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Dynamical Processes in Star Forming Regions

VIEWS: 41 PAGES: 39

									Dynamical Processes in Star Forming Regions: Feedback
John Bally
for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences University of Colorado, Boulder
1Center

Introduction •
>10 kpc 1 kpc 100 pc 10 pc 1 pc What Drives ISM turbulence? • How Does Star Formation Self-Regulate Galactic Processes: - Decay of Infall Motions, MRI - Spiral Density Waves, Swing amplification Massive Stars / Clusters / OB Associations: - Supernovae / Supershells / Super-Rings - Winds: OB, LBV, WR, … - UV:  < 912 A 912 A <  < ~ 2000 A Young Stars: - Jets, protostellar winds P(k) : Why don’t we see breaks? @ Injection scales ? @ 2D => 3D at scale height( ~100pc) ? @ unbound => bound (~1 pc) ?

Young stars: Jets & Outflows
- Jets: Velocity variations => Sideways splashing - Wide angle winds: Most jets surrounded by lower V, n wind - Stellar dynamics: Core fragments or capture => non-coplanar multiples => Precessing Jets, Winds

Wide Cavities

HH 46/47 NTT [OII] Ha [SII] mm Bally & Reipurth (06 “Birth of Stars & Planets” CUP = BR06)

HH 46/47 Spitzer (Noriega-Crespo 04; BR06)

H2 PAH mm

HH 46/47 (Hartigan et al. 05, AJ BR06)

HST 1994

HH 46/47 (Hartigan et al. 05, AJ BR06)

HST 1997

Outflows:
Jets, Winds => Wide-Angle Cavities
Disk winds X-winds Internal working surfaces Terminal working surface

HH jet (high V) HI CO outflow (low V) H2 (moderate V)

L1551
(BR06)
HH 30 (HST)

X-ray source ~0.5” from IRS5

Ha [SII]

CO J=2-1

HH 2

HH 1

HST / WFPC2 1994

(Bally et al. 2000; BR06)

HH 2

HH 1

HST / WFPC2 1997

(Bally et al. 2000; BR06)

HH 2: Small scale chaotic motion (102 - 104 AU)

HST / WFPC2 1994

(Bally et al. 2000; BR06)

HH 2: Small scale chaotic motion (102 - 104 AU)

HST / WFPC2 1997

(Bally et al. 2000; BR06)

NGC 1333

IC 348

Miesch & Bally (94); BR06

IRAS 03235+3004

HH Objects: Trace 30 to > 300 km s-1 shocks
Previously known HH New HHs

Walawender et al. (04; 05)

NGC 1333

Ha, [SII] Walawender, Bally, Reipurth (06) Spitzer/IRAC Jorgensen et. (06)

Cepheus A: L ~ 2 x 104 Lo
CO CO CO

DV = 10 km/s

DV = 6 km/s
H2

DV = 4 km/s

Ceph A East

Ceph A West

Ceph A

Cunningham, Moeckel, & Bally

Ceph A

N. Patel (05)

Cunningham, Moeckel, & Bally

Ceph A precessing jet: P ~ 2 x 103 yr ? Cunningham, Moeckel, & Bally

QuickTime™ and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Nickolas Moeckel (2006) SPH: Massive star capture-formed binary: Disk orientation change

Capture formed, eccentric binary model: Moeckel, Cunningham, & Bally

Massive Stars / Clusters / OB Association
- UV: Soft UV (912 < l ~ 2000 A): PDRs cs ~ 1 - 5 km s-1 Ionizing ( < 912 A) cs ~ 10 km s-1 - Stellar winds: dM / dt, Vw - Post Main-Sequence: LBV, WR, … Stronger winds, soft UV - Supernovae / Superbubbles:

Dominate Energetics of ISM?

The Orion/Eridanus Bubble (Ha): d=180 to 500pc; l > 300 pc Orion OB1 Association: ~40 > 8 M stars: ~20 SN in 10 Myr 
Ori (< 3 Myr)

1a (8 - 12 Myr; d ~ 350 pc)) 1b (3 -6 Myr; d ~ 420 pc) 1c (2 - 6 Myr; d ~ 420 pc) 1d (<2 Myr; d ~ 460 pc)

Barnards's Loop

Eridanus Loop

Orion Molecular Clouds Orion B

13CO

2.6 mm

Orion Nebula

Orion A

Centipede

HH 131

Orion A:
- Outflows up to 30 pc long ! M42

HH 131

HH 1/2

Orion
M42 (BR06)

UV (soft + ionizing) dominate
dM / dt ~ 10-4 Mo yr-1 @ V ~ 10 - 20 km s-1

Orion BN/KL H2 fingers E ~ 1048 erg

Dynamical Decay of Sub-cluster of massive stars
~ 500 years ago
(N. Cuningham 2006 PhD thesis)

Nathaniel Cunnigham PhD (2006)

500 pc
< 10 Myr bubbles

Orion

Per OB2

Sun

Sco-Cen

30 - 50 Myr old Gould's Belt /Lindblad Ring

de Zeauw et al. 99; Olano & Poppel; Palous …

t ~ 5 Myr

t ~ 20 Myr

t ~ 40 Myr

t ~ 10 Myr
t ~ 60 Myr

103

102

L (pc) 101

General ISM
100 10-1

Observed Spectrum Superbubbles / SN UV / Winds

1034
Outflows

1032

log (k)

(erg s-1 / 100 pc3)

1036

log dE/dt

log P(k)

103

102

L (pc) 101

Star-Forming Core
100 10-1

Observed Spectrum

log P(k)

Outflows

1034

1032

log (k)

(erg s-1 / 100 pc3)

1036

log dE/dt

Conclusions
Self-Regulation / Random motion generation • Low mass-stars only: Giant flows / winds In absence of OBA stars => Self-regulate SF in low-M clusters • + A, late B stars: Soft UV PDRs dissociate / disrupt => Self-regulate SF in moderate-M clusters • + OB Stars: Soft UV + Ionizing UV (MS, post-MS) Winds Supernovae + Superbubbles => Self-regulate SF in OB associations Failure of self-regulation => Bound clusters?

The End

The Carina Nebula (Smith, N. et al. 2004)

1°

8.8 mm (MSX)

Optical - [O III], Hα, [S II]

Mosaic: CTIO 4m

ACS: HST Nathan Smith et al. (in prep).

Irradiated jets in h Car (Tr 14):


								
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