Jets From Young Stars

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					Jets from Young Stars
John Bally

Center for Astrobiology Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences University of Colorado, Boulder

Outline:
• Jets & Herbig Haro Objects

• • • • •

Relation to Molecular Outflows Giant Outflows Irradiated Jets & Microjets Massive Star Outflows Impacts: Self-Regulation of star formation Turbulence generation Cloud disruption • Launch & Collimation

HH 212 H2 (Mc Caughrean & Zinnecker VLT)

HH 46/47: Ha [SII] [OII]

Spitzer IRAC:

3 – 8 mm

HH 46/47 (Hartigan et al. 05, AJ BR06)

HST 1994

HH 46/47 (Hartigan et al. 05, AJ BR06)

HST 1997

Outflows:
Jets, Winds => Wide-Angle Cavities
Disk winds X-winds Internal working surfaces Terminal working surface

HH jet (high V) HI CO outflow (low V) H2 (moderate V)

L1551
(BR06)
HH 30 (HST)

X-ray source ~0.5” from IRS5

Ha [SII]

CO J=2-1

L1551

CO J=2-1

6-7 km/s

8-12 km/s

1-5 km/s

Jets from Young Stellar Objects (YSOs)
• Tracers: 106 K plasma X-ray Ha, [SII], [NII], [OI], [OIII] visual [FeII], H2 infrared CO, HCO+, SiO mm free-free, non-thermal, masers cm • Manifestations of outflows: Visual jets, micro-jets (jet beam) Herbig-Haro objects & NIR (H2) shocks Molecular outflows (swept-up/entrained) • dM/dt decrease with evolutionary stage Class 0: > 10-5 Solar masses/year Class I: 10-6 Solar masses/year Class II/II: 10-7 10-9 Solar masses/year • Velocity Increase with evolutionary stage

Jets from Young Stellar Objects (YSOs)
• dM /dt increases as L0.8 • V increases as L0.2 Acceleration Mechanisms: - Radiation pressure ? NO - L/c too low - Thermal pressure gradient? NO - too low - MHD YES! Uchida-Shibata, Lovelace – helical torsion, impulsive Pudritz-Norman disk wind - advected B, steady Shu X-wind - stellar dynamo, steady - Dynamical decay; release of gravitational potential (Orion) Collimation: - Magnetic hoop stress - Ambient density gradient - Ram-pressure of infalling envelope

HH 3 NGC 1999 New jet

HH 1

HH 2

proplyd

HH 2

HH 1

HST 1997 - 1994

HH 2

HH 1

HST 1997 - 1994

HH 1 jet

HST 1997 - 1994

HH 1 jet

HST 1997 - 1994

HH 1

HST 1997 - 1994

HH 1

HST 1997 - 1994

HH 2: Small scale chaotic motion (102 - 104 AU)

HST / WFPC2 1994

(Bally et al. 2000; BR06)

HH 2: Small scale chaotic motion (102 - 104 AU)

HST / WFPC2 1997

(Bally et al. 2000; BR06)

NGC 1333

IC 348

Miesch & Bally (94); BR06

IRAS 03235+3004

NGC 1333

Ha, [SII] Walawender, Bally, Reipurth (06) Spitzer/IRAC Jorgensen et. (06)

Giant Outflows
• Symmetries: C-shaped: ejection of star, wind interactions S-shaped: outfow orientation change • Fossil record of Mass Loss (accretion) history

• Source of cloud turbulence
• Chemical Rejuvenation, CI, C+ in ICM (inter cloud medium)

• Origin of Cloud Internal Structure (shells, holes: cf. Circinus) Structure + UV => Turbulence • Major eruptions of YSO every few thousand years ejecta decelerates, blows out of cores • Non-linear Evolution of Instabilities: cooling => structure

HH 34

HST 1997 - 1994

HH 34

HST 1997 - 1994

HH 34 parsec-scale flow

2.5 pc

HH flows attain pc-scales

HH92 in Orion B CTIO 4m MOSAIC

HH flows attain pc-scales

HH 131

Orion A: - Outflows up to 30 pc long !

M42

HH 131

HH 1/2

Cepheus A: L ~ 2 x 104 Lo
CO CO CO

DV = 10 km/s

DV = 6 km/s
H2

DV = 4 km/s

Ceph A East

Ceph A West

Cepheus A: L ~ 2 x 104 Lo
Ha [S II] H2 Hartigan et al.

Cepheus A: L ~ 2 x 104 Lo
Near-IR

East

X-ray

Ha

West

X-ray

X-ray

Pravdo & Tsuboi 05

Ceph A

Cunningham, Moeckel, & Bally

Ceph A

N. Patel (05)

Cunningham, Moeckel, & Bally

Ceph A precessing jet: P ~ 2 x 103 yr ? Cunningham, Moeckel, & Bally

Orion Nebula
OMC1

HH 202

HH529

HH269

OMC1-S

HH 203 HH 204

Orion Nebula
OMC1

HH 202

HH529

HH269

OMC1-S

HH 203 HH 204

q 1C

LV 5

HH202 jet

HH514
HH202 source

HH202 source
OMC1-S

HH529

q 1C

LV 5

11.7 mm TReCS

HH202 jet

HH514
HH202 source

HH202 source
OMC1-S

HH529

Zapata et al. (2005)

Zapata et al. (2006)

0.5 – 2.2 mm 104 AU

11.7 mm 104 AU

Orion BN/KL H2 fingers E ~ 1048 erg

Dynamical Decay of Sub-cluster of massive stars
~ 500 years ago
(N. Cuningham 2006 PhD thesis)

