Feeder Design for Iron
Using the SOLIDCast Cast Iron Property ®
Version 1.1 Metric Units
Design of feeders for Grey Iron and
Ductile Iron castings involves one
primary consideration above all else:
Control of Expansion Pressure
This means allowing feeder necks to
remain open long enough to feed
liquid shrinkage, but ensuring that
they freeze in time to pressurize the
casting during expansion and avoid
formation of shrinkage porosity.
The solidification of iron castings
(ductile, or nodular, iron and gray
iron) is unique among cast metals,
due to the precipitation of graphite as
the iron solidifies. The graphite
takes various forms depending on
the type of iron. For example, in
ductile iron (nodular iron), the
graphite is primarily spheroidal,
which gives the iron its characteristic
ductility since the spheroids tend to
reduce localized stresses under load.
While in grey iron, the graphite tends
to be in the shape of flakes, which
results in gray iron’s great
compressive stress but relatively low
And in compacted graphite iron, the
structure and properties tend to be
The precipitation of graphite during
solidification causes some expansion to
occur, because the graphite is much less
dense than the surrounding iron.
Therefore, we have several forces at work.
The liquid iron tends to contract as do
almost all liquids when cooled. During
solidification, the austenitic iron also
contracts as do most metals upon
solidification. However, the precipitating
graphite causes an expansion pressure
which can be used to our advantage if the
feeding system is properly designed.
No matter which type of cast iron we
are pouring, the secret of good
design is to provide a feeding system
to compensate for the liquid
shrinkage and then allow the
expansion (due to carbon
precipitation) to provide enough
pressure to produce a sound casting.
There are some differences in
expansion pressure between ductile
iron and grey iron as shown in the
Regardless of the type of iron casting
we are designing, there are a set of
basic procedures that can be
followed which will help us to ensure
high-quality, sound iron castings,
using the SOLIDCast Simulation
System. These procedures will help
to minimize the number of sample
castings required, reduce lead times
to get into production, and result in
consistent-quality castings which will
make our customers happy and our
foundry more profitable.
To begin analyzing a casting in
SOLIDCast for the purpose of feeder
design, we initially run a simulation
of just the casting, surrounded by
mold material, without gates or
We then run the SOLIDCast Riser
Design Wizard and select "Calculate
and Display Casting Modulus" to
find out the maximum modulus of the
We next run the SOLIDCast Cast Iron
Property Calculator program to
calculate the Shrinkage Time (ST)
and net Percent Expansion (+) or
Contraction (-) of the iron based on
chemistry, modulus and temperature
in the mold. This is based on the
VDG Nomograms for iron properties.
This gives us the net expansion of
the iron considering only the metal,
without taking into account the
dilation of the mold. For actual
feeding requirement, we must
estimate mold dilation which might
vary from less than 0.5% for
chemically-bonded molds to more
than 2% for loose green sand molds.
Rule: Recommended practice would
be to use a "hot" feeder, i.e., to gate
into the feeder if using a side feeder
so that the amount of heat in the
feeder, and its ability to provide feed
metal, is maximized. For top feeders,
since it is difficult to gate into these,
we would typically recommend a
sleeve (either exothermic or
insulating) to retain the heat.
The proportion of liquid metal that can be
supplied by a feeder can be estimated by
knowing its condition. For example, a hot
side feeder can typically provide about 20% of
its metal for feeding, while a typical cold
feeder might provide around 14% of its metal.
A sleeved feeder can provide anywhere from
33% to 35% depending on its condition.
Exothermic minifeeders have been known to
provide up to 70% of their metal for feeding.
The formula relating the available volume of
metal in a feeder to the volume of the casting
can be expressed as:
Vc * S
Vf = ______
(Where Vf = Feeder Volume, Vc = Casting Volume, S = Feeding
Requirement (including Mold Dilation), and x = Proportion of Liquid
Metal Removed from Feeder)
and from this the diameter of the feeder can
be calculated if an assumption of feeder
Height:Diameter is made.
