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					INTRODUCTION TO R3 TECHNICAL .................................................................................................. 2
  A. INTRODUCTION TO R3 ............................................................................................................................ 2
     A.1.1     Central Presentation: ............................................................................................................. 2
     A.1.2     Distributed Presentation: ....................................................................................................... 2
     A.2.1      Presentation Layer: ............................................................................................................... 3
     A.2.2     Application Layer: .................................................................................................................. 3
     A.2.3     Database Layer: ..................................................................................................................... 3
  B. SYSTEM LANDSCAPE .............................................................................................................................. 3
     B.1.1     Single System .......................................................................................................................... 3
     B.1.2     Two-System ............................................................................................................................. 4
     B.1.3     Three-System .......................................................................................................................... 4
  C. TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ..................................................................................................... 5
  D. CLIENT ADMINISTRATION ...................................................................................................................... 6
     D.1     Standard Clients ......................................................................................................................... 6
     D.2     Standard Users ........................................................................................................................... 7
     D.3     Creating a Client ........................................................................................................................ 7
     D.4     Client Role .................................................................................................................................. 7
     D.5     Scope of the Changes .................................................................................................................. 7
     D.6     Client Copy ................................................................................................................................. 8
     D.7     Client Transport ......................................................................................................................... 8
  E. USERS AND AUTHORIZATIONS................................................................................................................ 8
     E.1     Super Users ................................................................................................................................ 9
     E.2     Types of Users ............................................................................................................................ 9
     E.2.1     Dialog ..................................................................................................................................... 9
     E.2.2.    BDC ........................................................................................................................................ 9
     E.2.3     Background............................................................................................................................. 9
     E.2.4.    CPIC ....................................................................................................................................... 9
     E.3     User Group ................................................................................................................................10
     E.4     Authorizations............................................................................................................................10
     E.4.1     Authorization object ..............................................................................................................10
     E.4.2     Authorization Profiles ............................................................................................................10
     E.4.3     Profile Generator ..................................................................................................................10
     E.4.4      Roles .....................................................................................................................................11
  F. INTRODUCTION TO ASAP .......................................................................................................................11
     Definition: .............................................................................................................................................11
     How can ASAP help you? ......................................................................................................................11




SIEMENS             SAP Implementation for PIFRA                            SIP            Prepared By                   Qaiser Bangash
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Introduction to R3 Technical

A. Introduction to R3

R/3 architecture is based on client server technology. R/3 uses the three-tier
client/server architecture consists of a presentation layer, an application layer
and a database layer, which can be run separately on different computers or on
the same computer.




A.1.1 Central Presentation:

All three layers are on one machine; normally it is used for test purposes and can
serve up to 10-15 users.


A.1.2 Distributed Presentation:

The layers are distributed across multiple machines; this system satisfies up to
200 users and for additional users application layer can be distributed over
multiple servers.




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A.2.1 Presentation Layer:

It consists of SAP Graphical User Interface (GUI). The SAP GUI accepts the
user input and passes it to the next layer, the Application Layer for further
processing. The SAP GUI accepts data from the application layer and presents
this data to the user.


A.2.2 Application Layer:

This is the Layer, where the actual calculation and evaluation is performed. Data
that is needed to perform these calculations and evaluation is requested from the
Database layer. Incoming data is processed by the application layer and passed
to the database.

The application layer can be made up of multiple computers. On each computer
in the application layer a number of processes perform the tasks. These
processes make up an R/3 Instance.



A.2.3 Database Layer:

The database layer consists of a Relational Database management System
(RDBMS). Data is exchanged between the application processes and the
RDBMS through the SQL interface. The data in an R/3 System is stored in one
database on one computer.



B. System Landscape

Every R/3 System contains the resources to cover the entire spectrum of R/3
functionalities. These are not only business related tasks, but also such tasks as
software development and administration, and quality assurance for custom
components.


B.1.1 Single System

A Single System would only be adequate for training or demonstration purposes.

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B.1.2 Two-System

SAP recommends that you install a system landscape with at least two systems.
It comprises:

      Integration System
      Consolidation System

The Integration System plays the part of the development and quality assurance
systems. If the software has attained an acceptable development status,
changes can be transported into the next system i.e. Consolidation System which
takes on the Production system role.


