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APPROACHES_ BIOLOGICAL INDICES_ MONITORING POLICY _ IMPLEMENTATION

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 8

									AW ER 4530/6530                                                                             readings_4530_2004.wpd

                                             WATER POLLUTION READINGS

APPROACHES, BIOLOGICAL INDICES, MONITORING

EPA W aters hed Aca dem y. http://www.epa.gov/owow/watershed/wacademy/acad2000/

http://www.epa .gov/owo wwtr1/m onitoring/rbp/inde x.htm l

http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/biocriteria/

Barbour, M. T., J. B. Stribling, and J. R. Karr. 1995. Multimetric approach for establishing biocriteria and measuring
          biological condition. Pages 63-77 {iin} W . S. Davis and T. P. Simon, editors. Biological assessment and criteria.
          Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton.
Cairns, J. a nd Nie derlehner, B.R. 1989. Ad aptatio n and res ista nce of ec osyste m s to stress - A m ajo r knowledge gap in
          understanding anthgropogenic perturbations. Speculat. Sci. Technol. 12 (1):23-30.
Cairns, J. and Pratt J.R. 1989. The scientific basis of bioassays. Hydrobiologia 188/189: 5-20.
Chess, C. and G. Gibson, 2001. W atersheds are not equal: Exploring the feasibility of watershed managem ent. Journal
of the American W ater Resources Association 37(4): 775-782.
Curtis,A. B. Shindler and A. W right, 2002. Sustaining local watershed initiatives: Lessons from landcare and watershed
          councils. Journal of the American W ater Resources Association 38(5): 1207-1216.
Horan, R.D., D.G. Abler, J.S. Shortle and J. Carmichael, 2002. Cost-effective point-nonpoint trading: an application to the
          Susquehanna River basin. Journal of the American W ater Resources Association 38(2): 467-477.
Hugh es, R.M. and J.R. Gam m on. Longitudinal changes in fish asse m blages and w ater quality in the W illame tte River,
          Oregon. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 116:196-209.
Huns aker, CT ; Levine, DA. 1995. Hierarchical approac hes to the study of water quality in rivers. Bioscience 45 (3):
          193-203.
Jackson, S., and W . Davis. 1994. Meeting the goal of biological integrity in water-resource programs in the US
          Environmental Protection Agency. Journal North American Benthological Society 13:592-597
Karr, J. R. 1991. Biological integrity: a long-neglected aspect of water resource managem ent. Ecological Applications
          1:66-84.
Karr, J.R. 1986. Assessment of biotic integrity using fish comm unities. Fisheries 6(6): 21-27.
Karr, J.R., K.D.. Fausch, P.L. Angermeier, P.R. Yant, and I.J. Schlosser. 1986. Assessing biological integrity in running
          waters: a method and its rationale. Illinois Nat. Hist. Survey Special Pub. 5, Urbana.
Karr, J.R .. “IBI”. 198 8. Fisheries 8(5 ):
Karr, J.r. 1997. The future is now: Biological monitoring to ensure healthy waters. Northwest Sci. 71: 254-257.
Kerans, B.L. and Karr, J.R. 1994. A benthic index of biotic integrity (B-IBI) for rivers of the Tennessee Valley. Ecological
          Application s 4:768-7 85.
Mason, C.F. 1996. Biology of freshwater pollution. 3rd edition. Longman. 356 p.
Moorhouse, M. and S. Elliff, 2002. Planning process for public participation in regional water resources planning. Journal
          of the Am erican W ater R eso urces A sso ciation 38(2 ): 531 -540 .
Ogg, C.W . and G.A. Keith, 2002. New federal support for priority watershed managem ent needs. Journal of the
          Am erican W ater Resources Association 38(2): 577-586.
O'Neill, RV; Hunsaker, CT; Jones, KB; Riitters, KH; W ickham, JD; Schwartz, PM; Goodman, IA; Jackson, BL;
          Baillargeon, W S. 1997. Monitoring environmental quality at the landscape scale. Bioscience: 47 (8): 513-519.
Paller, M.H ., M.J.M. R eichert an d J.M . Dean. 1996 . Use of fish com m unities to asses s en vironm enta l imp acts in sou th
          Carolina coastal plain streams. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 125:633-644.
Polls, I. 1994. How people in the regulated comm unity view biological integrity. Journal North American Benthological
          Society 13:598-604.
Sc hindler, D .W . 1987. Dete ctin g ecosystem res ponses to anth ropogenic stress. C an. J. F ish. Aq uat. Sci. 44 (S uppl.
          1):6-25.
Stee dm an, R . J. 199 4. Ec osystem hea lth as a m ana gem ent goal. Jo urna l North Am erican Be ntho logica l Society
          13:605-610.
Stow, CA; Carpenter, SR; Madenjian, CP; Eby, LA; Jackson, LJ. 1995. Fisheries management to reduce contaminant
          consumption. Bioscience 45 (11): 752-758.
Suter, G. W . 1993. A critque of ecosystem health concepts and indexes. Environmental toxicology and chemistry 12:
          1533-1539.
W ebb , BW and DE W alling. 1992. In: Calow, P. and Petts, G.E. (eds) The Rivers Handbook: Hydrological and
          Ecological Principles , pp 73-100. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, UK.
W arren, C. E. 1971. Biology and W ater Pollution Control. W .B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia.
W right, J. F. 1995. Development and use of a system for predicting the macroinvertebrate fauna in flowing waters.
          Australian Journal of Ecology 20:181-197.
POLICY & IMPLEMENTATION

