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Report on ICT in Local Govts in Uganda

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									Report on the Usage of ICT in Local Governments in

                     Uganda



                         By
                   Elisha Wasukira
                        and
                   Wilber Naigambi




                      July 2002
                                                    TABLE OF CONTENTS




1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 3
1.1     Background.............................................................................................................. 3

1.2 Methodology ............................................................................................................ 3
  1.2.1 Review of Existing Documents .......................................................................... 4
  1.2.2 Interviews with Key Informants ......................................................................... 4
  1.2.3 Design and Administering Questionnaire for Sample Districts ......................... 5
  1.2.4 Write Final Report .............................................................................................. 5

1.3 Conclusions .............................................................................................................. 6
  1.3.1 Skills Base .......................................................................................................... 6
  1.3.2 Computer Systems Maintenance Skills .............................................................. 6
  1.3.3 Computer Based Distance Learning Possible .................................................... 6
  1.3.4 Capacity Development ....................................................................................... 6

2 ICT IN UGANDA ........................................................................................ 6
2.1     Development of the ICT Infrastructure ................................................................ 6

2.2 The Main Telecommunication Infrastructure Providers .................................... 8
  2.2.1 Uganda Telecom Limited (UTL) ....................................................................... 8
  2.2.2 MTN Uganda Limited ........................................................................................ 9
  2.2.3 Other Mobile Cellular Operators ...................................................................... 10

2.3 Internet Access Service Providers ....................................................................... 10
  2.3.1 VSAT International Data Gateways ................................................................. 10

2.4     Telephone and ISP Tariffs ................................................................................... 10

2.5     Important National Developments ...................................................................... 12

3 LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN UGANDA................................................ 13
3.1 Structure of Local Government System in Uganda ........................................... 13
  3.1.1 Organization of the Local Government System in Uganda ............................. 13
  3.1.2 Responsibilities of Local Governments in Uganda .......................................... 13

3.2     Urban and Rural configuration in Uganda ........................................................ 16

3.3 Important Developments affecting the state of ICT in local governance ........ 17
  3.3.1 Liberalization of the communications Sector................................................... 17
  3.3.2 Creation of post of Information Systems Officers within the district set up .... 17
  3.3.3 The policy of fiscal decentralization which Government wants to introduce .. 18
  3.3.4 Use of a commitment control system by Government ..................................... 18
4 LEVEL OF ICT IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT...................................... 19
4.1     Computer Equipment Available At Districts ..................................................... 19

4.2     Level Of Access Of Computer Equipment By Staff........................................... 19

4.3     Availability Of Local Area Network (LAN) ....................................................... 19

4.4     Access to telephone and/or internet/e-mail ......................................................... 19

4.5     ICT Skill base ........................................................................................................ 19

4.6     Future Trends In ICTs In Local Governments .................................................. 20

4.7     General Plans Of The Districts ............................................................................ 20

4.8     Problems Experienced By Districts ..................................................................... 21

5 EXPERIENCE WITH DISTANCE TRAINING IN UGANDA........... 22
5.1 Experience of IAE at Makerere University ........................................................ 22
  5.1.1 General Organisation ........................................................................................ 22
  5.1.2 Content Production ........................................................................................... 22
  5.1.3 Mode Of Delivery Of Distance Education Courses ......................................... 22
  5.1.4 Similar Programs Conducted By IAE .............................................................. 23
  5.1.5 The African Virtual University (AVU) ............................................................ 23

5.2     Experience of the DISH Distance Learning Project .......................................... 23

6 APPENDICES........................................................................................... 25
6.1     Appendix I: Documentation Collected And Referenced ................................... 25

6.2     Appendix II. List Of Officers Interviewed.......................................................... 25

6.3     Appendix III: Questionnaire administered to districts ..................................... 26

6.4     Appendix IV: District Budgets (Total) ................................................................ 27

6.5     Appendix V: Survey Results and Analysis ......................................................... 28
1 Introduction

1.1   Background

ICTs offer opportunities to enhance learning, for example by offering distance training. IICD
wished to conduct research into the usage of ICT in Local Governments in Uganda. The objective
of the research was to find answers to the following questions with respect to the said opportunities
to enhance learning:
    1. Infrastructure - how are Local Governments in Uganda equipped with ICTs (e.g.
        computers, modems, telephone access, Internet access, radio, satellite TV, etc);
    2. Applications – use of ICTs in Local Governments (e.g. word processing, data collection,
        training, information, communication, etc);
    3. Skills/Competency - what is the level of ICT training and actual use;
    4. Access - which people have access to ICTs;
    5. Expected future trends – planned availability, use and development of ICTs in Local
        Government in Uganda.

IICD accepted a proposal from two Consultants based in Uganda to carry out the research, as per
the terms of reference proposed by IICD and reproduced and amended in the proposal. The
Consultants are:
       Elisha Wasukira      Lead Consultant
       Wilber Naigambi      Consultant

ICTs offer many opportunities to enhance learning, including:
   1. Using ICTs to assist instructors in face-to-face learning
   2. Distance training

The Consultants understanding was that distance learning is the focus in conducting the research.
The methodology and technology/equipment for the two scenarios above differ in some ways. For
example in scenario 1, instructors could be required, and will need computers (PCs) and instruction
aides such as PC screen beamers and writing boards. Distance learning on the other hand may need
multimedia equipped PCs and Internet/email access as a minimum requirement, without face-to-
face instructors. The number of „learners‟ and PCs required will be different, depending on the
scenario intended.

There are a number of programmes in Uganda aimed at building capacity of Local Governments
personnel to manage their affairs, in response to a serious lack of capacity after the decentralisation
policy was made operational. As a result Local Governments officers time is severely constrained
by numerous seminars and workshops, to such extend that any new training programmes may add
to the current overload. Any (more) training has to take this into account.



1.2   Methodology

The methodology used for carrying out the assignment was to divide the assignment into 4 activities
with a total of 11 tasks as indicated below.

Activity No. 1: Review of existing documents
This consisted of the following tasks:

a. Obtaining and reading existing documents;

                                                  3
b. Analyzing reports and summarizing findings in draft report.

Activity No. 2: Interview key informants
This consisted of the following tasks:
a. Designing interview format;
b. Conducting interviews;
c. Identifying sample districts and respondents;
d. Updating draft report.


Activity No. 3: Design and administer questionnaire to districts
This consisted of the following tasks:
a. Identifying gaps between information at hand and terms of reference
b. Designing questionnaire;
c. Administering questionnaire.

Activity No. 4: Write final report
This consisted of the following tasks:
a. Analyzing questionnaire returns and making conclusions;
b. Updating draft report to obtain final report.

Details of what was done in each of the activities are explained below.

1.2.1   Review of Existing Documents
The strategy was to obtain Strategic Plans of each of the key service delivery sectors in Local
Governments, i.e. Health and Education (making up about 75% of all services provided by Local
Governments) in order to obtain information on their future plans for Local Governments. In
addition, documents on progress and status of the decentralization process, and documents on
capacity planning for Ministry of Local Government were consulted. The findings were
documented in our first draft report. The complete list of documents, which we obtained, read and
from which we formed our initial opinion are listed in Appendix I. Also included are useful web
sites.

1.2.2   Interviews with Key Informants
In order to obtain further information and a better understanding of the documents obtained, we
interviewed officials from the various sectors, listed in Appendix II. The draft report was again
updated.

