Captions_ Captions_ Everywhere

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					Captions! Captions!

          Cindy Camp
          Jacksonville State

          Bill Stark
          Captioned Media
Captions everywhere?

 Less than 15% of the educational
  videos available for purchase are
 Even fewer educational DVD, CD-ROM,
  and other media are captioned.
What is captioning?

One definition:
 “The process of converting the audio content
  of a film, video, CD-ROM, DVD, webcast, live
  event, and other productions into text which is
  displayed on a screen, monitor, or
  player. Captions not only display words as
  the text equivalent of spoken dialogue or
  narration, but also include sound effects,
  speaker identification, and music.”
Q: Who needs captions?
A: Persons with a hearing loss.

 28  million Americans are deaf or hard of
  hearing (d/hh); they represent about 10%
  of all Americans.
 23,000 d/hh students were enrolled in
  postsecondary education in 1992-93.
 Percentage of full-time college freshmen
  reporting hearing disabilities ranged from
  .8% (1988) to .5% (2000).
Q: Who needs captions?
A: Persons not fluent in English.

  Another  22 million Americans are foreign-
   born, many of whom speak languages
   other than English. They may seek
   captioned programming as one way to
   enhance their mastery of English.
  490,933 international students were
   enrolled in colleges and universities in
Who needs captions?

 More  than 3 million K-12 students are
  Limited English Proficient.
 44 million American adults have only
  rudimentary reading and writing skills.
 18 million Americans are under 5 years
  of age, many of whom will learn to read
  faster if they are given opportunity to
  watch captioning on children's programs.
Who needs captions?

 VisualLearners
 LD/ADD/ADHD Individuals

 Senior Citizens

           Everyone benefits!
Common Excuses

 The information won’t be on the test.
 It’s only a short clip.
 The information is in the textbook and lecture
  as well.
 The interpreter can just tell the student what
  is going on.
 I can’t find a captioned version.
 This TV doesn’t show captions.
 It costs too much to caption a video.
 It takes too much time to add captions.
Common Misconceptions

 The  caption decoder in a TV is a magic
  device that shows captions for all videos.
  All you have to do is know how to turn it
 Attaching a caption decoder or turning on
  the internal decoder requires a degree in
 Captions are distracting to hearing
Some Important Laws

 The  Television Decoder Circuitry Act
  of 1990
 The Americans with Disabilities Act

 The Telecommunications Act of 1996

 The Rehabilitation Act--Section 508

 FCC Report and Order: Digital
  Television (DTV) Closed-Captioning
Where can I find captioned videos?

     Free-Loan: The
      Captioned Media
      Program (CMP)

     Purchase:
      “Bowker’s Complete
      Video Directory”
      and the CMP
Encouraging the Use of
Captioned Media

 Explain the benefits.
 Explain the law.
 Remind them each semester.
 Make captioned media available and
  only purchase captioned media.
 Make decoders available.
 Encourage them to sign up for a CMP
 Work with your administration to
  establish caption-use policies.
What do you call that?

Types of captioning
 Closed  Captions
 Subtitles

 Subtitles for the

  Deaf and Hard of
  Hearing (SDH)
What are the differences?

    Styles of captioning
     Pop-up
     Roll-up

    Methods of captioning
     Off-line
     On-line
Ready to caption?

 Although  you plan to purchase only
  captioned videos from now on, what do
  you do about the many uncaptioned
  videos you have on campus?
  -Caption them yourself
You get what you pay for!

  The  most important thing to remember
   when deciding to caption in-house or to
   outsource is QUALITY!
  Is less than the best, “good enough” for
   your students?
  Do we want to satisfy the letter of the
   law or the spirit of the law?
Captioning Guidelines

                       Open-captioned format
                       Pop-on method
                       Upper and lower-case
                      letters with descenders
                       Proportional spacing
 The Captioning Key    32 characters per line        Helvetica Medium (or
What’s wrong with that?
In-House or Outsourcing

 Turn-around  time
 Up-front cost vs. long-term cost

 Time and personnel

 Volume : How much? How often?

 Quality
In-House Captioning Equipment

 Captioning Software--$4,995
 Hardware--$1,200

 Video Capture--$75

 Longitudinal Time Code Reader Card--
 Optional Time Base Corrector--$495

 Total--$7,060
  – You also need 2 VCRs and a computer.
In-House–Additional Costs

  Personnel
   – Someone who can transcribe the video.
   – Someone with technical expertise to
     encode the captions.
   – Someone with skills in language
     mechanics and captioning techniques.
  Time
   – Enough time to complete the project (an
     hour-long video requires from 8 to 20
     hours of work).
Questions captioning agencies
will ask you:

  How long is the video?
  What format is it? (VHS, Beta, etc.)

  What type of captions do I want?

  When do I need it finished?
Questions you should ask the
captioning agency:

   How    much will it cost?
     –   What format you send.
     –   What type of captions you want.
     –   If you provide a script.
     –   If you want a master only or multiple
   How  long is the turn-around time?
   Do they allow for a proofing phase?
What does it cost to caption?

    For   a 30-minute video:
     – VHS original.
     – They transcribe the video.
     – Pop-on closed captions or subtitles.

$840 $810 $755 $700 $625 $550 $240
So what’s the difference?

 “Educational  videos don’t need to be
  works of art. You just need words on
  the screen.”
 “We don’t check spellings for anything.
  For proper names, we spell phonetically
  as best we can. After all, if a hearing
  kid hears the name of a foreign river,
  they don’t know how it is spelled either.”
Finally, ready to caption!

 Now that you have decided how you will
 add captions to your videos . . . Can you?

 Is it legal?
         Is it fair?
                   Is it moral?
                          Can I get away with it?
Copyright Laws

 QUESTION: Is it breaking the copyright laws to
   add captions to a commercially-produced video
   shown in class?
 ANSWER: Yes! But you can ask for permission.

 QUESTION: Will “fair use” exclusions allow
   captioning because the students are disabled?
 ANSWER: Probably not.
Copyright vs. Fair Use

  “Fair use” does allow reproduction of
   copyrighted works for nonprofit
   educational use. However, “fair use”
   limits include:
    – How much of a work can be reproduced.
    – How long the copies can be kept.
    – Alteration of the work.
No captions?

 QUESTION: Does this mean I cannot
  legally add captions to an educational
 ANSWER: No. It simply means you need
  to contact the holder of the copyright
  and obtain permission . . . IN WRITING.
What about …?

  DVDs
  CD-ROMs

  Streaming Video on
   the Internet
  Video Conferencing
Digital Media Captioning
How do you feel now?
How does a deaf student feel?

 Tina L.

 “I cannot live without closed captioning.”

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