THE COLD WAR

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					THE COLD WAR
THE COLD WAR




  I. General
  UNITED NATIONS
an international peacekeeping
organization formed in 1945.
The goal was to help settle
disputes among member
nations, prevent wars from
starting and take actions to
end wars that did start.
   UNITED NATIONS



UN General
 Assembly

             UN Headquarters
             in New York City



                                UN Flag
Recovering from WWII
             COLD WAR
The competition between the
U.S. and the Soviet Union for
power and influence in the world
after WWII. Characterized by
political and economic conflict
along with military tension. It
was “cold” because there was no
direct military conflict between
the two nations.
COLD WAR
Start of the Cold War
  COMMUNISM                  1
political belief in complete
government control of land
and property, single-party
control of the political system,
lack of individual rights and a
call for worldwide revolution.
  COMMUNISM
Communism tends to take
root in poorer nations that
have not fully industrialized.
   SOVIET UNION
A union of countries under
one government that
included Russia, Ukraine,
Lituania, East Germany,
Romania and Bulgaria.
Soviet “Buffer Zone”
SOVIET UNION
     1957
   Sputnik I, the first satellite,
   was launched by the
   Soviet Union. It begins the
   Space Race.


The last remaining piece of Sputnik I on
display in the National Air and Space Museum.   Model of Sputnik I
Arms Race
THE COLD WAR
II. U.S. Response to
Soviet Aggression
  CONTAINMENT               1
a political policy of preventing
the spread of Communism.
American leaders believed
that communism would die out
on its own if it did not spread.
  CONTAINMENT
This would be the cornerstone
of American foreign policy for
over 50 years. Both the
Korean War and the Vietnam
War were a part of our
containment policy.
CONTAINMENT
   TRUMAN DOCTRINE (1947)
President Truman gave a speech in
Congress in which he said the U.S.
would take a leadership role in world
politics and pledged American
support for any country threatened
by communism.
  MARSHALL PLAN (1947)
a program of economic
assistance to help rebuild the
economies of western Europe
after WWII. By giving economic
aid, the U.S. could contain
communism, win allies, create
new democracies, and new
markets for American goods.
MARSHALL PLAN (1947)
MARSHALL PLAN (1947)
           NATO
Created in 1949, it
created an alliance
of nations that
banned together to
support each other
during wartime and
protect member
nations.
Germany after the WAR
BERLIN AIRLIFT               3
Germany remained divided into
four zones after WWII occupied
by England, France, U.S. and the
Soviet Union. In 1948, England,
France and the U.S. combined
their zones into a single
government (West Germany).
  BERLIN AIRLIFT        3
                      East
                    Germany
                     (Under
                   Communist
West Germany        Control)
 under unified
non-communist
    control


                   Capital: Berlin.
                     Also divided
                    into east and
                        west.
BERLIN AIRLIFT
The Soviet Union responded by
forming a communist nation
                                 2
(East Germany). Berlin, the
capital city was located in East
Germany, but it was divided in
half also with East Berlin being
under communist control. This
division symbolized the struggle
between the U.S. and the USSR.
    BERLIN AIRLIFT
                        2

West Berlin was       East Berlin
non-communist,        was under
   but it was         communist
  surrounded            control.
   entirely by
Soviet territory.
Nothing/Nobody
 went in or out      The Berlin
   over land.        Wall ran
                     through the
                     the center of
                     the city,
                     dividing east
                     from west.
BERLIN AIRLIFT
The Soviets banned all         1
shipments to and from West
Berlin, which caused a shortage
of supplies to the citizens of
West Berlin. They needed
supplies, but Truman did not
want to start another war.
Supplies were flown into West
Berlin instead.
BERLIN AIRLIFT
                 1
BERLIN AIRLIFT
The Berlin airlift moved over
13,000 tons of goods into West
Berlin daily for 15 months.
Eventually, the Soviets gave up
their blockade and allowed
shipments to the city through
East Germany.
Airlift and Marshall Plan
  NATIONAL DEFENSE
  SPENDING
spending on national defense,
which included new weapons
technology continually increased
during the Cold War. We felt it
necessary to be prepared to stop
Soviet aggression if called to do
so. MILITARY INDUSTRIAL
  THE KOREAN WAR               2
A short war between the U.S.,
North Korea and China broke out
when North Korea invaded South
Korea in 1950. After American
intervention, the North Korean
army dissipated, but intervention
by Communist China kept the
war going for several years.
THE KOREAN WAR   2
  THE KOREAN WAR               1
In the end, no land changed
hands and the country still
remains divided at the 38th
parallel with American troops
policing the border. The war
strained U.S.-Chinese diplomatic
relations for over 20 years.
Korean War
    THE KOREAN WAR
                                        1



                        The border
                        between N. and S.
 The DMZ—one of         Korea. Meetings
 the most fortified     between the two
borders in the world.   take place in the
                        blue buildings.
                        The tables cross
                        the border and
                        each side sits on
                        their own territory.
North Korea is THE KOREAN
still a          WAR
communist
nation and a
threat to world
peace; as far as
they are
concerned, the
                   Kim Jong Il—Dictator of North
war is not over.              Korea.
Korean War
THE VIETNAM WAR
Another war between the U.S.
and communist forces in
southeast Asia. We will discuss
this more later.

