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El Alfabeto y La Fonética

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					                            El Alfabeto y La Fonética
                   (The Spanish Alphabet and Spanish Phonics)


                                                               La Fonética (Phonics)
La Letra           El Alfabeto (Alphabet)
                                                          The Sound the Letter Makes/
(Letter)          How to “Spell” the Letter
                                                            How to “Read” the Letter
           English ―short a‖ sound = Ah! = a cold   English ―short a‖ sound = Ah! = a cold
   A
           glass of water on a hot day              glass of water on a hot day
                                                    Same sound as in English but pronounce
   B       be (pronounced ―bay‖)
                                                    extra hard
                                                     When it comes before an ―a,‖ ―o,‖ ―u‖
                                                        or a consonant, pronounce hard like in
   C       ce (pronounced ―say‖)                        the English word ―cat.‖
                                                     When it comes before an ―e‖ or an ―i,‖
                                                        pronounce soft like an English ―s.‖
                                                     Same sound as in the English word
                                                        ―church‖
  CH       che (pronounced ―chay‖)
                                                     The only time the Spanish ―h‖ is not
                                                        silent is when it follows a ―c.‖
                                                     When it is the first letter of a word,
                                                        same sound as in English.
   D       de (pronounced ―day‖)
                                                     When it comes anywhere else in a
                                                        word, pronounce like a soft ―th.‖
           English ―long a‖ sound = Ay! = ―Ay Bay English ―long a‖ sound = Ay! = ―Ay Bay
   E
           Bay!‖ song by Hurricane Chris            Bay!‖ song by Hurricane Chris
   F       efe (pronounced ―ĕfay‖)                  Same sound as in English
                                                     When it comes before an ―a,‖ ―o,‖ ―u‖
                                                        or a consonant, pronounce hard like in
   G       ge (pronounced ―hay‖)                        the English word ―goat.‖
                                                     When it comes before an ―e‖ or an ―i,‖
                                                        pronounce soft like an English ―h.‖
   H       hache (pronounced ―ăchay‖)               Silent
           English ―long e‖ sound = Eek! = what you English ―long e‖ sound = Eek! = what you
   I       would scream if a mouse ran in front of  would scream if a mouse ran in front of
           you                                      you
   J       jota (pronounced ―hōtă‖)                 Pronounce like an English ―h‖
  K        Ka                                       Same sound as in English
   L       ele (pronounced ―ĕlay‖)                  Same sound as in English
  LL       elle (pronounced ―āyay‖)                 Pronounce like an English ―y‖
  M        eme (pronounced ―ĕmay‖)                  Same sound as in English
  N        ene (pronounced ―ĕnay‖)                  Same sound as in English
                                                    Pronounce like an English ―ny‖ like in the
   Ñ       eñe (pronounced ―ĕnyay‖)
                                                    English word ―canyon‖
           English ―long o‖ sound = Oh! = sound     English ―long o‖ sound = Oh! = sound
   O
           you make when you learn something new you make when you learn something new
  P        pe (pronounced ―pay‖)                     Same sound as in English
 Q         cu (pronounced ―coo‖)                     Same sound as in English
 R         ere (pronounced ―ĕray‖)                   Same sound as in English
 RR        erre (pronounced ―ĕrray‖)                 Roll tongue extra hard
  S        ese (pronounced ―ĕsay‖)                   Same sound as in English
                                                      When it is the first letter of a word,
                                                        same sound as in English.
  T        te (pronounced ―tay‖)
                                                      When it comes anywhere else in a
                                                        word, pronounce like a soft ―th.‖
           Ooh! = sound you make when you see        Ooh! = sound you make when you see
  U        something cool and sound that the 2 o’s   something cool and sound the the 2 o’s
           make in the word ―Boo!‖                   make in the word ―Boo!‖
  V        ve (pronounced ―vay‖)                     Pronounce like a soft English ―b‖
  W        doble ve (pronounced ―dōblay vay‖)        Same sound as in English
                                                      99% of the time, same sound as in
                                                        English.
                                                      1% of the time, pronounce like an
                                                        English ―h.‖
  X        equis (pronounced ―ĕkeys‖)
                                                            o México (country)
                                                            o Oaxaca (state in México)
                                                            o Texas (U.S. state)
                                                            o Xavier (boy’s name)
                                                      When part of a word, same sound as in
                                                        English.
  Y        i griega (pronounced ―ē grēaygă‖)
                                                      When by itself, pronounce like an
                                                        English ―long e‖ and it means ―and.‖
  Z        zeta (pronounced ―sĕtă‖)                  Pronounce like an English ―s‖


Los Diptongos (Diphthongs)
   1. 2 vowels right next to each other in a word.
   2. Both vowels are trying to make their own sounds.
   3. The 2 sounds muffle each other/blend together.


Las Combinaciones Especiales (Special Combinations)
3-letter combinations. The ―u‖ is silent.
    • que—pronounced like the English letter ―k‖
            – Qué means ―what.‖
            – Que means ―that.‖
    • qui—pronounced like the English word ―key‖
    • gue—pronounced like the English word ―gay‖
    • gui—pronounced ―gee‖


Accents and Accent Marks
   • All words have an accent =
          – The syllable that you emphasize
          – Where you lift your voice/chest
   •   Most words do NOT have an accent mark (‫.)׳‬
   •   Accents and accents marks are only on vowels.


Accent Rules
   1. If a word ends in a vowel, ―n‖ or ―s,‖ the accent (where you lift your voice/chest) is on
      the second to last syllable.

   2. If a word ends in any other consonant, the accent (where you lift your voice/chest) is on
      the last syllable.


Reasons for Accent Marks
A word will have a written accent mark (‫ )׳‬if:
   1. It breaks the rules.
   2. A diphthong is broken.
   3. It has more than 1 meaning.
   4. It is a question word (e.g. who, what, why).

				
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posted:10/26/2011
language:Galician
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