Ninth

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```					                                            Ninth Grade Science Standards
Content Standard:                            Performance Expectations:                    Enabling Knowledge:                    Sample Tasks:

9th PS1A
Average velocity is defined as a change                                                   Students will understand that a        Determine if two students traveling
Calculate the average velocity of a
in position (displacement) with respect                                                   change in position over a period of    at 1 m/s in different directions have
moving object, given the object’s
to time. Velocity includes both speed and                                                 time produces average velocity.        the same velocity.
change in position and time.
direction.
(v = x2-x1/ t2-t1)                                                                  Describe the velocity of an object
Students will understand that a
change in position from point A to     that travels north 6.9 m in 3 s, then
Explain how two objects moving at the                                               turns and travels south 2.8 m in 4 s.
point B is called displacement.
(Enduring Understanding: Multiple            same speed can have different
forces affect an objects motion in           velocities.                                                                         A bus leaves Pasco at 6:00 am and
Students will understand that
predictable ways. These affects are                                                       average velocity can be calculated     travels to Seattle, a distance of 212
explained by Newton’s Laws.)                                                              using the formula (v = x2-x1/ t2-t1)   miles, and arrives at 12:00 pm.
Determine its average velocity.
Students will understand that
velocity has two components: speed     If Joe walked two blocks south,
and direction.                         three blocks west, then three more
blocks south, what is his
displacement?
9th PS1B
Average acceleration is defined as a         Calculate the average acceleration of        Students will understand that a        How are acceleration, time, and
change in velocity with respect to time.     an object, given the object’s change in      change in direction and speed in a     velocity related?
Acceleration indicates a change in speed     velocity with respect to time. (a = v2-v1/   given amount of time produces
and/or a change in direction.                t2-t1)                                       average acceleration.                  What are three ways an object can
accelerate?
Explain how an object moving at              Students will understand that
constant speed can be accelerating.          acceleration includes velocity         How can an object’s acceleration be
(Enduring Understanding: Multiple
and/or change of direction.            calculated?
forces affect an objects motion in
predictable ways. These affects are
Students will understand that          An airplane starts at rest and
explained by Newton’s Laws.)
average acceleration can be            accelerates down the runway for 25
calculated using the formula           s. At the end of the runway, its
(a = v2-v1/ t2-t1)                    velocity is 90 m/s south. What is its
acceleration?
9th PS1C
An object at rest will remain at rest       Given specific scenarios, compare the      Students will understand that it         How are force and motion related?
unless acted on by an unbalanced force.     motion of an object acted on by            takes a force to create motion.
An object in motion at constant velocity    balanced forces with the motion of an                                               Must there be an unbalanced force
will continue at the same velocity unless   object acted on by unbalanced forces.      Students will understand that the        acting on a moving object?
acted on by an unbalanced force.                                                       greater the force exerted on an          Explain.
(Newton’s First Law of Motion, the Law                                                 object, the greater the unbalanced
of Inertia)                                                                            force will be.                           Two students push on a box
easterly, and one student pushes
(Enduring Understanding: Multiple                                                      Students will understand that the net    westerly. What is the net force on
forces affect an objects motion in                                                     force on an object is the                the box if each student pushes with
predictable ways. These affects are                                                    combination of all the forces acting     a force of 50N?
explained by Newton’s Laws.)                                                           on the object.
Discuss what force keeps all the
Students will understand that when       planets in orbit in our solar system
forces are equal in opposite             and whether it is a balanced or
directions on the same object they       unbalanced force.
create a balanced force.

