feeding for dairy profits FUL-O-PEP DAIRY FEEDS practical ARE BUILT AND PROVED BY research Partial view of dairy buildings on the Ful-O-Pep Livestock Research Farm. Practical research on the feeding and management of beef cattle and hogs is also conducted here. fou can depend on Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds for top results. You see, formulas are built scientifically by nutritional authorities . , . ingredients are tested and proved in Ful-O-Pep's laboratories . and feeds are . . tried and proved by dairy cattle on Ful-O-Pep's Live- stock Research Farm. Also on this 450-acre farm near Barrington, Illinois, Ful-O-Pep works continuously to develop and improve plans for dairy cattle feeding and management. plans . . which help dairymen get high, economical production from feeding Ful-O-Pep. The cows themselves help test and prove Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds under actual farm conditions. Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan make milk at low feed cost As a dairyman you want to get high, economical production from your herd, so your business will be successful and profitable. You know that what you feed your cows and how you feed them determine to a great extent the production you get, the health of your herd and your profits. • Roughage is key to economical production To get the highest possible dairy profits under almost all condi- tions, you want your herd to consume the maximum amount of farm-grown pasture, hay and silage. These feeds almost always are the cheapest source of energy you can give your cows. But, of course, a ration consisting of roughage alone doesn't usually contain enough nutrients or the proper balance of nutri- ents needed for high, economical milk production. You can't get enough roughage alone into a dairy cow for her to produce the highest profits— unless, perhaps, the selling price of milk is extremely low. However, as you replace part of the roughage in the cow's ration with Dairy Feed, her milk production goes up. For example, experiments have shown that a cow which pro- duces about 6,000 lbs. of milk when fed hay alone can be made to produce more than 9,000 lbs. of milk when full-fed Dairy Feed at the rate of 1 lb. to every 2 lbs. of milk produced. This, of course, is an extreme case. Such full-feeding of Dairy Feed usually is not recommended for economical production. • How the Ful-O-Pep Plan works The Ful-O-Pep program for profitable milk production basically is: Feed all the homegrown roughage the cow will eat, and (1) (2) Supplement it with a limited amount of Ful-O-Pep. Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds are built to help support this heavy roughage feeding. They supply nutrients for the cow's rumen bacteria as well as the cow herself. These tiny bacteria must be fed properly if the cow is to get maximum feeding value out of the fibrous roughages she eats. Ful-CPep Dairy Plan key heavy roughage use: to feeding rumen Cattle, sheep, and goats belong to the class of animals known as ruminants. As you may know, the digestive tract of a ruminant is from that of the hen or the hog. Because of this diges- different tive setup, thecow or any other ruminant is able to use a large amount of roughage for food. This is possible mainly because of billions of tiny bacteria in the cow's first commonly called the "paunch" or rumen. stomach, These little make the rumen like a fermentation vat, so bacteria to speak, where they are able to break down and digest the tough, fibrous parts of roughage and grain. The bacteria break down the roughage and form products which can be readily used as food by the cow. And later when the bacteria have finished their im- portant work, they themselves are also digested and are used as food by the cow. • How feeding bacteria affects them Now, to do an efficient down roughage, the bac- job of breaking teria themselves must receive own proper food nutrients. their You see, the efficiency of the rumen bacteria is based on their rate of multiplication and on their activity. For right after the cow eats the proper feed, the bacteria in her rumen multiply. This increases the number of bacteria to take care of the big digesting job to be done. The multiplication must be accompanied by increased activity of all the bacteria. For they must work rapidly to break down and digest the tough, fibrous parts of roughage while it is in the rumen. Now, neither roughage alone nor a combination of roughage and grain will necessarily provide the best conditions for bac- terial multiplication and activity. Nutrients needed by rumen bacteria should be supplied in the Dairy Feed which you give your cows to supplement your home-grown roughage and pasture. Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan how to feed bacteria when feeding the cow After reading the previous chapter, you no doubt will agree that for the most efficient use of roughage, you want to feed the rumen bacteria when you feed the cow herself. Now, we believe bacteria need several types of nutrients to do their best work: (1) source of quick energy, (2) source of slow energy, (3) protein, (4) certain vitamins and, (5) certain minerals— especially several trace minerals. • Quick energy is important Fast-acting nutrition produces lots of bacteria to do the work in a hurry. Molasses is used in Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds to supply quick energy, as well as to help improve palatability. Molasses is an excellent source of sugar for quick energy. However, only a moderate amount of molasses is used in Ful-O-Pep. For when bacteria eat too much sugar, they do not work on the roughage fibers as vigorously as they should for complete, efficient di- gestion of it. Every — cow has four stomachs. In her first stomach called the rumen or — paunch are billions of tiny bacteria. They help the cow break down the cellulose and fiber in her ration. These little bacteria must be fed properly so that they can do an efficient job of breaking down tough, fibrous parts of grain and roughage. £ Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan • Slow energy is required by rumen bacteria The grain ingredients in Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds are crimped or coarsely ground to give the bacteria a slow and constant form of energy while they are breaking down fibrous roughage. Particles of crimped or coarsely ground grain have small surface areas compared ground grain. to finely Rumen bacteria feed mostly on this surface. So when this area is small— when grains are crimped or coarsely ground— the organ- isms feed at a slow, steady rate. Thus, the grains are kept in the rumen for the longest possible time. They are broken down along with the roughage and not right after the cow has finished eating. • Proper proteins are needed Activity of the bacteria is definitely slowed down on low-protein feeds, with less efficient digestibility as the result. So an adequate amount of protein to balance roughage is provided for rumen bacteria in Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds. • Vitamins and minerals are also essential In addition to protein, certain substances rich in vitamins and minerals have been shown to help maintain roughage digestion at a high and efficient level. They contain feeding value both for the cow herself and the rumen bacteria. For example, there are indications that small additions of B-complex vitamins promote bacterial growth, even if the bac- teria themselves can make some of these vitamins. Certain trace minerals are helpful, too, because research is finding that they are essential to rumen bacteria or the cow herself. Cobalt, copper, iron, and manganese are some of the trace minerals included in Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds. They are added an adequate supply, but in not too large an amount. in With trace minerals, a little is good, whereas too much of them may be harmful. Now, fresh, green pasture and hay crops are rich in certain important minerals and vitamins. But when the plants begin to mature, or are harvested under usual farm conditions, their value goes down rapidly. > Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan To give the cow many of the nutritional advantages of lush, tender, spring pasture, certain ingredients rich in vitamins and minerals are used in Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds. Two of the principal ingredients used in Ful-O-Pep to give it these "pasture-like" qualities are Concentrated Spring Range* and dehydrated alfalfa meal. They provide the cow with many of the benefits needed by her and by the bacteria in her rumen. • Concentrated Spring Range Many spring pasture benefits are provided through this Ful-O- Pep ingredient. For, as you may know, it is made from tender, young pasture grasses and clover. These nutritious young plants are carefully harvested and are dehydrated to preserve their high vitamin content and other feeding benefits for year-around use. Concentrated Spring Range is rich in protein and essential organic-source minerals, as well as in important vitamins. These nutrients are needed both by the cow and her rumen bacteria. • Dehydrated alfalfa meal used, too Another good source of vitamins, especially Vitamin A, included in Ful-O-Pep is dehydrated alfalfa meal. In addition to providing valuable vitamins and minerals, it also adds to the "pasture-like" *Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. Uses Good, making maximum roughage "Pinn Bruce Estelle classified Very a Medal of Merit. She 3W, made 18,116 lbs. of milk and 929 lbs. fat. She consumed a large quan- tity of roughage compared with the small amount of Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feed required to hold a uniform high level of production. Also she finished in average flesh condition and not with patchy fat as many cows do." John Fawcett, The School of the Ozarks, Point Lookout, Mo. P'mn Bruce Estelle 1 394240 — g Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan qualities of Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds. Dehydrated alfalfa meal and Concentrated Spring Range provide a desirable balance of pas- ture-plant nutrients. When you consider these "pasture-like'* qual- ities in Ful-O-Pep, you can readily see why Ful-O-Pep helps you get heavy production. Among other important vitamins provided in Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds is Vitamin D, the "sunlight factor." It is needed by the cow to make proper use of the calcium and phosphorus in her feed. • Minerals are supplied Both the cow and the bacteria in her rumen require certain minerals. The cow needs phosphorus and calcium to put into her milk. These minerals are provided in Ful-O-Pep Feeds. Safe sources of phosphorus are used— ones that are low in fluorine. Raw rock phosphate is not used in Ful-O-Pep, for it contains fluorine which may damage the cow's health. • What