                                                               1
Arbuckle, J.G. et al. 1991. W ater Pollution Control. pp. 65-145 in Arbuck le, J.g. et al. Environm enta l law Hand boo k.
           Government Institutes, Inc. Rockville.
Au stin , J.H ., K.J. Austin and H . Otterste tter. 1988. Ins titutional and hum an res ource developm ent for wate r aq uality-
           control programs in developing countries. CRC C ritical Reviews in Environmental Control 17(4): 253-272.
Chess,C. and G. Gibson, 2001. Watersheds are not equal: Exploring the feasibility of watershed managem ent. Journal
           of the American W ater Resources Association 37(4): 775-782.
Curtis,A. B. Shindler and A. W right, 2002. Sustaining local watershed initiatives: Lessons from landcare and watershed
           councils. Journal of the American W ater Resources Association 38(5): 1207-1216.
EPA. 1991. Guidance for water quality-based decisions: the TMDL process. EPA440\4-91-00... . Office of Water (W H-
           553). W ashington, D.C. 20406.
EPA. 1995. Draft proposed guidelines for ecological risk assessment; W ashington DC. EPA/630/R-95/002.
EPA. 1999. Protocol for developing nutrient TMD Ls, EPA 841-B-99-007.
Horan, R.D., D.G. Abler, J.S. Shortle and J. Carmichael, 2002. Cost-effective point-nonpoint trading: an application to the
           Susqu eha nna River bas in. Jou rnal of the A m erican W ater R eso urces A sso ciation 38(2 ): 467 -477 .
Ingram, H.M. and D.E. Mann. 1984. Preserving the Clean W ater Act: The appearance of environmental victory. Pp. 251-
           271 in N.J. vig and M.E. Kraft (eds.) Environmental policy in the 1980's. CQ Press, W ashington, D.C.
Lackey, R.T. 1994. Ecological risk assessment. Fisheries 19(9): 14-18.
Malle, K-G. 1996. Cleaning up the River Rhine. Intensive international efforts are reclaiming the most
        important river in Europe. Sci. Am. 274 (1): 70-75.
McFarland, A.M.S. and L.M. Hauck, 2001. Determining nutrient export coefficients and source loading
        uncertainty using in-stream monitoring data. Journal of the American Water Resources Association
        37(1): 223 - 236.
Moorhouse, M. and S. Elliff, 2002. Planning process for public participation in regional water resources
        planning. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 38(2): 531-540.
Ogg, C.W. and G.A. Keith, 2002. New federal support for priority watershed management needs. Journal of
        the American Water Resources Association 38(2): 577-586.
Plater, Z.J.B., R.H. Abrams and W. Goldfarb. 1992. Environmental law and policy: nature, law, and society.
        Ch. 19. Administrative standards based on available technology: The federal Clean Water Act. Est
        Publishing. St. Paul.
Renner, R. 1996. Ecological risk assessment struggles to define itself. Environ. Sci. and Tech. 30(4):172-
        174A.
Wolman, M.G. Changing national water quality policies. J. Wat. Poll. Cont. Fed. 60: 1775-1781.


TRENDS IN WATER QUALITY

Barney, G.O. 1980. The global 2000 report to the president of the U.S. Vol. 1: The summ ary report. Pergamon Press,
         New York.
Lettenmaier, D.P., E.R. Hooper, C. Wagoner, and K.B. Faris. 1991. Trends in stream quality in the continental United
         States, 1978-1987. Water Res. Res. 27: 327-339.
Malmqvist, B. and S. Rundle. 2002. Threats to the running water ecosystems of the world. Environmental Conservation.
         29 (2): 134-153.
Maurits la Riviere, JW . 1989. Threats to the World 's W ater. Sci. American 261(3): 80-94.
Me ybeck, M ., D.V. Chapm an, and R . Helmer. 1989. G lobal fresh wate r qua lity: A first asse ssm ent. W orld H ealth
         Organization. 306p.
Schm itt, C.J. and W .G. Brumbaugh. 1990. National contaminant biomonitoring program: Concentrations of arsenic,
         cadmium , copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in U.S. freshwater fish, 1976-1984. Arch. Environ. Contam.
         Toxicol.19:731-747.
Schm itt, C.J., J.L. Zajicek, and P.H. Peterman. 1990. National contaminant biomonitoring program: residues of
         organochlorine chemicals in U.S. freshwater fish, 1976-1984.
Sm ith, R.A., R.B. Alexander, M. Gordon Wolm an. 1987. W ater-quality trends in the nation's rivers. Science 235:1607-
         1615.
W olman, M.G. 1988. Changing national water quality policies. J. W ater Pollution Control Federation 60: 1775-1781.