9th PS1D
A net force will cause an object to         Predict how objects of different masses    Students will understand that            If an objects mass increases 10
accelerate or change direction. A less      will accelerate when subjected to the      gravity and mass have a large            times, how does that affect the force
massive object will speed up more           same force.                                influence on balanced and                needed to make it move? Would an
quickly than a more massive object                                                     unbalanced forces.                       increase in gravity have the same
Calculate the acceleration of an object,
subjected to the same force. (Newton’s                                                                                          effect? Explain.
given the object’s mass and the net
Second Law of Motion, F=ma)                                                            Students will understand that the
force on the object, using Newton’s
greater the mass of an object, the       Diagram the four forces acting on
Second Law of Motion (F=ma).
(Enduring Understanding: Multiple                                                      greater the force required to cause it   an ice-skater skating forward.
forces affect an objects motion in                                                     to accelerate.                           Indicate net force as balanced or
predictable ways. These affects are                                                                                             unbalanced.
explained by Newton’s Laws.)                                                           Students will understand that the
force it takes to cause and object of    Explain why an object with a
any given mass to move can be            smaller mass has a larger
determined using the equation            acceleration than an object with a
F=ma.                                    larger mass if the same force acts on
each.
Students will understand that the
acceleration of an object can be         If a helicopter’s mass is 4,500 kg
determined using the equation            and the net force on it is 18,000 N
a=Fnet/m.                                upward, what is its acceleration?
9th PS1E
Whenever one object exerts a force on         Illustrate with everyday examples that     Students will understand that when       For a hit in baseball, compare the
another object, a force of equal              for every action there is an equal and     an object exerts a force on a second     force exerted by the bat on the ball
magnitude is exerted on the first object      opposite reaction (e.g., a person exerts   object, the second object exerts a       to the force exerted by the ball on
in the opposite direction. (Newton’s          the same force on the Earth as the Earth   force on the first object.               the bat. Explain how bats
Third Law of Motion)                          exerts on the person).                                                              sometimes break.

(Enduring Understanding: Multiple
forces affect an objects motion in
predictable ways. These affects are
explained by Newton’s Laws.)

9th PS1F
Gravitation is a universal attractive force   Predict how the gravitational force        Students will understand that the        Anita is very concerned about her
by which objects with mass attract one        between two bodies would differ for        force that draws an apple toward the     weight but seldom does anything
another. The gravitational force between      bodies of different masses or different    Earth when it falls from a tree is the   about it. After learning about
two objects is proportional to their          distances apart.                           same force that draws the moon           Newton's law of universal
masses and inversely proportional to the                                                 toward the Earth.                        gravitation in Science class, she
square of the distance between the            Explain how the weight of an object                                                 becomes all concerned about the
objects. (Newton’s Law of Universal           can change while its mass remains          Students will understand that any        possible affect of a change in
Gravitation)                                  constant.                                  object with mass has a gravitational     Earth's mass upon her weight.
pull. The greater the mass, the          During a free moment at the lunch
(Enduring Understanding: Multiple                                                        greater its gravitation attraction.      table, she speaks up "How would
forces affect an objects motion in                                                                                                my weight change if the mass of the
predictable ways. These affects are                                                      Students will understand that            Earth increased by 10%?" How
explained by Newton’s Laws.)                                                             gravity has a direct influence on an     would you answer Anita?
objects weight, the greater the
gravitational attraction the greater
the objects weight.

Students will understand that the
closer two objects are together the
greater the gravitational attraction.
9th PS1G
Electrical force is a force of nature        Predict whether two charged objects         Students will understand that charge     Indicate which pairs of charges will
independent of gravity that exists           will attract or repel each other, and       is the property of an object that        repel and which will attract.
between charged objects. Opposite            explain why.                                causes electrical force.
charges attract while like charges repel.                                                                                         Explain what factors affect the
Students will understand that            strength of the electric force.
(Enduring Understanding: Multiple                                                        charges exist as positive or negative.
forces affect an objects motion in                                                                                                Demonstrate the concept of
predictable ways. These affects are                                                      Students will understand that like       repelling charges and attractive
explained by Newton’s Laws.)                                                             charges repel each other and unlike      charges using two magnets.
charges attract each other.