The local government structure in Uganda has five levels; Local Council I (or LC I) to Local
Council V (or LC V). Local councils are either administrative unit councils i.e. perform only
administrative duties but no service delivery functions, or local government councils i.e. perform
both administrative and service delivery functions.        LC V and LC III are local government
councils, making them the most important units in the local government structure. At the moment
there are 56 districts (Local Council V) and about 890 Sub counties (Local Council III). For
purposes of this research it was found more useful to deal with local councils that are involved in
service delivery, that is LC V and LC III. However only the LC V level was considered for the
following reasons:
 The District (LC V) has responsibility for capacity development at the lower levels, therefore
    matters of distance learning would a responsibility of the LC V



                                                   4
   The infrastructure and equipment to support distance learning at LC III level is hardly there at
    the moment, and it is not feasible in the foreseeable future to equip all 890 LV III to an
    acceptable level for distance learning.

During the interview with Ministry of Local Government officials, 11 districts; namely Apac,
Iganga, Kibaale, Luweero, Masindi, Mbale, Mbarara, Mubende, Mukono, Rakai and Soroti, were
selected as the sample districts using the following criteria: -
 A selection of „Old‟ districts which have been under decentralisation for over 3 years and
    therefore considered to have mature administrative and operational systems;
 A selection of „New‟ districts which have been under decentralisation for less than 3 years and
    whose administrative and operational systems are not yet mature;
 Regional distribution: At least one district from each of the major regions of Uganda namely
    Western, Eastern, Northern and Central regions.

The characteristics of the sample districts are shown in the Table below:

             District          New/Old?              Region
        1    Apac              New                   North
        2    Iganga            Old                   East
        3    Kibaale           New                   West
        4    Luweero           Old                   Central
        5    Masindi           Old                   West
        6    Mbale             Old                   East
        7    Mbarara           Old                   West
        8    Mubende           Old                   Central
        9    Mukono            Old                   Central
        10   Rakai             New                   Central
        11   Soroti            Old                   East



1.2.3   Design and Administering Questionnaire for Sample Districts
Structured telephone interviews were held with the sample districts in the first round. This round
of interviews provided answers to specifications of computers used by districts, skills in ICT
(except spreadsheets), and availability and plans for telephone and Internet facilities in the districts.
However, gaps were still identified between the information obtained, and the terms of reference.
This mainly had to do with the following areas:
 Level of access to computers;
 ICT skills in spreadsheets;
 Number of computers that had CD ROM drives;
 Districts with Resource Centres and/or plans to set them up.

A questionnaire shown in Appendix III was designed and administered to all the sample districts,
and analysed.

1.2.4   Write Final Report
Several internal reports (between the Consultants) were written, taking into account the analysis of
questionnaire returns, interviews and conclusions. A final Report Format was communicated to the
Consultants by IICD (Ref Tjalling Vonk), which required additional information, which
information required further contacts with the sample districts and the Ministry of Local


                                                   5
Government. Most of the information was obtained, as explained in the following sections of this
report.

1.3     Conclusions

1.3.1    Skills Base
There is generally low skill base in the districts to use computer equipment. District staff skilled
enough to use standard computer applications ranges from 10% to 55%, most of which skills are in
word processing applications. Spreadsheets skills are less than 15 %, while those of database
management do are less than 10%. This appears to be the reason why most of the computers are
used for word processing and by Secretaries. The most common application used is MS Word, and
yet it is just one of a suite of 5 programs packaged and installed together. The other components of
the suite are installed and just not used due to lack of skills to use them, and perhaps the initiative to
do so. However, in order for the training to be effective, training programmes to address these areas
should be tailored to the work currently being done by officers. The use of spreadsheets and
database management systems should add value to and ease the way these officers do work at the
moment. Without achieving this objective, training will just be a ritual with no retention value at
all.

1.3.2    Computer Systems Maintenance Skills
Demand gap for skills in computer systems maintenance stands at 100% thus providing immediate
opportunities for training in this area.

1.3.3    Computer Based Distance Learning Possible
The presence of computers in all districts and availability of telephone facilities means that long
distance learning in districts can be done by using the Internet if the districts are facilitated to
“connect” to the internet. In the event that this option turns out to be costly, the sure option of
shipping training and instruction materials on CD ROMs could be used. We believe this is a sure
training delivery option because all districts have computers with functional CD ROM drives.

1.3.4    Capacity Development
The Ministry of Local Government recognizes that development of human resources to address the
current weaknesses in decentralization is key to the success of the decentralization programs.
Planning and managing service delivery functions require planning, budgeting, financial
management, accounting, tendering, and contract preparation skills. Training materials in all these
areas is available worldwide but actual training is beyond equipping district officers with basic ICT
skills. The point here is that there is a big potential, for training in these areas, which could be done
using distance learning techniques. A success story of implementing a similar project by DISH
(Delivery of Improved Services for Health) to train nurses is a good example.

2 ICT In Uganda

2.1     Development of the ICT Infrastructure

Prior to 1996, Uganda‟s communication infrastructure was among the least developed, not only in
the World, but also in Africa. Further more, 70% of the communication services were concentrated
in urban areas, leaving the rural areas with the least access to communication services. As a result
of the liberalisation policies adopted by the Uganda Government during the 1990s, the
infrastructure situation has changed, as shown in the table below:


                                                    6
Growth in ICT Infrastructure Since 1996
     SERVICES PROVIDED                     1996     1998     1999     July     Feb       July
                                                                      2000     2001      2001
     Fixed Lines Connected                 46,000   56,000   58,000   58,000   61,000    56,149
     Mobile Subscriber                     3,500    40,000   70,000   140,00   210,000   276,034
                                                                      0
     National Telephone Operators          1        2        2        2        2         2
     Mobile Cellular Operators             1        2        2        2        3         3
     Internet       Access       Service   2        7        9        9        8         9
     Providers
     Internet/Email          Subscribers                              500      1200      6500**
     (Wireless Access)
     Internet/Email          Subscribers                              4,000    4,500
     (Dial-up)
     VSAT        International     Data                               4        8         8
     Gateways
     Public       Internet       Service            3        8        14       24        49
     Providers (Cafes)
     Public Payphone Licences                       7        13       19       18
     Paging Service Providers              2        3        3        3                  3
     FM Radio Stations                     14       28       37       40       100       110
     Television Stations                   4        8        11       11       19        20
     Private Radio Communication           453      530      688      688      770       1210
     Operators
     National Postal Operators             1        1        1        1        1         1
     Courier Service Providers                      7        8        10       10        10




                                                        7
The trend depicted above shows tremendous growth in communication and ICT infrastructure.
However the level of infrastructure and services are way below the average compared with other
economies in the World. Moreover most of the developments are still concentrated in urban areas,
benefiting a small percentage of Ugandans.

2.2     The Main Telecommunication Infrastructure Providers

The Communications Act of 1997 provided for two „National Telephone Operators‟, a duopoly that
was designed to give incentives to private investors in the telecommunication sector. Therefore
some services will be provided by only the two operators for a period of 5 years, starting in July
2000. The two National Operators are Uganda Telecom Limited (UTL) and MTN Uganda.

2.2.1    Uganda Telecom Limited (UTL)
Uganda Telecom Limited took over the telecommunication services of the former government
owned Uganda Posts and Telecommunications Corporation (UP&TC) which, until 1995 was the
only major telecom operator in Uganda.