NUTRIENTS & EUTROPHICATION


                                                               2
Beards ley, T. 19 97. D eath in the deep : Aug m ente d title: eutro phication c reate s hypoxic zone s in the Gu lf of M exico.
          Scientific American 277. Nov. 1997.
Chisholm, S.W . 1995. The iron hypothesis: basic research meets environmental policy. Rev. Geophysics, Supplement
          33:1277-1286.
Carlson, R.E. 1977. A trophic state index for lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 22:361
Co ok, G.D ., E.B. W elch, S.A. P eters on a nd P .R. N ewroth. 19 86. R esto ration and m ana gem ent of lake s an d res ervo irs.
          2 nd ed. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton. 548 p.
Dodds, W .K., V.H. Sm ith, a nd B. Z ander. 1997. D eveloping nutrient targets to control benthic chlorophyll levels in
          streams: a case study of the Clark Fork River. W ater Res. 31:1738:1750.
Dodds, W .K., J.R. Jones, and E.B. W elch. 1998. Suggested classification of stream trophic state: Distributions of
          temperate stream types by chlorophyll, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. W ater Res. 32: 1455-1462.
Dodds, W K; W elch, EB. 2000. Establishing nutrient criteria in streams. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 19: 186-196.
Dow ning, J A; O senberg, C W ; Sa rnelle, O. 1999. Meta -analysis of m arine nutrient-enrichm ent ex perim ents: Variation in
          the magnitude of nutrient limitation. Ecology 80: 1157-1167.
Fee, E.J. 1979. A relation between lake morophometry and primary productivity and its use in interpreting whole-lake
          eutrophication experiments. Limnol. Oceanogr. 24:401-416.
Else r, J.J., E.R. M arzolf, and C .R. G oldm an. 1990 . Pho sph orus and nitroge n lim itation in the freshwa ters o f No rth
          Am erica: a review and critique of experimental enrichments. Can. J. fish. Aquat. Sci 47:1468-1477.
Edwards, A.C., H. Twist, and G.A. Codd. 2000. Assessing the impact of terrestrially derived phosphorus on flowing
          wate r system s. J. Environ . Qu al 29:1 17-1 24.
Environm enta l Protection A gen cy, Na tional eutrop hication res earc h pro gram . 1971. Alga l assay proced ure: bottle test.
Herut, Barak, et al. 1999. Atmoshperic input of nitrogen and phosphorus to the Southeast Mediterranean: sources, fluxes
          and possible impact. Limnol. Oceaongr. 44:1683-1692.
Howarth, R.W . 1998. An assessment of human influences on fluxes of nitrogen from terrestrial landscape to the
          estuaries and continental shelves of the North Atlantic Ocean. Nutrient cycling in agroecosystems 52:213-223.
Lowrance, R; Todd, R; Fail, JJr; Hendrickson, OJr; Leonard, R. 1984. Riparian Forests as Nutrient Filters in Agricultural
          W atersheds. BioScience 34 (6): 374-377.
McFarland, A.M.S. and L.M. Hauck, 2001. Determining nutrient export coefficients and source loading uncertainty using
          in-stream m onitoring data. Journal of the American W ater Resources Association 37(1): 223 - 236.
