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cow farming


  • pg 1
									 feeding for

dairy profits

   DAIRY FEEDS                         practical
      PROVED BY                        research

Partial view of dairy buildings on the Ful-O-Pep Livestock Research Farm. Practical
research on the feeding and management of beef cattle and hogs is also conducted here.

              fou can depend on Ful-O-Pep                         Dairy Feeds for top
             results.    You    see,   formulas are               built      scientifically     by
             nutritional      authorities   .   ,   .   ingredients          are   tested      and
             proved     in   Ful-O-Pep's laboratories               .    and feeds are
                                                                         .   .

             tried   and proved by dairy                 cattle    on Ful-O-Pep's Live-
             stock Research Farm.
                Also on this 450-acre farm near Barrington, Illinois,
             Ful-O-Pep works continuously to develop and improve
             plans for dairy cattle feeding and management.   plans                    .   .

             which help dairymen get high, economical production
             from feeding Ful-O-Pep.

                                                                        The cows themselves help
                                                                    test     and prove Ful-O-Pep
                                                                        Dairy Feeds under actual
                                                                    farm conditions.
                                                         Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan

      make            milk at low feed cost

As a dairyman you want to get high, economical production from
your herd, so your business will be successful and profitable.
  You know that what you feed your cows and how you feed them
determine to a great extent the production you get, the health of
your herd and your profits.

• Roughage       is   key   to economical production

To    get the highest possible dairy profits under almost all condi-
tions, you want your herd to consume the maximum amount of
farm-grown pasture, hay and silage. These feeds almost always are
the cheapest source of energy you can give your cows.
   But, of course, a ration consisting of roughage alone doesn't
usually contain enough nutrients or the proper balance of nutri-
ents needed for high, economical milk production. You can't
get enough roughage alone into a dairy cow for her to produce
the highest profits— unless, perhaps, the selling price of milk is
extremely low. However, as you replace part of the roughage in
the cow's ration with Dairy Feed, her milk production goes up.
   For example, experiments have shown that a cow which pro-
duces about 6,000 lbs. of milk when fed hay alone can be made
to produce more than 9,000 lbs. of milk when full-fed Dairy Feed
at the rate of 1 lb. to every 2 lbs. of milk produced.
  This, of course, is an extreme case. Such full-feeding of Dairy
Feed usually is not recommended for economical production.

• How the Ful-O-Pep Plan works
The Ful-O-Pep program    for profitable milk production basically
is:     Feed all the homegrown roughage the cow will eat, and

(2) Supplement it with a limited amount of Ful-O-Pep.
   Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds are built to help support this heavy
roughage feeding. They supply nutrients for the cow's rumen
bacteria as well as the cow herself. These tiny bacteria must be
fed properly    if   the   cow   is   to get   maximum   feeding value out of
the fibrous roughages she eats.
Ful-CPep Dairy Plan

       key    heavy roughage use:
       feeding rumen

Cattle, sheep,          and goats belong     to the class of   animals   known   as
ruminants. As you             may know,     the digestive tract of a     ruminant
is         from that of the hen or the hog. Because of this diges-
tive setup, thecow or any other ruminant is able to use a large
amount of roughage for food.
  This is possible mainly because of billions of tiny bacteria in
the cow's       first   commonly called the "paunch" or rumen.
     These     little  make the rumen like a fermentation vat, so
to speak, where they are able to break down and digest the tough,
fibrous parts of roughage and grain. The bacteria break down the
roughage and form products which can be readily used as food by
the cow. And later when the bacteria have finished their im-
portant work, they themselves are also digested and are used
as food by the cow.