all this means to you When you add up all these outstanding features of Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds, you can easily see that Ful-O-Pep feeds the rumen bacteria as well as the cow herself. simply means that with economical Ful-O-Pep, you may feed It LARGE quantities of your home-grown roughage and get heavy, continuous milk production from your cows. That's how to make milk at low feed cost! Persistent production "We have fed Ful-O-Pep Feeds for about VO years and are well pleased with its effect on persistent production, general herd health, breeding efficiency and easier calf raising. The excellent results we have obtained is evidenced by the produc- tion and reproduction of one of our typical matrons. (See photo.) She is almost 8 years old and has 7 living offspring in addition to producing 55,715 (bs. milk and 2,645 lbs. butterfat in SVi lactations." Paul S. Bryan, Whitebry Farm, Perkasie, Pa. «— Maridel's Hollicharm 708009 Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan Q pasture management For high dairy much as possible of your cow's rough- profits, as age intake should be pasture. The more good-quality pasture you are able to provide your herd over the maximum number of months in the year, the less other feed you will have to give them. Some helpful pasture management points are listed below. For more specific recommendations, see your county agent. 1. Develop a balanced pasture plan to provide pasture as many months in the year as climate and weather permit. 2. Plan your pasture program so each pasture is grazed at its peak of feeding value. 3. Aim for top carrying capacity per acre and try to hold it by proper liming and fertilizing— preferably at the time of planting. 4. Test soil before adding lime or fertilizer. It usually is best to take care of needed elements in this order: (1) Lime, (2) ^Phos- phorus, (3) Potash, and (4) trace elements. 5. Improve old permanent pastures by tearing up the sod, testing soil, adding necessary lime and/or fertilizer in a supply adequate for several years and re-seeding. Then observe proper grazing management to protect the stand. 6. Include quick-growing pasture crops in field rotations when practical, to provide pasture during such seasons as mid-summer, fall and early spring. 7. Alternate grazing from one pasture or field to another to help maximum use of each acre, and to get better quality pasture, help avoid spot-grazing. 8. Clip pastures to promote new growth, especially when tall spots have grown up around droppings or urine spots. 9. Use fresh, green pastures in general for the milking herd, and run dry cows and heifers on the drier, more nearly matured pastures. • Keep hay available to milking herd on pasture When hay is available in pastures, cows will often consume about 1 lb. of hay per 100 lbs. body weight daily. The hay probably causes grass to remain in the digestive tract longer, maintaining a good cow fill which promotes high production. 1 1Q Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan produce quality hay The importance of good-quality hay cannot be overemphasized. Its leafiness and palatability directly affect the quantity of hay you can get into your cows. And its feeding value affects the quantity and quality of milk your cows produce. Hay quality is one thing over which you have considerable control. Through your methods of harvesting and storing hay, you can either lose or retain much of its natural qualities. • Suggestions on producing quality hay 1. Cut hay in the early bloom stage for most economical feed pro- duction. This is true for practically all hays. 2. Handle and cure hay to conserve the leaves, keep the stems soft, pliable, and retain green color as much as possible. The more leaves you can keep on your hay, the more palatable and nutri- tious it will be. In the alfalfa plant, for instance, the leaves con- tain about 70% of the protein and 90% of the carotene of the entire plant. 3. Do the best you can to prevent hay from getting rained on. This causes not only loss of leaves, but also leaching of a substantial portion of the minerals in the hay. Finished test in full bloom "Since we started on the Ful-O- Pep program, 35 cows have finished their tests. Six of these on retest averaged 15,597 lbs. milk, 723 lbs. of butterfat. The other 29 (2-year olds) averaged 12,614 lbs. of milk and 637 lbs. of fat. All of these test cows finished in full bloom. We are convinced Ful-O-Pep contains the necessary ingredients to maintain the best of health and top production." Chester Lyons, Antietam Farm, Waynesboro, Pa. <— Ant'ftam Royal Sue 1 772692 Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan supply succulent feed During periods when good, juicy pasture is not available, many dairymen find it profitable to feed some form of succulent feed, such as silage, wet brewers grains, roots or ground hay with mo- lasses. A popular combination is 20 lbs. or more molasses to 100 lbs. chopped hay, soaked or steamed. When using silage as a succulent feed, be sure the forage is properly matured before harvesting, to help avoid it becoming moldy. For example, when using corn for silage, the best time to harvest it is when the ears are filled but the plant still is green. • More suggestions on making good silage Avoid using forage that contains a very large percentage of weeds or other foreign growth. With grass or legume silage, help avoid losses from molding by seeing that the forage is wilted