    The fall of Saigon: A North
   Vietnamese tank rolls into the
presidential palace in Saigon. (April
              30, 1975)
DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER
elected president in 1952,
Eisenhower continued the
policies of containment.
U-2 SPYPLANE INCIDENT
The U.S. had been spying on the
Soviets with spy planes. Ike
denied that the U.S. had any
such programs. Tensions
mounted when one of our U-2
spy planes crashed in Soviet
territory, and our pilot was
captured.
DISARMAMENT
Ike proposed that nuclear nations
disarm their weapons of mass
destruction and proposed a
system of mutual inspections to
ensure that all nations were
disarming. This never actually
happens as nobody was willing
to give up their weapons.
THE COLD WAR
III. THE SPACE RACE
SPUTNIK I (1957)
Sputnik was the first satellite
launched into orbit. It showed
that the U.S. no longer had the
upper hand in aeronautical
technology and started the space
race.
SPACE RACE
this was a race between the U.S.
and the Soviet Union to build
new technologies related to
space exploration and travel.
The Soviets had put the first
satellite in orbit, and we wanted
to be the first to put a human in
space or walk on the moon.
Space Race
  SPACE RACE




Yuri Gagarin—First Man in    John Glenn—First       Neil Armstrong—First man
         Space.             American to Orbit the     to walk on the moon.
                                  Earth.
National Aeronautics and
Space Administration (NASA)
an independent
agency created to
further space
exploration and
travel.
NATIONAL DEFENSE
EDUCATION ACT
To compete with the
communists, the govt.
approved more money
to improve schools and
required students to
complete more math
and science courses.
MILITARY SPENDING
During the Cold War, and
especially after the Korean War,
Americans realized the need for a
standing army during peacetime
and the need to continually
develop new weapons
technologies. As such, military
spending continually increased
during the Cold War era.
MILITARY SPENDING
THE COLD WAR
IV. DOMESTIC
POLITICS
ELECTION OF 1948
Harry Truman wins his own
term as President as a
strong cold warrior.



Truman holding an erroneous news     Truman in the Oval Office with
 headline after the 1948 election.    the “Buck Stops Here” sign.
Win for Truman
G.I. BILL
A law passed in 1944 to
help WWII veterans
purchase homes and pay
for college.
  General Agreement on Tariffs
  and Trade
Tried to encourage economic
development by limiting tariffs
to decrease the cost of
imported products.
Understanding McCarthy
MCCARTHYISM
Similar to the Red Scare, 1
Senator Joseph McCarthy
launched a campaign in the
1950s to expel all communists
from the U.S. Government
committees would falsely
accuse Americans of being
communist spies.
New Red Scare
MCCARTHYISM
McCarthy wanted to limit
freedom of the press and
speech to keep people from
even talking about
communism.