Uganda Telecom was privatized in 1996 with Uganda Government retaining 49% shares and 51%
shares being held by a consortium comprising Telecel (from Switzerland), Detecon (subsidiary of
Deutsche Telecom of Germany) and Orascom (from Egypt).

Uganda Telecom has 3 divisions, namely Landline, Mobile, ISP & Data.

(i)      Landline Division:
          Largest Landline Network with 100,000 capacity countrywide.
          55,000 customer connections
          Basic Rate and Primary Rate ISDN Services
          Prepaid Landline Service - Tele-save 95x.

(ii)     Mobile Division
          Mobile Network Covering Kampala, Entebbe, Mukono, Lugazi, Jinja, Iganga, Tororo,
           Mbale, Masaka, Mbarara, Kabale (plus towns in-between), expansion is still occurring.
          90,000 customers (end of April 2002)
          Prepaid Services
          Post paid Services
          SMS
          Voice Mail
          E-mail to Mobile

(iii)  ISP & Data Division
Internet
        Dial Up Internet & e-mail services (Analog Line, ISDN)
        Dedicated Internet Bandwidth (Broad band Wireless, xDSL)
        Web Hosting
        Domain Name Registration
        Mail Hosting
        Virtual Private Networks
Data
        Dominant Provider of Data Connectivity Services
                                                8
           Countrywide Data Network providing:
               o Digital Leased Lines- Local, National, International
               o Frame Relay Services- Data Packet Switching
               o Points of Presence for Internet Services
           Professional Services: Consultancy, Solution Design & Implementation for Customers.

Infrastructure Deployed
Transmission:
        Two (2) International Gateways- Voice, Data, Internet
        National SDH and PDH Microwave Systems for Inter- Exchange Transport
        Optic Fibre Rings in Kampala
        PCM copper based systems for Inter-Exchange Transport

Switching:
        GSM Mobile Switch at Mengo
        Analog & Digital Telephone Exchanges all over the country for landline services
        Data Nodes for Country-wide Data Network
Access:
        Copper Cable Access Network in major towns
        GSM base stations
        Optic Fibre in Kampala
        Broadband Wireless System

2.2.2 MTN Uganda Limited
MTN Uganda launched mobile phone operations in October 1998 as the Second National Operator
(SNO). MTN is required by its license to cover all Uganda‟s districts and county headquarters.
Services and products provided by MTN are:

(i)     Mobile Phone
        220,000 subscribers
        Coverage in 85 towns, translating into
             - 65% coverage
             - 93% urban coverage
             - 75% population coverage
        Products and services available for mobile subscribers
             - Voice mail
             - Call forwarding, call waiting, call holding
             - SMS
             - Short mail (Email2Mobile)
             - SMS Info
             - Roaming (66 operators in 43 destinations)

(ii)    Fixed line services, using FWTs on the GSM Network, Wireless Local Loop (WLL) and
       Fibre Optic Line
        Basic Telephony
        Voice and fax digital lines
        High speed dial up data service
        ISDN services (First operator to offer ISDN services in East and Central Africa)
        Leased Lines
        Internet Bandwidth

                                                 9
(iii)     International Gateway
         MTN owns two international gateways, with the second offering resilience. Thus MTN
           connects to 260 countries directly
         MTN has direct links to East Africa, i.e. Kenya and Rwanda

2.2.3 Other Mobile Cellular Operators
Apart from the two National Telephone Operators, there is a third mobile phone operator; Celtel
Uganda Limited (Celtel)

All mobile phone operators offer pre-paid and post-paid/contract services. Competition between the
mobile phone operators has brought some advantages to the users, including:
     Lower airtime charges
     Increased coverage
     Introduction of value added services such as voice-mail and text messaging

2.3     Internet Access Service Providers

By February 2002 there were 17 licensed Internet Service Providers (ISPs) in Uganda. (Note: Those
providing Internet access services, as opposed to Public Internet Services, which are mainly cafes)
Most ISPs provide Internet/Email access only in Kampala. Internet/Email subscribers outside
Kampala have to make “national” calls to connect to their ISP‟s access point, which makes these
services very expensive.

2.3.1 VSAT International Data Gateways
Uganda Communications Commission (UCC) stopped issuing new International Data Gateway
licenses, in July 2000 at the start of the 5-year exclusivity period for the National Telecom
Operators. However by then 8 providers had been licensed. The cost of VSAT terminals has
dramatically dropped in recent years. Whereas such terminals used to cost several tens of thousands
of US Dollars, a terminal can be purchased and installed for less than 5,000 US Dollars today, for
small to medium internet access needs. This technology is likely to play a crucial role in providing
Internet access to rural Uganda.

2.4     Telephone and ISP Tariffs

The Table below shows the cost of Internet/email dial-up services from UTL, one of the two
“national operators”

                                                                  Instal   Fee Monthly      fee
        Category       Description of service
                                                                  (USD)        (USD)
        Diamond        Email and Internet, unlimited              30          45
        Platinum       Email and Internet, [Upto 30hrs a month]   30          30
        Gold           Email Up-to 20MB                           30          20
        Silver         Email Up-to 10MB                           30          10
                       Email and Internet, 7.00PM + All day
        Moonlighters                                        30                35
                       Weekends
The Table below shows the telephone tariffs for one of National Operators




                                                       10
UTL Tariffs

Classic Landline (VAT exclusive)
Connection fee                                   70.59 USD
ISDN monthly rental                              11.76 USD per channel
Optional telephone set                           38.24 USD onwards
Monthly Rental
Exchange Cat 1                5.88 USD + 5.88 USD Minimum Consumption
Exchange Cat 2                4.41 USD + 4.41 USD
Exchange Cat 3                2.94 USD + 2.94USD
                         Standard     Rate Relax USD/min            Family    Sunday
                         USD/min                                    USD/min
Local Calls              0.07                 0.04                  0.03
Internet countrywide(*)  0.06                 0.04                  0.03
National Calls           0.10                 0.07                  0.06
Mango (Telecel)          0.10                 0.07                  0.06
MTN                      0.16                 0.13                  0.13
Celtel                   0.19                 0.16                  0.16
E.A, Burundi & Rwanda    0.38                 0.35                  0.35
UK, South Africa & North 0.76                                       0.53
America
India & U.A.E            0.94                                       0.82
Europe                   0.85                                       0.59
Middle East, South & 1.06                                           0.82
Central America, Asia,
Australia, New Zealand
& Africa
Special Countries (e.g. 1.76                                        1.76
Cuba)



UTL/Telecel (Mango) Post Paid GSM Phone Service (in US$)

                           Peak                  Economy                Super Economy
UTL Land Line              0.16                  0.15                   0.11
Mango                      0.20                  0.16                   0.11
MTN                        0.25                  0.21                   0.21
EA, Rwanda, Burundi        0.59                  0.59                   0.59
                                      Peak                    Super International
UK, South Africa & USA                1.08                    0.71
India & UAE                           1.47                    1.12
Europe                                1.18                    0.71
ME, South & Central America           1.59                    1.24
Canada, Australia & New Zealand       1.18                    1.24
Africa & Asia                         1.59                    1.24
Special Countries (e.g. Cuba)         2.06                    2.06




                                               11
UTL/Telecel (Mango) Pre Paid GSM Phone Service (in US$)

Connection Fee                                      24
Monthly Rental                                      11
                              Peak                       Economy             Super Economy
UTL Land Line                 0.10                       0.08                0.07
Mango                         0.12                       0.10                0.07
MTN                           0.16                       0.14                0.14
Celtel                        0.19                       0.15                015
EA, Rwanda, Burundi           0.38                       0.38                0.38
                                             Peak                  Super International
UK, South Africa & USA                       0.76                  0.53
India & UAE                                  0.94                  1.12
Europe                                       0.85                  0.59
ME, South & Central America                  1.06                  0.82
Canada, Australia & New Zealand              0.85                  0.59
Africa & Asia                                1.06                  0.59
Special Countries (e.g. Cuba)                1.76                  1.76



Although these figure have been taken from one operator, they are fairly representative of the
national cost of communication.

