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					Universiti Teknologi Malaysia   FKM COLLOQIUM
               Advancement in
         Local Unmanned Technology
                                By:
                    THOLUDIN MAT LAZIM, PhD
              Department of Aeronautics & Automotive,
                 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
                   Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
                        81310 Skudai, Johor,
                            MALAYSIA.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia              FKM COLLOQIUM
Presentation Outline
•   Introduction
•   Local & Global Scenario
•   UAV/UAS R&D
•   Conclusion




    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia   FKM COLLOQIUM
                                Introduction
Unmanned Systems
UAV,
UGV,
USV,
UUV,
Robotics

Where are we?
UAV Advancement – How far have we go!

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia   FKM COLLOQIUM
           Local & Global Scenario
Eagle 150B ARV
•   Length: 6.45 m (21 ft 2 in)
•   Wingspan: 7.16 m (23 ft 6 in)
•   Max takeoff weight: 650 kg (1433 lb)
•   Cruise speed: 213 km/h (115 knots)
•   Stall speed: 83 km/h (45 knots) at MTOW, full flaps
•   Range: 1000 km (540 nm) (75% power)
•   Service ceiling 14800 ft (4500 m)
•   Endurance = 5 hours at 60% power


Universiti Teknologi Malaysia        FKM COLLOQIUM
             Local & Global Scenario

 CTRM, SCS, IKRAMATICS – Prototypes

 SAPURA – Announces

 Others?




Universiti Teknologi Malaysia      FKM COLLOQIUM
                                       Local & Global Scenario
                           Other Asean Countries
Singaporean UAVs                         Indonesian UAV
ST Aero FanTail                          PUNA (Pesawat
ST Aero Skyblade                         Udara Nir-Awak,
ST Aero MAV-1                            Made by BPP
ST Aero Skyblade IV- It is designed      Teknologi)
to operate autonomously and enhance
battlefield situational awareness,
carrying a 12kg (26lb), gyro-             Thai UAV
stabilised surveillance payload. The
3.5m (11.5ft)-span UAV can fly at up      IAI Seacher (with
to 15,000ft and has a maximum
endurance of 12h.
                                          Israel)
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia                 FKM COLLOQIUM
                                Local & Global Scenario




Universiti Teknologi Malaysia          FKM COLLOQIUM
            Local & Global Scenario

$10 Billion by 2010 ~ 400 UASs + support &
operation

0.1% of US Investment = RM 30M for R&D

We will get about 3 Prototypes Indeginious
UAVs [ A-Z ] by 2013 with knowledge and
expertise (human capital).

 Universiti Teknologi Malaysia        FKM COLLOQIUM
                                     Introduction

        Local & Global Scenario

     R&D Fund
     8th MP 2001 -2005 < RM 1M (IRPA)

     9th MP 2006 – 2010 = ? (E-Science) etc.




Universiti Teknologi Malaysia     FKM COLLOQIUM
                    UTM CASE STUDY

                         Our Capability




Universiti Teknologi Malaysia         FKM COLLOQIUM
                      Current R & D Capability
Unmanned Systems in UTM

UAV, main activity in Aeronautics
Dept.
UGV, not in UTM
USV, Hoovercraft
UUV, Joint research UMT
Robotics - active

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia           FKM COLLOQIUM
                      Current R & D Capability
Aircraft Designs

Computational Fluid Dynamics

Wind Tunnel Testings

Finite Elements

Flight Dynamics & Control

Avionics – Some success in simpls systems

Robotics – can be tuned to Autonomous applications


Universiti Teknologi Malaysia            FKM COLLOQIUM
                      Current R & D Capability
Aircraft Designs




Universiti Teknologi Malaysia           FKM COLLOQIUM
                                                           Aircraft Design
•    GENERAL

•              STRUCTURE : COMPOSITE
•              AIRFRAME : SHOULDER WING, POD & TWIN TAIL BOOM MONOPLAINE WITH
     PUSHER
•                ENGINE, FIXED TRICYCLE LANDING GEAR
•              AIRFOIL
•              SECTION : NACA 4415 FOR WING WITH CLmax. OF 1.2 & NACA 0009 FOR TAIL

•    DIMENSION

•              LENGTH : 4.11 m WING AREA     : 3.32 m2 WING ASPECT RATIO : 7.87
•              HEIGHT : 1.79 m WING CHORD : 0.64 m2 TAIL ASPECT RATIO    : 4.29
•              WIDTH : 5.03 m TAIL AREA   : 0.45 m2 PROPELLER DIAMETER : 0.72 m
•              WING SPAN : 5.03 m RUDDER AREA : 0.064 m2
•              TAIL SPAN : 1.39 m AILERON AREA : 0.1039m2