Miller, E.W ., T.E. Ma loney and J .C. G reen e. 1974. A lgal pro duc tivity in 49 lake wate rs as determ ined by algal assays.
          W ater Res. 8:667-679.
Om ernik, J.M. 1977. Nonpoint source–stream nutrient level relationships: A nationwide study. EPA-600/3-77-105.
Om ernik , , J.M., A.R. Abe rnath y, L.M. M ale. 19 81. S tream nutrien t levels a nd p roximity of agricultural and fores t land to
          streams: som e relationships. J. Soil W ater Conserv. 36:227-231.
Paerl, H. 1997. Coastal eutrophication from atmospheric deposition. Limnol. Oceanogr. 42:1154-1165.
Peterson, B.J. & 14 others. 1993. Biological responses of a tundra river to fertilization. Ecology 74: 653-672.
Rabalais NN, Turner RE, W iseman W J. 2001. Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. J. Environ. Qual. 30: 320-329.
Ra balais NN , Turner RE , Sca via D. 2002. Be yond science into policy: Gulf of Mexico hypo xia an d the Mississippi River.
          BioScience 52 (2): 129-142.
Ryther, J.H., Dunstan, W .M., K.R. Tenore, J.E. Huguenin. 1972. Controlled eutrophication-increasing food production
          from the sea. B y recycling hum an w aste s. Bioscience 22 (3 ): 144 -152 .
Schindler, D. 1974. Eutrophication and recovery in experimental lakes: implications fo lake management. Science
          184:897-899.
Schindler, D. 1977. Evolution of phosphorus limitation in lakes. Science 195:260-262.
Stoddard, J.L. 1994. Long-term changes in watershed retention of nitrogen: Its causes and aquatic consequences. Pp.
          223-284 In L.A. Baker (ed.), ACS Advances in chemistry Series No. 237, Environmental chemistry of lakes and
          reservoirs. Am. Chemical Soc., W ashington, D.C.
Turner, R.E. and N.N. Rabalais. 1991. Changes in Mississippi River water quality this century: Implications for coastal
          food webs. BioScience 41 (March): 140-147.
Van Donk , et al. 199 0. First attem pt to ap ply who le-lake foo d-web m anipulation on a large sca le in the N ethe rlands.
          Hydrobiologia 200/2 01:2 91-3 01. Entire issue of this journal is on top-down control of euthrophication.
Van Nieuwenh uyse, E.E. a nd J R J one s. 1996. P hos pho rus-chlorophyll relations hip in tem pera te stre am s an d its
          variation with stream catchm ent area. Can. J. Fish Aquatic Sci. 53:99-105.
Vitousek, P.M. et al. 1997. Hum an alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: causes and consequences. Ecological Soc. of
          Am erica. http://www.sdsc.edu/~ESA. The full report is in Ecological Applications 7:737-750.
W urtsbaugh, W . and A. Horne. 1983. Iron in eutrophic Clear Lake, California: its importance for algal nitrogen fixation
          and growth. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40: 1419-1429.
W urtsbaugh, W . 1988. Iron, molybdenum and phos phorus limitation of N 2 fixation maintains nitrogen deficiency of
          plankton in the Great Salt Lake drainage (Utah, USA). Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol. 23:121-130.