In addition, apart from dial-up, a number of ISPs offer alternative modes of connectivity and service
to the Internet, as summarised in following table:

                                     Equipment & Installation      Monthly Fee
  Broadband wireless                 2,500                         4KB - 250
                                                                   8KB - 300
                                                                   64KB – 1,000
  Leased Line                        1,000                         64KB – 1,000
  VSAT                               4,700                         Traffic, 4GB – 250
                                                                   Every extra 1MB – 0.24

            Note: Amounts in US dollars

2.5        Important National Developments

The following are deemed to be important national developments that will affect the state of ICT in
the country

      1.       Sometime last year the Government of Uganda identified ICT as one of 7 key areas for
               strategic investment, especially ebusiness
      2.       A Science a Technology Committee has been set up in Parliament, and one of its main
               issues is ICT
      3.       The National ICT Policy has been approved by stakeholders, and is due to be presented
               to Cabinet for approval




                                                    12
3 Local Government In Uganda

3.1   Structure of Local Government System in Uganda

3.1.1 Organization of the Local Government System in Uganda
The system of Local Government in Uganda is based on the district, as a unit under which there are
lower Local Governments and Administrative Units. The Local Government system consists of
Local Government Councils administering and /or providing services to demarcated geographic
areas spanning from villages (which are administered by Local Government Council I) to districts
(which are administered by Local Government Council V). Local councils are mandated with
executive powers to formulate policies and provide services to the population they lead. The
difference between the various levels of local government councils depends on responsibilities
mandated for that level, geographical size of the unit and number of inhabitants of the unit. Uganda
at the moment has 56 districts and about 890 Sub counties. The geographical units administered by
each level of the local councils are shown in the Figure 3.1 below. Local councils are either
administrative unit councils i.e. perform only administrative duties but no service delivery
functions, or local government councils i.e. perform both administrative and service delivery
functions. Figure 3.1 below shows the various levels of the local councils and also whether they are
local government councils or administrative unit councils.

Figure 3.1:   Local Government Structure in Uganda

Local Government Councils            Administrative Unit Councils
                                     Levels and corresponding geographical Units

                                                                   Local Council
                                                                   V District

                                                                     Local Council
                                                                     IV County

                                                                     Local Council
                                                                     III Sub-county

                                                                   Local Council II
                                                                   Parish

                                                                   Local Council
                                                                   I Village



3.1.2 Responsibilities of Local Governments in Uganda
This Section outlines the responsibilities of both the (Central) Government and local governments
in Uganda.

Functions and services for which Central Government is responsible
1.   Arms, ammunitions and explosives
2.   Defense, Security, maintenance of law and order

                                                13
3.    Banks, banking, promissory notes, currency and exchange control
4.    Taxation and taxation policy
5.     Citizenship, immigration, emigration, refugees, deportation, extradition, passport and
       national identity cards
6.    Copyrights, patents and trade marks and all forms of intellectual property, incorporation and
      regulation of business organizations
7.    Land, mines, mineral and water resources and the environment
8.    National Parks
9.    Public holidays,
10.   National monuments, antiquities, archives and public records
11.   Foreign relations and external trade
12.   The regulation of trade and Commerce
13.   Making national plans for provision of services and coordinating plans made by Local
      Governments
14.   National elections
15.   Energy Policy
16.   Transport and Communication Policy
17.   National census and statistics
18.   Public Services of Uganda
19.   The Judiciary
20.   National Standards
21.   Education Policy
22.   National Surveys and mappings
23.   Industrial Policy
24.   Forests and game reserve policy
25.   National research policy
26.   Control and Management of epidemics and disasters
27.   Health policy
28.   Agricultural policy

Functions and Services for which District Councils (Local Govt) are responsible
1. Education services, which cover nursery, primary, secondary, trade, special education and
   technical education
2. Medical and health services which include:-
       (a) Hospitals, other than those providing referral and medical training
       (b) Health centers, dispensaries, sub- dispensaries and first aid posts
       (c) Maternity and child welfare services
       (d) The control of communicable diseases, including HIV, Leprosy and TB
       (e) Control of spread of disease in the district
       (f) Rural ambulance services
       (g) Primary health care services
       (h) Vector control
       (i) Environmental sanitation
       (j) Health education
3. Water Services: The provision and maintenance of water supplies
4. Road services: Construction and rehabilitation of maintenance of roads not under the
   responsibility of government
5. Other services such as
       (a) Crop, animal and fisheries husbandry extension services
       (b) Human resource management and development
       (c) Recurrent and development budgets
       (d) District statistical services

                                                14
       (e) District planning
       (f) Local government development planning
       (g) Land ad ministration
       (h) Land surveying
       (i) Physical planning
       (j) Forests and wetland
       (k) Licensing of produce buying
       (l) Trade license
       (m) Trade development services
       (n) Commercial inspectorate
       (o) Co-operative development
       (p) Industrial relations
       (q) Social rehabilitation
       (r) Labour matters
       (s) Probation and welfare
       (t) Street children and orphans
       (u) Women in development
       (v) Community development
       (w) Youth affairs
       (x) Cultural affairs

Functions and Services, which District Councils may devolve to Sub-county Council
   1. Provision of nursery and Primary education
   2. Provision of agricultural ancillary filed services
   3. Provision and control of soil erosion and protection of local wetlands
   4. Control of local hunting and fishing
   5. Provision of
       (a)     Hygiene services and health and health units other than health centres
       (b)     Adult education
       (c)     Community based health care services
   6. The provision and Management of ferries
   7. The provision and measures to prevent and contain food shortages, including relief of work
   8. Markets establishment, management and collection of revenue
   9. The establishment, control and management of recreation grounds, open spaces and parks
   10. The making, altering, diversion and maintenance of works, paths, culverts, bridges, road
       drains and water courses
   11. Measures requiring owners and occupiers of land of premises to close and keep free from
       vegetation any road adjoining their land or premises
   12. The enforcement of
           (a) Standards of buildings and standards of maintenance of buildings
           (b) Proper methods for the disposal of refuse
   13. The control of trading centres, markets and landing sites and the carrying on the local
       industries and the organisation and encouragement of local trade
   14. The provision of community development schemes as may be approved by the District
       Council
   15. The maintenance of community roads
   16. Protection and maintenance of local water resources
   17. Maintenance of community infrastructure

Functions of Administrative Unit Councils
   At county level;
   1. To advise area Members of Parliament on the matters pertaining to the county

                                              15
      2. At the County and Parish levels to resolve problems or disputes referred to it by relevant
         Sub-County or village councils
      3. Resolve problems identified at that level
      4. To monitor the delivery of services within its area of jurisdiction
      5. Assist in maintenance of laws, order and security

    At the Parish or Village Executive Committee;
    1. Assists in implementation of law, order and security
    2. Initiate, encourage, support and participate in self help projects and mobilise people,
        material and technical assistance
    3. At the Village level, vet and recommend persons in the area who should be recruited into the
        armed forces,
    4. Serve as a communication Channel between Government, District and the people in the area
    5. Generally monitor projects and other activities undertaken by the Government, Local
        Governments and NGOs in their area.
Number of Staff employed at District Level
There has been no formal establishment structure for the Districts, which has resulted in some
irregularities in hiring staff for the Districts. Therefore officials in charge are reluctant to disclose
their numbers of staff in the entire district establishments. There is currently a staff restructuring
exercise going on by the Ministry of Public Service in collaboration with Ministry of Local
Government to correct this problem. Estimated numbers of officers in the districts should be
available by October 2002. From our own observations we estimate that there are between 50 to
100 persons for smaller and newer Districts, and over 200 persons for older/bigger districts.