before you blow it into the silo. Another way is to add dry material or a preservative, such as molasses or Sugared Schumacher Feed. At the Ful-O-Pep Research Farm, we use 100 lbs. or more of Sugared Schumacher Feed per ton of forage. We have found that it helps make very good silage that keeps well. The Schumacher gives the silage additional feeding value and palatability. J2 Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan keep only cows that are profitable producers You know that there's a lot of difference between cows, in the amount of milk they give under the same conditions. Some cows can convert more feed into milk efficiently than other cows, because they have the inherited capacity for milk production. Now, these better cows don't take up any more barn space, require very little extra labor and tie up comparatively little extra investment. But they do return you much larger profits for your time, work and feed. • High producers use feed more efficiently To illustrate how the efficiency of handling feed varies with the cow's inherited ability to make milk, let's look at some figures. Suppose you have three 1,200 lb. cows. One has the inherited capacity to produce 5,000 lbs. of milk a year. Another has the capacity to produce 10,000 lbs. and the third one 15,000 lbs. In the table on the opposite page is approximately what each cow's feed needs would be-in Total Digestible Nutrients. Outstanding record "Another of our cowi fed on Ful- O-Pep has achieved a signal honor for Marlu Farm and Ful-O-Pep. (See photo.)She became the first Jersey cow in the State of New Jersey to make a 1,000-lb. record. She did it with a record of 18,774 lbs. milk, 1,017 lbs. fat. She also is the only cow in the state to make 1 ,000 lbs. and to calve in time for Medal of Merit, indicating that she retained full healh and normal activity of her reproducing organs in making this record." Maurice Pollak, Marlu Farm, Lincroft, N. J. 4—Rrampton Favorite Peggy 1451215 Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan ^ 3 Look at the pounds of milk each pound of T.D.N, produces: Cow Production Maintenance — Production — lbs. TDN Lbs. milk produced lbs. milk lbs. TDN needed lbs. TDN i Total per lb. TDN fed 5,000 3,100 1,600 4,700 1.06 10,000 3,100 3,200 6,300 1.58 15,000 3,100 4,800 7,900 1.88 It's easy to see from these figures that the proportion of the cow's feed which she uses to maintain her own body goes down rapidly as milk flow goes up. And so, the 15,000 lb. cow produces 1.88 lbs. of milk per pound of T.D.N, compared to 1.06 lbs. of milk for the 5,000 lb. cow. In other words, the 15,000 lb. cow converts each pound of T.D.N she eats into more than l]/2 times as much milk as does the 5,000 lb. cow. What a difference that makes in cash returns per dollar feed cost and per hour of labor you invest! • Ways to improve your milking herd 1. Keep milk production records watch each cow's production. . . . Selllow producers and replace them by buying heavier producers, even if you don't get back as many cows in numbers. 2. Breed up your herd by using a good bull backed by high produc- tion records among his ancestors. 3. Keep replacement in your milking herd only a heifer calf for a if her dam's production was at least satisfactory. Free Record Cards Cards to help you keep records easily and accurately are available from your Ful-O-Pep Dealer. By putting up one of these MILK RECORD CARDS in your milk house and by noting on it at milking time each cow's production, you can easily see how her milk flow is holding up and how it compares to that of other cows in your herd. THE BREEDING RECORD CARD has ample spaces for entering such useful information as dates when each cow freshens, comes in heat, is bred, is due to calve, etc. There's a Ful-O-Pep Feed FUL-O-PEP CALF STARTER grows healthy calves economically. It's made for feeding with your own grain . . . plus hay, salt and water. Calf Starter supplies essential nutri- ft ® K ents lacking in home grown grains . . . nutrients needed for sound growth, proper health and good calf develop- ment. so well balanced nutrition- It's STARTER ally that lb. replaces up to 10 lbs. 1 of milk. Favorite of many dairymen. FUL-O-PEP CALF RATION grows big, sturdy heifers, easy to feed. It's a nutritious, easily digested feed containing a variety of proteins . . . vitamins and minerals ... a milk product wholesome oatmeal and . . . crimped grains plus an antibiotic. . . . Convenient to feed, too. There's no gruel to mix ... no buckets to scrub. So economical! Saves up to 75% of the whole milk formerly used in calf feeding. FUL-O-PEP FiniNG FEED builds up dry cows for heavy milking. E^S It's an all-purpose dairy feed de- signed for feeding as the entire grain ration to balance roughage and pas- ture. Built around crimped oats, en- 0Fma«p riched with proteins, minerals and vitamins. When fed to dry cows, Ful- O-Pep Fitting Feed helps build big, strong calves and prepares cows for easy calving and heavy milking. Pro- motes sound heifer growth and de- velopment. Helps keep bulls in top breeding condition. Priced right! . . . for every dairy need FUL-O-PEP DAIRY FEED promotes record milk production. A top dairy feed built with quality ingredients needed to balance pas- ture and roughage ,for heavy, con- tinuous milk production. Built to help keep the cow to top body condition all through the heavy lactation period. Especially popular for feeding to test cows and under other conditions