The feeder neck should be sized so that its modulus
guarantees that it will freeze at the point that the
liquid shrinkage is done and any subsequent
expansion will be controlled and contained within
the casting to prevent shrinkage porosity formation.
This can be accomplished by using the following
Mn = ST/100 * Mc
Where Mn = Modulus of the Neck, ST = Shrinkage
Time, and Mc = Modulus of the Casting.
Also, in order for the feeder to provide sufficient
liquid melt during the shrinkage period, its modulus
should be 20% greater than the neck modulus, which
means the feeder size should satisfy the equation:
Mr = 1.2 Mn
or Mr = 1.2 ST/100 Mc
So that if the feeder is sized to satisfy the liquid
feeding requirement but it does not satisfy this
modulus requirement, its size must be increased to
satisfy this modulus requirement.
If the feeder is close enough to the casting so
that mold heatup between the casting and
feeder can be taken into account, the required
modulus of the neck can be reduced by
multiplying by a factor of 0.6.
Rule: In order to be considered a short neck,
the distance between the casting and the
feeder should be less than the minimum
dimension of the feeder neck.
How many feeders are required for a casting?
Rule: Only one feeder should be used for
each feed zone within a casting. Feed zones
can be visualized by plotting the neck
modulus, also called the Transfer Modulus. If
more than one feeder is used for a single
feeding zone, in almost all cases only one of
the feeders will pipe and the other feeder(s)
will not pipe but will create a thermal hot spot
underneath at which some shrinkage porosity
will be likely to appear.
Two feeders, only one
In every case, each
casting has two
feeders and only one
Two feeders, one
This feeder piped.
This feeder piped.
SOLIDCast uses the THERMAL MODULUS to
calculate the location and extent of feeding
zones within the casting. This is superior to
the traditional measure of Volume:Surface
Area Ratio, as it is able to take into account
heat saturation of mold and core pockets as
well as heat extraction by chills and, if
desired, temperature distribution due to
The SOLIDCast Cast Iron Feeder Design
Program assumes that side feeders are
cylindrical with a hemispherical bottom, while
top feeders are cylindrical in shape.
Rule: The tops of the feeders should be
above the highest point of the casting for
gray and ductile iron casting, by at least the
minimum section thickness.
Gating should be designed to freeze relatively
quickly after the liquid metal has filled the
mold cavity. In general, this means that the
gate attachment to the casting should have a
5:1 ratio of width to height to ensure relatively
quick freezing so that expansion pressure
can be contained. Remember, Control of
Expansion Pressure is our ultimate goal in
feeding cast iron.
t = √A/5
t = √A/3
All of these calculations can be performed
quickly and easily in
As an example, consider the task of
designing a feeding system for the following
ductile iron casting.
This is the basic casting shape as imported
from a CAD system in SOLIDCast.
Ductile Iron is selected as
the Casting Material from
the SOLIDCast database.
The casting is meshed with
no feeders or gates, so that
a “thermal” simulation can
be run for calculation of the
Modulus of the casting.
Once the thermal simulation
is complete, the SOLIDCast
Riser Design Wizard is
… and the user instructs the
Wizard to calculate and
display the Casting
The Iso-Surface Plot is
… and from the Iso-Surface
Plot Menu, we can read that
the maximum Modulus of
this casting is about 1.191
cm. At this point, this is all
the information we need
from the Wizard, so we can
just press Cancel to avoid
making the plot at this time.
Another item of information
we’ll need is the weight of
the casting. This can be
easily obtained by selecting
Mesh… Weights from the
main menu. Here we can
see that the casting weighs
Now we are ready to calculate the properties
of the iron, and the required feeder size.
From the main menu, we
select Tools… Iron Property
Here we enter the
Here we enter the casting Modulus as
Carbon, Silicon and previously calculated
Phosphorus content by the Wizard.
of the iron.