3.2     Urban and Rural configuration in Uganda

Except for Kampala district, the capital city of Uganda, the rest of the districts in Uganda are such
that each district has a few urban centers, and the rural part with the majority of the area and
population. An urban center could be a Town, Municipality, or City depending on the number of
inhabitants in the area. The number of inhabitants for each urban unit is: - a town has above 25,000
inhabitants; a municipality has above 100,000 inhabitants while a city has above 500,000
inhabitants. The majority of the people in all the districts of Uganda live in rural areas; only 11% of
the total population of Uganda lives in urban centers. Figures obtained from the 1991 census
showed that the total population of Uganda then was 16.6 million people; the table below shows the
area and population of each district with the population divided into those living in rural areas and
those living in urban centres and also by gender. Since 1991, 11 new districts listed in the same
Table under Category B have been created out of the old ones and the current population is
estimated to be 22.6 million




                                                   16
       Category A: Districts in existance by 1991

       District        Region              Area         Male    Female         Rural       Urban           Total Percent       sub
                                         (Km2) population population population population           population Urban '(%) counties
   1   Adjumani        Northern         3,128.0       46,323     49,941       94,156        2,108         96,264       2.19       6
   2   Apac            Northern         6,541.2      222,854    231,650      448,721        5,783        454,504       1.27      31
   3   Arua            Northern         4,751.2      307,679    330,262      611,229      26,712         637,941       4.19
   4   Bugiri          Eastern          5,700.0      117,027    122,280      234,735        4,572        239,307       1.91       9
   5   Bundibugyo      Western          2,261.6       57,816     58,750      107,351        9,215        116,566       7.91       7
   6   Bushenyi        Western          4,292.5      279,543    299,594      564,942      14,195         579,137       2.45      29
   7   Busia           Eastern            763.0       79,400     84,197      135,630      27,967         163,597      17.10      11
   8   Gulu            Northern        11,715.7      166,318    172,109      300,130      38,297         338,427      11.32      19
   9   Hoima           Western          5,932.7       99,547     98,304      193,235        4,616        197,851       2.33      11
  10   Iganga          Eastern          7,092.0      344,052    362,424      667,046      39,430         706,476       5.58
  11   Jinja           Eastern            767.7      143,336    146,140      208,583      80,893         289,476      27.94      11
  12   Kabale          Western          1,729.6      197,695    219,523      387,972      29,246         417,218       7.01      19
  13   Kabarole        Western          8,318.2      369,818    376,982      709,846      36,954         746,800       4.95
  14   Kalangala       Central          9,066.8        9,929       6,442      14,995        1,376         16,371       8.41       6
  15   Kampala         Central            197.0      377,225    397,016            0     774,241         774,241     100.00       5
  16   Kamuli          Eastern          4,302.1      237,513    247,701      476,952        8,262        485,214       1.70       4
  17   Kapchorwa       Eastern          1,731.7       58,577     58,125      112,098        4,604        116,702       3.95      16
  18   Kasese          Western          3,389.8      167,672    175,929      303,709      39,892         343,601      11.61
  19   Katakwi         Eastern          2,848.0       71,434     73,163      141,104        3,493        144,597       2.42      14
  20   Kibaale         Western          4,246.1      109,756    110,505      217,853        2,408        220,261       1.09      18
  21   Kiboga          Central          4,045.5       72,538     69,069      136,330        5,277        141,607       3.73      14
  22   Kisoro          Western            729.1       86,406    100,275      179,196        7,485        186,681       4.01      13
  23   Kitgum          Northern        16,563.7      172,640    184,544      341,857      15,327         357,184       4.29       2
  24   Kotido          Northern        13,245.2       92,481    103,525      186,304        9,702        196,006       4.95       3
  25   Kumi            Eastern          2,848.0      112,719    123,975      224,945      11,749         236,694       4.96      16
  26   Lira            Northern         7,200.7      247,607    253,358      473,397      27,568         500,965       5.50      28
  27   Luwero          Central          4,804.0      173,926    175,268      320,977      28,217         349,194       8.08      20
  28   Masaka          Central          4,686.6      343,346    351,351      620,952      73,745         694,697      10.62      23
  29   Masindi         Western          9,442.9      131,936    128,860      246,444      14,352         260,796       5.50      14
  30   Mbale           Eastern          2,466.7      355,803    355,177      650,682      60,298         710,980       8.48      31
  31   Mbarara         Western         10,020.8      394,101    404,673      754,769      44,005         798,774       5.51      44
  32   Moroto          Northern        14,351.6       80,061     94,356      161,436      12,981         174,417       7.44      21
  33   Moyo            Northern         4,977.7       38,731     40,650       72,702        6,679         79,381       8.41       8
  34   Mpigi           Central          6,413.5      455,703    458,164      776,741     137,126         913,867      15.01      18
  35   Mubende         Central          6,197.7      254,081    246,895      466,435      34,541         500,976       6.89      18
  36   Mukono          Central         14,308.6      413,580    411,024      725,869      98,735         824,604      11.97      32
  37   Nakasongola     Central          4,400.0       50,473     50,024       92,183        8,314        100,497       8.27       9
  38   Nebbi           Northern         2,917.2      152,093    164,773      292,923      23,943         316,866       7.56      22
  39   Ntungamo        Western          2,055.5      139,083    150,139      286,611        2,611        289,222       0.90
  40   Pallisa         Eastern          1,991.7      173,836    183,820      354,729        2,927        357,656       0.82      21
  41   Rakai           Central          4,908.5      189,082    194,419      368,632      14,869         383,501       3.88      26
  42   Rukungiri       Western          2,858.9      187,885    202,895      377,795      12,985         390,780       3.32      17
  43   Sembabule       Central          2,324.0       72,206     71,833      140,588        3,451        144,039       2.40       5
  44   Soroti          Eastern         10,016.0      138,096    147,697      243,012      42,781         285,793      14.97      17
  45   Tororo          Eastern          1,845.7      193,820    198,157      356,287      35,690         391,977       9.11      46
       Total -Uganda                  244,394.7 8,185,747.0 8,485,958.0 14,782,083.0 1,889,622.0    16,671,705.0      11.33

       Category B: Districts created after 1991

   1   Kaberamaido     Eastern
   2   Kamwenge        Western
   3   Kanungu         Western
   4   Kayunga         Central                                                                                                   8
   5   Kyenjojo        Central
   6   Mayuge          Eastern
   7   Nakapiripirit   Northern
   8   Pader           Northern
   9   Sironko         Eastern
  10   Wakiso          Central                                                                                                  17
  11   Yumbe           Northern