9th PS1H
Electricity and magnetism are two            Demonstrate and explain that an             Students will understand that an         Describe how hydroelectric power
aspects of a single electromagnetic force.   electric current flowing in a wire will     electric current can create a            plants use moving water to produce
Moving electric charges produce              create a magnetic field around the wire     magnetic field.                          electricity.
magnetic forces, and moving magnets          (electromagnetic effect).
produce electric forces.                                                                 Students will understand that a          Demonstrate how one creates a
moving magnet near non-insulated         magnetic field using a battery, bare
(Enduring Understanding: Multiple            Demonstrate and explain that moving a       wire will create and electric current.   wire, nail, and iron filings.
forces affect an objects motion in           magnet near a wire will cause an
predictable ways. These affects are          electric current to flow in the wire (the   Students will understand that            Demonstrate how one creates an
explained by Newton’s Laws.)                 generator effect).                          different forces are created by          electric current using a battery, two
magnetism and electricity.               copper strips, magnet, and non-
insulated copper wire.
9th PS3A
Although energy can be transferred from      Describe a situation in which energy is   Students will understand that energy     Explain, using different resource
one object to another and can be             transferred from one place to another     can be transferred from one medium       materials, how energy is transferred
transformed from one form of energy to       and explain how energy is conserved.      to another.                              from one resource to another.
another form, the total energy in a closed
system remains the same. The concept of      Describe a situation in which energy is   Students will understand that energy     Explain how energy is transformed
conservation of energy, applies to all       transformed from one form to another      is never lost but conserved in one       from moving water to heat created
physical and chemical changes.               and explain how energy is conserved.      form or another.                         by a light bulb.

Students will understand that energy     Describe, in detail, an open system.
(Enduring Understanding: Energy can                                                    can be transformed from one form
take many forms and be transferred                                                     to another.                              Describe, in detail, a closed system.
or transformed. Within a closed
system the total energy is conserved.)                                                 Students will understand that there      Relate, through an open system , the
is a difference between an open          existence of different forms of
system and a closed system.              energy.

Students will understand that energy
exists in many forms, including
kinetic, potential, chemical,
electrical, thermal (heat), and light.
9th PS3B
Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.      Calculate the kinetic energy of an        Students will understand that kinetic    A falling apple can do more work
The kinetic energy of an object is           object, given the object’s mass and       energy has to do with an objects         than a cherry falling at the same
2
defined by the equation: Ek = ½ mv           velocity.                                 motion.                                  speed. Explain why.

Students will understand that the        An apple that is moving at 10 m/s
(Enduring Understanding: Energy can                                                    object must have mass and velocity       can do more work than an apple
take many forms and be transferred                                                     in order to have kinetic energy.         moving at 1 m/s can. Explain why.
or transformed. Within a closed
system the total energy is conserved.)                                                 Students will understand that mass       Determine the kinetic energy of a 44
(kg) times speed (m/s) equals joules     Kg cheetah running at 31 m/s.
(J). (Kg x m/s = J)
Determine the kinetic energy in
Students will understand that kinetic    joules of a 0.02 kg bullet traveling
energy can be determined using the       at 300 m/s.
following equation: Ek = ½ mv2
9th PS3C
Gravitational potential energy is due to   Give an example in which gravitational    Students will understand that           A diver has gravitational potential
the separation of mutually attracting      potential energy and kinetic energy are   gravitational potential energy          energy as she stands at the end of a
masses. Transformations can occur          changed from one to the other (e.g., a    depends on both mass and height.        diving board. How would the
between gravitational potential energy     child on a swing illustrates the                                                  diver’s potential energy change if
and kinetic energy, but the total amount   alternating transformation of kinetic     Students will understand that           she stood on a platform twice as
of energy remains constant.                and gravitational potential energy).      gravitational potential energy can be   high?
determined by using the following
equation: PE = mgh                      If the diver has a mass of 55kg and
(Enduring Understanding: Energy can                                                  (Grav.PE=mass x gravity x height)       is 12 meters above the water,
take many forms and be transferred                                                                                           determine her gravitational potential
or transformed. Within a closed                                                      Students will understand that energy    energy.
system the total energy is conserved.)                                               can be transformed from
gravitational potential energy to       Describe a situation in which GPE
kinetic energy and back to              changes to KE and then back to
gravitational potential energy all in   GPE.
a single movement.

