Chapter 10 - Windows 9x

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Chapter 10 - Windows 9x Powered By Docstoc
					Windows 9x
 Chapter 10
Mike Fuszner
Essential Windows
 You should already have basic user skills in
  Windows. As a review check out Essential
  Windows on line at www.totalsem.com
Windows 3.x
 Windows is a graphical user interface (GUI) that runs
  on top of DOS
 It translates the manipulation of icons into commands
  that are interpreted by the OS.
 The OS automatically installs the GUI and activates
  it on startup, giving the impression that the GUI is
  part of the OS.
    OS/2 was the first serious attempt at a GUI for the Intel
    platform. Microsoft was the primary developer of OS/2 along with
    IBM. Microsoft did not like the direction OS/2 was taking, so IBM
    and Microsoft went separate ways. But Microsoft was legally bound
    not to create an OS that would compete with OS/2. That‟s why
    Windows began as a mere GUI and not an OS.
Windows 3.x
 Windows 3.x was the first popular generation
  of Microsoft Windows but ran on top of DOS
Structure
 Windows 3.x core files:
  • KRNL386.EXE: controls how programs use memory
  • USER.EXE: controls user interface devices
  • GDI.EXE: Graphics Device Interface that controls
    the position of graphics on the screen
 These programs allocated and kept track of
  all system resources requested by
  applications.
 They used a number of special 64K storage
  areas of memory (called heaps) to keep track
  of application resource utilization.
Structure
 Windows 3.x used a primitive form of 386
  protected mode multitasking, called
  cooperative multitasking where applications
  controlled the length of the timeslice – not
  Windows.
 Applications request resources using
  standardized subroutines called APIs
  (Application Program Interface)
 A program speaks to the Windows core
  directly or through a special file called a
  dynamic link library (DLL) that contains a
  variety of subroutines
Windows 3.x and DOS
 Windows 3.x could not function without a
  copy of DOS – you install DOS and then
  Windows 3.x
 To use devices in Windows 3.x, DOS device
  drivers or TSRs (Terminate and Stay
  Resident) were needed.
Disk Cache
 Early versions of Windows 3.x relied on
  SMARTDRV for disk caching.
 The last version came out with a 32-bit
  protected mode replacement to SMARTDRV
  called VCACHE.
 Windows 9x and Windows NT/2000 versions
  of VCACHE work automatically.
Faster Drive Access
 Fastdisk is a protected mode method for
  skipping the system BIOS and enabling
  Windows to talk directly to the hard drive.
 VFAT is a 32-bit process that skips DOS for
  updating the FAT.
Swap Files
 Virtual memory manifests
  itself through a hidden
  swap file. The swap file
  comes into play when
  there is not enough
  RAM to run all open
  programs.
 Swapping programs to       No swap file

  and from the swap file
  and RAM takes time.
Swap Files
INI Files
 Windows 3.x used
  text files with an
  .ini extension for
  initialization
  purposes.
 They are usually
  stored in the
  \WINDOWS
  directory and can
  be edited with any
  text editor.
INI Files
 INI files are broken up into logical sections
  called groups.
 Each group starts with one or more words
  enclosed in square brackets, called a group
  header.
 Following each
  group header
  are settings
  for that group.
INI Files
 The SYSTEM.INI file was the CONFIG.SYS
  of Windows and was necessary to run a
  Windows 3.x system.
 All the resources, as well as a number of
  global settings that defined how resources
  were to be used, were initialized in this file.
 The [386Enh] section stores all drivers for
  386 enhanced mode
  • To find errors, comment out lines using a semicolon at
    the beginning of the line (;)
INI Files
 The WIN.INI file was the AUTOEXEC.BAT
  of Windows 3.x and defined all the
  personalizations of Windows.
 WIN.INI was also the dumping ground for
  settings that did not have a home anywhere
  else.

     If programs are automatically starting that are not in the
     Startup group, check win.ini for the lines that start with
     LOAD= and RUN=.
Sysedit
Windows 9x
 Windows 9x comes with a built-in copy of
  DOS that is needed
 It still uses KRNL386.EXE, USER.EXE, and
  GDI.EXE.
 It supports preemptive multitasking where the
  CPU maintains control of the timeslices and
  system resources
 It supports flexible and bigger heaps.
 It supports Plug and Play, making device
  installation easier.
Windows 9x
 The Registry was the new way to store
  system information in Windows 9x.
 The registry is composed of two binary files,
  called SYSTEM.DAT and USER.DAT, which
  reside in the \WINDOWS folder (more on
  the Registry in a little while)
 Windows 9x includes the „safe mode‟ feature
  that shuts down all advanced functions for
  the purpose of troubleshooting
 Windows 9x and Windows 2000 include built-
  in driver support for a number of devices.
Windows 9x
 Windows 9x supports filenames up to 255
  characters and backward compatibility with
  the older 8.3 format.
 It supports the FAT32 file format, enabling
  partitions up to two terabytes.
 Windows maintains a database of file
  extensions and commands to deal with those
  files.
Windows 9x Version History
 Microsoft revised the
  Windows 9x series over
  time with many
  versions/revisions, each             Windows 95
  identified by a unique
  version number.