when maximum production is desired. FUL-O-PEP MILKING FEED promotes top milk flow at low feed cost. This bulky, nutritious feed is built to supplement pasture and roughage with a balance of quality proteins, essential vitamins and important min- erals. Cane molasses helps speed up activity of rumen bacteria. Priced right for the fine job it does in main- taining high milk production and herd health. FUL-O-PEP "32 DAIRY" boosts feeding efficiency of your grains. It'sbuilt for dairy farmers in heavy grain-producing areas who find it practical to use their own grain to make dairy feeds. Ful-O-Pep 32% Dairy Concentrate provides in one bag the proteins, vitamins and minerals usually lacking in most grains nutri-. . . ents cows need for heavy, continuous milk flow and to stay in sound, healthy condition. Mighty economical, for it helps you get more feeding value out of your grain. 1 6 Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan how to feed calves To raise healthy, well-developed heifer calves for replacements efficientlyand economically, supplement the milk with a nutri- tious feed. Every pound of milk has market value, too. So step up your profits by replacing up to 75% of it with Ful-O-Pep Calf Ration or Ful-O-Pep Calf Starter. For the first 2 or 3 days, leave the calf with its mother in the maternity pen, so it can get all the colostrum milk it wants. This first milk helps get the calf off to a sound start because it is laxative as well as being rich in essential nutrients. Generally it is best not to milk the cow dry during the first few days after calving unless her udder becomes too distended. • Move calf to separate pen on 3rd day On the third day, move the calf to a separate pen— one that is comfortable and free from drafts. Auniform temperature should be held until the -calf is at least 2 or 3 weeks old. In winter, around 65 to 70 degrees is about right. Also on the third day, begin to teach the calf to drink milk. The simplest way is by using a nipple pail or a bottle with a nipple on it. With either method there isn't the danger of the calf drinking too fast, as is frequently the case when the calf is fed milk from an ordinary bucket. • Place Calf Ration before calf from 3rd da/ on After feeding milk the first time, place a small handful of Calf Ration in an open trough before the calf. Lead the calf to the trough and offer it a little feed in your hand. When the calf samples Calf Ration, it will like the appetizing flavor and will soon start nibbling the feed in the trough. Keep a littlemixed hay and clean, fresh water before the calf from the start. Some dairymen put the milk pail or bottle in the trough after the calf has finished the milk to encourage the calf to eat feed. Feed milk twice a day, using fresh, warm milk at a temperature of 90 to 100 degrees F. The amount you feed per day should Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan J 7 not exceed 1/12 the calf's body weight. For example, a calf weighing about 96 lbs. should not be given more than 8 lbs. of milk (or milk and water) a day. After the week, gradually reduce fluid milk daily at the first rate of 1 lb. each week for 4 weeks. By the time most calves are 6 weeks old, they are eating enough Ful-O-Pep Calf Ration and' hay and are drinking water to the extent that milk is no longer necessary. When milk is stopped at the 6th week, calves usually will grow out satisfactorily. If faster growth is desired, continue milk feeding for 2 or 3 weeks more. ' When the calf reaches 3 months of age, limit the amount of Calf Ration to 3 to 4 lbs. per head daily. Then change at 5 months of age to Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed, continuing to feed 5 or 4 lbs. daily per head plus hay. Also at about the 5th month, the heifer should be removed from the individual pen, and she should have pasture or silage along with hay. • Calf Starter as an alternative to Calf Ration With Ful-O-Pep Calf Starter, you may feed up to 3 parts of your own grains. Start feeding the calf much as you would do on Calf Ration. At about 2-3 weeks, it should be eating about i/ lb. 2 Starter each day. Gradually increase this to 1 lb. During the 3rd week, begin feeding a handful of grain (or Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed) along with Calf Starter, Increase the grain (or Fitting Feed) until you are feeding at least 3 parts to 1 part Calf Starter. Three parts crimped oats or 2 parts oats and 1 part coarsely cracked corn is a good grain mixture. You may use Sugared Schumacher to replace part or all of the oats. Gradually increase the grain mixture, until at about 5 months, the calves are no longer getting Calf Starter. • Always keep hay, salt and water before calves High quality, bright clean hay is important in raising calves. Dairymen often prefer good mixed hay or timothy to alfalfa or other legume hays. Straight legume hay may cause scours, if calves should accidentally overeat. Keep a block or spool of salt, as well as fresh, clean water, before the calf at all times. In cold weather, warm the water to remove the chill. 