Nathaniel Cunnigham PhD (2006)

H2 Proper Motions
Nathaniel Cunnigham PhD (2006)

t = r/v ~ 500 yr

t = 1,000 yr

N. Cunningham, J. Bally, M. Burton, M. Hayashi (in prep)

High-velocity stars: I , BN , n (Gomez et al. 2005)

BN: V~ 30 km s-1

I: ~ 13 km s-1
n: ~ 20 km s-1

OMC1 H2 fingers

Kaifu et al. (00); Underhill et al (01)

The Magnetic Bomb
• ~105 to 500 year ago:
- Velocity damping + orbit decay - 200 AU sub-cluster of 4+ massive stars in OMC1 - Shear dynamo: ~10 mG B field => ~ 40 G in 105 years: EB ~ 1048 ergs - Dynamical decay of non-hierarchical system: E* ~ 3x1047 erg - Ejection of high velocity stars (BN, I, n) => <V> ~ V* ~ 20 km/s Eout ~ 3x1047 erg - Disruption of magnetized circumstellar disks: Vfast ~ 500 km/s

• 500 years ago:

=> Explosive, wide-angle outflow!

Irradiated Jets
• Nearby OB stars photo-evaoprate cores s Ori (HH 444, 445, 446); Orion Nebula (Bally 06) • Asymmetries: Brighter jet - slow Fainter jet - fast Mass loading of fast beam • Lyman continuum: determine n, V, P, E independent of nonlinear shock physics • Irradiated micro-jets from Orions proplyds dM/dt ~ 10-9 Mo low V (< 100 km/s)

HH 444

HH 444/445 Irradiated jets: s Ori
HH 445

[SII]
Ha

[SII]
[NII] [SII]

Ha

[NII]

Reipurth et al 97 Andrews et al. 04

Ly a jet from HD163296

(> few Myr old star)

STIS

Devine et al. 01

HH 514 micro-jet in Orion: Ha, [HII]

(HST/STIS)

LL Orionis: wind-wind collision fronts – jet driven!

HH502 in Orion: C-symmetric jet-sidewind collision
HH400 rim
Crossing flow

Redshitfted bows

Proplyd & jet

To q1C

Blueshifted bow & jet cocoon

HH505 in Orion: jet-sidewind collision fronts

d253-535 in M43

The Carina Nebula (CTIO Schmidt)

The Carina Nebula

Mosaic: CTIO 4m

ACS: HST

Irradiated jets in h Car (Tr 14):

Nathan Smith et al. (in prep)

Irradiated jets in h Car (Tr 14):

Nathan Smith et al. (in prep)

HH 666

120 arcsec

[O III] Ha [S II]

HH 666

30 arcsec

[O III] Ha [S II]

HH 666

[O III] Ha [S II]

HH 666

Ha

[S II]

JHK

HH 666
HH 666 IRS
Class I YSO

Pab [Fe II] H2

Jet Symmetries:
• S – shaped: - Precession • Z – shaped: - Eccentric binary - Close-passage of sibling star • C-shaped: - Jet in a sidewind - Motion of source (ejection from cluster) • Monopolar (one-sided) - Obscuration - Mass loading

Variability:
dM/dt V orientation degree of collimation

The Engine
Accretion + Spin => Outflow • Protostar Convection + Rotation: Stellar Dynamo • Disk Rotation: Shear Dynamo

MHD Winds (M < 5 Solar masses) • Uchida-Shibata burst: first collapse, major accretion events • Propeller (Lovelace et al.) • Disk wind: (Purdritz & Norman) • X-wind: (Shu)
High mass Stellar Stars (M > 5 Solar masses) • Dynamical Decay • Radiation Pressure, Ionization

The future:
- SOFIA: 2.5 m @ 41,000 ft in a 747, High R

FLITECAM, FORCAST, EXES, FIFI LS, GREAT, CASIMIR R ~ 300 - 107

-

HST (ACS + WFPC 3) E-VLA ALMA JWST

Conclusions :
• Jets – Sources of turbulence, - Ionization - Cloud rejuvenation • MHD launch /collimation? - Repetitive accretion events & Uchida-Shibata bursts? - Advected disk winds? - Dynamo generated X-winds? • Massive YSOs: - Radiation pressure - Dynamical interactions? YSO jets resemble: - AGN/quasars (massive black-holes) - micro-quasars (stellar mass BHs) - PN, SN, symbiotic stars

OMC1 - 12 mm

(Shuping et al. 2004)

NH3

H2O masers

Radio sources

OMC1 (Shuping et al. 2004)
NH3

OMC1 SiO J=1-0 (Greenhill et al. 2004)

OMC1 SiO J=1-0 & 7mm continuum (Greenhill et al. 2004)

OMC1 SiO J=1-0 (Greenhill et al. 2004)

OMC1 H2 fingers

Orbit Decay:
Massive stars orbiting in r-2 sphere of gas + stars

Nick Moeckel PhD Thesis (CU Boulder, in preparation)

Flow Properties
Parameter (M<5 Solar) (M>5 Solar) 100 - 1,000 10-5 to 10-2 unit km/s Mo yr-1 • Wind/jet velocity 100 - 1,000 • dM/dt 10-5 to 10-9

• M(H2)
• t • Size: • E

0.001 to 10
104 (Class 0) 105 (Class I) 106 (>Class II) 1 to 10 1043 to 1047

1 to 3,000
104 to 105

Mo
yr yr yr pc erg

1 to 20 1046 to 1050

• Lmech

10-0 to 10-3

10-1 to 103

Lo


				
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posted:8/4/2008
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