                   It provided
                    improvement in
                    the form of
                    service packs or
                    patches.
Windows 9x Version History




    Retail: available as a retail product
    OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer): available with a new PC
    SP (Service Pack): General updates and enhancements
    SR (Service Release): Replaced the term Service Pack
The Windows Boot Process
 Windows 9x is a combination of the DOS
  protected-mode interface (DPMI) and a
  protected-mode GUI.
 Windows 9x first starts the DOS aspect of
  Windows and then the GUI.
 Booting Windows 9x without the GUI from
  the boot menu is different than running a
  DOS window inside Windows 9x.
The Windows Boot Process
 IO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS have been combined
  into IO.SYS.
 MSDOS.SYS is used as a startup options file
  – read-only, hidden text file in root directory
 COMMAND.COM is still present, but is not
  needed if the system will always run in the
  GUI mode.
The Windows Boot Process

                    Press F8 (or the left Ctrl
                    key in Windows 98) when
                    “Starting Windows..”
                    appears to access the
                    Boot Menu
The Windows Boot Process
MSDOS.SYS:
 • Hidden, read-only text file that replaces many of the
   CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT functions.
 • Edit using any text editor (after unchecking its
   attributes).
 • Organized like an INI file with groups and options
   under each setting.
 • There are many useful options in the [Options] group
   – see page 553-554 in the book for a listing
The Windows Boot Process
Safe mode:
  • Safe mode is
    generally used as a
    first attempt to fix
    problems in
    Windows.
  • Access to the CD-
    ROM, printer, and
    many other devices
    is restricted.
  • You can access the
    tools required to
    troubleshoot the
    problem.
The Windows 9x GUI
 The GUI loads its own device drivers.
 Assuming Windows 9x drivers are available,
  there is no need for CONFIG.SYS,
  AUTOEXEC.BAT, or WIN.INI
 The GUI provides protected-mode support
  for Windows 95, 3.x, and DOS
The Windows 9x GUI Architecture

                         User interface


                Core functions handled by the Kernel,
                Graphical Device Interface, and User
                modules