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                                      Current R & D Capability
•    WEIGHT
•           EMPTY WEIGHT          : 125 kg
•           FUEL WEIGHT         : 30 kg
•           PAYLOAD        : 34 kg
•           TAKE-OFF WEIGHT : 210 kg
•    PROPULSION
•           ENGINE       : ONE 19.4 kW (26 hp)
•           FUEL      : AVGAS (100 octane)
•           CAPACITY         : 47 litres
•           FUEL CONSUMPTION : 7.45 litres/hours
•    PERFORMANCE
•           MAX.. SPEED : 316.8 km/h SERVICE CEILING : 11,180 m GLIDE ANGLE     :
            2.82
•           CRUISE SPEED : 120 km/h ABSOLUTE CEILING : 12,000 m     SINK RATE
            : 7.8 m/s
•           STALL SPEED : 96.5 km/h        MAX. RANGE : 205.12 km TAKE-OFF
     RANGE : 293.17 m
•           CLIMB RATE : 292.8 m/min MAX. ENDURANCE : 5.1 hour       LANDING
            RANGE: 316.3 m



    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia                    FKM COLLOQIUM
                                            Current R & D Capability
•    STABILITY

•              TURN RATE : 0.51 rad/s (at cruise speed)
•              n positive : 5.28 g
•              n negative : 2.64 g

•    EQUIPMENTS

•            GUIDANCE & CONTROL : REMOTE CONTROL / PREPROGRAMMED
•            SENSOR      : ELECTRO-OPTICAL OR INFRARED ( WESCAM DAY / NIGHT
     SENSOR 12 DS,
•                   IAI-TAMAM MOKED 200A DAYLIGHT TV CAMERA OR 400C FLIR.

•    SYSTEMS

•           GROUND CONTROL STATION (GCS), PORTABLE CONTROL STATION (PCS),
     PNEUMATIC LAUNCHER (USMC), RECOVERY NET (USN) & STABILIZED ANTENNA (USN)




    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia                         FKM COLLOQIUM
          Current R & D Capability - UAV




                                Aircraft sizes vs.
                                Reynolds Number




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       CFD Works




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                        CFD Works
                        CL (CFD) VS Angle of Attack

             1.4



             1.2



             1.0



             0.8



             0.6
                                                                                            Cd (CFD) VS Angle of Attack
CL




                                                                                  0.4
             0.4



             0.2                                                                  0.3



             0.0                                                                  0.3
     -5             0           5                10    15              20

             -0.2
                                                                                  0.2
                                                            Simulation 2



                                                                            CD
                               Angle of Attack (deg)        Simulation 1
             -0.4
                                                                                  0.2



                                                                                  0.1
                                                                                                                                      Simulation 2
                                                                                                                                      Simulation 1
                                                                                  0.1



                                                                                  0.0
                                                                             -5         0              5                    10   15                  20

                                                                                                    Angle of Attack (deg)




          Universiti Teknologi Malaysia                                                       FKM COLLOQIUM
      Wind Tunnel Test




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                                Future Advancements

For the technology to grow for all types of Unmanned System,
nations have to support their research and development leading
to further advances.

Compared to the manufacturing of UAV flight hardware, the
market for autonomy technology is fairly immature and
undeveloped. Because of this, autonomy has been and may
continue to be the bottleneck for future UAV developments

The overall value and rate of expansion of the future UAV
market could be largely driven by advances to be made in the
field of autonomy.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia            FKM COLLOQIUM
                                            Future Advancements
Autonomy technology that is important to UAV development falls under the
following categories:
Sensor fusion: Combining information from different sensors for use on board the
vehicle
Communications: Handling communication and coordination between multiple
agents in the presence of incomplete and imperfect information
Path planning: Determining an optimal path for vehicle to go while meeting certain
objectives and mission constraints, such as obstacles or fuel requirements
Trajectory Generation (sometimes called Motion planning): Determining an optimal
control maneuver to take to follow a given path or to go from one location to another
Trajectory Regulation: The specific control strategies required to constrain a vehicle
within some tolerance to a trajectory
Task Allocation and Scheduling: Determining the optimal distribution of tasks
amongst a group of agents, with time and equipment constraints
Cooperative Tactics: Formulating an optimal sequence and spatial distribution of
activities between agents in order to maximize chance of success in any given
mission scenario

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                         Future Advancements


