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Global Overview of Marine Fisheries

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					Global overview of marine fisheries

by S.M. Garcia and I. De Leiva Moreno (FAO Fisheries Department)

Prepared for the Reykjavic Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem, 1-4 October 2001

Global overview of marine fisheries

by S.M. Garcia and I. De Leiva Moreno (FAO Fisheries Department)

Prepared for the Reykjavic Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem, 1-4 October 2001

Outline
• • • • The State of the Resources: The Fishing Industry: The Governance Approaches: Conclusions

1. The State of the Resources
• Global Situation • Global trends • Regional perspective

Recovering

Depleted

Overexploited

Fully exploited

Moderately exploited

Undeveloped

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

( Productionmillion tonnes)

100

Upper limit ( FAO, 1971)

50

1800

1840

1880

1920

1960

EEZs Claims

2000

Year

60%

Fully Fished
50% 40%

Moderately fished: U+M
30% 20%

Overfished: O+D+R
10% 0% 1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Percentage of resources
100% 10% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%

20%

0% 1951 1953 1955 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993

Phase I Undeveloped Phase II Developing Phase III Mature Phase IV Senescent

1. Antarctic 2. Atlantic, Southeast 3. Pacific, Southeast 4. Atlantic, Northwest 5. Atlantic, Western Central 6. Pacific, Eastern Central 7. Medit . & Black Sea 8. Pacific, Northeast 9. Atlantic Southwest 10. Atlantic Eastern Central 11. Atlantic Northeast 12. Indian Western 13. Pacific Central Western 14. Pacific Southwest 15. Pacific Northwest 16. Indian Eastern

ANT ASE PSE ANW ACW PEC MBS PNE

0.14 0.39 0.43 0.44 0.71 0.73 0.81 0.83 0.86 0.87 0.92 0.94 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

ASW
AEC ANE IW PCW PSW PNW IE 0.0

50%

40%

North Pacific
30%

20%

10%

0% 1970

North Atlantic
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1970

Antarctic

Tropical Atlantic

Tropical Pacific
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

1998 1994 1990 1986

1982
1978
1976

1974 1970

2. The Fishing Industry
• • • • • The fishing fleet The fishers The technology Production and trade Contribution to food security

Gross Registered Tonnage (106 tons)
10 20 30 40 0

1960

1970

1980

1990

Corrected

Non corrected

2000

World fishers and fish farmers (in millions)
10 30

20

40

1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Fishing technology
• • • • • • High technology adoption rate; Improved fishing range and capacity; Improved preservation and quality; Improved safety on board Reduced environmental impact; Improved MCS

100

Capture
80 Million tonnes 60 40 20 mariculture 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990

2000

0.15
Annual rate of increase 0.10 0.05 0.00 -0.05 -0.10 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

Imports Exports

50 40 30 20 10

50 40 30 20 10
1993 1999

0

0

1993

1999

Developing countries

Developed countries

% used for human food

Marine food / capita

11.0 10.0 9.0 8.0 7.0

0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 1960 1970 1980 1990 0.30 2000

6.0
5.0 4.0 1950

2. The Governance
• • • • • • • Approaches Performance Implementation problems Regional fishery bodies Improved frameworks Ecosystemic considerations The FAO Code of Conduct

Management approaches
• • • • • • • No global inventory; No universal approach; Mainly free and open access; Some limited-entry systems; Few rights-based systems; Abundance of “technical measures”; New global focus: capacity control, MCS, IUU, by-catch, vulnerable species, critical habitats, coral reefs, MPAs,.

Management performance
There is room for improvement!
 overfishing, collapses, endangered species;
 overcapacity, subsidies, economic inefficiencies;  environmental variability; Forecasting;  environmental impact of fishing; habitat, discards;  environmental impact on fishery resources;  compliance (IUU);  Ineffective regional fishery bodies.  Integration into coastal areas management

Implementation problems
There are enough principles and guidance, but:
• • • • • • • • Equity problems: allocation lack of institutional capacity (e.g. decentralization) declining capacity in conventional research and statistics lack of capacity in the new research required less than effective regional fishery bodies impact of globalization Broadening requirements (ecosystems, integration) Mismatch between ecosystems and jurisdiction boundaries

Regional Fishery Bodies
Not effective enough. Not enough power.
• • • • • • • • failure to accept and implement international instruments; lack of willingness to delegate responsibility ineffective enforcement of management measures; lack of secretariat resources and capacity; weak decision-making processes; weak conflict-resolution mechanisms; inadequate scientific support; lax use of the scientific advice received.

Improved Frameworks
Significant improvement in a decade!
• • • • • • • • Formal recognition of the overfishing/overcapacity issue UNCED (1992) Compliance Agreement (1993) 1982 Convention intered into force (1994) UN Fish Stock Agreement (1995) FAO Code of Conduct (1995) and guidelines FAO IPOAs Formal recognition of the need for an ecosystem approach

Ecosystemic Considerations
Significant changes occurred in the decade!
• • • • • • • Conventional management : weakly ecosystemic Awareness has raised since UNCED (1992) New instruments are available (CBD) New programmes are ongoing (ICRI, MPAs) New collaborations build up: e.g. FAO-CITES, FAO-UNEP Precautionary approach converging Sustainability indicators

FAO Code of Conduct
Reflects consensus about :
 conservation of the aquatic ecosystems , monitoring & minimisation of environmental impacts of fishing and nonfishing activities;  protection and restoration of fishery resources, their environment, critical habitats, biodiversity, associated and dependent species, and endangered species;  prohibition of destructive fishing  the precautionary approach;  participatory management;  risks related to climate change

Conclusions

The Resources
• Many resources require significant improvement in governance to recover or avoid being overfished • The precautionary approach may help if fully applied, using MSY as a limit. • Risk assessment and risk management need to become standard approaches; • An ecosystem perspective is required

The Fishing Industry
• • • • It achieved a lot in a difficult environment; It provides significant benefits; It benefited a lot from Governments; It is confronted with increasing societal requirements and a declining resource base; • Its role is fundamental. • It cannot afford not to face responsibilities.

The Governance
• Conventional governance has spread; • It faces large scale social, economic and environmental problems; • It has improved its framework;...but • ...needs much stronger political will; • Its resources might be insufficient to face broadening societal requirements; • More attention to small-scale fisheries is needed.

• Fisheries have significantly contributed to human development and can still do so; • There are problem areas and avenues for positive change; • Change will never be at no cost; but

Global overview of marine fisheries


				
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