• How feeding               bacteria affects        them

Now,     to    do an     efficient                 down roughage, the bac-
                                     job of breaking
teria themselves           must receive         own proper food nutrients.
You     see,    the efficiency of the      rumen bacteria is based on their
rate of multiplication           and on their activity. For right after the
cow     eats the        proper feed, the bacteria in her rumen multiply.
This increases the number of bacteria                  to take care of the big
digesting job to be done.
     The   multiplication must be accompanied by increased activity
of all the bacteria.          For they must work rapidly       to break down
and    digest the tough, fibrous parts of              roughage while it is in
the rumen.
  Now, neither roughage alone nor a combination of roughage
and grain will necessarily provide the best conditions for bac-
terial multiplication and activity. Nutrients needed by rumen

bacteria should be supplied in the Dairy Feed which you give
your cows to supplement your home-grown roughage and pasture.
                                                      Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan

      how to feed bacteria
      when feeding the cow
After reading the previous chapter, you no doubt will agree
that for the most efficient use of roughage, you            want   to feed the
rumen    bacteria   when you    feed the   cow   herself.   Now, we      believe
bacteria need several types of nutrients to          do     their best work:

(1)   source of quick energy,   (2)   source of slow energy,       (3)   protein,
(4)   certain vitamins and, (5) certain minerals— especially several
trace minerals.

• Quick energy        is   important

Fast-acting nutrition produces lots of bacteria to do the                work   in
a hurry. Molasses     is   used in Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds to supply
quick energy, as well  as to help improve palatability. Molasses

is an excellent source of sugar for quick energy. However, only
a moderate amount of molasses is used in Ful-O-Pep. For when
bacteria eat too much sugar, they do not work on the roughage
fibers as vigorously as they should for complete, efficient di-
gestion of   it.

Every                                                   —
     cow has four stomachs. In her first stomach called the rumen
or           —
  paunch are billions of tiny bacteria. They help the cow break
down the cellulose and fiber in her ration. These little bacteria must
be fed properly so that they can do an efficient job of breaking
down tough, fibrous parts of grain and roughage.
£   Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan

    • Slow energy           is   required by rumen bacteria

    The      grain ingredients in Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds are crimped or
    coarsely       ground   to give the bacteria a slow        and constant form of
    energy while they are breaking             down    fibrous roughage. Particles
    of crimped or coarsely    ground grain have small surface areas
    compared            ground grain.
                    to finely
       Rumen bacteria feed mostly on this surface. So when this area
    is small— when grains are crimped or coarsely ground— the organ-

    isms feed at a slow, steady rate. Thus, the grains are kept in the
    rumen for the longest possible time. They are broken down along
    with the roughage and not right after the cow has finished eating.

    • Proper         proteins are        needed

    Activity of the bacteria        is   definitely slowed     down on   low-protein
    feeds,   with    less efficient digestibility as   the result. So an adequate
    amount         of protein to balance      roughage    is   provided for rumen
    bacteria in Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds.

    • Vitamins and minerals are                 also essential

      In addition to protein, certain substances rich in vitamins and
    minerals have been shown to help maintain roughage digestion
    at a high and efficient level. They contain feeding value both for
    the  cow herself and the rumen bacteria.
       For example, there are indications that small additions of
    B-complex vitamins promote bacterial growth, even if the bac-
    teria themselves can make some of these vitamins.
      Certain trace minerals are helpful, too, because research                     is

    finding that they are essential to            rumen        bacteria or the    cow
    herself. Cobalt, copper, iron,           and manganese are some          of the
    trace    minerals included in Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds.                  They    are
    added    an adequate supply, but in not too large an amount.
    With trace minerals, a little is good, whereas too much of them
    may be harmful.
      Now, fresh, green           pasture and hay crops are rich in certain
    important minerals and vitamins. But when the plants begin to
    mature, or are harvested under usual farm conditions,                        their
    value goes      down    rapidly.

                                                                                           Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan

               To            give the              cow many        of the nutritional advantages of lush,
            tender, spring pasture, certain ingredients rich in vitamins                                     and
            minerals are used in Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds.
              Two of the principal ingredients used in Ful-O-Pep to give it
            these "pasture-like" qualities are Concentrated Spring Range*
            and dehydrated alfalfa meal. They provide the cow with many of
            the benefits needed by her and by the bacteria in her rumen.