Apart fron Autonomy, another issues is
             Endurance




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        Notable high endurance flights
Boeing Condor                     58 hours, 11 minutes
QinetiQ Zephyr Solar Electric     54 hours 2007
IAI Heron                         52 hours
AC Propulsion Solar Electric      48 hours, 11 minutes 2005
MQ-1 Predator                     40 hours, 5 minutes
GNAT-750                          40 hours 1992
TAM-5                             38 hours, 52 minutes, 2003 Smallest UAV to
                                  cross the Atlantic
Aerosonde                         38 hours, 48 minutes, 2006
I-GNAT                            38 hours, landed with 10 hour reserve
RQ-4 Global Hawk                  30 hours, 24 minutes
Aerosonde "Laima“                 26 hrs, 45 mins, 1998 First UAV to cross
                                  the Atlantic
TIHA (Turkish UAV)                24 hours Prototypes 2004
Vulture -                         5 years ? A DARPA project – The Unmanned
                                  Aircraft Able to Stay in the Air for 5 Years


  Universiti Teknologi Malaysia                     FKM COLLOQIUM
   CONCLUSIONS

   Camparatively, advancement in local
   indegineous UAV (Unmanned?)
   technology is minimal.

   There are ample venues for future
   expansion

   However, future advancement have to
   be policy driven.
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia   FKM COLLOQIUM
                    •Terima Kasih
                     •Thank you
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    Choices to be Made
    [Fluent Training]




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                                 .

                                Why?




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Universiti Teknologi Malaysia   FKM COLLOQIUM
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia   FKM COLLOQIUM
Predators have both a line of sight link and a satellite link. Pilots want to learn how to
transfer control from one link to the other, Goldfinger explains.




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                                                 UAV functions
   UAVs perform a wide variety of functions.

   Remote Sensing
   UAV remote sensing functions include electromagnetic spectrum
   sensors, biological sensors, and chemical sensors.

   Transport
   UAVs can transport goods using various means based on the
   configuration of the UAV itself. Most payloads are stored in an
   internal payload bay somewhere in the airframe.

   Scientific Research
   Unmanned aircraft are uniquely capable of penetrating areas
   which may be too dangerous for piloted craft.
   Aerosonde unmanned aircraft system in 2006 as a hurricane
   hunter.

   Precision Bombing
   MQ-1 Predator UAVs armed with Hellfire missiles

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     UAV classification
•   UAVs typically fall into one of six functional categories (although multi-role airframe platforms are becoming
    more prevalent):
•   Target and decoy - providing ground and aerial gunnery a target that simulates an enemy aircraft or missile
•   Reconnaissance - providing battlefield intelligence
•   Combat - providing attack capability for high-risk missions (see Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle)
•   Logistics - UAVs specifically designed for cargo and logistics operation
•   Research and development - used to further develop UAV technologies to be integrated into field deployed
    UAV aircraft
•   Civil and Commercial UAVs - UAVs specifically designed for civil and commercial applications

•   They can also be categorised in terms of range/altitude and the following has been advanced as relevant at
    such industry events as ParcAberporth Unmanned Systems forum.
•   Handheld 2,000 ft (600 m) altitude, about 2 km range
•   Close 5,000 ft (1,500 m) altitude, up to 10 km range
•   NATO type 10,000 ft (3,000 m) altitude, up to 50 km range
•   Tactical 18,000 ft (5,500 m) altitude, about 160 km range
•   MALE (medium altitude, long endurance) up to 30,000 ft (9,000 m) and range over 200 km
•   HALE (high altitude, long endurance) over 30,000 ft and indefinite range
•   HYPERSONIC high-speed, supersonic (Mach 1-5) or hypersonic (Mach 5+) 50,000 ft (15,200 m) or suborbital
    altitude, range over 200km
•   ORBITAL low earth orbit (Mach 25+)
•   CIS Lunar Earth-Moon transfer




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                                Introduction

                 Unmanned Aircraft System
   UAS, or Unmanned Aircraft System, is the official U.S.
 Department of Defense term for an unmanned, aerial vehicle.
 The term was first officially used in the DoD 2005 Unmanned
 Aircraft System Roadmap 2005–2030.[9] Many people have
   mistakenly used the term Unmanned 'Aerial' System, or
               Unmanned 'Air Vehicle' System.




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Surveillance aircraft hough a major civilian aviation
activity is reconnaissance and ground surveillance for
mapping, traffic monitoring, science, and geological survey. In
addition, civilian aircraft are used in many countries for
border surveillance, fishery patrols or the prevention of
smuggling and illegal migration.




