Incorporating_ Ecosystem Objectives into Management of Sustainable Marine Fisheries_ Including 'Best Practice' Reference Points and Use of Marine Protected Areas in Ecosystem-based Management by hellais


									Incorporating Ecosystem Objectives into Fisheries Management
including: „best practice‟ reference points and use of Marine Protected Areas

Keith Sainsbury CSIRO Australia
Ussif Rashid Sumalia UBC Canada CMI Norway

Incorporating Ecosystem Related Objectives Into Management for Sustainable Fisheries

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What are these “ecosystem related objectives”
The challenge Some ways forward

Some Ecosystem Related Objectives From International Agreements


Manage resources sustainably for human nutritional, economic and social goals (LOSC and UNCED)

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Protect rare or fragile ecosystems, habitats and species (UNCED)
Conserve genetic, species and ecosystem biodiversity (CBD) Preventative, precautionary and anticipatory planning and implementation (UNCED) Protect and maintain the relationships and dependencies between species (UNCED)
UNCED=UN Convention on the Environment and Development (1992) LOSC=UN Law of the Sea Convention (1982) CBD= Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)

The Challenge: Bridging the Gap Between “High Level” Objectives and Operational Management
Operational questions: • What specific outcomes are intended? • What are the targets, limits and levels of acceptable change? • How will a given management action help or hinder the intent? • How would success or failure be measured and detected? • How can precaution and balance be achieved across objectives that span use and conservation of complex ecosystems?

Steps Forward - Bridging the Gap
Achieving sustainability is not easy, even for target species let alone ecosystems But we know enough to make a very good start: 1. Report performance and assess management strategies for the system as a whole 2. Use reference points that incorporate uncertainty and ecosystem considerations

3. Make better use of inherently precautionary management measures such as protected areas

1. Performance Reporting and Assessment for the Management System as a Whole


Establish the hierarchy between high level and operational objectives
High level objective Component Operational objective Indicator Reference point Performance measure Broad statement of intent

A major issue of relevance Objective with direct and practical interpretation Something measured to track an operational objective Target and limit 'benchmarks' for indicators Relationship between indicator and benchmark

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High level objectives need operational objectives Operational objectives need indicators and reference points Indicators and reference points give performance measures

Performance Reporting for the Management System as a Whole: a practical application

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An approach to reporting Sustainable Development for Australian fisheries - similar approach elsewhere Identify components for high level objectives
Ecological well-being Human well-being Ÿ Indigenous Ÿ Local and regional Ÿ National social and economic Ability to achieve Ÿ Governance Ÿ Effects of environment & other users

Ÿ Retained species Ÿ Non-retained species Ÿ Other environmental issues


Develop „component tree‟ linking high level objectives to operational objectives - via as many sub-components needed

Example „component tree‟ linking high level to operational objectives




Risk assessment to identify and weight important branches Report for each terminal - objectives - performance measures - monitoring - management response Transparent, simple & flexible reporting framework






Impacts of the biological community (eg trophic structure) through

Other Air quality Fuel useage/exhaust Greenhouse gas emmissions Water quality Debris Oil discharge Substrate quality Foreshore Inter-tidal

Removal of/damage to oragnisms by: Bait collection Fishing Ghost fishing Benthic biota

Addition/movement of biological material by: Stock enhancement Discarding/ provisioning Translocation

Assessment of the Management System as a Whole

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The „component tree‟ identifies the important issues and - targets, monitoring, and proposed management response Taken as a whole - are they likely to achieve the objectives within and across branches? What management strategies can be expected to achieve the operational objectives? - balance of outcomes - risks and precaution

Scientific Evaluation of Feedback Management Strategies
Methods for evaluation have been developed:

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Adaptive management methods (Walters, Hilborn and others)
Management procedure methods (IWC, Butterworth and others) Management strategy evaluation

Simulation Testing of Operational Management Strategies
A Management Strategy contains:

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Performance measures Monitoring Analysis method Decision rules Feedback for “detection and correction” Implementation

Performance measures

SIMULATE Ecological Dynamics Initial System Structure

SIMULATE Management Decision Process

Observations Proposed action Assessment analysis Apply management strategy decision rules Models of system & impacts Subsequent System Structure Implement decisions

Management Strategy Evaluation - Experience
Many applications: • Fishery target species management - reference points, monitoring, decision rules