             • Concentrated Spring Range
             Many             spring pasture benefits are provided through this Ful-O-
             Pep ingredient. For, as you may know, it is made from tender,
             young pasture grasses and clover.
               These nutritious young plants are carefully harvested and are
             dehydrated to preserve their high vitamin content and other
             feeding benefits for year-around use.
                 Concentrated Spring Range                               is   rich in protein     and    essential
             organic-source minerals, as well as in important vitamins. These
             nutrients are needed both by the                                 cow and her rumen     bacteria.

             • Dehydrated                                alfalfa   meal used, too
             Another good source of vitamins,                                 especially   Vitamin A, included
             in Ful-O-Pep                         is   dehydrated   alfalfa meal. In addition to        providing
             valuable vitamins and minerals,                             it    also adds to the "pasture-like"

              *Reg. U.        S.   Pat. Off.


Good, making
               maximum roughage
     "Pinn Bruce Estelle classified Very
                         a    Medal     of Merit.        She
made 18,116              lbs.      of   milk and 929
lbs.   fat.   She consumed a large quan-
tity   of    roughage compared with the
small        amount of Ful-O-Pep Dairy
Feed        required         to    hold       a    uniform
high     level      of       production.          Also   she
finished       in   average flesh                 condition
and     not     with         patchy     fat       as   many
cows do." John Fawcett, The School
of     the    Ozarks,         Point     Lookout,         Mo.

             P'mn Bruce Estelle           1   394240     —
g   Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan

    qualities of Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds. Dehydrated alfalfa meal and
    Concentrated Spring Range provide a desirable balance of pas-
    ture-plant nutrients.        When you consider these "pasture-like'* qual-
    ities     in Ful-O-Pep,     you can readily see why Ful-O-Pep helps you
    get heavy production.
         Among        other important vitamins provided in Ful-O-Pep Dairy
    Feeds      is   Vitamin D, the "sunlight factor." It is needed by the cow
    to    make proper       use of the calcium and phosphorus in her feed.

    • Minerals are supplied
    Both the cow and the bacteria in her rumen require certain
    minerals. The cow needs phosphorus and calcium to put into
    her milk. These minerals are provided in Ful-O-Pep Feeds. Safe
    sources of phosphorus are used— ones that are low in fluorine.
    Raw rock phosphate is not used in Ful-O-Pep, for it contains
    fluorine which may damage the cow's health.

    • What           all this   means    to    you
    When        you add up       all   these outstanding features of Ful-O-Pep
    Dairy Feeds, you can easily               see that   Ful-O-Pep feeds the rumen
    bacteria as well as the            cow   herself.
        simply means that with economical Ful-O-Pep, you may feed

    LARGE   quantities of your home-grown roughage and get heavy,
    continuous milk production from your cows. That's how to make
    milk at low feed        cost!

                                                                          Persistent production

                                                                      "We    have         fed    Ful-O-Pep          Feeds
                                                                for    about        VO     years    and       are    well
                                                                pleased with             its   effect on      persistent
                                                                production,          general         herd       health,
                                                                breeding       efficiency          and easier        calf
                                                                raising.    The excellent          results     we have
                                                                obtained     is   evidenced by the produc-
                                                                tion   and reproduction             of      one of our
                                                                typical     matrons. (See photo.) She                  is

                                                                almost 8 years old and has 7 living
                                                                offspring      in    addition          to    producing
                                                                55,715       (bs.        milk    and        2,645    lbs.

                                                                butterfat in SVi lactations."                  Paul S.
                                                                Bryan, Whitebry Farm, Perkasie, Pa.

                                                                «— Maridel's         Hollicharm 708009
                                                                         Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan                Q

         pasture                    management
For high dairy                           much as possible of your cow's rough-
                               profits, as

age intake should be pasture.               The more good-quality pasture you
are able to provide                  your herd over the maximum number of
months       in the year, the less other feed               you will have          to give them.
    Some         helpful pasture         management         points are listed below. For
more      specific        recommendations,           see   your county agent.
    1.    Develop a balanced pasture plan to provide pasture                               as        many
          months in the year as climate and weather permit.
    2.    Plan your pasture program so each pasture                       is   grazed at       its   peak
          of feeding value.