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      From this perspective, most early UAVs are not autonomous at all. In fact, the field of air vehicle
autonomy is a recently emerging field, whose economics is largely driven by the military to develop battle
    ready technology. Compared to the manufacturing of UAV flight hardware, the market for autonomy
 technology is fairly immature and undeveloped. Because of this, autonomy has been and may continue to
  be the bottleneck for future UAV developments, and the overall value and rate of expansion of the future
           UAV market could be largely driven by advances to be made in the field of autonomy.
     Autonomy technology that is important to UAV development falls under the following categories:
          Sensor fusion: Combining information from different sensors for use on board the vehicle
 Communications: Handling communication and coordination between multiple agents in the presence of
                                     incomplete and imperfect information
Path planning: Determining an optimal path for vehicle to go while meeting certain objectives and mission
                               constraints, such as obstacles or fuel requirements
 Trajectory Generation (sometimes called Motion planning): Determining an optimal control maneuver to
                       take to follow a given path or to go from one location to another
Trajectory Regulation: The specific control strategies required to constrain a vehicle within some tolerance
                                                  to a trajectory
Task Allocation and Scheduling: Determining the optimal distribution of tasks amongst a group of agents,
                                      with time and equipment constraints
Cooperative Tactics: Formulating an optimal sequence and spatial distribution of activities between agents
                    in order to maximize chance of success in any given mission scenario

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•   The Predator recently got approval from the Federal Aviation
    Administration to fly in domestic disaster relief and rescue
    operations. This was viewed by industry insiders as a major victory
    for UAVs, which so far have not been welcome to fly in the U.S.
    national airspace because of safety concerns. “How do we make
    sure the UAVs won’t crash into airliners?” Albert asks.
•   The FAA hired Lockheed Martin Corp. to develop a “roadmap” for
    introducing unmanned aircraft into the national airspace system.
    Albert says that the FAA also intends to build a digital simulation of
    the airspace to fly digital mockups of UAVs and test their safety.
•   Both civilian and military use of UAVs will soar during the next 10
    to 15 years, Albert says. The UAV business has escalated by 25
    percent per year recently, he adds. “It’s one of the few growth
    markets out there.”
•   Civilian use probably will not take off in the near future. “There are
    450 UAV types out there. How do you control all of them?” Albert
    says.


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• Qinetiq, a British defense technology firm that develops
  unmanned aircraft has built a new training facility in
  ParcAberporth, Wales, in an effort to attract new
  customers from the civilian sector, says Andrew
  Chadwick, program manager at Qinetiq. UAVs will be
  required to comply with the same safety standards as
  passenger aircraft, which is not the case with military
  UAVs, he says. So far, “regulators are not prepared to
  define the requirements. They are looking to the industry
  to define the requirements and test them at their own
  expense.”

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•   AERODYNAMIC TEST UAVS
•   * One specialized application of UAVs is for aeronautic research. It is in principle much cheaper to
    test unusual aircraft configurations by implementing them as small UAVs, instead of large piloted
    aircraft. NASA has proven enthusiastic about the use of UAVs for such purposes, and has
    conducted a number of aeronautic test programs using UAVs.
•   NASA had long had a tradition of flying scale models of aircraft, sometimes with rocket boosters,
    for aerodynamic tests, but in general these vehicles were basically instrumented flying wind-
    tunnel test models and were not really UAVs. However, in the early 1970s, NASA built three
    3/8ths-scale unpowered drone versions of the new McDonnell Douglas F-15 fighter to confirm
    that it was as agile as the designers hoped it would be. These three machines were referred to as
    "remotely piloted research vehicles (RPRVs)" and were taken aloft over Edwards Air Force Base
    (AFB) in California by the NASA B-52 carrier aircraft, to be released at high altitude. They would
    glide back to earth and land with retractable skids on the dry lakebed at Edwards. The RPRVs
    could also be fitted with a parachute to be snagged by a helicopter in flight for recovery, just like
    the old Lightning Bugs.




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•   * The "Drones for Aerodynamic & Structural Testing (DAST)" program was
    conducted from 1977 to 1983 at the NASA Langley and Dryden Flight Centers.
    It involved flights of modified Ryan Firebee II supersonic target drones to test
    new wing designs and wing control systems. The Firebee II was selected
    because it had supersonic performance, its wings could be easily replaced, it
    used only tail-mounted control surfaces, and because it was available at low
    cost from the US Air Force.
•   After initial test flights with a Firebee II in its normal configuration but with
    added instrumentation, NASA fitted a Firebee II with an aeroelastic,
    supercritical research wing suitable for a Mach 0.98 cruise airliner. A total of
    ten flights were made, with initial launches from the NASA Boeing B-52 bomber
    and later from a DC-130 Hercules drone controller aircraft, and a NASA
    Lockheed F-104 Starfighter performing chase duties. The DAST drones were
    radio-controlled and recovered by parachute with helicopter snatch. The
    program encountered difficulties, with two crashes, one in 1980 and one in
    1983, and was abandoned after the second crash.