1 3 Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan how to feed open heifers The main objective in feeding a dairy heifer is to develop her into a cow of good size, with a strong constitution and with the capacity to turn feed into milk efficiently. Heifer calves should continue to grow steadily from the time they are about 5 months old until they are ready to be bred. But they should not become fat. It is much better to keep them on the thin side. During growing period, roughage feeding should be this stepped up. being fed in the barn, increase hay If the heifers are feeding. If they are out on pasture, feed them some hay in a rack to supplement the pasture. For this, many successful dairy- men use a hay rack with a trough in which they can feed grain. • Change at 5 months to Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed After changing from Ful-O-Pep Calf Ration to Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed at 5 months of age, feed 3 to 4 lbs. of it daily. If heifers are running from barn to pasture, feed the Fitting Feed night and morning in the barn. If heifers are on pasture all the time, feed Fitting Feed in a hay rack or in a bunk. At 1 year of age, gradually discontinue feeding Fitting Feed if in your judgment the heifers are well-developed— providing, of course, that pasture and/or roughage is of good quality. (note: When little or no Fitting Feed is fed, give heifers free access to a mixture of steamed bone meal and salt, equal parts.) If the roughage is poor or if pastures are dried up, continue to feed 3 or 4 lbs. Fitting Feed daily or start feeding good-quality silage or some other good succulent. Give free access to the suc- culent, feeding it in the barn or in hay rack on pasture. (More about succulent feeds on page 11.) The best age to breed heifers usually is between 15 and 18 months, depending on the breed you raise and your breeding program. If you breed a heifer too young, the early calving may tend to stunt her growth. While if you wait too late to breed her, she may be slow to settle. Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan *| Q how to feed bred heifers Start preparing the heifer for her first freshening by beginning to give her some Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed when she is safe in calf 4 or 5 months. Each day give her about % to i/ ik. P er 100 l° s 2 * of body weight. Continue heavy feeding of roughage if heifer isn't on good pasture. When on pasture, be sure to provide shade for heifers. Always give heifers access to salt and a supply of fresh, clean water. The exact amount of Fitting Feed to give each heifer depends upon the individual, her condition, the season, quality of pasture or hay, and so on. First, feed enough roughage to build good body capacity. Then give the heifer enough Fitting Feed to keep her growing constantly, but not so much that she becomes fat. • Check udder a week or so before freshening If you are concerned about the condition of the heifer's udder a week or so before she is due to freshen, milk it dry twice a day. This practice is generally accepted as a satisfactory way to protect udders in most cases. When milking machines are used on the herd, it is advisable to start with them at this time. Several days before she is due to calve, move the heifer to a box stall or maternity pen that is free from drafts and is well bedded. Be sure that her bowels are open. You will find that Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed ordinarily is laxative enough to keep her in good physical condition before* and after calving. • How to feed at freshening time During the freshening period, we suggest feeding all the Ful-O- Pep Fitting Feed the heifer will readily clean up. Fitting Feed will help provide an adequate supply of nutrients needed during freshening when there is a heavy drain on her system. On the 3rd day after freshening, return to feeding about \/ % lb. Fitting Feed daily per 100 lbs. body weight. Continue feeding this way for 8 to 10 days. Then switch to Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feed or Milking Feed, feeding as recommended on pages 20-22. 20 Fu| -o- Pe P Dai|- y p 'a" how to feed milking herd The Ful-O-Pep Plan for high, economical milk production is based on maximum use of your farm-grown feeds. In short, the plan Get all the good-quality pasture, hay is: and succulent feed cow that she will eat into the and then . . . . feed Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds according to milk production. Of course, when pastures and roughages are of poor quality, more Dairy Feed must be fed to maintain production and the cow's health. (More on this later.) To get maximum roughage intake for most economical pro- duction, give the cow access to pasture whenever possible. And keep hay available to cows on pasture in a rack such as the one shown here. When good pasture isn't available, feed both hay and silage or other succu- lent feed. The cow's total hay and succulent intake should approach 5 lbs. per 100 lbs. of body weight. Cows may be fed 2 lbs. or more of hay, plus up to 3 lbs. of succulent feed to reach this goal of 5 lbs. roughage daily per 100 lbs. body weight. During the first 10 days after freshening, feed Ful-O-Pep Fit- ting Feed as outlined on page 19. Then switch the cow to Ful-O- Pep Dairy Feed or Milking Feed. (If you have an abundance of grain, you may want to use Ful-O-Pep 32% Dairy Concentrate to make a good dairy feed. More about this on page 23.) • Gradually increase Dairy Feed after 1 Oth day After switching the cow to Dairy Feed 10 days after freshening, gradually increase the amount you feed each day so that by 40 or 50 days after the cow freshens, you are feeding approximately the amount indicated on the chart on the opposite page to go with the pasture or harvested roughage the cow is getting. Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan 21 The feeding rates shown in this chart are based on feeding Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feed, Ful-O-Pep Milking Feed or a dairy feed that you mix containing about 16% protein, using Ful-O-Pep Dairy Concentrate with your ground grain. Feed 1 pound of Dairy Feed to pounds of milk: 22 Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan Always bear in mind when following the Ful-O-Pep Feeding Plan for the milking herd, that "the eye of the master" is im- portant. In other words, you must always use your best judgment Animals are not all alike in their capacity, in feeding Dairy Feed. feeding habits, productive ability,temperament, and over-all performance. So feed each cow as an individual, using the sug- gested feeding rates as a general guide. When milking is finished, inspect the feeding trough to see if allcows have cleaned up their feed. Also check the condition of the manure. Then adjust the amount of Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feed if necessary to keep the cow from getting too fat or too thin. • Provide plenty of clean, fresh water The dairy cow in milk, more than any other farm animal, must have access to an ample water supply. When she doesn't drink all the water her body needs— because it's too unhandy to get to, it's dirty, some other reason— her health may too cold, or for suffer. And, too, she all the milk possible from won't produce the feed she eats. Needless to say, you won't get as efficient use of feed. This is especially true for hay. Recent research work has shown the importance of water for efficient digestion of hay. During cold winter weather, it often pays to take the chill off of the water. Simple management practices such as this often mean the difference between profit and loss. Highest profit over feed cost "We hove been feeding our herd of 23 purebred Jersey cows Ful-O- Pep 32% Dairy Concentrate with home-grown grains. We had high herd for 1949 in the Jackson County I DH(A with a production per cow of 9,309 lbs. milk and 507.6 fat 2x milking. This was an increase in fat production of 31.6 lbs. over 1948. Our herd showed the highest profit over feed cost, too. This to us is proof of Fut-O-Pep's high feeding value." W. G. Mongold, La Pine Jerseys, Eagle Point, Ore. 4— Design Golden Shirley 1316241 Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan 23 mixing grain & concentrate Throughout heavy grain-producing areas, many dairymen find it practical to make dairy feeds by grinding their own grain and mixing in Ful-O-Pep 32% Dairy Concentrate. It provides in one bag the proteins, vitamins and minerals usually lacking in most grains but which cows need. By supply- ing these important nutrients, Ful-O-Pep 32% Dairy Concen- trate helps you get more feeding value out of your grain. • Mixtures for the milking herd — about 1 6 % protein Grains used in these mixtures should be coarsely ground or crimped. Crimping is preferable, for it makes the grain more palatable than does grinding. Oats or barley, however, may be steam-rolled. Oats* 400 Oats* 450 Oats* 400 Corn & Cob Meal 325 Cornf 300 Barley 250 Ful-O-Pep 32% Ful-O-Pep 32%. 250 Cornf 100 Dairy Cone. .275 . Ful-O-Pep 32%. 250 Oats* 375 Oats* 400 Oats* 275 Cornf 200 Milof 350 Milof 350 Wheat Bran 200 Ful-O-Pep 32% . 250 Rice Bran 1 50 Ful-O-Pep 32% . 225 Ful-O-Pep 32% 225 • Mixtures for the milking herd — about 20 % protein Oats* 325 Oats* 300 Oats* 325 Cornf 250 Cornf 100 Milof 250 Ful-O-Pep 32%. 425 Barley* 175 Ful-O-Pep 32%. 425 Ful-O-Pep 32%. 425 Quaker High Sweet Blend may replace up to 15% of farm grains. • Barley may replace oats up to 400 lbs. f Sorghum grains and corn may be interchanged in these mixtures. When using West Coast grains and mill feeds, use 50 to 75 lbs. addi- tional Ful-O-Pep 32% Dairy Concentrate in the mixture. For mixtures containing 14% or 18% protein, see mixing charts at your Ful-O-Pep dealer's. 24 Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan feeding test cows The Ful-O-Pep Plan for feeding test cows is designed to help you get top milk production from a cow for a high record. At the same time, it is designed to help you avoid some of the undesir- up with test cows. able after-effects that frequently show This plan is based on feeding roughage according to body weight and feeding Ful-O-Pep according to milk production. When body weight goes down, roughage is lowered automati- cally. As milk production goes up, Dairy Feed is increased. • Suggested feeding program We recommend a total roughage and succulent intake of 5 lbs. per 100 body weight, or as much as the cow will consume. lbs. Then feed 1 lb. of Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feed per 4 to 5 lbs. of milk produced. (See previous recommendation on hay and succulent feeding on page 20.) To help keep test cows' appetites sharp, roughage intake high, and to promote bacterial activity needed for efficient digestion of roughage, we suggest incorporating into the roughage $/ lb. 4 to 1 molasses per cow each day. In most areas, your Ful-O-Pep lb. Dealer will have a high molasses feed well suited for this purpose Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan 25 how to feed dry cows The dairy cow should have approximately 2 months' rest before calving so that she can build up her body. For, during the past lactation her body has been taxed by milk production. The dry period enables her to nourish her unborn