated. ( not OK)
6.    Make sure that a reference is cited when any data is quoted for comparison with
       experimental values.

7.    Set numerical data apart by using a table if more several values were obtained. Watch out
       for the correct number of significant figures. Make sure any spreadsheet data is
       consistently formatted.

8.    The third person impersonal, passive tense is generally used for scientific writing (there is
       some heated debate in some circles on this point). Remember that you did the
       experiment in the past, the results may still be true but you are reporting what you
       observed and measured.

           The sample was titrated using 0.1000 M NaOH. (acceptable)

           We titrated the sample using 0.1000 M NaOH. (acceptable in memoranda but not in
                                                        formal reports.)

           The sample is titrated by 0.1000 M NaOH. (not acceptable)

9.    Report the results of your measurements, calculations, and observations. Only report the
       theory and relevant procedures that would enable a chemist of your ability to reasonably
       reproduce your work. You don't need to explain how to use a pipet, wipe off a
       spectrophotometer cuvet, or any incidental procedures unless the experiment could not be
       repeated without performing that step in detail.

10.   Don’t fall too far behind. Remember that all laboratory reports must be turned in to
       receive credit for the course.

                       Some Observations on Lab Reports
           Many of the experiments involve the comparison of data obtained under different
           conditions. The most effective way of presenting this data is to “overlay” the data in
           plots or graphs. Use EXCEL or GRAMS to make your plots. This simplifies the
           narrative in that you can cite the differences in the data more clearly.
           References should be cited by number at the first location where the information
           is used. You do not have to cite the reference again unless a direct quote is being
           used or a key piece of information is required.
           Use 1.5 line spacing for your reports.
           Do not break titles, beginning of sections, or tables across pages.

Make sure the plots you show in your report clearly illustrate the relationship you intend to
  show. In the example below, which one clearly shows how Y varies with X?
   When ma            arison between different conditions s
             aking compa                                               temperature, etc.,
                                                           such as pH, t
             ata       ame        w
    overlay da on the sa graph whenever pos                phasize com
                                               ssible to emp         mparisons.
       ther items th will incur deductions
       ot           hat        r          s

-Do not use gray bacckground
        el          e            rt,       xt,       e           into Word. N need for
- In Exce 2003, save plot as char format tex and paste as bitmap i          No
        f           arameter is plotted.
legend if only one pa           p

        "connect the dots"with data points. Used a fitted line if relati
- Do not"                      d            U           d                          nown.
                                                                       ionship is kn

       d            arge.
- Make data points la

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