Observation of protoplanetary disks by hellais

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									30-m Extreme AO Observations of Protoplanetary Disks and Protostellar Outflows
John Bally

Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences University of Colorado, Boulder

Disks & Outflows with a 30 meter telescopes
=  / D = 0.2” @ 30 m; 0.07” @ 10 m; 0.007” @ 1 m Disks “classical” disks (Taurus, Perseus, Ophiuchus) dust: Si-features, PAHs ices: CO, H2O, NH3, … gas: H2, CO, etc. H-rec. lines … [NeII], Fe, [FeII], … Proplyds (Orion ….) Resolve r = GM/cI2 ~ 40 AU & r = GM/cII2 ~ 5 AU Disk surface (H2), neutral layer: HeI, CO, I-front: H, [NeII], HeII, photo-ablation flow Stellar wind / photo-ablation flow shocks Spitzer dust tails 8 & 24 m “dust comets” near O-stars Debris disks destroyed by O-star winds / radiation P? Proto-planet collisions?

Smith et al. (2005 ApJ)

Anatomy of a proplyd

Orion Nebula

OMC 1 Outflow (H2 t = 500 yr) BNKL (L = 105 Lo t << 105 yr)

Trapezium (L = 105 Lo t < 105 yr )

OMC1-S (L = 104 Lo , t < 105 yr)

HST4

Proplyd photo-ablation flows:
HST4 (LV 6), LV 1

dM/dt ~ 10-7 Mo yr -1

Keck NIRSPEC + AO (Shuping et al. 2006)
Br  HeI

Position (mas)

1” = 500 AU
HST 16 0.3 ly to O star

HST 10

Irradiated proto-planetary disks: H, [OI] 6300

HST 17

182-413 (HST10)

H 

[OI]  6300

Keck AO IR

HST H

2.12 m H2 0.6563 m H => Soft UV photo-heating of disk surface (Kassis et al. 2007)

UV photo-ablation of disks & planet formation:

Smith, Bally, Licht, Walawender 05

d253-535 in M43

Evidence for growing grains: Orion 114-426 (Throop et al. 2001)

Growing grains:

Si 10 m feature (Shuping et al. 2006)

The Beehive proplyd;

HH 240 irradiated jet

Bally et al. 2005

HH 240 North

HH 240 South

d181-825 “Beehive” proplyd
1280 AU

Chandra COUP

Jet

Star

8 ; 10
20 To base of jet (through proplyd)? cm To star (through disk + proplyd)

kT ~ 0.57 keV & 3.55 keV NH ~ 8 x 1020 cm-2 (soft) NH ~ 6 x 1022 cm-2 (hard)

(Kastner et al. 2005, ApJS, 160, 511)

d181-825 “Beehive” proplyd

X-ray absorption: NH ~ 8 x1020 cm-2 But, foreground AV ~ 1 mag ! H-alpha:

ne(rI) = 2.6 x 104 cm-3 dM/dt = 2.8 x 10-7 Mo yr-1
Neutral Column: (from 50 AU, V = 3 km/s) NH(RI) = 2.2 x 1021 V3-1 r50-1
1280 AU

Photo-ablation flow metal depleted!
(Kastner et al. 2005, ApJS, 160, 511)

“double cluster” in W5 West:
24 m dust tails (“Balog tails”) from low-mass YSOs near O-stars H
Bally & Stringfellow

2’

3.6 m
Allen

24 m
Allen

Outflows: “Classical” Herbig-Haro Objects H2, Fe II Irradiated Jets H-lines, [NeII], etc. Collimation region (resolved) Magnetic fields (polarization), density structure, shocks Launch Region diagnostics (unresolved) Magnetic fields Sources Dynamics of massive stars, multiples.

OMC 1 Outflow (H2 t = 500 yr)

BNKL Trapezium (L = 105 Lo t < 105 yr ) Hundreds of Proplyds OMC1-S (L = 104 Lo , t < 105 yr)

(L = 105 Lo t << 105 yr)

0.5 – 2.2 m 104 AU

11.7 m 104 AU

TReCS Gemini S

High-velocity stars: I , BN , n (Gomez et al. 2005)

BN: V~ 30 km s-1 I: V~ 13 km s-1 n: V~ 20 km s-1

I

7 mm SiO

7 mm cont

2.12 m H2 (blue) 11.7 m (orange)

Smith et al. (2005)
+ Cunningham (2008))

OMC 1 outflow Gemini N Laser AO [FeII] H2

0.1” resolution
Scott Fischer (Gemini Observatory)

HH 212 H2 (Mc Caughrean & Zinnecker VLT)

HH 46/47 NTT [OII] H [SII]     m Bally & Reipurth (06 “Birth of Stars & Planets” CUP = BR06)

HH 46/47 Spitzer (Noriega-Crespo 04; BR06)

H2 PAH    m

HH 46/47 (Hartigan et al. 05, AJ BR06)

HST 1994

HH 46/47 (Hartigan et al. 05, AJ BR06)

HST 1997

Ceph A

Cunningham, Moeckel, & Bally

Ceph A

Cunningham, Moeckel, & Bally

Ceph A precessing jet: P ~ 2 x 103 yr ? Cunningham, Moeckel, & Bally

V = 3 km/s

V = 6 km/s

V > 10 km/s

QuickTime™ and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Nickolas Moeckel (2006) SPH: Massive star capture-formed binary: Disk orientation change

Star Forming Cores in the 1.1 mm Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey: the Galactic Center  = 1.1 mm

  0.35 mm

Conclusions
High-angular resolution: 0.007” => 0.2” Resolve Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) in embedded regions e.g. OMC1, Cep A ---- “D4“ advantage Probe time-evolution of dynamically evolving multiple stars clues to massive star formation, multiples, clusters Structure of disks, proplyds spiral waves, gaps, proto-planets wind-wind shocks, I-fonts, neutral flows, disk surfaces disk rotation curves Jets / outflows launch region (unresolved spatially, resolves in spectra) collimation regions (resolved!) mass-loss history, precession => clues about dynamics feedback / self-regulation of star formation

The End


								
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