B.1.3 Three-System

Software and changes to ABAP programs and many system settings are valid
throughout the system of R/3. An intermediate version of an ABAP program
while work is still being done on the same object cannot be tested. This single
use of an object invariably causes a bottleneck in a two-system landscape. The
only solution is a three-system landscape It comprises:

      Integration System, which acts as a development system
      Consolidation System, which acts as a quality assurance system
      Delivery System, which acts as the Production system




The roles of the development, quality assurance and Production systems are
strictly separate. Software can only be tested in a separate system before it is
used in the Production.




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The relationship of costs and benefits with regard to the system requirements is a
decisive factor in your decision regarding a system landscape. With the benefits
offered by a three-system landscape comes increased administration due to the
complexity of the system landscape. So, the requirements must be weighed
against the cost.

C. Transport Management System

You can organize, perform, and monitor transports between your SAP Systems
using the Transport Management System (TMS).

User actions at the operating system level are no longer necessary, since all the
necessary information and functions are mapped in the SAP System.

The Transport Management System provides the following functions:

      Configuring the transport routes using a graphical editor
      Displaying the import queues for all SAP Systems in the transport domain
      Importing all the requests in an import queue
      Importing all the requests in a project
      Importing individual requests
      TMS Quality Assurance
      Transport Workflow
      Special features when using multiple transport directories

You can use the following transactions to access the TMS:

Transaction code          Function

STMS                      Initial screen of the Transport Management System

STMS_QUEUES               Displays the import queue

STMS_IMPORT               Import queue of the current SAP System

STMS_INBOX                TMS work list (transport workflow)




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STMS_QA                    QA work list (TMS quality assurance)

STMS_DOM                   TMS system overview

STMS_PATH                  TMS transport routes

STMS_ALERT                 CCMS Alert Monitor

STMS_TCRI                  Display/change critical transport objects

STMS_FSYS                  Create/change TMS system list


D. Client Administration

A client is an independently accountable business unit. The data in the R/3
database is divided into different classes. Some data is valid throughout the
system while the other data is specific. The types of data are as follows:

      Client-independent
      Client-dependent

Client independent data includes ABAP programs, the R/3 repository, and the
objects in it. Any customization in this area is valid throughout the R/3.

Client dependent data can be viewed from one client. It includes customizing
application and user data.

Each client is identified by a three-figure number, which is used as a key within
tables that contain application data. Tables of these types are known as client-
dependent. In addition, there are also client independent tables, which are valid
for all clients.


D.1    Standard Clients

SAP delivers the following preconfigured clients:

      000 fro administration purposes and as a template for additional client.
      001 for test purposes and as a template for additional clients.
      066 for SAP remote services.


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D.2    Standard Users

Users and their configurations are client dependent i.e. a user can only work in
their configuration’s assigned client. In the standard system, clients 000 and 001
are delivered with users SAP* and DDIC. The default passwords of these users
should be changed.


D.3    Creating a Client

A client is created in two steps. The first step makes the new client known to the
R/3 system and makes important basic settings. The second step fills the client
with data. Only then can a client function.


D.4    Client Role

When a client is created, this is reflected in the role assigned to the client. These
roles express the purpose served by the client and the attributes assigned to it.
Some of these attributes are:

          Customizing
          Testing
          Production


D.5    Scope of the Changes

The scope of the permitted changes can also be limited using the following
levels:

          Changes to the Repository and client-independent customizing
           allowed.
          No changes to client-independent customizing objects allowed.
          No changes to Repository objects allowed.
          No changes to Repository and client-independent customizing objects
           allowed.




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The clients can also be protected before they are copied or compared with other
clients. The following levels are available:

          Protection level 0 --- No limit.
          Protection level 1 --- No overwrite.
          Protection level 2 --- No overwrite and external availability.


D.6    Client Copy

A newly created client is filled with the data by the client copy process. Source
client is selected with the data profiles. The data profiles describe the type of
data to be copied. There are two methods of client copy.