    3.    Aim  for top carrying capacity per acre and try to hold it by
          proper liming and fertilizing— preferably at the time of planting.

    4.    Test     soil    before adding lime or           fertilizer.    It   usually    is    best to
          take care of needed elements in this order:                      (1)    Lime,    (2)   ^Phos-
          phorus,        (3)   Potash,   and   (4)   trace elements.

    5.    Improve old permanent pastures by tearing up the sod, testing
          soil, adding necessary lime and/or fertilizer in a supply adequate

          for several years and re-seeding. Then observe proper grazing
          management             to protect the stand.

    6.    Include quick-growing pasture crops in field rotations when
          practical, to provide pasture during such seasons as mid-summer,
          fall   and     early spring.

    7.    Alternate grazing from one pasture or field to another to help
                                    maximum use of each acre, and to
          get better quality pasture,
          help avoid spot-grazing.

    8.    Clip pastures to promote               new growth,      especially      when     tall      spots
          have grown up around droppings or urine                        spots.

    9.    Use fresh, green pastures in general for the milking herd, and run
          dry cows and heifers on the drier, more nearly matured pastures.

• Keep hay available                         to milking herd on pasture

When        hay     is    available in pastures, cows will often                  consume about
1   lb.    of hay per 100 lbs.               body weight       daily.      The hay probably
causes grass to remain in the digestive tract longer, maintaining
a good       cow       fill    which promotes high production.

1Q   Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan

            produce quality hay

     The importance            of good-quality hay cannot be overemphasized.
     Its leafiness       and
                       palatability directly affect the quantity of hay
     you can get into your cows. And its feeding value affects the
     quantity and quality of milk your cows produce.
       Hay quality is one thing over which you have considerable
     control. Through your methods of harvesting and storing hay,
     you can either lose or retain much of its natural qualities.

     • Suggestions on producing quality hay

       1.   Cut hay       in the early   bloom   stage for   most economical feed pro-
            duction. This      is   true for practically all hays.

       2.   Handle and cure hay to conserve the leaves, keep the stems soft,
            pliable, and retain green color as much as possible. The more
            leaves you can keep on your hay, the more palatable and nutri-
            tious   it   will be. In the alfalfa plant, for instance, the leaves con-
            tain about      70%     of the protein   and 90% of the carotene of the
            entire plant.

       3.   Do   the best you can to prevent hay from getting rained on. This
            causes not only loss of leaves, but also leaching of a substantial
            portion of the minerals in the hay.

                                                                            Finished test in            full      bloom
                                                                          "Since we started on the Ful-O-
                                                                     Pep program, 35 cows have finished
                                                                     their    tests.     Six    of     these       on      retest
                                                                     averaged 15,597            lbs.    milk,        723    lbs.

                                                                     of     butterfat.    The other 29 (2-year
                                                                     olds)    averaged 12,614                 lbs.    of    milk
                                                                     and 637       lbs.    of    fat.     All        of    these
                                                                     test    cows finished       in    full       bloom.     We
                                                                     are convinced Ful-O-Pep contains the
                                                                     necessary ingredients to maintain the
                                                                     best of health and top production."
                                                                     Chester Lyons,              Antietam                 Farm,
                                                                     Waynesboro, Pa.

                                                                     <— Ant'ftam          Royal Sue       1       772692
                                                        Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan

    supply succulent feed

During periods when good, juicy pasture is not available, many
dairymen find it profitable to feed some form of succulent feed,
such as silage, wet brewers grains, roots or ground hay with mo-
lasses. A popular combination is 20 lbs. or more molasses to 100

lbs. chopped hay, soaked or steamed.

  When using silage as a succulent feed, be sure the forage is
properly matured before harvesting, to help avoid it becoming
moldy. For example, when using corn for silage, the best time
to harvest   it is   when   the ears are filled but the plant   still is   green.

