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Observation of Jets_ Outflows _ Shocks

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					Observations of Jets, Outflows, & Shocks

John Bally
1University

of Colorado, Boulder

Outline
• Introduction to Jets & Outfows • Orion in the Larger Context - The OB subgroups - Runaway stars & dynamical ejections - The superbubble • Irradiated Jets & Outflows in the Orion Nebula - Jets from the proplyds - The OMC1-S outflows - The OMC1 outflow and fingers • Dynamical Decay in OMC1 - Mass Segregation, Orbit Decay. - Stellar Ejection - The `Magnetic Bomb’ &the OMC1 outflow.

Star Formation
Shrink size by 107; increase density by x 1021 ! Where planets also form

• Giant Molecular Cloud Core
Raw material for star birth • Gravitational Collapse & Fragmentation Proto-stars, proto-binaries, proto-clusters

• Rotation & Magnetic Fields
Accretion disks, jets, & outflows • Planets Most may form in clusters!

C. Lada

HH 212 H2 (Mc Caughrean & Zinnecker VLT)

HH 46/47 NTT [OII] Ha [SII]386567 mm Bally & Reipurth (06 “Birth of Stars & Planets” CUP = BR06)

HH 46/47 Spitzer (Noriega-Crespo 04; BR06)

H2 PAH36458 mm

HH 46/47 (Hartigan et al. 05, AJ BR06)

HST 1994

HH 46/47 (Hartigan et al. 05, AJ BR06)

HST 1997

Outflows:
Jets, Winds => Wide-Angle Cavities
Disk winds X-winds Internal working surfaces Terminal working surface

HH jet (high V) HI CO outflow (low V) H2 (moderate V)

NGC 1333

Ha, [SII] Walawender, Bally, Reipurth (06) Spitzer/IRAC Jorgensen et. (06)

103

102

L (pc) 101

General ISM
100 10-1

Observed Spectrum Superbubbles / SN

UV / Winds

1034
Outflows

1032

log (k)

(erg s-1 / 100 pc3)

1036

log dE/dt

log P(k)

103

102

L (pc) 101

Star-Forming Core
100 10-1

Observed Spectrum

Outflows

1034

1032

log (k)

(erg s-1 / 100 pc3)

1036

log dE/dt

log P(k)

Mosaic: CTIO 4m

ACS: HST

Irradiated jets in h Car (Tr 14):

Nathan Smith et al. (in prep)

Irradiated jets in h Car (Tr 14):

Nathan Smith et al. (in prep)

The Orion/Eridanus Bubble (Ha): d=180 to 500pc; l > 300 pc Orion OB1 Association: ~40 > 8 M stars: ~20 SN in 10 Myr l
Ori (< 3 Myr)

1a (8 - 12 Myr; d ~ 350 pc)) 1b (3 -6 Myr; d ~ 420 pc) 1c (2 - 6 Myr; d ~ 420 pc) 1d (<2 Myr; d ~ 460 pc)

Barnards's Loop

Eridanus Loop

The Orion Star Forming Complex

AEAur 150 km/s
PERSEUS

L1551

ORION

i Ori

m Col 117 km/s

Wei-Hao Wang

Infrared view of winter sky (10 - 120 mm)

The Orion/Eridanus Bubble (Ha): d=180 to 500pc; l > 300 pc Orion OB1 Association: ~40 > 8 M stars: ~20 SN in 10 Myr l
Ori (< 3 Myr)

1a (8 - 12 Myr; d ~ 350 pc)) 1b (3 -6 Myr; d ~ 420 pc) 1c (2 - 6 Myr; d ~ 420 pc) 1d (<2 Myr; d ~ 460 pc)

Barnards's Loop

Eridanus Loop

Orion Molecular Clouds Orion B

13CO

2.6 mm

Orion Nebula

Orion A

850 mm

2.6 mm CO

Orion below the Belt:
NGC 2024 (OB1 d)

Horsehead Nebula
s Orionis (OB1c) NGC 1981 NGC 1977

Ori OB1c

Orion Nebula

Ori OB1d

i Ori NGC1980: Source of m Col + AE Aur ; V ~ 150 km/s runaways, 2.6 Myr ago

Orion Nebula: (Russell Croman)

OMC 1 Outflow(H2 t = 500 yr)

BNKL Trapezium (L = 105 Lo t < 105 yr ) Hundreds of Proplyds OMC1-S (L = 104 Lo , t < 105 yr)

(L = 105 Lo t << 105 yr)

(Williams et al. 2005)

Mdisk ~ 0.003 to 0.02 Mo

HH 514

HST 2

HH 514 micro-jet in Orion: Ha, [HII]

(HST/STIS)

HH 508

LV6 binary

LV 1 binary

Microjets:

HH 508

1Ori B: 4 low-mass companions!
(Shuping et al. 2006)

Proplyd photo-ablation flows:
HST4 (LV 6), LV 1

dM/dt ~ 10-7 Mo yr -1

(Shuping et al. 2006)
Br  HeI

Position (mas)

Proplyd photo-ablation flows:

HST4 (LV 6), LV 1 (Shuping et al. 2006)

Orion Nebula
OMC1

HH 202

HH529

HH269

OMC1-S

HH 203 HH 204

Orion Nebula
OMC1

HH 202

HH529

HH269

OMC1-S

HH 203 HH 204

Bally et al. (00)

LL Orionis (Orion Nebula):

Jets in a side-wind?