                                                                 3
THERMAL POLLUTION

Biss on, P .A. an d G .E. Davis. 1976 . Prod uction of juvenile chinook salm on, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in a heated
         model stream. Fishery Bulletin 74:763-774
Brown, G.W. 1971. W ater temperature in small streams as influenced by environmental factors and logging, p. 175-181,
         In J. Morris (ed) Symp. Proc. Forest land uses and stream environment. Oregon State Univ. Corvallis, OR.
Brylinsky, M. 1980. Estimating the productivity of lakes and reservoirs. pp. 411-454 In, E.D. LeCren and R.H. Lowe-
         McConnell, The functioning of freshwater ecosystems. Cam brdige Univ. Press.
Burton, TM; Likens, GE. 1973. The Effect of Strip-Cutting on Stream T emperatures in the Hubbard Brook Experimental
         Forest, New Ham pshire. Bioscience 23 (7): 433-435.
Coussins, A.R. and K. Bowler. 1987. Tem perature Biology of Animals. Chapman and Hall, London.

Coutant, C.C. and J.M. Dean. 1972. Relationships between equilibrium loss and death as responses of juvenile chinook
         salmon and rainbow trout to acute thermal shock. Battel NW Laboratories. BNW L-1520, UC48.
Eaton, J. G., and R. M. Scheller. 1996. Effects of climate warming on fish thermal habitat in streams of the United
         States. Limnology & Oceanography 41:1109-1115.
Grimm , N.B., A. Ch aco n, C.N. D ahm , W .T. Lind, P.L. Starkw eath er, an d W .A .W urtsb aug h. In Press. Se nsitivity to
         clim ate chan ge o f aqu atic ec osystem s in the Bas in and Range , Am erican So uthw est, and M exico. in D.M.
         Mc Knight an d A.P . Covich (e ds.), P roceed ings: Regional ass ess m ent of fres hwa ter ec osystem s an d clim ate
         change in N orth A m erica. En viro nm ental P rotec tion Agency.
Ho gg, ID ; W illiam s, DD; E adie, JM ; Butt, SA. 19 95. T he c ons equ enc es o f global warm ing for strea m inverte brate s: A
         field simulation. J. Thermal Biol. 20:199-206.
Keleher, C. J., and F. J. Rahel. 1996. Thermal limits to salmonid distributions in the Rocky Mountain region and potential
         habitat loss due to global warming: A Geographic Information System (GIS) approach. Transactions of the
         Am erican Fisheries So ciety 125:1-1 3.
Lamberti, G.A. and V.H. Resh. 1983. Geothermal effects on stream benthos: Separate influences of thermal and
         che m ical com pon ents on periphyton an d m acroinve rtebrates . Can . J. Fish . Aqu at. Sc i. 40: 1995-2 009 .
Li, H.W ., G.A. Lamberti, T.N. Pearsons, C.K. Tait, J.L. Li and J.C. Buckhouse. 1994. Cum ulative effects of riparian
         disturbances along high desert trout streams of the John Day Basin, Oregon. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 123:627-
         640.
Mc Ca uley, R.W . and D.M . Kilgour. 1990. Effect of air tem pera ture o n gro wth o f large m outh bas s in N orth A m erica.
         Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 119: 276-281. [entire issue: Effects of Climate Change on Fish]
Me isner, J.D. 1990. Effect of clim atic warm ing on the south ern m argins of th e na tive ran ge o f brook trout, Salvelinus
         fontinalis. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47:1065-1070.
Mihursky, J.A. 1967. On possible constructive uses of thermal additions to estuaries. BioScience 17 (10): 698-702.
Keleher, C.J. and F.J. Rahel. 1996. Thermal limits to salmonid distributions in the Rocky Mountain region and potential
         habitat loss due to global warming: a Geographic Infpormation System (GIS) approach. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.
         125: in press.
Resh, V H; Lam berti, G A; M cE lravy, EP; W ood, J R. 1983. The Separation of T herm al and Ch em ical Effects in
         Evaluating Geothermal Influences on Aquatic Biota. Available from the National Technical Information Service,
         Springfield VA 22161 as PB83-191908, Price codes: A04 in paper copy, A01 in microfiche. California W ater
         Reso urces C enter Com pletion Report, Univ. of California, Davis, March 1983. 55 p, 8 Fig, 49 R ef.
         OW RT -A-084-C AL(1).
Schindler, D.W . 1991. Aq uatic e cos ystem s an d glob al eco logy. pp. 1 08-1 22, in R.S .K. Ba rnes and K.H . Ma nn [eds.],
         Fu ndam entals of a quatic ecology. B lackw ell.
Sm ith, J.B. 1990 . From globa l to regional clim ate chan ge: re lative know ns a nd u nknow ns a bou t globa l warm ing.
         Fisheries 15(6): 2-6.
Vinson, M.R. 2001. Long-term dynamics of an invertebrate assemblage downstream from a large dam. Ecol. Appl. 11:
         711-730.
W ard, J. V. 1976. Effects of thermal constancy and seasonal temperature displacement on comm unity structure of
         stream m acroinvertebrates. Pages 302-307 {in} G. W . Esch and R. W . McFarlane, editors. ERDA Sym posium
         Series: T herm al eco logy II. U.S . Ene rgy, Re sea rch and Develop m ent A dm inistration , W ash ington , D.C .,
         CON F-750425.
W urtsbaugh, W .A. and G.E. Davis. 1977. Effects of temperature and ration level on the growth and food conversion
         efficiency of Salmo g airdneri, Richardson. J. Fish Biol. 11:87-98.




                                                                4
ACIDIFICATION

Abate, T . 1995. Sw edish sc ientists take acid-rain resea rch to develop ing na tions. B ioscience 45 (11): 738-740 .
Dixit, S.S. A.S. Dixit, and J. P. Smol. 1989. Relationship between chrysophyte assemblages and environmental
         variab les in seventy-tow lake s as exa m ined by can non ical correspon den ce a nalysis (CC A). C an. J. fish. Aqua t.
         Sci. 46:1667-1676.
Ellis, M.T. (ed.) 1986. Acid deposition in Utah: an analysis by the acid deposition technical advisory comm ittee. Bureau
         of Air Quality, Utah Division of Environmental Health. 99p.