• More suggestions on making good                  silage

Avoid using forage that contains a very large percentage of weeds
or other foreign growth. With grass or legume silage, help avoid
losses from molding by seeing that the forage is wilted before
you blow it into the silo. Another way is to add dry material or a
preservative, such as molasses or Sugared Schumacher Feed.
   At the Ful-O-Pep Research Farm, we use 100 lbs. or more of
Sugared Schumacher Feed per ton of forage. We have found that
it helps make very good silage that keeps well. The Schumacher

gives the silage additional feeding value         and    palatability.
J2   Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan

          keep only cows that are
          profitable producers

     You know that there's a lot of difference between cows, in the
     amount of milk they give under the same conditions. Some cows
     can convert more feed into milk efficiently than other cows,
     because they have the inherited capacity for milk production.
       Now, these better cows don't take up any more barn space,
     require very little extra labor and tie up comparatively little
     extra investment. But they do return you            much         larger profits for
     your time, work and feed.

     • High producers use feed more                 efficiently

     To   illustrate   how   the efficiency of handling feed varies with the
     cow's inherited ability to      make   milk,    let's   look at some figures.
     Suppose you have three 1,200 lb. cows. One has the inherited
     capacity to produce 5,000 lbs. of milk a year. Another has the
     capacity to produce 10,000 lbs. and the third one 15,000 lbs.
       In the table on the opposite page is approximately what each
     cow's feed needs would be-in Total Digestible Nutrients.

                                                                           Outstanding record

                                                                 "Another of our cowi fed on Ful-
                                                               O-Pep has achieved a signal honor
                                                               for    Marlu Farm and Ful-O-Pep. (See
                                                               photo.)She became the first Jersey
                                                               cow in the State of New Jersey to
                                                               make a 1,000-lb. record. She did it
                                                               with a       record of      18,774    lbs.       milk,
                                                               1,017       lbs.   fat.   She also   is   the only
                                                               cow    in   the state to      make    1   ,000    lbs.

                                                               and    to    calve in time for Medal                of
                                                              Merit,       indicating      that   she    retained
                                                               full   healh and normal activity of her
                                                               reproducing         organs    in   making         this
                                                               record." Maurice Pollak, Marlu Farm,
                                                               Lincroft,      N.    J.

                                                               4—Rrampton           Favorite Peggy       1451215
                                                                                               Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan                    ^   3
     Look              at the     pounds         of   milk each pound of T.D.N, produces:
 Cow Production                   Maintenance —            Production              —          lbs.   TDN        Lbs. milk produced

          lbs.   milk             lbs.   TDN needed       lbs.   TDN       i                    Total            per lb.   TDN   fed

          5,000                          3,100                   1,600                        4,700                    1.06
     10,000                              3,100                   3,200                        6,300                    1.58
     15,000                              3,100                   4,800                        7,900                    1.88

     It's        easy to see from these figures that the proportion of the
cow's feed which she uses to maintain her                                                    own body            goes      down
rapidly as milk flow goes up.                             And          so,             the 15,000       lb.   cow produces
1.88 lbs. of                  milk per pound of T.D.N, compared to                                              1.06 lbs. of
milk for the 5,000 lb. cow.
  In other words, the 15,000 lb. cow converts each pound of
T.D.N she eats into more than l]/2 times as much milk as does
the 5,000                lb.    cow.       What       a difference that                     makes          in cash returns
per dollar feed cost and per hour of labor you invest!

• Ways                   to    improve your milking herd

     1.      Keep milk production records      watch each cow's production.
                                                                       .       .   .

             Selllow producers and replace them by buying heavier producers,
             even        if   you don't get back             as   many cows                 in numbers.

     2.      Breed up your herd by using a good bull backed by high produc-
             tion records                among    his ancestors.

     3.      Keep                           replacement in your milking herd only
                          a heifer calf for a
             if       her dam's production was at least satisfactory.