                Virtual Memory Manager
                Installable File System




              Real-mode drivers are loaded by
              config.sys or autoexec.bat. Protected
              mode drivers are loaded with the GUI
Long Filenames
 LFNs remove the old 8.3 filename limitation
  of DOS.
 Each file record in a regular DOS 8.3
  directory requires 32 bytes.
 Each LFN entry uses 26 bytes, divided into
  three parts, to store LFN characters.
 As each character in Windows is Unicode, a
  maximum of 13 characters can be stored in
  each LFN entry.
Long Filenames
 LFNs are made backward compatible by giving
  LFN entries the attribute combination of
  hidden, read-only, system, and volume label.
 Windows 9x has also added some new bits of
  file information such as, „last accessed‟ date
  value etc.
  • Right click on the
    title bar in Windows
    Explorer to choose
    to display additional
    options
FAT32
 FAT32 is optional on all versions of Windows.
 FAT clusters are of only 4 KB, reducing wasted
  cluster space.
      • If a partition is between 512 MB and 1 GB, FAT 16 uses 32
        sectors/cluster
      • If a partition is between 1 and 2 GB, FAT 16 uses 64
        sectors/cluster
 There are no limits on the number of root directory
  entries.
      • FAT16 limits the root directory to 512 entries
 FAT32 stores two copies of the boot sector
 It is completely compatible with all DOS and
  Windows applications but old disk utilities not
  designed for FAT32 will erase your files!
FAT16 and FAT32
 FAT16                          FAT32
  • 216, or 65,536 entries        • 232 = 4,294,967,296
  • 16 bits of data per entry       entries possible
  • FAT16 uses 131,072 bytes      • 32 bits per entry
    of hard drive space           • FAT32 would then use
                                    about 17GB for the FAT
                                  • So Microsoft designed
                                    FAT32 to just use as much
                                    space as was needed
FAT32
 FAT32 supports partitions up to two
  terabytes.
 It does not support disk compression.
 Windows 9x systems capable of FAT32
  cannot load NTFS extended partitions.
  • Windows 2000 and XP support FAT16, FAT32, and
    NTFS
FAT32 File Entry in a Directory
Major Differences: Win95 & Win98
 Windows 98 is basically Windows 95 with a lot of
  new toys to improve usability or to address bugs
 A startup disk is a special bootable floppy disk that
  contains utilities to help you fix a system that won‟t
  boot Windows
   • Both 95 and 98 allow you to make a startup disk
      • 95’s does not support a CD-ROM
      • 98’s supports almost all CD-ROMs
 Web-Based Windows (HTML enabled)
 FAT32
 System Information Tool
Major Differences: Win95 & Win98
                       System
                        Information
                        Tool
                        • Also, under
                          the Tools
                          menu are a lot
                          of utilities
Major Differences: Win95 & Win98
 Windows Update uses a special website to
  make updating your system easy and safe
Major Differences: Win95 & Win98
 Disk Cleanup Utility
 Active Desktop
  • Load active web pages
    on your desktop
  • Vastly improved version
    of Internet Explorer
Windows 9x Directory Structure
 No matter where you install Windows, it must
  still boot from the C drive.
 „Windows Explorer‟ and „My Computer‟ can be
  used to view the directory structure
  graphically.
Windows 9x Directory Structure
 \Program Files
  • By default, all applications you install go here
 \Windows
  • All the subfolders used by Windows
  • TXT files with lots of good information
  • Much more
 \Windows\Commands
  • DOS-equivalent command-line programs
 \Windows\Cookies
  • Only place a website my store information in a cookie such as
    usernames, personalization
 \Windows\Temp
  • Default folder for temporary files
 \Windows\Temporary Internet Files
  • Brower’s cache files (another good place to spy)
Windows 9x Directory Structure
 \Windows\Cursors
 \Windows\Desktop
  • Windows Desktop (you may share this!)
 \Windows\Favorites
  • Saved web sites
 \Windows\Fonts
 \Windows\Help
 \Windows\History
  • Web sites visited (a good place to spy)
 Windows\Inf
  • Used to install devices
  • Tells Windows what driver to load, resources used, etc.
 \Windows\Media
  • Sounds and audio clips
Windows 9x Directory Structure
 \Windows\PIF
   • Program Information Files used to support DOS programs
 \Windows\Spool\Printers
   • Temporary holding place for files printed
 \Windows\Start Menu (Alt-click on Start Menu       button)
 \Windows\Start Menu\Programs
 \Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup
   • These programs automatically start with Windows
 \Windows\Sysbckup
   • Backup of DLL files where Windows looks if one is corrupted
 \Windows\System
   • Core OS files, DLL files
   • \Windows\System32 stores support files for programs
     designed to run under Windows 9x and NT/2000
Control Panel
 Maintenance, upgrade, and configuration
  aspects of Windows (StartSettingsControl
  Panel)
 Contains programs, called applets
 Any icon in the Control Panel is a file with a
  CPL extension
  • If Control Panel won’t start, one of these is probably
    corrupt – rename each one until you find the bad one
 Each applet displays text that helps to
  explain its functions.
Control Panel
Device Installation
Prerequisites
The basic rules to be followed when purchasing a
  device:
  • Know what you need
     •   What do I expect this device to do?
     •   What are the expectations of the device?
     •   Can I or the customer afford it?
     •   How much do we care about this device?
     •   Never trust techs with all the answers!
  • Physical compatibility with the system
     • Do I have an open PCI slot, a needed serial port, etc.
  • System compatibility
     • Check the maker’s web site, FAQ’s, email tech support
     • Check on restocking charges, return shipping costs
     • Insist on at least a seven-day return policy
  • Availability of drivers
     • For your OS & the latest drivers
Procedure Check
 Create a startup disk.
 Backup the registry (see the Registry section later in
  this PowerPoint)
 Use proper anti-ESD procedures, and retain the
  packaging.
 Read the „Read Me‟ file
   • You may need to delete the old device if you are replacing it
     with another
   • You may need to hold off connecting the unit to the USB port
 CMOS
 Driver Install
   • Windows will look for an INF file
 Once the device is physically installed, check the
  device.
Creating a Startup Diskette
 Always have a Start
  Up Disk in case of an
  emergency
 StartSettings
  Control Panel
  Add/Remove Programs