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• Software Simulation
• Models in MATLAB Simulink - Aerosim
  Visualization in Microsoft Flight
  Simulator Simulation of multiple vehicle
  dynamics UAV's Civilian or Military
  Airplanes , Helicopters Human Computer
  interaction
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• Global Hawk Unmanned Sets Flight Endurance
  RecordBy Northrop Grumman Northrop
  Grumman Corporation's RQ-4 Global Hawk set
  an endurance record for a full-scale,
  operational unmanned aircraft on Saturday,
  March 22, 2008, when it completed a flight of
  33.1 hours at altitudes up to 60,000 feet over
  Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.

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•   Goals
•   Outer Loop
•   Mission Level
•
•   Cooperative Distributed Aerial Sensor Network
•   Air Ground Integration UAV – UGV Coordination
•   Track
•   3D Topographic Map Building
•   Reconnaissance
•   High Level Control
•
•   Conflict Resolution
•   Collision & Crash Avoidance
•   Surveillance
•   Air Traffic Management
•   Inner Loop
•
•   Formation Control (e.g Aerial Refueling in UAVs)
•   Optimal Trajectory Generation & Planning
•   Aggressive Maneuvering Schemes (e.g Dog fighting)
•   Embedded code Generation




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 CONCLUSION
UAV REGULATORY ISSUES
* One of the less obvious issues concerning UAVs is integration of their operations into open "national airspace", where they may fly
alongside private and commercial aircraft, in contrast to "special use" airspace, which includes "Restricted", "Warning", and
"Military Operations" areas where airliners and private pilots are not allowed to fly. Currently, UAV operations in national airspace
are considered on a case-by-case basis by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and lead times run to months.
There are projections that the US military could be operating thousands of UAVs in a decade, with some of these aircraft carrying
munitions, and the number of US commercial UAVs could be even larger. Figuring out how these UAVs can operate safely alongside
commercial traffic is a nasty bureaucratic issue. The US Department of Defense, the FAA, and NASA have been considering how UAV
traffic over the US should be regulated, and what implications UAVs have for international air traffic agreements. International
regulations for commercial UAVs are regarded as particularly important, to allow American businesses to operate and sell UAV
technology in other countries. Initial work suggested that UAVs should be divided into three regulatory classes:
High-altitude UAVs such as the Global Hawk that fly at altitudes of 15 kilometers (50,000 feet) or higher, well above commercial traffic.
These UAVs will probably not fly in national airspace on a routine basis, and the FAA will be able to grant specific authorization for
each flight.
Short-range battlefield UAVs such as the Shadow 200 that cannot really be equipped to operate in national airspace, and so likely will
never be authorized to do so. They would be flown in military exercises over government military reservations, and airlifted to
operational theaters.
Medium-altitude, long endurance UAVs such as the Predator, which operate over long ranges at altitudes similar to those of commercial
aircraft, and whose sensor suites can be used to help them identify and avoid commercial traffic. This category of UAV is likely to be the
primary focus of FAA regulations, all the more so because it is easier for such an aircraft to fly to a training or operational area than it
is to break it down and ship it there by airlift transport.
Measures under consideration are to allow a medium-altitude, long-range UAV into the US national airspace if it were escorted by a
piloted chase plane, or if it has adequate sensors to "see and avoid" commercial traffic and is monitored at all times by a ground
operator. The ground operator will likely have to be a qualified pilot who knows the rules of the airways, and would be in two-way
communications with the air-traffic control network.
UAVs would likely not be allowed to operate on a normal basis in high-volume "Class B" airspace around major airline hubs such as
Chicago, New York, and Los Angeles. The FAA would also require certification that the communications link to a UAV be reliable and
resistant to interference.
There are a large number of confusing issues to consider, since the possibilities for UAVs are open-ended. Small, long-range UAVs like the Aerosonde that could be used
for weather or traffic observation are one complication, as well as UAVs like the Scaled Composites Proteus used as relays for high-bandwidth communications. NASA

                                                                                                                   FKM COLLOQIUM
has worked with industry on a program to sort out the issues and hand the results over to the FAA, while European UAV vendors have formed their own consoritium to
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provide data to the European aviation regulatory body, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). At last notice, progress was slow and frustrating. .
                    •Terima Kasih
                     •Thank you
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