9th PS3D
Waves (including sound, seismic, light,    Demonstrate how energy can be             Students will understand that energy    Illustrate and describe the properties
and water waves) transfer energy when      transmitted by sending waves along a      can be transferred through different    of a wave.
they interact with matter. Waves can       spring or rope. Characterize physical     types of waves (sound, light,
have different wavelengths, frequencies,   waves by frequency, wavelength,           seismic, and water ).                   Illustrate and discuss the difference
and amplitudes, and travel at different    amplitude, and speed.                                                             between frequency and amplitude.
speeds.                                                                              Students will understand that each
wave has certain characteristics        Explain how energy is transferred
Apply these properties to the pitch and   such as frequency, wavelength,          through different types of waves
(Enduring Understanding: Energy can        volume of sound waves and to the          amplitude, and speed.                   (transverse waves, longitudinal
take many forms and be transferred         wavelength and magnitude of water                                                 waves, and surface waves).
or transformed. Within a closed            waves.                                    Students will understand that wave
system the total energy is conserved.)                                               properties can affect pitch, volume,
and magnitude of waves.
9th PS3E
Electromagnetic waves differ from            Illustrate the electromagnetic spectrum     Students will understand that            Discuss and identify the six main
physical waves because they do not           with a labeled diagram, showing how         electromagnetic waves include all        wave components of the
require a medium and they all travel at      regions of the spectrum differ regarding    forms of waves found in the              electromagnetic spectrum (labeled
the same speed in a vacuum. This is the      wavelength, frequency, and energy, and      electromagnetic spectrum.                diagram is acceptable).
maximum speed that any object or wave        how they are used (e.g., infrared in heat
can travel. Forms of electromagnetic         lamps, microwaves for heating foods,        Students will understand that            Looking at a visual of the
waves include X-rays, ultraviolet, visible   X-rays for medical imaging).                electromagnetic waves are                electromagnetic spectrum, identify
light, infrared, and radio.                                                              identified by their wavelength,          which waves have the longest and
frequency, and energy.                   shortest wavelengths and which
have the highest and lowest
(Enduring Understanding: Energy can                                                      Students will understand that certain    frequencies.
take many forms and be transferred                                                       electromagnetic waves are used for
or transformed. Within a closed                                                          unique purposes.                         Do research to identify and list
system the total energy is conserved.)                                                                                            possible commercial products that
use waves from the electromagnetic
spectrum.

9th ES1A
Stars have “life cycles.” During most of     Connect the life cycles of stars to the     Students will understand that all
their “lives”, stars produce heavier         production of elements through the          stars have a life cycle, they are born
elements from lighter elements starting      process of nuclear fusion.                  and they die.
with the fusion of hydrogen to form
helium. The heaviest elements are                                                        Students will understand that they
formed when massive stars “die” in                                                       go through a long process of nuclear
massive explosions.                                                                      fusion in which lighter elements are
changed into heavier elements.
(Enduring Understanding: Physical
principles apply to the origins and                                                      Students will understand that as
development of the Earth and the                                                         stars fuse elements together they
Universe.)                                                                               become more massive which
9th ES1B
The Big Bang theory of the origin of the       Cite evidence that supports the “Big        Students will understand that the
universe is based on evidence (e.g., red       Bang theory” (e.g., red shift of galaxies   Big Bang is a theory about how the
shift) that all galaxies are rushing apart     or 3K background radiation).                universe began.
from one another. As space expanded
and matter began to cool, gravitational                                                    Students will understand that our
attraction pulled clumps of matter                                                         universe is continuously expanding
together, forming the stars and galaxies,                                                  based on red shift evidence.
clouds of gas and dust, and planetary
systems that we see today. If we were to                                                   Students will understand that all
run time backwards, the universe gets                                                      stars, galaxies, and planetary
constantly smaller, shrinking to almost                                                    systems were formed from matter
zero size 13.7 billion years ago.                                                          from the Big Bang Theory.

Students will understand that the red
(Enduring Understanding: Physical                                                          shift and 3K background radiation
principles apply to the origins and                                                        support the Big Bang Theory.
development of the Earth and the
Universe.)