    These directions apply to
    Windows 98. Support for
    most CD-ROMs is included.
CD-ROM Support
 If you create a Startup disk using Windows
  95 or with DOS, you will need to add CD-
  ROM support as follows:
  • Add the following line to config.sys:
     • DEVICEHIGH=a:\SBIDE.SYS /D:MSCD001 /P:170,15 /V
     • Or DEVICE=a:\oakcdrom.sys /D:CDROM
  • Add the following line to autoexec.bat:
     • a:\MSCDEX.EXE /D:MSCD001 /V /M:15 /L:D
     • Or a:\MSCDEX.EXE /D:CDROM
    Oakcdrom.sys is the Generic driver found at
    www.computerhope.com/drivers/cdrom.htm.
    MSCDEX.EXE may be found in the \Windows\Command folder.
The Device Manager
 It is a primary tool
  for dealing with
  devices and device
  drivers in Windows.
 A red “x” or a
  yellow exclamation
  point is displayed, if
  Windows detects a
  problem.
 Devices are
  organized in special
  groups called „types.‟
Applications
 Hardware is useless without an application
  that uses it. Applications can be broken down
  into five groups:
  • Built-in apps come with Windows
  • Enhanced apps add more functionality or features
    over those provided by Windows
  • Supplied critical apps must be installed for the
    hardware to work
  • Supplied helpful apps are not required but may be
    useful to you
  • Supplied optional apps are things like an AOL CD
Plug and Play Problems
 Failure to find the correct device driver is a
  common PnP installation issue.
 A bad or an incorrect INF file can cause
  problems. Hardware makers may hide the
  INF file in a Setup program
 The Device Manager can be used to locate
  the installed device to verify installation or
  to troubleshoot issues
 Legacy devices may require additional
  configuration.
Where‟s the Driver?
Plug and Play Problems
 Removing and reinstalling
  the device may be required
  if Windows is not able to
  detect the PnP device.
 Windows may fail to see a
  PnP device if other devices
  are using all available
  resources.
 Ensure that BIOS supports
  newer PnP hardware.
 Ensure that the system
  has installed the required
  chipsets.
Device Manager Errors
 If a device has a
  problem, it shows
  up with an
  exclamation point
  surrounded by a
  small yellow dot.
 A small red “x” on
  a device indicates
  that the device has
  been disabled by
  Windows.
Device Manager Errors
 A majority of problems can be grouped into
  one of the following areas:
  • Failure to follow installation procedures
  • Corruption/incompatibility with drivers or the INF
    file
  • Outdated support drivers
  • Outdated BIOS
  • Resource conflict
  • Corrupted registry
  • Bad device
Verifying the Driver Version
Error Codes
 General tab under
  the device‟s
  properties in Device
  Manager shows the
  error code
  • Microsoft’s Knowledge
    Base lists these in
    article Q125174
Corruption & Incompatibility
 Corruption                         Incompatibility
  • Errors related to the               • Unknown device error
    driver                              • Unsupported device error
     • Delete the driver, reboot,
       and try again
     • Download the latest driver
       from the manufacturer
     • Check the hard drive
    The attitude “gotta have the newest” invariably puts you on the
    “bleeding edge” of technology.

    Good techs know when to try to fix something and when to call
    tech support.

    Newsgroups may help. Try news://alt.certification.a-plus.
Outdated Support Drivers & BIOS
 Outdated Support                Outdated BIOS
  Drivers                          • If you have all the latest
  • There’s always a chipset,        drivers and still get errors
    controller, or some other        in Device Manager, see if
    device between the CPU           your motherboard maker
    and the device you install       has an updated BIOS
  • Well-supported devices
    always have detailed name
    under System devices –
    compare the left and right
    screens on the next slide
Default vs. Proper Drivers
Device Manager Errors Concluded
 Resource conflicts
  • These are clearly reported by Windows
  • We’ll talk about resolving them in a few slides
 Corrupted Registry
  • This is clearly reported – just reinstall
 Bad device
  • If you can try the device in another PC, do that.
  • If not and you are 75% sure it is a bad device,
    replace it – your time is worth more!
IRQ Steering
 With IRQ
  steering, PCI
  devices share one
  or more IRQs,
  depending on the
  chipset, and on
  the function of
  the PCI device.
 Systems must
  have IRQ9 or
  IRQ11 available
  for IRQ steering.
Memory Concepts
 An address space is the total amount of
  memory the CPU can address.
 Memory is simply all of the permutations of
  0s and 1s that the CPU address bus can
  generate.
  • It’s not really RAM or ROM – it’s a system resource
    defined by a list of 0’s and 1’s, usually represented in
    hexadecimal
 Any permutation on a modern 32-bit address
  bus can be represented using eight
  hexadecimal characters.
Memory Resources Used
Installing a Legacy Device
 The critical questions that must be answered
 before installing a legacy device are:
    • What resources are available on the system?
    • What resources can the legacy device use?
    • Is there a driver support for the device?
Determining Available Resources
 Device Manager
  shows all available
  resources
Reserving Resources
 Reserve resources in two possible places:
  • CMOS
  • Device Manager
Reserving Resources in CMOS
 Turn off unused serial, parallel, or USB ports in the
  Integrated Peripherals menu in CMOS.
   Set this to Yes




