Docstoc

207

Document Sample
207 Powered By Docstoc
					Pan American Health Organization

      Contribuciones de las distintas
Organizaciones y Agencias Internacionales y
         de Cooperación a la SSO

                                                OPS
                              El Salvador, 29-30 Abril 2004




                         PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION
                          Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the
                              WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION


                          DR. LUZ MARITZA TENNASSEE
                   Sustainable Development and Environmental Health              PAHO-2K
Pan American Health Organization
 Globalization: Strengths and weaknesses
                                   Beneficial effect           Adverse effect
                                       5–7 % annual          Harder competition
                                     growth trade and       developing countries
                                     world production
                                   Global market provides     Home markets are
                                      benefit of scale        put under pressure
                                      Higher efficacy       Compromising health
                                        and quality         and safety standards
                                     Elimination of time     Unphysiological time
                                      dimension from        schedules, sleep debt,
                                        global market         vigilance problems
                                     < costs of storage,      Tight deadlines,
                                        high flow of        psychological stress.
                                         production          physical overload
                                                            unconventional work
                                   Adapt to global market      hours, source of
                                                          flexibility: human labour
                                                                           PAHO-2K
Pan American Health Organization

   Environmental &Workers’ Health
                               “Occupational Health and Safety:
                                 a high priority in the global,
                                  international and national
                                           agenda”
 Kofi A. Annan
 Secretary General
 United Nations

                               • Protect the health and safety of workers
                                   • Strengthen and promote ILO and WHO
                                     programmes to reducr occupational
                                         deaths, injuries and illnesses.
   Johannesburg                     •Link occupational health with public
                                                                 PAHO-2K
   Summit 2002
                                             health promotion”
Pan American Health Organization
         UN Millennium Development Goals
            Relation to Workers’ Health

        GOALS:                          CONTRIBUTION:
     • Eradicate Extreme           •Synergy with Labor Ministers, Private
                                     Sector, NGOs Unions to Create and
     Poverty and Hunger
                                       Maintain a Healthy Workplaces

                                        •Basic Skills for Women to
 •Promote Gender, Equality
                                       Utilize Housing and Working
   and Empower Women                             Facilities


•Reduce Child Mortality and             •Improvement in Working
  Improve Maternal Health               Conditions to promote and
                                          protect parental Health

                                        •Through Promotion in the
     •Combat HIV/AIDS                   Workplace and healthcare
                                                 Sector    PAHO-2K
Pan American Health Organization

   UN Millennium Development Goals
  Ensuring Environmental Sustainability
                                       Integrate the Principles of Sustainable
                                       Development into Country Policies and
        TARGET                            Programs and reverse the loss of
                                             Environmental Resources


                                      •Regional Plan on Workers’ Health/Health
 CONTRIBUTION                                  Workplaces Initiatives
                                   •Linkages between Health and Labor PAHO/ILO


                                        By 2020 to have achieve a significant
       TARGET                      improvement in the Lives of at least 100 million
                                     slum Dwellers – phase out and eradication



                                          Creation of Healthy, Safe and
CONTRIBUTION                                  Decent Workplaces
                                                                        PAHO-2K
      SITUATION ANALISIS IN THE AMERICAS
    Pan American Health Organization


      INEQUITIES – INSTITUTIONAL DISPERSION - REFORMS
• EAP: 351 million (> 50% Americas population).
     - 69 million below poverty line.
    - 52% Informal Sector ( women, children, migrants, indigenous)
    - 49% women
    - 24 million children work.
36 Injuries / minute
5 Million injuries / year
5 Million injuries / year
90,000 Fatal Injuries / year
•     Morbidity: Traditional occupational illnesses, along with cancer,
     asthma, depression, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal ,
     immunological, and nervous system, and re-emerging diseases.
9% - 12% of GDP in LAC
30% Receives Occupational Health Services (formal sector)                 PAHO-2K
 Pan American Health Organization

                   The Workers’ Health Plan
                                         Driving Forces
                                      Globalization, Integration,       ACTION
                                        Technological Change
                                    Reform of the State, Inequities
             Pressure                                                 Health Policies
     Technology Transfer, Non-                                        and Legislation
         traditional Expoprt
        Production Increase                                           Quality of the
               Maquila                                                   Work
               State                                                  Environment
     Workforce Composition,
    Migration, Precarious L.M,                                         Promotion of
      Poverty Feminization                                            Workers Health

           Exposure                                                   Comprehensiv
        (Environmental)                                                e Workers’
     Psychosocial, Ergonomic,                                           Services
       Chemical, Biological,                      Effect
        Safety & Physical                    Lost workdays,
                                          Occupational Accidents
                                            & Diseases, Lower
DPSEEA                                                                     PAHO-2K
                                            Productivity, Social
Model                                             Costs
  Pan American Health Organization

                          Economic impact
                         The Breakdown of Costs
                   for Work-related Injuries and Diseases
                                         Injuries
                                         14%