And here we enter an
estimate of the
temperature of the
metal in the mold.
Clicking the Calculate Iron Properties button causes the system to
display the Shrinkage Time (ST) in terms of % Solid, and the net
amount of Expansion (+) or Contraction (-) which occurs up to that
Shrinkage Time. This is the quality of the iron without considering
Now that we have the properties of the iron
calculated, we can design a feeder for this
First, we enter the
casting weight as
by the system in the
Next, we select the
expected amount of
mold dilation. This can
be anywhere from less
than 0.5% for a very
rigid mold to more than
2% for a loose green
sand mold. Here we’ve
selected 1% for a well-
made sand mold.
The next item to select
is sleeve type. You can
select either a sand
feeder (no sleeve), an
You can also select
whether the casting is
gated through the
feeder. The proportion
of liquid metal removed
from the feeder is
Next we select the ratio
of Height to Diameter
that we want to use for
the feeder design.
Finally, we have the
option to select either a
Top or Side Feeder.
Here we have selected
a Side Feeder.
Now, pressing the Calculate
button will display the required
feeder and neck size, as well
as the Modulus of the neck
and the feeder. Note that the
Neck Modulus is also referred
to as the Transfer Modulus
and can be used to indicate
how many feeding zones (and
now many required feeders)
there are for this casting.
Notice that by selecting the
Short Neck option and
repressing the Calculate
button, we can calculate a
neck size for a feeder which is
very close to the casting
(closer than the minimum
dimension of the neck).
Now by plotting the Transfer Modulus in an X-Ray
View (Iso-Surface Plot) we can see that the entire
casting is one feeding zone, so only one feeder is
required for this casting.
Another image of the Transfer Modulus, using
CastPic plotting, also shows one zone which means
one feeder is required for this casting.
A more traditional Modulus calculation using
Volume/Surface Area Ratio would have indicated two
separate feeding areas, one in the central hub and
one around the outer rim as shown here. Why is
there a difference?
This cross-sectional view through the casting and mold shows
temperature. You can see that the mold material becomes saturated
with heat in the “pocket” areas between the inner hub and the outer rim,
which keeps the thinner sections hot. This effect would not be captured
by performing the old-fashioned Volume/Surface Area Modulus
calculations, but is automatically taken into account when performing
the Thermal Modulus function within SOLIDCast, because thermal
effects in the mold are simulated.
Now that we have the feeder and neck dimensioned, we also need to
dimension the sprue, runner and gate, as well as estimate a fill time.
The SOLIDCast Gating Wizard calculates an Optimal Fill Time of about
13 seconds for this casting (assuming a single casting).
And by describing the geometry of our proposed
The Wizard calculates for us a sprue diameter of about 15 mm.
And an inlet gate of about 6 mm X 29 mm, which should ensure
that the gate freezes quickly for control of expansion pressure.
Now we can use all of the calculated
dimensions to create a simple system for
gating and feeding this casting, which would
appear as follows:
The complete model: Casting, Neck,
Feeder, Gate and Sprue
We use the results of the Cast Iron
Calculation Utility Program to adjust the
shrinkage curve parameters for the exact
conditions of this iron chemistry, temperature
and modulus value.
Shrinkage Time of 63%, amount Add expansion of approximately
of shrinkage = -1.77% minus Mold 0.5% per 10% solidification.
Dilation of 1% for a total shrinkage
Set CFS Point approx.
5% to the right of the
Using FLOWCast, we first perform a filling
simulation of the casting, pouring metal down
the sprue, through the gate and feeder and
into the casting cavity.
Finally, we use SOLIDCast to perform a
simulation of the solidification of the casting
and to predict the soundness of the final part.
Shrinkage Prediction: X-Ray View
The Final Result
A sound casting, correctly designed using the
SOLIDCast Feeder and Gating Design tools,
and verified using SOLIDCast and FLOWCast