Maintaining food-chain dependencies (eg CCAMLR)


Setting by-catch limits (eg Potential Biological Removals)
Maintaining habitats and fish community composition (eg Australian NW Shelf and GB Reef) Understanding robustness, risk, precaution, trade-offs

2. Use Reference Points that Incorporate Uncertainty and Ecosystem Considerations


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Appropriate reference points depend on the management system as a whole But there is an emerging „best practice‟ Incomplete but developing - mainly at species level and accounting for some
ecological processes - weak for ecosystem properties (habitats, biodiversity, food-webs, community structure) - no guarantee they are necessary or sufficient for ecological sustainability


A credible starting point
- practical and useable now

Some Emerging „Best Practice‟ Reference Points for Ecologically Sustainable Fisheries
Target Limit Ÿ Mortality or biomass for MSY Ÿ Equivalent limits for data limited fisheries Ÿ Fishing mortality as close to zero as possible Ÿ Potential Biological Removal level of mortality

Target and bycatch species

Endangered and protected species

Significant prey species Ÿ Foodweb in balance (FIB) index not decreasing Ÿ Viable and representative foodweb undisturbed in protected areas: reference sites

Ÿ Biomass not less than halfway between MSY and unfished levels


Some Emerging „Best Practice‟ Reference Points for Ecologically Sustainable Fisheries
Target Ÿ No loss of spawning areas or local extinctions. Ÿ Low selective differential Ÿ Small reduction in effective spawning population. Ÿ Viable and representative biodiversity undisturbed in protected areas: reference sites Limit Ÿ No extinctions or stocks below genetically viable levels Ÿ Effective spawning population not less than half unfished level



Ÿ Not less than half of habitat area present when unfished Ÿ Reversible in human generation time (20y) Ÿ Overfished stocks recovered in 10y or 1 fish generation time if greatly different Ÿ Combined fishery and non-fishery uses meet the above Ÿ Combined fishery and non-fishery uses meet the above


Effects of nonfishery uses

3. Use of Inherently Precautionary Management Measures Such as Marine Protected Areas
What is an MPA? • An area managed to protect and maintain biological diversity, and natural and associated cultural resources (IUCN 1994) Categories of MPA range from: • Reserve or sanctuary - minimal impacts and no extractive use • Habitat/species protected area - manage to protect specific values • Resource Protected Area - managed for sustainable resource use What can MPAs achieve in theory? • Reference site for comparison • Preservation and restoration



Medium - Long-term Community Structure

Habitat damage stopped Fishing mortality eliminated Spawning habitat condition improves

Biodiversity increases Ecological function enhanced Communities stabilize Habitat complexity increase Higher trophic structure rebuilds

Mean age and size increase Individuals live longer

Population Structure
„Natural‟ age/size structures re-established Recruitment enhanced

Biomass & spawning biomass increase Number and density increase

Population Abundance
Reproductive output increases

Reduced loss of genetic information

Spillover Larval Export Stability Enhancement

What Have MPAs Achieved in Practice?

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Often demonstrated
• Increased abundance, size and density of species

Sometimes demonstrated
• Increased fecundity and reproductive capacity • Increased species richness and genetic diversity • Increased fishery yield in surrounding area • Economic benefits to fishery and other uses


But effects poorly known because
• Weak baseline data • Reserves small and/or recent • Little performance evaluation for most MPAs

How Can We Enhance MPA Success?


Apply design methods that are available
- including uncertainty - area, location, shape of MPAs - networks of MPAs


Identify operational objectives and management strategy
- evaluate and establish monitoring and performance assessment


Meet critical information needs
- what is where, and what interconnections - scale and location of major seafloor habitat types - new technologies can help

Incorporating Ecosystem Related Objectives Into Fisheries Management: Conclusions
There are existing methods and approaches that can be applied now: 1. Use transparent and „whole system‟ approach to - link high level and operational objectives - demonstrate basis of prioritisations - structure performance reporting 2. Assess and design management strategies for - robustness and precaution - adequacy of monitoring and planned „detectioncorrection‟ response

Incorporating Ecosystem Related Objectives Into Management for Sustainable Fisheries: Conclusions
3. Use emerging „best practice‟ reference points 4. Improve design and use of marine protected areas - precaution and preservation - monitoring and performance assessment - use as reference sites Continuous improvements will be made but we have the basis for a credible and major first step

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