          Free Record Cards
Cards            to    help    you       keep   records
easily       and accurately are available
from your Ful-O-Pep Dealer.
   By putting up one of these MILK
RECORD CARDS     in your milk house
and by noting on it at milking
time each cow's production, you
can easily see how her milk flow
is holding up and how it compares

to that of other cows in your herd.

has ample spaces for entering such
useful information as dates when
each cow freshens, comes in heat,
is   bred,        is    due   to calve, etc.
    There's a Ful-O-Pep Feed

FUL-O-PEP CALF STARTER   grows healthy calves economically.

                             It's    made              for feeding with your             own
                             grain     .   .       .       plus hay, salt          and water.
                             Calf Starter supplies essential nutri-
    ft     ®       K         ents lacking in home grown grains                                .   .   .

                             nutrients needed for sound growth,
                             proper health and good calf develop-
                             ment.     so well balanced nutrition-
                             ally that   lb. replaces up to 10 lbs.

                             of milk. Favorite of many dairymen.

FUL-O-PEP CALF RATION    grows      big, sturdy heifers,                         easy to feed.

                             It's a nutritious, easily digested feed

                             containing a variety of proteins                             .       .   .

                             vitamins and minerals ... a milk
                             product        wholesome oatmeal and
                                               .       .   .

                             crimped grains        plus an antibiotic.
                                                                 .   .   .

                             Convenient to feed, too. There's no
                             gruel to mix ... no buckets to scrub.
                             So economical! Saves up to 75% of
                             the whole milk formerly used in calf

FUL-O-PEP FiniNG FEED    builds up dry cows for                              heavy milking.

    E^S                      It's an all-purpose dairy feed de-
                             signed for feeding as the entire grain
                             ration to balance roughage and pas-
                             ture. Built around crimped oats, en-

     0Fma«p                  riched        with                proteins,    minerals and
                             vitamins.             When              fed to dry cows, Ful-
                             O-Pep         Fitting              Feed helps build          big,
                             strong calves and prepares cows for
                             easy calving and heavy milking. Pro-
                             motes sound heifer growth and de-
                             velopment. Helps keep bulls in top
                             breeding condition. Priced right!
   .   .   .   for every dairy                     need
FUL-O-PEP DAIRY FEED     promotes record milk production.

                             A   top dairy feed    built      with       quality
                             ingredients  needed    to balance pas-
                             ture   and roughage   ,for heavy, con-
                             tinuous milk production. Built to help
                             keep the cow to top body condition
                             all through the heavy lactation period.
                             Especially popular for feeding to test
                             cows and under other conditions when
                             maximum production       is    desired.

FUL-O-PEP MILKING FEED   promotes top milk flow at low feed                      cost.

                             This bulky, nutritious feed        is       built to
                             supplement pasture and roughage
                             with a balance of quality proteins,
                             essential vitamins   and important min-
                             erals. Cane molasses helps speed up
                             activity of rumen bacteria. Priced
                             right for the fine job    it   does     in          main-
                             taining high milk production          and herd

FUL-O-PEP "32 DAIRY"     boosts feeding efficiency of your grains.

                             It'sbuilt for dairy farmers in heavy
                             grain-producing areas who find it
                             practical to use their own grain to
                             make dairy feeds. Ful-O-Pep 32%
                             Dairy Concentrate provides in one bag
                             the proteins, vitamins and minerals
                             usually lacking in most grains    nutri-.   .   .

                             ents cows need for heavy, continuous
                             milk flow and to stay in sound, healthy
                             condition. Mighty economical, for it
                             helps you get more feeding value out
                             of your grain.
1   6   Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan

                how            to feed calves

        To      raise healthy, well-developed heifer calves for                      replacements
        efficientlyand economically, supplement the milk with a nutri-
        tious feed. Every pound of milk has market value, too. So step up
        your profits by replacing up to 75% of it with Ful-O-Pep Calf
        Ration or Ful-O-Pep Calf                    Starter.
           For the       first   2 or 3 days, leave the calf          with     its   mother in the
        maternity pen, so          it   can get      all   the colostrum milk        it wants. This

        first   milk helps get the                 calf off to a   sound     start    because     it   is

        laxative as well as being rich in essential nutrients.
          Generally it is best not to milk the cow dry during the first
        few days after calving unless her udder becomes too distended.