                 Senator Joseph McCarthy
Fear!!!!
22nd Amendment (1947)
Limits presidents to full
terms. No president can
serve more than 10 years
(2 terms, plus less than ½
of a predecessor’s
unfinished term).
THE COLD WAR
V. LIFE IN THE 1950s
PROSPERITY AGAIN            1
The 1950s were a period of
economic growth. Wages
increased. Minimum Wage
increased. Standard of living
was on the rise.
Unemployment rate
continually dropped.
PROSPERITY AGAIN
Homes, cars, furniture, and
new appliances all become
readily available. Largely due
to the amount of spending on
military and space-related
industries.
CONSUMERISM
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY SYSTEM
President Eisenhower wanted a
modern network of highways that
could be used to move military
men, supplies, and equipment
around the nation in the event of a
national catastrophe. The project
created over 150,000 jobs and
helped increase the economic
boom of the 1950s.
THE BABY BOOM
The uncertainty of war makes
people rush decisions that might
usually take longer to make, such
as having children. WWII
combined with the prosperity of the
50s caused a huge surge in the
number of births throughout the
late 40s and 50s. These people
are called the “Baby Boomers.”
THE BABY BOOM
Baby BOOM!
SUBURBS
With prosperity, more people
could afford homes in the
suburbs. Housing developments
on the outskirts of major cities
begin to develop.
CARS!!!!
Rock the Suburbs
 JONAS SALK
invents a vaccine for
Polio, a disease that
affected the nervous
system and left the victim
paralyzed. FDR was one
of the most prominent
Americans who had
suffered from Polio as a
child.
Salk to the Rescue
TELEVISION- CONSUMERISM
                         1
During the 1950s
televisions became
very affordable.
Popular shows like I
Love Lucy and the
Mickey Mouse Club
kept American families
glued to the TV.
TELEVISION
Advertisers could reach a
mass audience through
commercials during popular
programs. Government
officials could continue to
reach a large audience with
important announcements.
T.V. is Here!
COMPUTERS
The first computers
had been developed
during WWII, but
the invention of the
transistor allowed
computers to begin
their transformation
into the PC’s that
we use today.
Mind Your Manners…
THE 1960S
I. POLITICAL
PROGRAMS
THE NEW FRONTIER
 Kennedy’s social program to
 improve the economy, help
 the poor, and speed up the
 space race. Pushed tax cuts,
 increased minimum wage,
 and increased the Equal Pay
 Act’s protection.
THE GREAT SOCIETY
 LBJ’s social program to
 decrease poverty, spend more
 on education, improve
 healthcare, improve voting
 rights, increase conservation
 and beautification programs,
 increase urban renewal projects,
 and stimulate the economy.
MEDICARE (1965)
 provides hospital and low-
 cost medical insurance for
 most Americans 65 and
 older.
MEDICAID (1965)
 provides low-cost medical
 insurance for poor
 Americans at any age who
 could not afford their own
 private health insurance.
THE 1960S
III. COLD WAR CRISIS
The Kennedy Years

    1961-1963
     Kennedy’s Predecessors
   Harry S Truman, 1945-
    1953
    – Party: Democratic
    – Nickname: “Give „em Hell
      Harry”
    – “I fired MacArthur
      because he wouldn‟t
      respect the authority of
      the president. I didn‟t fire
      him because he was a
      dumb son of a b****,
      although he was, but
      that‟s not against
      generals. If it was, half to
      three-quarters of them
      would be in jail.”
Kennedy’s Predecessors

   Dwight D.
    Eisenhower,
    1953-1961
    – Party:
      Republican
    – Nickname: “Ike”
    – “I just won‟t get
      into a pissing
      contest with
      that skunk
      (referring to
The Election of 1960

John F. Kennedy             Richard M. Nixon
-Relatively                 -Experienced
  inexperienced                politician
-Born into a wealthy        -Ike‟s Vice President*
Family                      -Widely traveled and
-Young and                  Experienced with
                  *Eisenhower hesitated
  charismatic                  foreign
                  to endorse Nixon as the
                  Rep. nominee
-Catholic                   Policy
Audio from debate
THE ELECTION OF 1960
  Who wins?
Who looks better?
THE ELECTION OF 1960
Kennedy’s Challenges

   Khrushchev and the U.S.S.R.
    – Soviets had already shot down a U-2 spy
      plane while Ike was in office.
   Botched Bay of Pigs invasion in Cuba
   A stalled civil rights agenda but most
    importantly…
   The Cuban Missile Crisis- more on this
    tomorrow
The Kennedy “Mystique”

   Camelot
A New John F. Kennedy?
JFK Politics
1960-1963…
John F. Kennedy

   1917-1963
   Democrat who served as President
    from 1961-1963
   First Catholic President and the
    youngest President at the time.
   Born in Massachusetts
   Married Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy
    Onassis
   Had 3 children, one died days after his
John F. Kennedy
JFK administration
               Flexible response-
                the Green Berets.
               Peace Corps sends
                American volunteers
                to work for 2 years
                in developing
                countries
               Alliance for Progress
                gave $$ to Latin
                American countries
                in exchange for
                democratic reforms
The Kennedy’s
Jackie…
Caroline and John, Jr.
Bay of Pigs
   CIA plot to overthrow Castro.
   Ike had been looking at the options and JFK
    hated that there was a communist
    government 90 miles from the US.
   Invasion was planned for April of 1961.
   It was a disaster. “it made the US look like
    fools to our friends, rascals to our enemies,
    and incompetents to the rest.”
   JFK said that the CIA made the
    decision and so he vowed to take a
    more active role in foreign affairs.
Bay of Pigs Video
Fidel Castro
Missiles of October 1962