Gonzalez, J.J. and T.M. Frost. 1994. Com parisons of laboratory bioassays and a whole lake experiment: Rotifer
         responses to experimental acidification. Ecol. Applic. 4:69-80.
Havas , M and B O R osseland. 199 5. Respo nse of zooplank ton, benthos, and fish to acidification: An overview. W ater,
         Air and Soil Pollution 85: 51-62.
Holtze, K.E. and N.J. Hutchinson 1989. Lethality of low pH and Al to early life stages of six fish species inhabiting
         PreCambriqan Shield waters in Ontario. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46:1188-1202.
Loc ke, A. An d w.G . Spru les. 19 94. E ffec ts of lak e ac idification and reco very on the stability of zoop lank ton fo od w ebs .
         Ecology 75: 498-506.
Mohnen, V.A. 1988. The challenge of acid rain. Scientific American 259(2): 30-38.
Ra hel, F.J. and J.J . Ma gnu son . 1983. Low pH and the abse nce of fish spe cies in naturally acidic W isconsin lake s:
         inferences for cultural acidification. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40:3-9.
Satake, K. 2001. Acid Rain 2000. Proceedings 6 th Intenration Conference on Acidic Dep osition. 1864 p. Kluwer.
Schindler, D.W . 1985. Long-te rm eco system stres s: The e ffec ts of years of ex perim enta l acidifica tion on a sm all lake.
         Science 228:1395-1400.
Schindler, D.W . 1988. Effects of acid rain on freshwater ecosystems. Science 239:149-157
Special Issue on the Experimental Lakes Area, 1980. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 21:331-558.
W right, R F a nd DW Sc hindler. 1995. In teraction of a cid rain and global changes: effects on terrestrial and aquatic
         ecosystems. W ater, Air and Soil Pollution 85: 89-99.


METALS AND ACID MINE DRAINAGE

Elder, John F., 1988, Metal biogeochemistry in surface-water systems--A review of principles and concepts: U.S.
          Geological Survey Circular 1013, 43 pp.
EPA 1983. Design Manual: Neutralization of acid mine drainage. Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory. EPA-
          600-001
Lem ly, A.D. 1997. En viro nm ental im plicatio ns of e xcessive selenium : A review. Bio m edical and Environm ental S ci.
          10:415-435. www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/rpc/1998-06/rpc_98jun_26.pdf
Lundgren, D.G., J.R. Vestal and F.R. Tabita. 1972. The m icrobiology of mine drainage pollution. pp69-88 in R. Mitch ell,
          W ater Pollution Microbiology. W iley-Interscience.
Moore, J.N . and S.N. Luom a. 1990. H aza rdous w astes from larg e-scale m eta l extractio n: a case stu dy. E nviron. S ci.
          Tech. 24 (9): 1278-1285.
Mo ore, J .N., S.N. Lu om a an d D. Pete rs. 19 91. D own strea m effects o f m ine effluent on an interm onta ne riparian system .
          Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48:222-232.
Moore, J.N . 1994. Contam inant m obilizatio n re sulting from red ox pum ping in a m eta l-contam inated river-reservoir
          system. Environmental chemistry of lakes and reservoirs. 237: 451-471. GA BZ52H
Nagorski, S.A. and J.N. Moore. 1999. Arsenic mobilization in the hyporheic zone of a contaminated                   stream. W ater
          Resources Res. 35:3441-3450.
Phillips, G . and J. Lipton. 1995. InJ ury to aq uatic reso urces c aus ed b y metals in Mo ntan a’s C lark fork River bas in:
          historic perspective and overview. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52:1990-1993.
W oodward, D.F., A.M. Farag, H.L. Bergman, A.J. DeLonay, E.E. Little, C.E. Smith, and F.T. Barrows. 1995. Metals-
          contaminated benthic invertebrates in the Clark Fork River, Montana: effects on age-o brown trout and trainbow
          trout. Can. J. fish. Aquat. Sci. 52:1994-2004.


PETRO AND ORGANIC CHEMICALS

Bortone, S.A; Davis, W P. 1994. Fish intersexuality as indicator of environmental stress. Bioscience 44 (3): 165-172.


                                                                   5
Carls, M.G., G.D. Marty and J.E. Hose. 2002. Synthesis of the toxicological impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on
        Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi). Can. J. Fisheries Aquat. Sci. 59:153-172.
Heintz, R.A., J.W . short and S.D. Rice. 1999. Sensitivity of fish embryos to weathered crude oil: Part II. Increased
        mortality of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) embryos incubating downstream from weathered Exxon
        Valdez crude oil. Environ Toxicol. and Chem. 18 (3):494-503.
Heintz RA, Rice SD, Wertheimer AC, Bradshaw RF, Thrower FP, Joyce JE, Short JW. 2000. Delayed
       effects on growth and marine survival of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha after exposure to
       crude oil during embryonic development. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 208: 205-216 2000
Ho lloway, M . 1999. Oil in water: S tudies from the E xxo n Va ldez oil sp ill sugge st that fish are m ore s ens itive to
        hydrocarbons than previously thought. Scientific-American. 280 (3): 38.
W iens, J.A. 1996. Oil, seabirds, and science. The effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bioscience 46 (8): 587-597.
Peterso n CH, R ice SD, S hort J W , Esler D, B odk in JL, B allach ey BE , Irons DB . 2003. Long-te rm eco system resp ons e to
        the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Science 302 (5653): 2082-2086.