        • Move          calf to    separate pen on 3rd day

        On      the third day,          move       the calf to a separate  pen— one that is
        comfortable and free from drafts.                      Auniform temperature should
        be held until the -calf               is    at least   2 or 3 weeks old. In winter,
        around 65 to 70 degrees is about right.
          Also on the third day, begin to teach the                          calf to   drink milk.
        The     simplest       way is by using a nipple             pail or a bottle            with a
        nipple on        it.   With either method there              isn't    the danger of the
        calf    drinking too       fast, as is       frequently the case       when      the calf      is

        fed milk from an ordinary bucket.

        • Place         Calf Ration before calf from 3rd                     da/ on
        After feeding milk the first time, place a small handful of Calf

        Ration in an open trough before the calf. Lead the calf to the
        trough and offer it a little feed in your hand. When the calf
        samples Calf Ration,             it   will like the appetizing flavor              and will
        soon    start   nibbling the feed in the trough. Keep a                        littlemixed
        hay and clean, fresh water before the calf from the start.
          Some dairymen put the milk pail or bottle in the trough after
        the calf has finished the milk to encourage the calf to eat feed.
          Feed milk twice a day, using fresh, warm milk at a temperature
        of 90 to 100 degrees F. The amount you feed per day should
                                                                  Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan
                                                                                              J   7
    not exceed 1/12 the calf's body weight. For example, a calf
    weighing about 96 lbs. should not be given more than 8 lbs. of
    milk (or milk and water) a day.
        After the           week, gradually reduce fluid milk daily at the

    rate of   1   lb.   each week for 4 weeks. By the time most calves are
    6 weeks old, they are eating   enough Ful-O-Pep Calf Ration and'
    hay and are drinking water to the extent that milk is no longer
    necessary. When milk is stopped at the 6th week, calves usually
    will grow out satisfactorily. If faster growth is desired, continue
    milk feeding for 2 or 3 weeks more.
'       When      the calf reaches 3       months      of age, limit the    amount      of
    Calf Ration to 3 to 4        lbs.   per head daily.   Then change      at 5   months
    of age to Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed, continuing to feed 5 or 4 lbs.
    daily per head plus hay. Also at about the 5th month, the heifer
    should be removed from the individual pen, and she should
    have pasture or silage along with hay.

    • Calf Starter as an alternative to Calf Ration
    With Ful-O-Pep Calf Starter, you may feed up to 3 parts of your
    own grains. Start feeding the calf much as you would do on
    Calf Ration. At about 2-3 weeks,             it   should be eating about       i/   lb.
    Starter each day. Gradually increase this to              1   lb.
      During the 3rd week, begin feeding a handful of grain (or
    Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed) along with Calf Starter, Increase the
    grain (or Fitting Feed) until you are feeding at least 3 parts to
    1   part Calf Starter.
      Three parts crimped oats or 2 parts oats and 1 part coarsely
    cracked corn is a good grain mixture. You may use Sugared

    Schumacher to replace part or all of the oats. Gradually increase
    the grain mixture, until at about 5 months, the calves are                          no
    longer getting Calf Starter.

    • Always keep hay, salt and water before calves
    High quality, bright clean hay is important in raising calves.
    Dairymen often prefer good mixed hay or timothy to alfalfa or
    other legume hays. Straight legume hay may cause scours, if calves
    should accidentally overeat. Keep a block or spool of salt, as well
    as fresh, clean water, before the calf at all times. In cold weather,
    warm    the water to        remove the    chill.
1   3   Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan

            how             to feed              open heifers

        The main       objective in feeding a dairy heifer            is   to   develop her
        into a   cow   of   good   size,   with a strong constitution           and with the
        capacity to turn feed into milk efficiently.
          Heifer calves should continue to grow steadily from the time
        they are about 5 months old until they are ready to be bred. But
        they should not become              fat. It is   much   better to keep      them on
        the thin side.
          During        growing period, roughage feeding should be
        stepped up.                  being fed in the barn, increase hay
                        If the heifers are

        feeding. If they are out on pasture, feed them some hay in a
        rack to supplement the pasture. For this, many successful dairy-
        men use a hay rack with a trough in which they can feed grain.
        • Change        at 5   months        to Ful-O-Pep Fitting          Feed