           Heart diseases
                16%
                                                         Musculoskeletal
                                                              40%

Respiratory diseases
        9%




     Nervous Central System
              8%
                                      Others
                                       13%
   Other diseases include cancer, skin diseases and mental disorders
                                                             PAHO-2K
   Source: ILO, 1999
Pan American Health Organization
           The Regional Workers’ Health Plan

                      III Summit of the
                        Americas 2001
                       XII Inter-American Conference
                       of the Ministers of Labor
                       October 2001- Septiembre 2003
                       •Declaration and Plan of Action
                       (OAS, ILO, PAHO, IDB, WB,
                       ECLAC)


                                   Workers’ Health           PAHO-2K
                                                         Organization of
                                                         American States
  Pan American Health Organization




• Support in the Consolidated Programs Portafolio – XIII IACML


• Strategic Alliance Presentation to PAHO´s
Directing Council by XIII IACML TROIKA (Sept 2004)


• CARICOM Inter Ministerial Workshop on HIV/AIDS (Healthy
Workplace and Healthy Schools Initiatives)



                                                             PAHO-2K
 Pan American Health Organization
           Agreement PAHO - ILO
Extend Social Protection and Health Coverage
          within Excluded Groups
                                    (ESPHC)




                       Approved by Directive Council
                                                       PAHO-2K
Pan American Health Organization

                     THE CHALLENGE

             Magnitude of the Problem:
             Total population of Latin America and
             the Caribbean: 500 million.

             27% of the population lacks access to
             permanent and basic health services
             (125 millon).

             46% of the population does not have
             health insurance either public or private
             (230 millon).

                                                         PAHO-2K
Pan American Health Organization

  REASON FOR ESPHC IN THE AMERICAS
              REGION

   Persistent economic, social, ethnic and cultural
  exclusion.

   The present social protection mechanisms             are
  insufficient to give answers to new problems.

   It is necessary for the Reform Processes to contribute
  in the construction of socially inclusive societies for all
  its citizens.




                                                         PAHO-2K
Pan American Health Organization

    CONDITIONS FOR THE EXTENSION OF
      SOCIAL PROTECTION IN HEALTH



                              Access to Services
                         Home Financial Security

                        Quality of Health Services




                                                     PAHO-2K
 Pan American Health Organization

 MANDATES OF THE ILO/PAHO/WHO RELATED
TO THE EXTENTION OF SOCIAL PROTECTION IN
                HEALTH

       PAHO/WHO
             • Reduction in inequities in the access to health services and
             in their financing
             • Universal access to health services in order to achieve the
             goal of health for all
             • Poverty reduction and development goals of the millenium




                                                                      PAHO-2K
  MANDATES OF THE ILO/PAHO/WHO
Pan American Health Organization


   RELATED TO THE EXTENTION OF
   SOCIAL PROTECTION IN HEALTH

       ILO
               Promote opportunities for decent and
                productive work under conditions of
                freedom, equity, safety and human
                dignity
               Improve the coverage and
                effectiveness of social protection for
                all, including protection in health
               New consensus of social security
                                                   PAHO-2K
                           First Hispanic Forum
Pan American Health Organization


                               October 2000
                                    TOPICS
                                    • Inequities
                                    • Environmental Justice
                                    • Migrant Workers
                                    • Border Health

                                    ACTORS
                                    • EPA, OSHA, NIOSH
                                    (public sector)
                                    • NSC, 3M (private sector)
                                    • National Alliance for Hispanic
                                    Health (NGOs)
                                    • PAHO, ILO, NAALC, OEA
                                                        PAHO-2K
                                    (UDSE and AICD)
     Alarming Increases in Work Accidents among Hispanics
Pan American Health Organization


   Hispanic population grew by
    58% between 1990 and
    2000:38.3 Million in the         Work Related Fatalities are Projected to
    US, 3.8 Million in Puerto      Keep rising without preventive interventions
    Rico

   12.5% of the workforce is
    Hispanic. They bear 15% of
    the total US fatal
    occupational injuries.

   Fatal occupational accidents
    have decreased overall, but
    risen alarmingly among the
    Hispanic labor force.

   In the US there has been a
    40 % increase in fatalities
    among Hispanic workers in
    the construction sector.


                                                                   PAHO-2K
              NATIONWIDE NETWORK: AN INVITATION TO
Pan American Health Organization
                       JOIN AND SUPPORT

                          Hispanic                   IDB
                           Forum
                                                                US-Mexico Chamber
                                                                   of Commerce
           3M



                                   Hispanic Workers Safety            US-Mexico BHA
      NIOSH
  Communications
                                         and Health
     Workshop


                                                                      Susan Harwood
          PAHO                                                            Grants


                            NSC                              Summit of the
                        Puerto Rico                           Americas-
                                                                OAS
                                            OSHA

                                                                             PAHO-2K
                     Interconnectivity and Support
Pan American Health Organization

                               Border Issues




                                               PAHO-2K
                      Border XXI Program
Pan American Health Organization




“ To improve the environmental health of U.S.-Mexico
     border communities by identifying and addressing
     those environmental conditions posing the highest
     human health risk”

1983 La Paz agreement designated six work groups (Air,
    water, hazardous waste, contingency planning,
    pollution prevention and cooperative enforcement)

1996 Three groups were added: natural r esources,
    environmental information and environmental and
    occupational health.