                       Note: Data on population is based on census carried out in 1991




3.3      Important Developments affecting the state of ICT in local governance

3.3.1 Liberalization of the communications Sector
Has increased Tele density and the infrastructure to improve communications

3.3.2 Creation of post of Information Systems Officers within the district set up
Created human resources necessary for identifying and securing IT resources at the districts and
also foster implementation of various IT functions

                                                                            17
3.3.3 The policy of fiscal decentralization which Government wants to introduce
Will provide Local Government Councils with powers to spend on what they deem to their
priorities. At the moment conditional grants provide restrictions on how local governments can
spend money. Conditional grants require that money disbursed by the centre for specific sectors
must be spent only on the line items under which they have been released. These funds constitute
more than 60% of the district budgets

3.3.4 Use of a commitment control system by Government
Under this system, all beneficiaries of the Government Treasury ensure that they accounted for
financial resources released to them in the previous quarter and also that planned activities of the
next quarter are known, properly costed and budgeted for. This calls for comprehensive MIS
system to monitor and enable Local Councils manage public expenditure, projects being executed
and quality of services provided by contractors




                                                18
4 Level Of ICT In Local Government

The results of the survey finding are shown in detail in the appendix

4.1     Computer Equipment Available At Districts

All the sampled districts have computer equipment. The number of computers ranges from 7 to 38;
Printers range from 5 to 35 while each district has at least one photocopier.

Specifications of the computers are as follows:
 Processor Speed: Most computers used by sampled districts have processors between 133 and
   233 MHZ. Only one districts has Pentium III computers with processors of 600 MHZ
 RAM: Ranges between 8MB and 64MB (with the majority of the districts having PCs of 8
   MB)
 Hard disk space: Except for one district which has computers of 800 MB, the rest of districts
   have computers with 2 to 10 GB with the majority of the districts (8 No.) having computers with
   2- 3 GB
 CD ROM Drives: All districts sampled have at least 3 computers with functional CD ROM
   drives. 6 districts (56%) have more than 10 computers with functional CD ROM drives


4.2     Level Of Access Of Computer Equipment By Staff

Access to computer equipment is not easy because computers available are most of the time being
used by Secretaries. In some cases, the District Planning Units, which almost always have
computers, provide access to staff from other sectors. Water, Heath, Finance, Education sectors
have received some computers under specific projects implemented by their line ministries but still
their use appears to be limited to those specific applications and therefore restricting their use to
other users. No district has successfully set up a resource centre as envisaged in the
decentralization road map.


4.3     Availability Of Local Area Network (LAN)

Only one district (representing 9 %) has a LAN. Further, for this one district, the LAN is connected
for computers in the databank room only.


4.4     Access to telephone and/or internet/e-mail

All the districts sampled have access to telephone facilities either by use of fixed lines or mobile
phones using either Uganda Telecom Limited or MTN service providers. In addition, 2 other
districts use radio calls. Surprisingly though, only two districts have utilized the available telephone
lines to have an operational e-mail and/or Internet access.


4.5     ICT Skill base

       Skill base for word processing is big in all districts and sufficient for the average target
        users. It was noted that in all sampled districts, computers are used mainly for word-
        processing.
       Skill base for spreadsheet is small, as only 4 to 15 % of the officers in all districts can use
        spreadsheets.

                                                   19
       Only 2 districts (18%) demonstrated having skills in database management systems
       There is no skill base at all in basic computer maintenance and system support in all
        districts.


4.6     Future Trends In ICTs In Local Governments

Future trends in the availability, use and development of ICTs in Local Government from the
perceptive of the Ministry of Local Government

  The decentralization implementation “road map”, February, 2002, a plan of action by the
  Ministry of Local Government, identifies 6 specific areas to address over the period 2002 –
  2005 namely: - Fiscal decentralization, Financial Management and Accountability, Good
  Governance and Civic Education, Communication and Information System, Capacity Building
  of Local Governments, Institutional Strengthening, Co-ordination and Integration. The
  objective of the Communications and Information systems is to enable all stakeholders to access
  accurate and reliable data and/or information in a cost effective and timely manner. This
  includes the development of: -
       Communication subsystem: Publications, information centers (Resource Centers),
          Mechanisms of disseminating information
       Information subsystem. Data collection, data storage, data processing, information
          dissemination, computerization of accounts, payroll and records management
      In addition to keeping data banks up-to-day and providing secure buildings with adequate
      space, “Local Governments will be responsible for availing competent staff over the
      period”.
 In the same manual, it is recognized that one of the reasons why Local Governments are unable
  to adequately perform their mandated duties is due to problems related to inadequate staff
  competence and training in some of the basic skills required in planning and managing service
  delivery –planning, budgeting, financial management, accounting, tendering, contract
  preparation etc. Interventions are being worked out in this area.

4.7     General Plans Of The Districts

General plans of the districts from the perspective of the districts councils

 Only 3 districts (27%) have budgets for ICT and presented as part of other budget codes and
  projects. However, many (55%) showed interest in including an ICT budget in their annual
  budgets in the next 2 years and also in appointing specialized ICT personnel in key positions. In
  addition, for districts with ICT budgets, the actual equipment that has been procured has been
  increasing for every successive year.

      It is important to note that there is no specific line item for ICT within the districts. ICT
      activities have hitherto been funded under the local raised revenue, Central Government
      Unconditional grants, Equalisation grants and specific projects from sector Ministries like
      Ministry of Local Government, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, NGOs, and Donors
      etc. Under the restructuring programme of the Ministry of Local Government, a post of
      Information Systems Officer has been created. Upon appointment to fill this post, it is hoped
      that ICT will have a budget line and obtain a reasonable part of the total budget. The budgets
      for the sample districts for the Financial Year 2001/2002 i.e. 1 July 2001 to 30 June 2002 are
      shown in the appendix



                                                   20
      Note: Regarding the number of officers in the sample districts, most of the structures are
      amorphous and officials in charge are reluctant to disclose their numbers of staff in the entire
      district establishments. There is currently a staff restructuring exercise being carried out by the
      Ministry of Public Service in collaboration with Ministry of Local Government

 Local Governments are striving to develop and strengthen record management centres where
  some PCs could be used in resource centres
 10 out of 11 districts (91%) have access to hydro electricity power. The one district without
  access to hydro electricity power has access to solar power. 6 districts have stand-by
  generators.

4.8     Problems Experienced By Districts

The districts expressed a number of problems constraining them in the implementation of ICT.
Common problems expressed are: -

 Problem                                                 Districts affected
                                                         Number (out Percentage
                                                         of 11)
 Low skill base to use existing equipment                11              100
 Inability to repair existing equipment due to lack 11                   100
 of in-house expertise
 Inadequate operational funds to procure and 11                          100
 maintain existing equipment

Other problems mentioned include: -
 Uncoordinated ICT initiatives
 Lack of customized systems for service delivery functions mandated to the local governments
 Power fluctuations
 Lack of commitment and initiatives by staff




                                                    21
5     Experience With Distance Training In Uganda

5.1   Experience of IAE at Makerere University

Experience of the Institute of Adult Education (IAE) at Makerere University

5.1.1 General Organisation
The Institute of Adult Education at Makerere University was formed to foster distance learning.
Under its mandate the Institute is responsible for conducting all the distance learning programs in
the University. It has 9 permanent lecturers and 2 departments namely: - the Community Education
and Extra Mural Department. The Extra Mural Department is specifically responsible for running
upcountry programs. It has 8 regional centres at: Mbale, Jinja, Kampala, FortPortal, Kabale,
Hoima. Lira and Gulu, which are responsible for co-ordinating and providing technical support for
distance learning activities in the region at which it is located. Each of these regional centres has
about 3 trainers, with support staff, and carry out training needs identification, liases with the
Institute to develop course materials, provides the venue for training if necessary, co-ordinates the
training and acts as a one-stop-centre for information on the activities of the Institute. Where
specialised staff may be required to deliver a course, the Institute sources for such staff from either
specialised departments at the University or elsewhere. The Institute has also established some sub-
centres at Iganga, Busia, Soroti, Masindi, and Masaka for liaison purposes only

IAE runs both long-term courses and short-term courses using distance learning. Some of the long-
term courses conducted by the Institute are: BSc (Education), BSc, BCom.