calf properly. And it gives heran opportunity to build up reserve of body tissue and bony structure upon which she may draw during her lactation. • Feed dry cows Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed For the dry period, we recommend Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed. It is properly fortified with essential vitamins, proteins and minerals needed to help develop a healthy, vigorous calf and to build back the cow's condition for the next lactation. It helps put her in good, sound flesh, without getting fat. We recommend that the cow be dried off about 2 months be- fore she is due to freshen. Five days after the last milking, ex- amine all quarters for flaky or thick milk. If the condition of all quarters appears normal on the 5th day, just examine the udder once a week after that— until the cow is about to freshen. Should flaky or thick milk develop during this drying-off period, milk out all quarters. Examine the udder after a 5-day interval, and if flaky milk is still present, we suggest you treat all quarters by the method your veterinarian recommends. • Feed ample roughage to dry cows Reduce grain feeding during the drying-off period. Then after the cow is dry, feed about % lb. Fitting Feed daily per 100 lbs. body weight during the dry period, or 3 to 5 lbs. per cow daily. Give access to pasture and good-quality hay during the dry period. If the dry cow isn't on pasture, it is desirable to feed her a moderate amount of a succulent, such as molasses-soaked hay as described on page 11, in addition to all the hay she will eat. Be sure that dry cows get ample exercise. As freshening time approaches, handle and feed the dry cow as outlined for the bred heifer on page 19. 26 Fu'-o- Pe P Dair y p,an care and feeding off the bull The bull is a vital factor in your herd. So be sure that he has good breeding, backed up with substantial production records on both sides of his family. After picking a promising individual with good breeding, handle and feed him properly to get him in safe breeding con- dition. Otherwise, if he fails to settle cows or if it takes several services for each settling, he causes you to lose several months of production from cows. And that cuts your profits seriously. The bull should be fed so that he stays in healthy, vigorous condition. Overfeeding makes a bull heavy, indolent and in- terferes with his breeding ability. Underfeeding is dangerous, too. He should be kept in healthy condition but not fat. Feed good, bright mixed hay to the bull. But do not give him all the hay he will eat, as heavy hay consumption develops a paunch that is undesirable. Do not ever feed silage to the bull. • Fitting Feed is recommended for bulls Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed is a nutritious feed designed for feeding as the entire grain ration to supplement hay. It is built around crimped oats, plus a balance of important proteins, vitamins and minerals. It is very palatable and easy to digest. Bulls fed on it generally produce semen that is rich in live, active sperm cells. We recommend that you feed bulls a limited amount of Fitting Feed. Usually about i/£ to ys lb. per 100 lbs. of body weight isenough for mature bulls. Of course, the exact amount to feed depends on the kind and quality of hay fed, the size and condition of the bull, and the amount of exercise he is getting. A young bull that is still growing, of course, requires more grain than a mature bull. • Management suggestions The bull should not be allowed to run with the herd. Prefer- ably do not use a bull for service until he is at least 1 year old and not more than once a week until he is about 15 months old. Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan 27 Normally do not use a mature bull for more than about four services per week, with no more than two services in one day. Provide the bull with a large box stall connected to an ex- ercise run, preferably long and narrow in shape and about i/ 2 acre in size. Ample needed by the bull to keep him in healthy exercise is breeding condition. A good way to encourage him to exercise is to have the water supply at the far end of the run, away from the shelter. Keep the bull's quarters clean and well bedded. Some dairy- men prefer to use wood shavings forbedding because bulls some- times eat straw. Watch the bull's feet and keep them trimmed to avoid serious leg ailments. Occasionally trim feet so the bull stands well on his toes. Shorten toes of the rear feet by rasping them so the feet fit the ground. # Some safety suggestions For safety, be sure that the stall is sturdily built with heavy materials. And arrange feed mangers and the water supply so the attendant can feed and water the bull without getting into the stall or exercise run. Also, arrange gates and breeding racks to eliminate dangerous contact with the bull at time of service. Never trust even the gentle bull. Feeds Fining Feed all the way "Since deciding to feed my en- tire herd Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed, my herd average increased from 430 lbs. per cow to 560 lbs. This is one of the finest herd averages ever made In the State of Oklahoma. I feel that the continued feeding of Ful-O- Pep Fitting Feed throughout the year both to dry and fresh cows had a lot to do with it. We have had almost no calving difficulties or sickness In the herd." Robert W. Adams, Adams Acres, Broken Arrow, Okla, see us for Ful-O-Pep FB-52-D Printed in U.S.A.