          Local Copy, to copy a client from the same system
          Remote Copy, to copy a client from remote system


D.7    Client Transport

With a client transport, the data is not copied directly to the remote target system;
instead the transport control program tp is used to create data and control files
for the data to be exported from a client and stored in the global transport
directory. This data can be imported into the target system later. A client
transport can also be used to transport client-dependent using and external
medium for a system outside the system landscape or to create a backup of the
client.



E. Users and Authorizations

The user concept is one of the basic parts of R/3 security. To attain a high level
of security, the R/3 system administrator must become familiar with the
possibilities that the user concept offers and use them conscientiously.

In addition to creating users and manually assigning authorizations and
authorization profiles, a profile generator can be used to automatically generate
authorization profiles.

Users are always client –dependent, that is, they are only valid in the assigned
client. The user name and the user attributes comprise the user master record.

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E.1   Super Users

By default, SAP* and DDIC are available in every client. SAP* has full
authorizations while DDIC has all authorization for administering the repository.


E.2   Types of Users

E.2.1 Dialog

A dialog user can work with R/3 in any way. This includes background
processing, batch input processing, CPIC, and dialog (unless restricted by
specific authorizations).


E.2.2. BDC

BDC reduces the range of functions to the use and execution of batch input
sessions.


E.2.3 Background

A background user can only be used to schedule and execute background jobs
from other dialog users. A background user is not permitted to log onto the R/3
and to work in dialog mode.


E.2.4. CPIC

CPIC users are not able to work in dialog mode in R/3. They can only be used to
exchange data through the CPIC interface. This user has no authorizations and
is only used for internal processes, such as executing external programs by
users.




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E.3   User Group

The user group serves documentation and technical information purposes and
helps to coordinate the authorizations for maintaining the user data. A user in
one user group can only maintain the data of a user in another group if the first
user has been given explicit authorization.     This is not mandatory, but it is
advisable because logical assignment to a user group gives an indication of
activity areas and authorizations.


E.4   Authorizations

The authorizations determine which activities a user of a particular user type and
user group can perform, and is assigned by the authorization administrator.

A user’s authorizations are among the most important user attributes that need to
be maintained.


E.4.1 Authorization object

Each authorization in the R/3 system is based on an authorization object. An
authorizations object is a module that consists of a name, files, and possible
values that represent actions.


E.4.2 Authorization Profiles

Authorizations can be grouped together into an authorization profile, and multiple
authorization profiles can be grouped into a composite profile. SAP provides a
set of predefined authorization profiles that are adequate for normal use, but new
authorization profiles can be created.


E.4.3 Profile Generator

The Profile Generator is based on the concept of authorization objects,
authorizations, and authorization profiles. Use the Profile Generator to assign
the authorization to users.



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E.4.4 Roles

Within a role, multiple responsibilities can be maintained. One way to use
responsibilities within a role is to maintain organizational values. Organizational
levels are permanently defined fields in authorization objects, which reference
the enterprise structure, for example, the company codes of an enterprise. The
authorization profiles can, be generated for different company codes.


F. Introduction to ASAP
Definition:
ASAP is a method used

       To minimize the time needed for SAP R/3 implementation project
       To free up resources quickly and
       To realize the benefits of R/3.

Therefore, technical implementation with ASAP helps to build an R/3 system in
shortest possible time and to integrate this system into an existing system
landscape.


How can ASAP help you?

Reasons for choosing R/3, from among the standard software are:

   Complete: R/3 integrate all business functions areas so it can map most of
    the company's processes.
   Modular: The modules of R/3 correspond largely to the organizational
    divisions of the company and can be implemented on a step-by-step basis.
   Scalable: The R/3 client/server architecture consists of four layers:
    presentation, Internet enabling, application, and database. The software on
    each layer can be distributed as required over various computers, thus
    supporting systems that have from one to several thousand users.
   Open: R/3 runs on common operating systems and uses Relational Database
    Management Systems.

There are many methods and tools to help with the implementation of R/3 but
ASAP is the only method that provides the best support because it takes into
consideration experiences from numerous successful R/3 implementation
projects.
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