GROUND WATER POLLUTION

Canter, L.W ., R.C. Knox, D.M. Fairchild 1987. Ground water quality protection. Lewis Pub., Chelsea, MI. 562p. Nielsen,
         E.G . and L.K. Lee 1 987 . the m agn itude a nd c osts of gro und wate r con tam ination from agricultural chem icals.
         USDA.
Miller, D.W. 1982. Protection of groundwater quality. pp. 93-130 in C.c. Travis and E.L. Etnier (eds.) Groundwater
         pollution: Environm ental and legal problems . AAAS. W estview Press, Bo ulder.
Utah Depa rtm ent of He alth. 1986. G roun d wa ter qu ality protec tion stra tegy for the s tate O f Uta h. 115p. R ail, C.D . 1990.

Kenski, H.C. 1990. Saving the hidden treasure: the evolution of groundwater policy. Regina Books, Claremont, Ca. 159
        p.


TOXICOLOGY AND BIOACCUMULATION

CRC. 1986. PCBs and the environment II. CRC Press, FL.
U.S. EPA 1991. Com pendium of ERT toxicity testing procedures. Department of Com merce National Technical
       Information Service 5285 Port Royal Rd Springfield, VA 22151 Phone Number: 800-553-6847 URL:
       http ://www .ep a.g ov/nc epihom /Cata log/EP A5 40P9 1009.htm l
U.S. EPA. 1991. Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving W aters to Freshwater and Marine
       Organisms, 4th ed. Edited by C. I. W eber. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and
       De velop m ent, E nviron m enta l Monitoring System s La bora tory, Cincinnati, OH . EPA-600/4 -90-027 .
U.S. EPA. 1993. Methods for meauring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms
       EP A/6 00/4-90/02 7F . U.S. Enviro nm ental P rotec tion Agency, E nvironm netal M onitoring Sys tem s Laborato ry,
       Cincinnati, Ohio.
U.S. EPA. 1998.National Recom mended W ater Quality Criteria.
       http://www.epa .gov/fedrgstr/E PA-W AT ER /199 8/Dece m ber/D ay-10/w30 272 .htm
Grosch, D.S. 1970. Poisoning with DDT: Second-and third-year reproductive performance of Artemia. BioScience 20
        (16): 913.
Huestis, S.Y., M.R. Servos, D. M. W hittle, and D.G. Dixon. 1996. Tem poral and age-related trends in levels of
         polych lorinate d biph eny cong ene rs an d org ano chlorine conta m inants in lak e O ntario lake trout. (Salvelinus
         nam ayc ush ). J. Great Lakes Res. 22: 310-330.
Kiriluk, R.M., M.r. Servos, D.M. W hittle, G. Cabana, and J.B. Rasm ussen. 1995. Using ratios of stable nitrogen and
         carbon isotop es to cha racterize the biom agn ification of D DE , m irex, and P CB in a Lake On tario pe lagic fo od w eb.
         Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52: 2660-2674.
Larsson, P. 1986. Zooplankton and fish accumulate chlorinated hydrocarbons from contaminated sediments. Can. J.
         Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43:1463-1466.
Lars son , P. L. O kla, S . Ryding , and B. W esto o. 1990. C onta m inated sed iment as a s ourc e of P CB s in a rive r system .
         Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47:746-754.
Larsson, P., L. Collvin, L. Okla, G. Meyer. 1992. Lake productivity and water chemistry as governors of the uptake of
         persistent pollutants in fish. Environ. Sci. Technol 26:346-352.




                                                                 6
Lonky, E., J. Reihman, T. Darvill, J. Mather Sr. and H. Daly. 1996. Neonatal behavioral assessment scale performance
         in humans influenced by maternal consumption of environmentally contaminated Lake Ontario fish. J. Great
         Lakes Res. 22:198-212.
Mackay, D. 1982. Correlation of bioconcentration factors. Environ. Sci. Technol. 16:274-278.
Mackay, D., S. Sang, P. Vlahos, F.A.P.C. Gobas, M. Diamond, and D. Dolan. 1994. A rate constant model of chemical
         dynamics in a lake ecosystem: PCBs in lake Ontario. J. Great Lakes Res. 20:625-642.
McC ain, B.B. e t al. 1992. C hem ical conta m ination and associate d fis h diseases in San Die go Bay. En viro n. S ci.
         Technol 26:725-733.
Moriarty, F. 1983. Ecotoxicology: the study of pollutants in ecosystems. Academ ic Press. London. 233 p.
Oliver, B.G. and A.J. Niimi. 1988. Trophodynamic analysis of polychlorinated biphenly congeners and other chlorinated
         hydrocarbons in the Lake Ontario Ecosystem. Environ. Sci. Technol. 22:388-397.
Ram ade, F. 1979. Ecotoxicology. John Wiley, New York, 262 p.
Rasm ussen, J.B., D.J. Rowan, D.R.S. Lean and J.H. Carey. 1990. Food chain structure in Ontario lakes determines
         PC B leve ls in lake trou t (Salvelinus namaycush) and other pelagic fish. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47:2030-2038.
Safe, S. (ed.) 1987 . Polychlorinate d biph enyls (P CB s): M am m alian and e nviron m enta l toxicology. Springer-Ve rlag.,
         Berlin, 152p.
Stone, R. 1992. Swimm ing against the PCB tide. Science 255:798-799.
Thom ann. R.V. 1989. Bioaccumulation model of organic chemical distribution in aquatic food chains. Environ. Scio.
         Technol. 23:699-707.


NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION

Allred, M., G. Jorgenson and R. Clark. 1992. Utah Little Bear River Hydrologic Unit Plan. USDA Soil Conservation
          Service. Logan, U T.
Ba ke r, L.A. 1992. Introduction to nonpoint source pollution in the U nite d State s and pro spects for wetlan d use. Ec ol.
          Engineering 1: 1-26.
Charbonneau, R., and G. M. Kondolf. 1993. Land use change in California, USA: Nonpoint source water quality impacts.
          Environmental Management 17:453-460.
Binkley, D., and T. C. Brown. 1993. Forest practices as nonpoint sources of pollution in North America. W ater
          Resources Bulletin 29:729-740.
Cooper, C.M. 1993. Biological effects of agriculturally derived surface water pollutants on aquatic systems--A review. J.
          Environ. Aual. 22:402-408.
EPA . 1992. Managing nonpoint source pollution. 197 p. EPA-506/9-90.
EPA. 19 99. D raft G uidance for W ater Q uality-bas ed D ecisions: The T MD L Proce ss (2nd edition). EPA 84 1-D -99-001 ,
          Augus t, 1999. http://www.epa.gov/owow/tmdl/propguid/tmdlguid.pdf
Binkley, D., and T. C. Brown. 1993. Forest practices as nonpoint sources of pollution in North America. W ater
          Resources Bulletin 29:729-740.
Funk, W . H. 1993. A water problem that continues to be rediscovered: Nonpoint source pollution. W ater Resources
          Update 93:9-12.
Pim ente l, D; Ho use r, J; Pre iss, E; W hite, O ; Fan g, H; Me snick, L; B arsky, T; Tariche, S; Sc hrec k, J; Alpert, S . 1997
       Water resources: Agriculture, the environment, and society. An assessment of the status of water
       resources. Bioscience 47 (2): 97-106.
United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1999. Protocol for developing nutrient TMDLs, EPA 841-B-
       99-007:


PATHOGENS

Burkh older, J.M. 1999. The lurking pe rils of Pfie ste ria. Sci. American, 281: (2) 42-49

Bauda rt, J; Grab ulos, J; Barussea u, J-P; Lebaron, P. 2000 . Salmon ella spp. and fecal coliform loads in coas tal waters
        from a point vs. nonpoint source of pollution. J. Environ. Qual.: 29 (1): 241-250.
Cottingham, K.L., D.A. Chiavelli and R.K. Taylor. 2003. Environmental microbe and human pathogen: the ecology and
        m icrobiology of Vibrio cholerae. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(2):80-86.




                                                               7
SEDIMENTATION AND CHANNEL STRUCTURE

Platts, et al. 198 9. Ch ang es in s alm on s paw ning and rearing ha bitat from increase d de livery of fine sed iment to the south
         Fork Salmon River. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 118:274-283.
Toth, L. A., D. A. Arrington, M. A. Brady, and D. A. Muszick. 1995. Conceptual evaluation of factors potentially affecting
         restoration of habitat structure within the channelized Kissimm ee River ecosystem. Restoration Ecology
         3:160-180
W aters , Thom as F . 1995. Se dim ent in S tream s: So urces, B iologica l Effec ts and Contro l. Am erican Fisheries So ciety
         Monograph 7, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. 251 pages.
US EPA. 19 99. Protoc ol for D eveloping Sed iment T MD Ls, E PA 841 -B-9 9-00 4.



HYDROLOGY, LIMNOLOGY & STREAM ECOLOGY

Likens, G.E., F.H. Bormann, R. S. Pierce and J.S. Eaton. 1985. The Hubbard Brook valley. Pp. 9 - 39 in G.E. Likens
        (ed.) An ecosystem approach to aquatic ecology: Mirror Lake and its environment. Springer-Verlag.
Likens, G .E. 2001. Biogeoche m istry, the watershed app roach: som e uses a nd limitations. Ma r. Freshwater R es. 52 (1):
        5-12 .
Zedler, J.B. 2003. W etlands at your service: reducing impacts of agriculture at the watershed scale. Frontiers in Ecology
        and the Environment 1(2): 65-72.




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