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Adjectives_and_Adverbs

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					        Using Adjectives and Adverbs Correctly
                What are adjectives?
• Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns
• These words are all adjectives
    A hot day
    A happy camper
    A silly twit

      A big, bloody mess (both “big” and “bloody” modify “mess”)
      She is creative (“creative” is a subject complement that follows the
       linking verb “is”)
      A boring course (present participle used as an adjective

                       So what are adverbs?
•   Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs
•   Many adverbs end with ly
•   Many adverbs answer the question “How?”
•   These are adverbs
       Eating quickly (modifying a verb)
       Trying very hard (modifying an adverb)
       A really big show (modifying an adjective)
               Recognizing Adjectives & Adverbs
•   Many words have both an adjective and adverb form
                          Adjective              Adverb
                      Happy kids           Playing happily
                      Smooth rock          Running smoothly
                      Good night           Eating Well
                      Efficient workers    Working efficiently
                      Casual dress         Dressing casually
                      Quick meeting        Talking quickly
                      Hopeful children     Waiting hopefully
                      Real butter          Really hot




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                 Comparatives and Superlatives
•   Most adverbs and adjectives also have a comparative and
    superlative form
                     Simple     Comparative      Superlative
                     Hot        Hotter          Hottest
                     Good       Better          Best
                     Exciting   More exciting   Most exciting
                     Careful    Less careful    Least careful
    • Use the comparative form to compare two things
       Sally is the larger of the twins (not largest)
    • Use the superlative form to compare three or more
       August was the hottest month of the year


                         Double Comparatives
• Don’t use “more” or “most” with –er or –est
     X Yesterday was more hotter than today
     X That was the most dirtiest story I ever heard
     X You are the bestest teacher


                           Absolute Concepts
•   Don’t use comparatives or superlatives with absolute concepts
•   Absolutes have only two possibilities, on or off, yes or no, with
    nothing in between
        X The most perfect student in the class
        X A very unique idea (say “very unusual” instead)
•   These words express absolute concepts that cannot be modified
More priceless Sort of dead          Quite unique
Quite on       A little bit pregnant Completely anonymous
Very unanimous Extremely perfect     Most favourite




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      Don’t use adjectives when adverbs are needed
          X You did a real nice job
              –(an adjective can’t modify another adjective)
         You did a really nice job
             – (the adverb “really” modifies “nice”)
          X He did good
         He did well
          X Fuel injection helps the car run efficient
         Fuel injection helps the car run efficiently
          X Come quick!
         Come quickly!
          X Hopefully, it won’t rain
             (an adverb explains how something will happen)
         I hope that it won’t rain


                     Don’t use needless adverbs
•   Before using any of these words, check to see if they add
    anything to the sentence
     •   Really, very, absolutely, extremely, quite, actually, somewhat, rather
     •   I am really happy to see you
     •   Grammar is very boring
     •   You are absolutely correct
     •   Her language was extremely crude
     •   You are quite intelligent
•   Context will help you decide whether to retain the underlined
    words
•   Keep them only if they add to the meaning
         Gates is very rich. I hope he gives me some money.
     XBill
      Most college instructors are poor; their students are very poor.


•   Note: the terms “good success” and “real good success”
    have been reserved for sports broadcasters; do not use them




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                         Compound Adjectives
• Two or more adjectives often appear together separated with
  commas
    Lance’s tiny, tight swimsuit showed off his hairy belly
      • The words “tiny” and “tight” each work separately to modify
         “swimsuit”
• Connect the words with a hyphen when they function together
  before a noun
    Lance’s gold-plated piercings stood out against his bright-red sunburn
      • “Gold-plated” and “bright-red” are compound adjectives
                         Compound Adjectives
• Do not hyphenate the words when they come after the noun
  they modify
• Notice the difference in these examples
         No Hyphen                     Hyphenated
Lance was well known            Lance was a well-known
along the boardwalk             jerk
His SUV was fully equipped He drove a fully-equipped
                                SUV
Lance worked full time on his Lance was a full-time chick
tan                             magnet

                          Misplaced Modifiers
• Put adjectives and adverbs close to the words they modify
• Notice how the meaning is affected by the improper placement
      X An old pile of clothes is on the floor
     A pile of old clothes is on the floor
      X I almost believe you are finished
     I believe you are almost finished
      X The winners will only be contacted
     Only the winners will be contacted
      X I can’t quite do this as well as Fred
     I can’t do this quite as well as Fred




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posted:10/26/2011
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