   Many CMOS‟s have dropped
    this option – leaving Device    Set to Enabled when installing an
   Manager as the place to use.     ISA device. It will reset itself back
                                    to Disabled at the next reboot.
    If you have this option, set
    it to Manual – you‟ll see the
     next slide of information…
Resources Controlled by Manual
Turning Off Unused Resources
Reserving Resources in Device Manager
 After reserving
  resources in
  CMOS (or making
  sure PNP OS
  Installed is set to
  Yes and Resources
  Controlled By is
  set to Auto),
  reserve the
  resources in
  Device Manager…
Installing the Legacy Device
 Once resources are reserved, install the
  device.
 Either set the proper jumpers based on the
  resources reserved, or run the software
  utility that
  came with the
  device to set
  it to the
  proper
  resource
  configuration
Installing the Legacy Device
 Windows does not look for legacy devices
  when it boots up
 After rebooting into Windows, run the Add
  New Hardware Wizard in Control Panel
  • Windows will find the legacy device usually and help
    you install the driver
 After installation check Device Manager to
  make sure the device is working properly
Resource Conflicts
 If a newly installed device shows a black
  exclamation point or a red “x” in its
  properties, it indicates a resource conflict.
 The error shows both the conflict text
  warning and the device with which the legacy
  device conflicts.
 The Resources tab, in the properties dialog
  box of the device, enables manual
  configuration of the device.
Resource Conflict Shown
Resolving Resource Conflicts
Resolving Resource Conflicts
Installing and Upgrading
       Windows 9x
Preparing to Upgrade/Install
 Determine the minimum hardware requirements for
  Windows 9x:
  • 486DX/66 with 24 MB of RAM
  • Hard drive space up to 400 MB – average Windows install takes
    200 MB
  • Video capable of 640 x 480 @ 16 colors
  • Mouse, CD-ROM, and sound card are recommended but not
    required
 Check the Microsoft hardware compatibility list (HCL)
  at www.microsoft.com/hcl/default.asp
 Run an antivirus utility and save any data when
  upgrading Windows.
Preparing to Upgrade/Install
 Ensure availability of a setup disk or a
  bootable CD-ROM (CMOS permitting)
  depending upon the Windows 9x version you
  want to install
  • The Setup Disk may be used to partition and format
    the drive as required before Windows will install
 Use the correct version of the CD-ROM – full
  or Upgrade
 Decide the type of partition to be used –
  FAT16 or FAT32
Installing vs. Upgrading
Upgrading:
  • A clean install requires partitioning and formatting of
    the drive.
  • The FDISK utility can be used to partition a drive.
  • Windows provides a Drive Converter utility for
    converting from FAT16 to FAT32 without loss of
    data.
     • CVT at the command prompt
       or CVT1 in Windows
          Start Programs
          Accessories
          System Tools
          Drive Converter
The Install/Upgrade Process
 The Install and Upgrade processes become
  virtually identical once the blank drive is
  formatted.
 The SETUP.EXE program from the CD-ROM
  is used for a clean installation.

  It‟s a good idea to copy the contents of the \WIN9x folder from
  the CD-ROM to a folder on the hard drive. Installation goes faster
  and you won‟t need to find the CD-ROM later when Windows asks
  for it due to configuration changes.
The Install/Upgrade Process
 DOS part
  • ScanDisk runs and a check for video and a mouse is
    done.
  • A few critical files are loaded
 Graphical install starts Install Setup Wizard
  • See the following screens…
Setup Options
Product Key
Write the Key on the CD!
Choosing the Directory