   August 22, 1962 JFK confirmed reports
    of Soviet techs and supplies arriving in
    Cuba
   October 14, Aerial surveillance revealed
    missiles in Cuba
   October 22, JFK addressed the nation on
    Soviet threat and announced a
    “quarantine” of Cuba
                           1962
Cuban Missile Crisis, The USSR
               October 23,
                
                    warned that US actions
                    could lead to a nuclear
                    war.
                   October 27, JFK
                    accepted Khrushchev‟s
                    proposal to end the
                    crisis: Soviets removed
                    the missiles and US
                    ended the blockade-
                    promising not to invade
                    Cuba.
                   October 28, Khrushchev
                    announced that weapons
                    would be returned to the
N. Khrushchev and the
concessions
               The US would
                remove all missiles
                from Turkey within
                6 months of the
                Soviets being out of
                Cuba.
               The missiles in
                Turkey were
                outdated and
                probably
                dysfunctional.
Outcomes…

LimitedNuclear
Test Ban Treaty
HOT   LINE direct
to the Kremlin!
FIDEL CASTRO
 Communist dictator of Cuba
 who had ties to the Soviet
 Union. He’s still the dictator
 of Cuba.
KENNEDY ASSASSINATION
 November 22, 1963, Kennedy
 was shot as his motorcade
 drove through downtown
 Dallas.
WARREN COMMISSION
 The panel appointed to
 investigate Kennedy’s murder.
 They eventually decided that
 Lee Harvey Oswald had acted
 alone when he shot Kennedy
 from the book depository
 building in Dallas.
JFK Assassination
Album
News Report JFK Dead
JFK Conspiracy Theories
From Oswald and
the Warren Commission to ???
Texas School Book
Depository
Lee Harvey Oswald acting
alone?
   Did work at the Texas School Book
    Depository
   Was trained to use the rifles found
   Had defected to the USSR
   Supported Castro‟s Cuba
   Warren Commission report in
    September 1964 states he acted
    alone.
Lee Harvey Oswald
Oswald Autopsy
The Warren Commission
Ignores…
   Gloss over of reports of         While autopsy was being
    witnesses from the front of       done at the Naval Hospital
    the motorcade was                 in Bethesda, FBI agents
    “echoes”                          took X-rays away from the
   Willis 12 photos of Dealey        doctors. They would have
    Plaza before the                  helped determine the
    shooting…the 8th shows a          trajectory of the bullets,
    pic of what seems to be           and thus, the shooter‟s
    Jack Ruby entering the            location.
    TSBD.                            Last minute change in the
                                      parade route- was the govt
                                      involved?
The Cubans

   Wanting revenge
    fro the Bay of Pigs
    and Cuban Missile
    Crisis- exiles were
    not consulted.
   Castro had him
    murdered.
K.G.B.

   Oswald was a
    KGB

   This theory
    would have
    caused
    Americans to
    demand war with
    the Soviet Union.
The Mafia
   Attorney General RFK took an aggressive
    stance against the Teamster‟s Union boss,
    Jimmy Hoffa, and other mafia members.
   The Mob had a Cuban connection.
   Jack Ruby- Oswald‟s shooter had
    connections with the mob in Chicago, New
    Orleans and Dallas.
   Hard to believe that the group could have
    kept such a big secret since 1963!
The C.I.A.

   JFK gave away Cuba
   JFK would give away Vietnam
   JFK fired Allen Dulles, CIA director,
    after the Bay of Pigs
   Helped with the Warren Commission
    “cover up”
   LBJ approved it
The Zero Game

 Fact of US History that since 1840,
  every President elected in a zero
  year died in office.
 The sole exception is Ronald
  Reagan- though there was an
  attempt to kill him.
 The current Bush was elected in
  2000- a zero year!
The Zero Game
The Zero Game…
Multiple Shooters!

2  shooters
 3 shooters

 4 shooters

 6 shooters- some to shoot
  the shooter!
Coincidences!
   Lincoln was elected      JFK elected in
    in 1860                   1960
   L successor Andrew       JFK successor- LBJ
    Johnson was born          was born in 1908
    in 1808
                             Lee Harvey
   John Wilkes Booth         Oswald was born
    was born in 1839
                              in 1939
   L secretary was
    called Kennedy           JFK secretary was
                              called Lincoln
Coincidences
   Both were concerned with Civil Rights
   Booth/ Oswald were Southerners favoring
    unpopular ideas
   Lincoln/ Kennedy have 7 letters
   AJ/ LBJ have 13 letters
   JWB/ LHO have 15 letters
   Both Killed on a Friday
   Both Killed in presence of their wives
   Both shot from behind and in the head
   Both assassins were killed before trial
   Both successors had surname of Johnson

				
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