  Development of Environmental Health Indicators
                                                   PAHO-2K
Pan American Health Organization

                    Migrant Farm Workers
                                   •Most farm workers have no
                                   insurance.
                                   • 3 to 5 million of them are
                                   Hispanic.
                                   •Most migrant workers are men in
                                   their 20s and send their earnings
                                   home to their families in Mexico,
                                   Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador
                                   or Haiti.
                                   •Most live in poor housing and
                                   unsanitary living conditions.

                                                                  PAHO-2K
Pan American Health Organization


            Healthy Work Place Initiative
   HEALTH STANDARDS MAQUILA AND FLORICULTURE
                  CENTRAL AMERICA
   (CIMBIOSE, IRET, U. San Carlos, U. de Leon, CCOHS)




                        HIGH-LEVEL INTER-AGENCY
                                                   PAHO-2K
                    COOPERATION (OAS, IDB, PAHO)
Pan American Health Organization




                                                   ILO



                                                    CONTENT:
                                                    •Best Practices
                                                    •Databases
                                                    •Softwares
                                                    •Global Links
                                                    •DECIDES
                                                    •Long-Distance
                                                    Education


                                   http://www.cepis.ops-oms.org
                                                          PAHO-2K
Pan American Health Organization




                                   PAHO-2K
Pan American Health Organization
    Current Occupation for Men by Hispanic Origin in the US
                            2000

                   Hispanic                                   Non-Hispanic White

                                                              17%                    19%
                                   22%
  29%
                                                         3%
                                                                                               9%

                                        15%             21%
  8%


          15%                     11%                                              31%


              Precision production                 Service          Managerial, professional
               Technical, sales                    Farming          Operators, laborers
                                                                                    PAHO-2K
 Source: Current Population Survey, March 2000, PGP-4
Pan American Health Organization

     Current Occupation for Women by Hispanic Origin in the
                            US 2000
                     Hispanic                                 Non-Hispanic White


          23%           16%                                   1% 5% 2%
                                                                                15%
     2%
                                        26%



                                                        42%

  38%                                                                                 35%
                                     18%

              Precision production                 Service     Managerial, professional
               Technical, sales                    Farming      Operators, laborers
                                                                              PAHO-2K
 Source: Current Population Survey, March 2000, PGP-4
           Percent Unemployed by Hispanic Origin
Pan American Health Organization


                  and Sex in the US 2000
 (Population 16 years and over in the labor force)

      10


       8                                                                 7.7
                  6.8
                                               6.2
       6


       4                    3.4                             3.6
                                                                                  3.3


       2


       0
                   Both Sexes                        Male                    Female

                                    Hispanic            Non-Hispanic White
                                                                                  PAHO-2K
 Source: Current Population Survey, March 2000, PGP-4
           Percent Unemployed by Hispanic Origin
Pan American Health Organization


                  and Sex in the US 2000
 (Population 16 years and over in the labor force)

      10


       8                                                                 7.7
                  6.8
                                               6.2
       6


       4                    3.4                             3.6
                                                                                  3.3


       2


       0
                   Both Sexes                        Male                    Female

                                    Hispanic            Non-Hispanic White
                                                                                  PAHO-2K
 Source: Current Population Survey, March 2000, PGP-4
Pan American Health Organization
  Percent Below Poverty Level in 1999 by Age and Hispanic
                     Origin in the US

      50


      40

                                    30.8
      30
               22.8
                                                                        20.4
      20                                                18.5


                                             9.4
      10                8                                      7.1               7.6


       0
                 All ages            Under 18            18 to 64       65 and over

                                   Hispanic        Non-Hispanic White
                                                                               PAHO-2K
 Source: Current Population Survey, March 2000, PGP-4
Pan American Health Organization



                       ECONOMIC BURDEN OSH

   180          171                                        170
                                                  154
   160
   140
   120
   100
    80                                     67
    60
    40                              33
    20
     0
               OSH                 AIDS   ALZH   CIRCUL   CANCER


NIOSH/CDC
                                                            PAHO-2K
Pan American Health Organization


                                    Unemployment
                                                   Homicides
             Occupational
               Cancer                               Suicides
                                                    Violence

    Reproductive                                         Alcoholism and
     Problems                                           Substance Abuse
                                     Social
  Occupational                                           Infectious
     Stress                         Injustice             Diseases


Musculoskeletal                    Syndrome              Poisoning
 Disorders

                                                      Accidents and Injuries
      Cardiovascular
        Diseases
                                                   Hearing Loss

                                     Respiratory
                                      Problems                    PAHO-2K

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:1
posted:10/27/2011
language:Spanish
pages:32