                         If you are upgrading from
                         Win95, you must use the
                         same directory that
                         Win95 used.
Win98 Installation Steps Concluded
 Prompt to make a
  Startup disk
 Prompt for
  network options
 Opportunity to
  save the Win95
  files if upgrading
 Then the long
  copying process
 Hardware
  detection
Installation Errors
DOS Level Errors
 DOS errors take place during clean install and usually
  point to one of the following:
   • No boot device present when booting off the start disk –
     Startup disk is bad or CMOS isn’t set to look at the A: drive
     first
   • Windows has detected that drive C: does not contain a valid
     FAT partition – forgot to partition the drive
   • Windows setup requires XXXX amount of drive space – need to
     format the drive or there just isn’t enough space
   • MSCDEX error “No CD-ROM detected.” – check your CD-ROM
     support in config.sys and/or autoexec.bat
   • Not ready error on CD-ROM – try R for retry a few times so
     the CD can catch up or you may have a bad CD
Errors During Install
 „Can‟t read Cab file‟ is a common installation
  error
  • Bad CD-ROM
  • Try copying the files to the hard drive first
 „The system already has an OS‟ is a common
  error when upgrading from 95 to 98
  • Happens when using a full install CD-ROM for an
    upgrade
     • Go the System folder on drive c:
     • Rename the files setupx.dll and setupx.w95
     • Restart setup
Lockups During Install
 Most system lockups occur when Windows
  queries the hardware.
 Bad CD-ROM disks, CD-ROM drives, and
  hard drives may cause lockups.
 In Windows 95, lockups are fairly common; in
  Windows 98, they are rare.
 If a system locks up during installation, turn off the computer – do not
 use Ctrl-Alt-Del or Reset. Turn the system back on with the bootable
 floppy still in. Windows will see the partial setup and prompt you for a
 “Safe Recovery” mode to complete the installation (only the most critical
 hardware will be activated). Afterwards you can troubleshoot the rest
 of the hardware not installed.
Log Files
 Special text files generated by Windows and
  located in the root directory of the C: drive
  • SETUPLOG.TXT
     • Tracks the complete installation process
  • DETLOG.TXT
     • Created during hardware detection
  • BOOTLOG.TXT
     • Tracks the boot process
    Optimizing and
Maintaining Windows 9x

There is little you can do to make
 a Windows system run faster or
 better by tweaking the system!
Service Packs/Patches/Windows Update

 Patches are EXE files provided by Microsoft
  for fixing specific problems
 A service pack is a group of patches
  • Microsoft later sold Win95 with Service Pack 1 at
    OEM service release 1 (OSR 1)
  • A year later OSR 2 combined newer patches
  • Win98 had one major update called the Customer
    Service Pack (Win98 SE includes it)
What do I need?
 Windows Update (on
  the Start menu) will
  determine what
  updates you require
  and will list them,
  allowing you to decide
  which ones you want
 For Win95, download
  QFECHECK from
  Microsoft‟s web site
Drive Maintenance
 „Disk scanning,‟ „defragmentation,‟ and „disk
  cleaning‟ are the critical parts of drive
  maintenance
  • Start  Programs  Accessories  System Tools

 The Windows Task
  Scheduler can be
  used to automate
  the processes
  involved in drive
  maintenance
Defrag at Work
Defrag Utility in Windows 2000
Disk Cleanup
Virtual Memory
 All versions of Windows use virtual memory
 Windows swap files are used to implement
  virtual memory
 The swap file in Windows 9x is called
  WIN386.SWP; it is known as PAGEFILE.SYS
  in Windows 2000
Virtual Memory
 Windows sets the initial size of the swap file
  automatically according to the free space
  available on the C: drive.
 The swap file size can be altered and it can
  also be moved onto another drive according to
  memory needs.
Swap Files
 Windows 9x Swap File          Windows 2000 Swap File
  • Virtual Memory button on     • Advanced tab on System
    System properties              Properties
Swap File Settings or Drive in Win98
Disk Cache
 Disk caching that comes with Windows installs
  automatically and is virtually maintenance
  free.
 The size of the disk cache is roughly one-
  fourth the total size of RAM.
 Windows automatically sets the size of the
  disk-cache holding pen based on the settings
  given at setup.
Disk Cache Settings

                      How much RAM to set
                      aside for the disk cache.
                      Setting to Network server
                      may help performance.




                      How many clusters to read
                      ahead when the system
                      goes to the hard drive.
                      Best to set at Full.
Resource Tracking Tools
System Resources Percentage


                   Many systems can run
                   down into the low 20‟s
                   without a problem.
System Monitor




                 Not installed by default!
Overfilled Heap Errors




Substantial system
slowdown results
from overfilled
heaps. Low
Resources is your
indication. Once
installed, the
Resource Meter will
let you keep an eye
on heaps.
Task Manager

               Press Ctrl-Alt-Del to
               access.