9th ES2A
Global climate differences result from         Explain that Earth is warmer near the       Students will understand that that
the uneven heating of Earth’s surface by       equator and cooler near the poles due to    Earth’s global climate variations are
the Sun. Seasonal climate variations are       the uneven heating of Earth by the Sun.     due to Earth’s orbit around the Sun
due to the tilt of Earth’s axis with respect                                               and its axis tilt.
to the plane of Earth’s nearly circular
orbit around the Sun.                          Explain that it’s warmer in summer and      Students will understand that the
colder in winter for people in              Equator will always have a warmer
Washington State because the intensity      climate than that at the North and
(Enduring Understanding: Energy                of sunlight is greater and the days are     South Pole no matter what the time
from the Sun drives our weather                longer in summer than in winter.            of year..
system and climate, while energy from          Connect these seasonal changes in
Earth’s interior drives the rock cycle         sunlight to the tilt of Earth’s axis with   Students will understand that
and crustal plates.)                           respect to the plane of its orbit around    Washington State’s seasonal
the Sun.                                    changes are also related to the
Earth’s orbit around the Sun and the
Earth’s axis tilt.
9th ES2B
Climate is determined by energy transfer       Explain the factors that affect climate     Students will understand that
from the sun at and near Earth's surface.      in different parts of Washington state      climate in Washington State is
This energy transfer is influenced by                                                      diverse due to the Pacific Ocean and
dynamic processes such as cloud cover                                                      the Cascade Mountain Range.
and Earth's rotation, as well as static
conditions such as proximity to                                                            Students will understand that
mountain ranges and the ocean. Human                                                       Washington States climate west of
activities, such as burning of fossil fuels,                                               the Cascades is much more stable
also affect the global climate.                                                            than it is east of the Cascades due to
the west’s proximity to the pacific
Ocean.
(Enduring Understanding: Energy
from the Sun drives our weather                                                            Students will understand that other
system and climate, while energy from                                                      factors play a role in area climates
Earth’s interior drives the rock cycle                                                     such as latitude, elevation, nearby
and crustal plates.)                                                                       water, ocean currents, topography,
prevailing winds, and vegetation.

Students will understand that large
populations of humans have a direct
influence on local climates as well
as global climates.
9th ES3A
Interactions among the solid Earth, the        Interpret current rock formations of the    Students will understand that some
oceans, the atmosphere, and organisms          Pacific Northwest as evidence of past       Earth processes are observable.
have resulted in the ongoing evolution of      geologic events. Consider which Earth
the Earth system. We can observe               processes that may have caused these        Students will understand that some
changes such as earthquakes and                rock formations (e.g., erosion,             Earth processes take millions of
volcanic eruptions on a human time             deposition, and scraping of terrain by      years to happen and therefore are
scale, but many processes such as              glaciers, floods, volcanic eruptions, and   based on geological evidence.
mountain building and plate movements          tsunami).
take place over hundreds of millions of                                                    Students will understand that the
years.                                                                                     Earth system is in constant flux due
Construct a possible timeline showing       to interactions of our solid Earth,
(Enduring Understanding: Evidence              the development of these rock               it’s atmosphere, it’s oceans, and all
provided by natural radioactive                formations given the cause of the           of its living organisms.
material has made it possible to               formations.
determine the age of different
structures and of Earth as a planet.)
9th ES3B
Geologic time can be estimated by           Explain how decay rates of radioactive     Students will understand that there
several methods (e.g., counting tree        materials in rock layers are used to       are several methods to determine
rings, observing rock sequences, using      establish the timing of geologic events.   the age of various rocks and
fossils to correlate sequences at various                                              organisms.
locations, and using the known decay        Given a geologic event, explain
rates of radioactive isotopes present in    multiple methods that could be used to     Students will understand that
rocks to measure the time since the rock    establish the timing of that event.        radioactive dating is used to date
was formed).                                                                           geological rock layers.

Students will understand that
(Enduring Understanding: Evidence                                                      information gathered from these
provided by natural radioactive                                                        methods help determine the age of
material has made it possible to                                                       geological events.
determine the age of different
structures and of Earth as a planet.)

9th ES3D
Data gathered from a variety of methods     Describe factors that change climates      Students will understand that
have shown that Earth has gone through      over long periods of time and cite         Earth’s climate changes were
a number of periods when Earth was          methods that scientists have found to      brought about by changes in the
much warmer and much colder than            gather information on ancient climates.    position of earth relative to the Sun,
today.                                                                                 changes in earth’s atmospheric
carbon dioxide levels, changes in
the positions of Earth’s landmasses,
(Enduring Understanding: Evidence                                                      and changes in the amount of solar
provided by natural radioactive                                                        energy reaching Earth’s surface.
material has made it possible to
determine the age of different                                                         Students will understand that
structures and of Earth as a planet.)                                                  evidence has been gather that
supports each possible change in
climates from the past.

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