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Parenting Involvement in Education
Parenting is one of the most important factors that affect the development of children.
Children attending nursery is important to achievement, but parental involvement is just as
crucial. Parental involvement helps children feel education is valued and helps parents
understand the needs and strengths of their child.
What involvement have your parents had in your education?

How does this make you feel?

How would this affect a child and their development?

Parenting – importance of attachment
The way parents feel about their children and form a relationship is crucial. Babies need a
good strong attachment in order to develop well emotionally and socially. Children with good
attachment are more confident and have higher self-esteem, and are therefore less likely
to show clinginess and demanding behaviour.
There are several factors that can affect the attachment process and thus the
development of the child. These are:
                                      Disabled babies
                                      make attachment
                                     harder for parents.
                                      Parents may also
                                     struggle with their
                 Emotional                                      Prematurity
                                    feelings for the baby
                unavailability                                Premature babies
             This can be due to                             cannot be picked up
              alcohol, drugs or                              and held like other
             illness and parents                             babies and this can
            struggling with their                           affect the attachment
                     role.                                         process.
                                      may not go
                                      because of:
                 Foster care/                                    Post-natal
                   adoption                                      depression
            If kids spend time in                             Many mums are
              care they can lose                            depressed after birth
                   their first                              but PND lasts longer
                 attachments.                                and effects mums
                                                              ability to attach.
                                         Separation of
                                     parents and babies
                                     affects attachment.
                                     This may be due to
                                    illness, bereavement
                                        or splitting up.
Parental Approval and Interaction
Throughout childhood, relationships with parents are important. Parents who are able to
give unconditional love give children security and they can develop confidence. Children
with confidence and a high self-esteem are more likely to try out new skills than think they
are ‘not good enough’.
Parental interaction can help the development of a child. Think of a way for each factor:
Emotional development 

Language development 

Cognitive development 

Social development 

Physical development 

Parental Expectations and Interests
Parental interests and expectations can make a major difference to a child’s development.
Parents who enjoy music may encourage creativity be letting them play instruments.
Parents who take part in sport may provide more physical games.
Expectations can be unrealistic and this is where problems occur. Children begin to think
that approval is based on meeting these targets and this can lead to low self-esteem as
they don’t measure up to their parents wishes.
What are the expectations of your parents for you? Have these had an influence on your

Parenting Styles
There are three types of parenting: authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative.
Difficulties arise for children whose parents are either too authoritarian or too
permissive, or whose parents’ style changes regularly.

Decide which of these statements are traits of authoritarian, permissive and authoritative
and place them into the correct column of the table.
High demands                    No guidelines or rules         High expectations
Keen for children to do well    Children can eat and sleep     confident enough to
but will listen to children     when they like                 establish and maintain
suggestions                                                    parent-child boundaries
Prepared to negotiate with      Children expected to           Very dictatorial
children                        conform
Only focus on child’s needs     Blur the distinction between   Positive and supportive
                                parent and friend
Constant positivity does lead   Children have high self-       May not give children
to high self-esteem             esteem and do well at school   choices
May restrict children’s play    Kids may find it hard to       Children will lack confidence
or provide very structured      share, conform or co-          – too concerned with doing
play                            operate: difficult behaviour   well for positive feedback
        Authoritarian                    Permissive                   Authoritative

Parenting Questions

1. Explain the importance of attachment in child development and explain three factors

that can affect the attachment process. (5 marks)

2. Outline two ways parents can affect their child’s language development. (4 marks)

3. How can parenting styles affect a child’s emotional and social development? (3 marks)

4. Describe two ways a very authoritarian parent with a high involvement in their child’s

education could affect their child’s development. (2 marks)


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