               Don‟t close Systray
               or Explorer or you‟ll
               end Windows.
Auto-Starting Programs
 Some auto-starting programs such as antivirus
  softwares are essential.
 Most auto-starting programs consume valuable
  physical memory and can be done without.
 Unnecessary programs should be removed.
  • Go to the System Tray – Alt-click on the various icons and
    decide whether to disable each one
  • Start  Programs  Accessories  System Tools  System
    Information, then open the System Configuration Utility
    under the Tools menu
     • Check the Startup tab (don’t turn off the System Tray)
     • Check the Win.ini file for Run= and Load= under Windows
     • Check autoexec.bat and config.sys
System Information Utility
System Configuration Utility
Installing Software
                   Get a program that
                    enables you to return
                    your system to its
                    previous state before
                    installing software
                      • The program to the right is
                        Q-Recovery by Hyper-Q
                        but many others exist.
Backup
 It is necessary to schedule regular backups
  of important and critical information.
 Every version of Windows comes with a
  Backup program.
 Windows uses the archive bit to determine if
  a file has changed since the last backup.
 Backup types are:
  •   Full
  •   Incremental
  •   Differential
  •   Copy
Windows Boot Problems
 No OS found
  • Use Sys to restore IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, COMMAND.COM
 Bad or missing COMMAND.COM
  • Copy command.com back to the hard drive
 Error in CONFIG.SYS (line XX)
 Device referenced in SYSTEM.INI not found
 HIMEM.SYS not loaded or missing or corrupt
  HIMEM.SYS
  • Results from a hard drive needing ScanDisk badly
  • Copy himem.sys back to hard drive and add to config.sys using
    device=c:\himem.sys
  • Boot normally and then use ScanDisk
Windows Boot Problems-Won‟t Boot GUI

 Corrupted swap file
  • Boot to safe mode, disable virtual memory
  • Reboot, turn swap file back on, reboot again
 Step-by-step configuration from boot menu
 Restore registry from a backup
  • If not available, replace system.dat and user.dat with
    system.da0 and user.da0
  • With Win98, boot to startup disk and Windows
    Registry Checker tool
     • C:\Windows\Command\Scanreg /fix
 Resolve resource conflicts
Windows Boot Problems-Won‟t Boot GUI

 Bad driver
  • Run Automatic Skip Driver (ASD) tool in Safe Mode
     • Under the Tools menu in System Information tool
     • Or use Start Run ASD
 Corrupted core Windows files
  • Run System File Checker to restore any corrupted
    core files automatically
     • SFC /scanboot /quiet and then reboot.
Lockups/Reboots
 All system lockups fit into one of the
  following two groups:
  • Lockups that takes place immediately after a new
    program or device is added
     • Check for resource conflicts or incompatibilities
  • Lockups from nowhere
     • Point to virus attacks or to hardware problems
        • Power Supply, CPU, fan
Errors
 General protection faults (GPFs) occur when a
  program tries to use another program‟s
  memory
 Windows protection errors take place when a
  special driver file, called a “virtual device
  driver” (VxD) fails to load or unload
  • Device may be getting the same device driver from
    multiple places (config.sys, system.ini, Registry)
 Fatal exception errors are caused by
  hardware or software that sends an error not
  recognized by Windows
Dr. Watson Utility
 Dr. Watson Utility:
  • It generates a detailed and highly technical report on
    the status of the system and the time the error
    occurred.
  • Provides a critical insight to a high technical level.
  • Start  Run  drwatson
Shutdown Problems
 Bad drivers, a corrupted registry, and faulty page
  files, all cause shutdown problems
 Try disabling Fast Shutdown (Win98 only)
   • Start  Programs  Accessories  System Tools  System
     Information, then open the System Configuration Utility
     under the Tools menu. Click the Advanced button on the
     General tab. Check Disable Fast Save
 Application not closing
   • Use Task Manager to shut it down
 Sound file
   • Use Sound applet in Control Panel to turn off the shutdown
     sound
Understanding the
    Registry
What is the Registry?
 A unified database where Windows stores all
  hardware and software configuration information for
  the local computer
  • Hardware, central processor, keyboard, mouse, etc.
  • Device drivers
  • Applications
  • Network protocols
  • NIC settings
  • User account information like group membership, rights and
    permissions
  • Past versions of Windows stored this information in files like
    system.ini, win.ini, control.ini, config.sys and autoexec.bat
What‟s in the registry?
 Hardware profiles                Device drivers
   • List of hardware devices       • Load and configuration
     and services to be enabled       parameters, interrupts and
     or disabled during startup       DMA channels used
 User profiles                    Setup programs
   • Desktop, Start menu,           • May add new configuration
     screen saver, printers,          information to registry,
     mouse settings, network          check version to decide
     connections and more             whether to update
 Windows NT Kernel                Hardware data
   • Device drivers to load and     • Hardware and
     order of loading, version        configuration data is
     number                           stored (NTDETECT)
Registry Editors
 Regedit.exe
   • Clearly better in key searching down to the value of the keys
   • No security menu, no read-only mode, does not support all
     data types such as REG_EXPAND_SZ or REG_MULTI_SZ
   • Regedit is the Windows 9x Registry Editor that NT and
     Windows 2000 also installs
 Regedt32.exe
   • Regedt32 is the NT and Windows 2000 Registry Editor
   • Better for adding keys and modifying their values
   • Searches only down to keys and subkeys – not values
 When using the Registry Editors, be very careful!
   • Does not recognize syntax or semantic errors
   • May prevent your operating system from loading
   • Microsoft will not help!
Regedit.exe
Regedt32.exe
The Registry Structure
 Five databases called subtrees
  •   HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
  •   HKEY_USERS
  •   HKEY_CURRENT USER
  •   HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
  •   HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
 Configuration data about local computer
 Used by applications, device drivers and
  Windows
 Determines which device drivers and services
  load during startup
 Same regardless of user
HKEY_USERS
 Stores all the personalization information for
  all users on the PC
 Subkeys are:
  • DEFAULT subkey
     • System default profile used when Ctrl+Alt+Del logon screen
       is displayed
  • Security identifier (SID) of user currently logged on
    the computer
HKEY_CURRENT_USER