Bally et al 2006

HH 888 from LL Ori

Bally et al 2006

HH502 in Orion: C-symmetric jet-sidewind collision
HH400 rim
Crossing flow

Redshitfted bows

Proplyd & jet

To1C

Blueshifted bow & jet cocoon
Bally et al. (06) Bally et al 2006

HH505 in Orion: jet-sidewind collision fronts
Bally et al 2006

HH 504

HH 505

Bally et al 2006

Bally et al 2006

HH 878 & 879 in Orion

Bally et al 2006

Jets in NGC 1977 (30’ N of Orion Nebula)

The Beehive proplyd;

HH 240 irradiated jet

Bally et al. 2005

d181-825 “Beehive” proplyd

Chandra COUP

Jet

Star

8 ; 10

1280 AU

20 cm

kT ~ 0.57 keV & 3.55 keV NH ~ 8 x 1020 cm-2 (soft) NH ~ 6 x 1022 cm-2 (hard)

(Kastner et al. 2005, ApJS, 160, 511)

d181-825 “Beehive” proplyd

X-ray absorption: NH ~ 8 x1020 cm-2 But, foreground AV ~ 1 mag ! H-alpha:

ne(rI) = 2.6 x 104 cm-3 dM/dt = 2.8 x 10-7 Mo yr-1
Neutral Column: (from 50 AU, V = 3 km/s) NH(RI) = 2.2 x 1021 V3-1 r50-1

Photo-ablation flow metal depleted!
(Kastner et al. 2005, ApJS, 160, 511)

d253-535 and its jet in M43

Smith, Bally, Licht, Walawender 05

How common are close approaches?
HST 16 200 AU diameter

1” = 500 AU

HST 10

0.3 ly to O star Bally et al. 98 HST 17

OMC 1 Outflow(H2 t = 500 yr)

BNKL Trapezium (L = 105 Lo t < 105 yr ) Hundreds of Proplyds OMC1-S (L = 104 Lo , t < 105 yr)

(L = 105 Lo t << 105 yr)

0.5 – 2.2 mm 104 AU

11.7 mm 104 AU

 1C

LV 5

HH202 jet

HH514
HH202 source

HH202 source
OMC1-S

HH529

 1C

LV 5

11.7 mm TReCS

HH202 jet

HH514
HH202 source

HH202 source
OMC1-S

HH529

OMC-1S: Zapata et al. (2005)

OMC-1S: Zapata et al. (2005)

Orion BN/KL H2 fingers E ~ 1048 erg

Dynamical Decay of Sub-cluster of massive stars
~ 500 years ago
(N. Cuningham 2006 PhD thesis)

Nathaniel Cunnigham PhD (2006)

H2 Proper Motions
Nathaniel Cunnigham PhD (2006)

t = r/v ~ 500 yr

t = 1,000 yr

N. Cunningham, J. Bally, M. Burton, M. Hayashi (in prep)

High-velocity stars: I , BN , n (Gomez et al. 2005)

BN: V~ 30 km s-1 I: V~ 13 km s-1 n: V~ 20 km s-1

I

7 mm SiO

7 mm cont

OMC1 H2 fingers

Kaifu et al. (00); Underhill et al (01)

Orbit Decay:
Massive stars orbiting in r-2 sphere of gas + stars

Nick Moeckel PhD Thesis (CU Boulder, in preparation)

The Magnetic Bomb
• ~105 to 500 year ago:
- Velocity damping + orbit decay - 200 AU sub-cluster of 4+ massive stars in OMC1 - Shear dynamo: ~10 mG B field => ~ 40 G in 105 years: EB ~ 1048 ergs - Dynamical decay of non-hierarchical system: E* ~ 3x1047 erg - Ejection of high velocity stars (BN, I, n) => <V> ~ V* ~ 20 km/s Eout ~ 3x1047 erg - Disruption of magnetized circumstellar disks: Vfast ~ 500 km/s

• 500 years ago:

=> Explosive, wide-angle outflow!

QuickTime™ and a GIF decompressor are neede d to see this picture.

Nickolas Moeckel (2006) SPH: Massive star capture-formed binary: Disk orientation change

Ceph A

Cunningham, Moeckel, & Bally

Ceph A precessing jet: P ~ 2 x 103 yr ? Cunningham, Moeckel, & Bally

CONCLUSIONS
• Jets / outflows are common in the Orion Nebula
- Most proplyds power jets - Molecular flows become ionized as they emerge into Nebula. - Irradiated jets bend away from Nebula core: Deflection: Side-winds. Anisotropic irradiation. Radiation pressure.

• Orbit decay of embedded massive stars => Non-hierarchical multiple => Dynamica Decay => Ejection of stars, gas
- Magnetic fields provide boost - Disruption of inner disks during final encounter => Fast ejecta in OMC1 fingers (HH201, 205-210)

The End


				
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