5.1.2 Content Production
The staff of IAE is not sufficient to neither deliver all the programs conducted by the Institute nor
produce the materials for those courses. The approach that has been devised by the Institute is to
look for and hire specialised staff and train them on how to prepare training materials for distance
training (in a prescribed format) whenever a demand for a new course arises. The Institute has
developed and indeed has capacity in training of material production for distance training.
However, once the materials are produced, they become a property of the Institute. This approach
exposes the Institute it to a big pool of resources to produce the materials and also to own such
materials.

5.1.3 Mode Of Delivery Of Distance Education Courses
The Institute conducts distance-learning programs using one or a combination of the following
techniques:

Printed Media: This is a very common method and is used in all the cases mentioned. Printed
material is prepared in instruction and interactive format and given to trainees. The notes may be
used in the presence or absence of an instructor. Notes are expected to be interactive enough for
one to read without the instructor.

Audiotapes: Training material is packaged on an audiotape. The trainee is left on his own and at
his convenience to listen to a tape containing instruction materials.

Electronic end use of CDs and Internet: This approach is not yet common, but is currently under
development




                                                  22
All the methods are integrated with face-to-face sessions where an instructor actually interacts with
the trainees to deliver the required material or provide clarifications on issues raised by students. In
addition, the Institute also arranges group discussions in which the Centre facilitates groups of
trainees from a region to meet and discuss issues in the course. An instructor does not need to
attend such sessions.

5.1.4 Similar Programs Conducted By IAE
Other than the long-term courses mentioned above, the department has successfully conducted the
following short-term courses:

1.     Basic Computer Course for Finish Refugee Council in Adjuman East Moyo County.
       This involved training of 8 staff of the Refugees camps. The first part was conducted in
       2001 and the Second part in 2002

2.     Planning and Management of Income Generating Projects- Luweero and Mbale districts. In
       Luweero, there were 30 participants while in Mbale there were 40 participants. Rockefeller
       Foundation funded it. Participants were mainly Community Development Officers in sub
       counties and also women in Community based organizations.

3.     Participatory Appraisal, Mbale. The participants were 40.

4.     Computer skills, Mbale. This is ongoing and is funded internally by the Institute. It is a
       package that covers Word processing, (which cost Shs 40,000/= Spreadsheets which costs
       Ushs 50,000/=, and DBMS which costs 50,000/=). Others courses included are Web design,
       Computer Graphics, Programming and Networking.

5.1.5 The African Virtual University (AVU)
The African Virtual University was a 3-year project (expired in December 2001) funded by the
Rockefeller University and hosted at Makerere University for enhancing Science Education in
Uganda. The Institute of Adult Education hosted it. Under the project, distance training was
delivered to students through a satellite to selected pilot universities in Africa including Makerere
University. Since the project term expired, Makerere is now still investigating how it can be
integrated into the normal university programmes.

Under the project, a timetable for teaching to various regions in various courses would be arranged
between pilot universities and the co-ordinating centre in Washington. An instructor, physically
seated in Washington would deliver the course via satellite and students would receive lectures live
on TV screens at Makerere University or any other pilot centre. Special time would be allocated for
students to ask questions although answers to such questions would not be provided immediately
but later.

Materials would be prepared (originally by scholars in the US but later scholars from Africa were
encouraged to prepare them) and sent to the US for vetting. Authors of approved courses would be
invited to go to the US and deliver the course in a similar way. Originally the only uploading
centre for the AVU project was in Washington. However, by the time of the project expiry, a centre
for East and Central Africa Region had been created at Nairobi.

5.2   Experience of the DISH Distance Learning Project

Delivery of Improved Services for Health (DISH), an NGO operating in Uganda within the Health
Sector implemented this project. The objective of the distance-learning project was to: -

                                                  23
i.     Create a course targeted to nursing aides featuring family planning and to be delivered via
       distance/on-the-job training/learning approach;
ii.    Design and prepare a learner support system that ensures transfer of training to the job site;
iii.   Monitor the primary features of the intervention and evaluate their effectiveness;
iv.    Incorporate monitoring and evaluation feedback into the course design for use in other
       districts.
Here DISH II supported the development of the strategy design and course materials. Its
implementation was supported through district grants. The course was a mandatory requirement for
nursing aides in these districts and learners were allocated at least one hour per day of work to
complete course activities. Delivery of the course was not done through ICT techniques.




                                                 24
6 Appendices
6.1       Appendix I:    Documentation Collected And Referenced

          The Decentralization Road Map
          Capacity Building Guide
          Draft ICT Policy for Ministry Of Education and Sports
          Education Strategic Investment Plan 1998 - 2003
          Health Sector Strategic Plan 2000/01 – 2004/05
          DISH Distance Learning Strategy Document

      Some web sites consulted include the following:
      Ministry of Local Government                 http://www.molg.go.ug
      Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic   http://www.finance.go.ug
      Development
      Makerere University                          http://www.makerere.ac.ug
      Uganda Communications Commission             http://www.ucc.co.ug
      MTN Uganda                                   http://www.mtn.co.ug
      Uganda Telecom Limited                       http://www.utl.co.ug
      Uganda Investment Authority                  http://www.ugandainvest.com
      Ministry of Health                           http://www.health.co.ug
      Infocom (An ISP in Kampala)                  http://www.infocom.co.ug


6.2       Appendix II. List Of Officers Interviewed

          Mr Constantine Bitwayiki     Principal     information   Ministry of Local
                                       Scientist                   Government
          Dr John Magero Mango         Senior Lecturer             Makerere University
          Mr Humphrey Mukoyo           Senior        Information   Ministry of Education
                                       Scientist
          Mrs Joy Mukaire              Project Director            DISH




                                                   25
6.3   Appendix III: Questionnaire administered to districts

Tele-Interview Questions for
Use of ICT for Distance Learning in Local Governments in Uganda



       District:



1.     How many computers in your district have CD-ROM       Answer:
       Drive

2.     What is the number of officers in the district        Answer:


3.     Of those (in 2 above), how many officers can confidently use spreadsheets like
       Excel or Lotus?
                                                         Answer:

4.     How do staff that do not have computers on their desks access them (May refer to
       computer usage policy if any and extent to which it is effected)

       Answer: ________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________

5.     Has your district set up a resource centre       Answer: Yes    No


6.     If Yes, Has it got computers for general use     Answer: Yes    No

       How many?                                        Answer:


7.     If not set up, are there plans to set up one     Answer: Yes    No


       What is the time scale?                          Answer:




                                              26
6.4    Appendix IV: District Budgets (Total)

