LINGUA INGLESE III S.C.I by panniuniu

VIEWS: 20 PAGES: 23

									    Speaking is more than informing
        about facts, more than
            statements ….


‘Talking is forming relations with others…it’s doing things
with words ‘ ( Austin )
             What are SPEECH
                 ACTS…?

         Are they different ? Why ?

 I’d like to congratulate everyone involved

  in making the show such a success


 I’m attending a language course

 You’re fired !
….there are utterances, statements that
 are not intended to record or impart
 information about facts.

 ….In these utterances the saying of words
 constitutes the performing of an action…
 …in saying ‘I apologise’ the speaker is not
 describing what he is doing, nor stating
 that s/he is doing it, but s/he’s actually
 performing the action of apologising.

 Performative utterances / Speech Acts
  Performative verbs
     SPEECH ACTS….How to do things with
    words… Words are in themselves actions
                  ( Austin )

Could you performe the following actions by
   either speaking or physical gesture ?

a. Congratulate someone

b. Call someone’s attention to the television set

c. Forbid someone to enter a room
             PERFORMATIVE VERBS
                 ( Formality & Emphasis )

1. I apologise
2. I’m sorry

1. I assure you , I did send in the application on time
2. I did send in the application on time

1. I swear I love you
2. I love you


Performative utterances =
Can express a higher level of formality/ emphasis
        SPEECH ACTS…some more


1. I PROMISE NOT TO BE LATE
2. I BET YOU £5 IT WILL RAIN
3. I THANK THE AUDIENCE FOR ….
4. I VOTE TO ABOLISH VIVISECTION
5. WE REMIND YOU THAT ALL LIBRARY
   BOOKS ARE DUE TO BE RETURNED BY…
6. I DENY…
7. I SENTENCE YOU TO TEN YEARS’….
8. I PRONOUNCE YOU MAN AND WIFE
           Further Development…


to the skater : ‘the ice over there is thin’!

no performative verbs, but.. it works as a warning



   Austin asserts that in saying anything ,
   one is performing some kind of action,
  ALL UTTERANCES ARE PERFORMATIVE
                  ( M. Coulthard )
focus is on the communicative
 purpose, on function,..on the
     speaker’s intention

  …that’s the very heart of
       communication
       THREE DIFFERENT LEVELS


     WHAT LEVELS ?


1.   He said to me ‘kiss her’
2. He urged ( advised ) me to kiss her
3. He persuaded me to kiss her
 LOCUTION      = Uttering/producing a meaningful linguistic
                  form        meaning

 ILLOCUTION = The Communicative Function of the
               speaker’s utterance / peaker’s intention
               force / context

 PERLOCUTION=the effect of the speaker’s utterance on
              the listener

e.g. IT’S HOT IN HERE
      Locution
     Illocution ( ..I want some fresh air )
     Perlocution ( …the listener opens the window )



One usually performs all the three simultaneously
                         Example


A woman to G.B. Shaw : ‘I’ll be at home at 9.00’

G.B.Shaw : ‘So will I‘


  Locution : the words uttered

  Illocution : Inviting / declining invitation

  Perlocution : ……
- locutionary act            - proposition
- illocutionary acts         -function indicating device
  (Austin )                   ( Searle )



      Example - What ‘function..’ / illocutionary force/
                  communicative purpose do they have ?
  •    Will John leave the room ?
  •    John will leave the room
  •    John, leave the room!
  •    If John will leave the room I will leave too
            SEARLE’S CLASSIFICATION
          Functions performed by speech acts


     DECLARATIONS
    Speech acts that change the situation,the
    condition/status of an object, the speaker has an
    institutional role
    ( e.g. Referee : you’re out! )


    REPRESENTATIVES
Referring to the speaker’s         beliefs, e.g. describing,
claiming, hypothesising, insisting, predicting , etc.
 ( e.g. It was a warm sunny day )
               SEARLE’S CLASSIFICATION
             Functions performed by speech acts

  COMMISSIVES
 • Speech acts that commit the speaker to future
    actions , e.g. promising , threatening, refusing,
    offering, vowing, volunteering, etc.
   ( e.g. I’ll be back in a minute! We won’t do that )

   DIRECTIVES
Speech acts meant to make the hearer do something,e.g commanding,
requesting, inviting, forbidding, suggesting, etc.
( e.g. Gimme a cup of coffee. Make it black
     Could you lend me a pen, please ? )
         SEARLE’S CLASSIFICATION
         Functions performed by speech acts


    EXPRESSIVES
  Speech acts that state what the speaker
  feels, his/her attitudes e.g. apologising,
  praising, deploring, regretting,congratulating ,
  etc.

(e.g. I’m really sorry !
     Congratulations !     )
      Practice : Which is… which ?
What speech act class do they belong to ?



          1. I now pronounce you husband and wife
           2. Don’t Touch that !
           3.We find the defendant guilty
           4. It was a warm sunny day
           5. I’m going to get it right next time
           6.Oh, yes, great !
What we mean is actually not so much in
  the words themselves, but in the
        meaning implied ..   Searle




      Speaker’s intention – Austin

   Listener’s interpretation - Searle
      DIRECT     vs   INDIRECT SPEECH ACTS


 DIRECT SPEECH ACT
  Communicating the literal meaning.
  Direct Relationship between form / function


 INDIRECT SPEECH ACTS
 - Communicating an underlying pragmatic meaning
   different from the apparent surface meaning.
 - Form and functions are not directly related.
 - Politeness
                „IT‟S CLOUDY… „
                         =
1. I tell you about the weather   (Direct speech act )

2. Why don’t you take your umbrella? ( Indirect… )



  Thank you for not smoking

  Would you open this ?
Identify both the direct and the indirect act



1.   A student to another :
      “Someone‟s eaten all the ice-cream ! ”

2.   Someone in a mask to a bank casher:
      “I‟ve got a gun”

3.   You have been offended and reply :
     “You’re an idiot”

4. You say this to someone at the table sitting
    near the salt:
   “I need the salt”
       Identify direct and indirect act

1.Customer at a railway ticket-office window
  I'd like a day return to Galway.

2. Travel agent to customer
   Why not think about Spain for this summer?

3. Customer to barman
   I'll have the usual
4. Mother to child coming in from school
   I bet you're hungry

5. Bank manager to applicant for an overdraft
   We regret that we are unable to accede to your
   request.
PRACTICE
 1. Boss Under cover ? This isn’t your private army. Is she OK ?
 2. Dalziel She is good (0.5) In fact she spent half her childhood
            on a horse
 3. Boss   How do I know you’re lying to me , Andy ?
 4. Dalziel Look, we’ve even given her a full story; set up a
 5.         liaison point. Visitors often go on a ride with another
 6.         hunt. They come for a few days, stay at a local pub,
 7.         borrow a horse. And since hunting is about drinking
 8.         as much as it is riding, it shouldn’t be long before
 9.         someone becomes indiscreet (0.5 )
 10.Boss   All right. But don’t upset the locals. Hounsden is a
 11.       nice village
 12.Dalziel Pity it’s not a bunch of miners -then we could have
            done what we liked ( 1 )
 13.Boss   Watch it superintendent! I’m not asking you to kow-
            tow to the gentry . I’m telling you to go by the book
           ( 0.5 ) You see I know how you work
( http://www.bbc.co.uk/drama/dalziel/ )

								
To top