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Reducing accident response time using wireless communication

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Reducing accident response time using wireless communication Powered By Docstoc
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                              E-CALL
                                     A CALL BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH




ABSTRACT:
               The communication says not only that something has happened but also
how serious the accident is and gives the location of the vehicle involved in the accident.
In the event of an accident, the on-board e-Call device transmits an emergency call to the
most appropriate public service answering point (PSAP) along with certain vehicle-
related data (notably the vehicle's precise location). Actually it works either with the
human intervention or even without it. , there will also always be a voice connection
between the vehicle and the rescue centre in addition to the data link

                    Imagine you had a serious accident and no one saw it or even worse:
no one is there. What do you do if you are injured or trapped in the vehicle on a lightly
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traveled country road and need help? Then this technology will help you and save your
life. In the event of an accident, these systems immediately transmit an emergency call to
the local rescue service either manually or no manually (on its own). The communication
says not only that something has happened but also how serious the accident is and gives
the location of the vehicle involved in the accident



CONTENTS:
   1)   NEED TO REDUCE THE ACCIDENT RESPONSE TIME
   2)   HARD WARES REQUIRED
   3)   PRINCIPLE
   4)   WORKING
   5)   ADVANTAGES


NEED TO REDUCE THE ACCIDENT RESPONSE TIME:

                         Over 100,000 die in Indian road accidents in a year. India has the
world’s highest number of road accident deaths, and it is steadily climbing every
year. The World Road Statistics 2006, which provides the data for the year 2003 in
respect of India, indicates that the number of persons killed per lakh of population in
India is 8.08 .The number of deaths due to road accident is estimated at more than a lakh
(1, 01,439) during the year 2006 as compared to the figure of 94,968 deaths for the year
2005. In these accidents many occur at highway, Most of the fatalities occur soon after
the accident. Statistics says that 30 percent of deaths occur within minutes of the crash.
Fifty percent occur before the victim arrives at a hospital. Fully 70 deaths occur within
two hours of a crash. Reducing medical response time to one minute would translate into
saving approximately 30,000 lives per year. It also reduces severity of survivors' injuries,
shortening their recovery time and decreasing their medical costs.




HARDWARES REQUIRED:

   1) Tri-axial accelerometer: A sensor measures acceleration and deceleration
      forces in all three planes to determine the force of a crash.
   2) Seat weight sensors: Determine which seats are occupied.
   3) Safety belt sensors: Determine which safety belts are buckled.

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  4) Air bag sensors: Determine which air bags, if any, were deployed and at what
      force.
  5) GPS receiver: Determines direction of travel and the vehicle's precise location.
  6) CMOS camera: Located in the dome light, it captures a single image of the
      vehicle interior after a crash incident.
  7) Flash memory: Records the 200 ms duration of the crash pulse, including 50 ms
      of pre-crash data.
  8) On-board microprocessor: Compiles data to compute an accurate portrayal of
      the incident.
  9) Onboard communications: Data is transmitted to the vehicle owner's cellular
      phone through a short range communications system that uses a radio transceiver
      built into tiny microchips. It allows a high transfer rate of secure data, even in
      noisy environments, with low power consumption.
  10) Cellular phone: Automatically calls emergency rescue authorities and
      transmits vital crash data via cellular modem.
  11) Power supply: An independent source assures that all components of the
      Rescue Car system can function if the vehicle's main battery is damaged in the
      crash.
PRINCIPLE:
             Actually it works either with the human intervention or even without it.
By pushing a button in the car, the call to the emergency centre can also be made
manually. In either case, be it made manually or automatically, there will also always be
a voice connection between the vehicle and the rescue centre in addition to the data link.
Thus, further details on the accident can be given if anybody in the car is capable of
speaking and answering questions




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In the event of an accident, the on-board e-Call device transmits an emergency call to the
most appropriate public service answering point (PSAP) along with certain vehicle-
related data (notably the vehicle's precise location). The emergency call can be triggered
either manually by the occupants of the vehicle or automatically, in the event of a serious
accident, thanks to sensors installed in the vehicle.

WORKING:

                 When in the event of an accident a car senses a major impact, its e-Call
device automatically calls the nearest emergency centre (Public Safety Answering Point –
PSAP). For the calls to work all over the European Union, the single European
emergency number 112 is used. The car transmits a so-called minimum set of data. The
exact geographic location of the crashed car is part of the set. The fact that the rescue
services immediately get the accurate location data drastically cuts their response time:
the ambulance, to pick an example, will be on the spot much quicker. By pushing a
button in the car, the call to the emergency centre can also be made manually. In either
case, be it made manually or automatically, there will also always be a voice connection
between the vehicle and the rescue centre in addition to the data link. Thus, further details
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on the accident can be given if anybody in the car is capable of speaking and answering
questions. The message sent within the emergency call contains a minimum data set
(MDS): location, speed, driving direction, vehicle type, cargo type and a vehicle terminal
identifier. The terminal can send a larger set of data via mobile data connection (e.g.
GPRS) to a service centre, which is able to reroute the full data set (FDS) to the PSAP.



1. Vehicle to PSAP communications are implemented using
existing communications technologies, networks and standards




TYPES OF SENDING MDS:

1. DTMF –messaging: Short description
DTMF (Dual Tone Multi Frequency) is a technology used for delivering short messages
from a telephone to a receiving service or a mobile services switching centre. DTMF is
used in various telephony services (”Dial 1 if you wish to contact help desk”, “please
type in your PIN code”). DTMF is delivered in signaling channel from a GSM-terminal
to a mobile services switching centre, thus making it extremely reliable messaging within
a GSM network. DTMF is already implemented and available in all GSM networks and
thus does not require new standardization or technology. It is also supported in all current
fixed-line networks. This makes using DTMF for e-Call cost-efficient and quick to
implement EU-wide.