 Data about user currently logged on interactively
 Copy stored for each user account that has ever
  logged on to the computer in
  systemroot\Profiles\user_name in Ntuser.dat
 Points to same data as under
  HKEY_USERS\SID_of_the_currently_logged_on_user
 Takes precedence over duplicate settings in
  HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
 Information about file associations and data
  associated with COM objects (Component
  Object Model – OLE)
 Points to CLASSES subkey under
  HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE
HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG
 Data about active hardware profile
 Extracted from SOFTWARE and SYSTEM
  keys of HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
The Hierarchical Structure
The Registry Hierarchy
 Subtree                        Keys and subkeys
  • Predefined subtree keys       • Like folders and subfolders
    are:                          • Under hives
     •HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
     •HKEY_USERS                 Values
     •HKEY_CURRENT_USER           • Like files
     •HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
     •HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG         • Name, data type & value
 Hive
  • Discrete body of keys,
    subkeys and values
  • Separate registry and log
    file in:
    system_root\system32\
    Config folder
Value Data Types

  REG_DWORD                      REG_BINARY
   • One value only                • One value
   • 1-8 hexadecimal digits        • String of hexadecimals
  REG_SZ                          • Each pair interpreted as a
   • One value                       byte value
   • String to be stored          REG_MULTI_SZ
  REG_EXPAND_SZ                   • Multiple values allowed
   • Like REG_SZ but string        • String
     may contain a                 • Entries separated by a
     replaceable value               null character
      •%Systemroot% is path to
      Win NT System32 folder
Location of Registry Files in Win98
 There are just two files for the Registry in
  Windows 98 found in the Windows folder:
  • System.dat
  • User.dat
Location of Registry Files in Win2K

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SAM        SAM, Sam.log

                              SECURITY,
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SECURITY
                              security.log
                              SOFTWARE,
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE   Software.log,
                              software.sav
                              SYSTEM, system.log,
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM     system.alt,
                              system.sav
                              DEFAULT.log,
HKEY_USERS\.DEFAULT
                              default.sav
Backing Up the Registry
 From within the Registry Editor (Regedit),
  choose Export Registry file on the Registry
  menu
 From within the Registry Editor (Regedt32),
  choose Save Subtree As… on the Registry
  menu
         Note: This type of backup creates simple text
         files that may be viewed in Notepad. If you
         backup the registry before installing an app and
         then again after installing an app, you may use
         fc (file compare) or Windiff to see the changes
         that were made to the registry.
Regedit.exe
Regedt32.exe
Backing Up the Registry Using Backup

 Run the Backup program under System Tools
  in Windows 2000
 Choose “Only backup system state data”
  • Includes the registry, system boot files, and more
Backing Up the Registry from another OS

  Copy the registry files to another location
   after booting from a different operating
   system
   • Boot from a DOS system diskette and copy the files
     to another location
   • If you don’t boot from another operating system, the
     files may be locked, because they are in use.
Registry Editor
  commands

				
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