      District budgets for period 1 Jul 2001 to 30 Jun 2002

      District       1 Jul 2001 - 30 Jun 2002     Equivalent
                                 Total (Ushs)          USD

  1   Apac                     1,938,224,228       1,140,132
  2   Iganga                   1,743,462,963       1,025,566
  3   Kibaale                    960,877,167         565,222
  4   Luwero                   1,479,103,562         870,061
  5   Masindi                  1,297,351,236         763,148
  6   Mbale                    1,763,610,813       1,037,418
  7   Mbarara                  2,764,326,591       1,626,074
  8   Mubende                  1,913,819,154       1,125,776
  9   Mukono                   2,422,949,748       1,425,265
 10   Rakai                    1,797,609,143       1,057,417
 11   Soroti                   1,327,716,500         781,010

      1 USD = 1700 Ushs                                 1,700



Note: The districts did not have a budget line for ICT until this financial year. However figures for
this financial could not be obtained




                                                   27
6.5      Appendix V: Survey Results and Analysis


                                   DISTRICT MASINDI                      APAC                       KIBAALE                 MUKONO
                                               Perc.              No.       Perc.             No.       Perc.         No.      Perc.          No.
Skills        General Computer applications      40                           10                          55                     30
              DBMS                                                   2                         0                       0                       0
              Statistical analysis               70                             40                         50                       50
              Basic Computer Maintenance                             1                         0                       0                       0
              Spreadsheets                       12                                 4                      10                       12

Utilisation   Utilisation                       Word processing          Word processing            Word processing         Word processing


Inventory     No of computers                                      15                           7                      25                      10
              Printers                                             15                           5                      25                      15
              Copiers                                               6                           5                       5                       2
              % of computer equipment working                      50                          90                      90                      90
              CDs available                                         8                           3                      13                       5
              Specs:RAM (MB)                           >=          16           >=              8          >=           8           >=         16
              Specs:HD (GB)                                       0.8                           2                       2                       3
              Specs:Speed (MHZ)                                   233                         133                     133                     233

Telephone Telephone line availability           Yes                      Yes            MTN         Yes         MTN         Yes

E-Mail        Operational e-mail                Yes                      No                         No                      No

LAN           LAN exists?                       No                       No                         No                      No

ICT Budget ICT Budget                           No                       No                         Yes

Power         Power                             Hydro                    Hydro                      Solar                   Hydro
                                                Generator                Generator                  Generator

Problems      Problems                          Low skills             Maiantenance &RepairLack of electricity Skills
                                                Power fluctuations     Skills              Lack of skills,     maintenance and repair
                                                Inadequate funds       Operational funds                       operational funds
                                                                                           maintenance and repair
                                                Uncordinated ICT initiatives               Funds
                                                                                           customised software

DBMS          DBMS exists                       Yes                      No                         No                      Yes
              DBMS has data                     No                                                                          Yes
              Use of data                       Reporting progress       Planning                   Planning                Planning


Training      Training requested for
                General basic Computer          Yes                      Yes                        Yes                     Yes
                Statistical analysis            Yes                                                                         Yes
                DBMS                            Yes                                                                         Yes
                Computer Maintenance            Yes
                PowerPoint
                Desktop Publishing

ICT Staff     Plan to appoint ICT                                                                   Yes




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                                   DISTRICT SOROTI                      MBALE                   IGANGA                  MUBENDE
                                               Perc.              No.      Perc.          No.       Perc.         No.      Perc.              No.
Skills        General Computer applications      25                          30                       20                     30
              DBMS                                                 0                       0                       0                            0
              Statistical analysis               50                             50                      50                     70
              Basic Computer Maintenance                           0                       0                       0                            0
              Spreadsheets                         8                            10                         3                       9

Utilisation   Utilisation                       Word processing         word processing         word processing         word processing


Inventory     No of computers                                      30                      38           10                     16
              Printers                                             10                      35            9                      9
              Copiers                                               6                       5            4                      5
              % of computer equipment working                      85                      90           90                     80
              CDs available                                        13                      10                       4                          7
              Specs:RAM (MB)                           >=          16                       8           >=         16          >=              8
              Specs:HD (GB)                                         3                       2                       3                          2
              Specs:Speed (MHZ)                                   150                     133                     233                        133

Telephone Telephone line availability           Yes                     Yes                     Yes                     yes            Radio call service

E-Mail        Operational e-mail                No                      No                      No                                     No

LAN           LAN exists?                       No                      No                      No                      No

ICT Budget ICT Budget                                                   Yes                     No

Power         Power                             Hydro                   Hydro                   Hydro                                  Hydro
                                                Generator               Solar                                                          Generator

Problems      Problems                          Skills              skills                skills              skills
                                                                    lack of customised s/wmaintenance and repair
                                                maintenance and repair                                        enough equipment
                                                operational funds   UPS/Stablisers        operational funds   custom s/w
                                                                    Operational funds                         operational funds


DBMS          DBMS exists                       No                      No                      Yes                     No
              DBMS has data                                                                     Yes
              Use of data                       Planning                Planning                Planning                Planning


Training      Training requested for
                General basic Computer          Yes                     Yes                     Yes                     Yes
                Statistical analysis                                                                                    Yes
                DBMS                                                                                                    Yes
                Computer Maintenance                                    Yes                                             Yes
                PowerPoint                                              Yes
                Desktop Publishing                                                                                      Yes

ICT Staff     Plan to appoint ICT               Yes                     Yes




                                                                              29
                                   DISTRICT LUWEERO                      RAKAI                   MBARARA                  ANALYSIS
                                               Perc.             No.        Perc.          No.      Perc.           No.       Min    Max   Count
Skills        General Computer applications      30                                                                            10     55
              DBMS                               20                                          3                                  0      2
              Statistical analysis               70                                          3                                 40     50
              Basic Computer Maintenance                             0                                                          0      1
              Spreadsheets                       10                             15                       10                     4     12

Utilisation   Utilisation                                            word
                                                word processing and dbm processing


Inventory     No of computers                           18                                               25                      7    25
              Printers                                  11                                               30                      5    25
              Copiers                                    4                                                7                      2     6
              % of computer equipment working           95                                                                      50    90
              CDs available                                       10                        15                       12          3    15
              Specs:RAM (MB)                            >=         8                                                 64          8    64
              Specs:HD (GB)                                        2                                                 10        0.8    10
              Specs:Speed (MHZ)                                  133                                                600        133   600

Telephone Telephone line availability           Yes                      Yes         Radio call Yes           Fax,Radio call

E-Mail        Operational e-mail                Yes                      No                      No

LAN           LAN exists?                       No                       Yes                     No

ICT Budget ICT Budget                           Yes                      No                      No

Power         Power                             Hydro                    Hydro                   Hydro
                                                                         Generator
                                                                         Solar
Problems      Problems                          skills                   servicing               commitment and initiative
                                                inadequate data          training                technical expertise
                                                power fluctuations       repair                  budget
                                                inadequate funds


DBMS          DBMS exists                       Yes                      Yes
              DBMS has data                     Yes                      Yes
              Use of data                                                                        Planning


Training      Training requested for
                General basic Computer          Yes                                              Yes                                          4
                Statistical analysis                                                             Yes                                          2
                DBMS                                                                             Yes                                          2
                Computer Maintenance            Yes                                              Yes                                          1
                PowerPoint                                                                                                                    0
                Desktop Publishing                                                                                                            0

ICT Staff     Plan to appoint ICT               Yes                      Yes                     No                                           1




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