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2. UUS-messaging: Short description
An ISDN value-added service UUS (User to user signaling) enables a two-directional
limited length message (UUI) delivery from a terminal to another during call setup and
voice call. UUS is standardized for both digital fixed networks and GSM. UUS service
has not been implemented in all EU member states though most terminal devices and
network equipment have built-in support for it. The main reasons have been the lack of
commercial need and fear of fraudulent use. The current GSM standards for emergency
call setup message do not include a UUI field, so implementing UUS for e-Call requires
altering current GSM standards.
 Implementation requires telecom operators investing in telecommunications network
infrastructure.

3. USSD-messaging: Short description
USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) is used for delivering short messages
from the mobile terminal to mobile network servers. It is only in mobile networks. Using
USSD in MDS messaging would require defining a new server in the mobile network to
handle the messages and route them via fixed network to the PSAP. Standardization of
the service would be required before USSD could be used in implementing e-Call.
Investments in the network would also be required. It will take several years.

An overview of characteristics of each technology is presented in the following table.




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MDS-message should contain only the essential data required by the PSAP to locate the
vehicle and efficiently manage the emergency response. Direct, real-time message (MSD)
PSAP operator receiving the 112 voice call including Time of incident ,Exact location
including direction of driving Vehicle identification e-Call qualifier giving the severity of
the incident (currently automatic/manual) Identification of service provider. Also this type of
e-call also has options such as voice call, sms as alarming mediums. As both of them are used
predominantly now-a-days, their respective advantages are given below

1. Voice call as an Alarm Medium: The advantage of an accident message via voice
call is that it’s not necessary to have a SIM-Card installed for emergency call to the
emergency number. Originating from the current technical structure of the emergency centers
a system would be required, which initiates a voice call to emergency number and advises the
coordinates of the accident using a voice processor. A web database with connection to a map
server would enable the emergency centre clarify the identity of the owner as well as the cars
position. But on the other hand, if a voice call, an accident with a significant physical damage
of the car, could be guaranteed. In addition to that, a system like that will be unsuitable for
other services like theft tracking, breakdown serve, etc.

2. SMS as an Alarm Medium: For transmitting a SMS-Message it’s necessary to
have SIM-Card installed. As a consequence the provider has to be refunded by a basic fee or
other ways of revenue. The advantage of SMS is that you need less GSM reception than for a
voice call. Furthermore it is rather ensured, that the alarm can be sent, in consideration of
damaging of the vehicle caused by an accident. In addition this way of transmitting enables
the integration of external operation centers at this stage.




Thus the figure shows that in both the ways the efficiency of communication is almost
same, so we can go for any of them regarding our requirements. The e-Call-system is
designed so that additional data will be sent through the service centre in FDS-message.
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2. Detection and operation of e-call devices inside the vehicle
using sensors and equipment & steps of detection




Steps involved in detection of accident:

1. Pre-certification
    By making this mandatory for all vehicles and certifying them with specific codes it
will be much easier to detect the identity of affected persons and in informing the news to
their family members.
It is applicable if the following terminal interface specifications are made mandatory
i. Antennas, external sensors, vehicle bus
ii. Vehicle installation matrix

2. Application tests
   The following tests are made in the real time to estimate the occurrence, intensity of
the accident and details regarding it. These tests are related sensors that are attached to
safety apparatus of a vehicle. They detect the impact and estimate the severity of the
accident.
i. Manual initialization of the e-Call function doesn’t depend on any sensors but will be
invoked by the persons in vehicle.

ii. Automatic initialization of the e-Call function happens in relation of occurring of any
of the tests mentioned below
a. Airbag detection
b. Rear impact detection
c. Side impact detection
d. Frontal impact detection

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e. Rollover detection
f. Temperature rise (fire) detection

3. Environmental tests
Also the automatic initialization of e-call will happen also in case of detection of any of
the following conditions:
a. High ambient temperature
b. Low ambient temperature
c. Loss of external power source
d. Impact resistance
e. Vibration resistance
f. Temperature and humidity cycling
g. Mobile data services not available

ADVANTAGES:
                 E-Call will make a large contribution by reducing the number of fatalities
and mitigating the severity of injuries. As mentioned earlier the primary task of this
system will be to save the lives of people from accidental deaths. its advantages are given
below
1. Studies show that the emergency response time could be reduced by about 50% in rural
areas and 40% in urban areas.
2. It is estimated that the e-Call system could save up to 2 500 lives a year in the EU and,
in particular, could significantly reduce the severity of the injuries sustained in 15% of
cases.
3. Studies show that the reduction of response time has pattern of
             40%-in urban areas
             50%- in rural areas
4. Also the gps tracker in the vehicle helps to find the location of the car when it is stolen,
thus it helps to find about missing vehicles also.
5. The system will also ensure a corresponding reduction in the number of traffic jams
attributable
 Once the system comes into use there could be many more direct or indirect advantages.

CONCLUSION:
                  There by we conclude that this e-call technology is highly efficient and is
going to play a predominant role in future emergency service system. But in practical
perception the government must take the responsibility of implementing this technology and
take all the measures to make the best use of this e-call and we can handle one of the serious
concern of today’s leap in the number of accidental deaths. the day is not far when each and
every car or vehicle is equipped with the e-call devices and the passengers and drivers can be
assured of a healthy drive and a pleasant ride.

REFERENCES:
 Google search about “emergency service systems”
                       “e-call”


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