        After changing from Ful-O-Pep Calf Ration to Ful-O-Pep Fitting
        Feed at 5 months of age, feed 3 to 4 lbs. of it daily. If heifers
        are running from barn to pasture, feed the Fitting Feed night
        and morning in the barn. If heifers are on pasture all the time,
        feed Fitting Feed in a hay rack or in a bunk.
           At 1 year of age, gradually discontinue feeding Fitting Feed
        if in your judgment the heifers are well-developed— providing,

        of course, that pasture and/or roughage is of good quality.
          (note:   When   little or no Fitting Feed is fed, give heifers free

        access to a mixture of steamed bone meal and salt, equal parts.)
          If the roughage is poor or if pastures are dried up, continue

        to feed 3 or 4 lbs. Fitting Feed daily or start feeding good-quality
        silage or some other good succulent. Give free access to the suc-
        culent, feeding it in the barn or in hay rack on pasture. (More
        about succulent feeds on page 11.)
          The best age to breed heifers usually is between 15 and 18
        months, depending on the breed you raise and your breeding
        program. If you breed a heifer too young, the early calving may
        tend to stunt her growth. While if you wait too late to breed
        her, she   may be     slow to      settle.
                                                          Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan        *|

      how          to feed bred heifers

Start preparing the heifer for her         first     freshening by beginning
to give her some Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed when she is safe in calf
4 or 5 months. Each day give her about % to i/ ik. P er 100 l° s
                                                2                                *

of body weight. Continue heavy feeding of roughage if heifer
isn't on good pasture. When on pasture, be sure to provide shade

for heifers. Always give heifers access to salt and a supply of
fresh, clean water.
     The   exact   amount   of Fitting   Feed   to give each heifer      depends
upon   the individual, her condition, the season, quality of pasture
or hay, and so on. First, feed enough roughage to build good
body capacity. Then give the heifer enough Fitting Feed to keep
her growing constantly, but not so much that she becomes fat.

• Check udder a week or so before freshening
If you are concerned about the condition of the heifer's udder
a week or so before she is due to freshen, milk it dry twice a day.
This practice is generally accepted as a satisfactory way to protect
udders in most cases. When milking machines are used on the
herd, it is advisable to start with them at this time.
   Several days before she is due to calve, move the heifer to a
box stall or maternity pen that is free from drafts and is well
bedded. Be sure that her bowels are open.                  You    will find that

Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed ordinarily               is   laxative   enough   to   keep
 her in good physical condition before* and after calving.

 • How       to feed at freshening time

 During the freshening period, we suggest feeding all the Ful-O-
 Pep Fitting Feed the heifer will readily clean up. Fitting Feed
 will help provide an adequate supply of nutrients needed during
 freshening when there is a heavy drain on her system.
     On    the 3rd day after freshening, return to feeding about \/
                                                                  %             lb.

 Fitting Feed daily per 100 lbs. body weight. Continue feeding
 this way for 8 to 10 days. Then switch to Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feed
 or Milking Feed, feeding as recommended on pages 20-22.
20   Fu| -o- Pe P Dai|- y p 'a"

            how           to feed milking herd

     The Ful-O-Pep Plan             for high, economical milk production                is

     based on       maximum       use of your farm-grown feeds.
       In short, the plan     Get all the good-quality pasture, hay

     and succulent feed          cow that she will eat
                                  into the                 and then    .   .

     feed Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feeds according to milk production.
       Of course, when pastures and roughages are of poor quality,
     more Dairy Feed must be fed to maintain production and the
     cow's health. (More on this later.)
       To get maximum roughage intake for most economical pro-
     duction, give the        cow    access to pasture  whenever possible. And
                                                     keep hay available to cows
                                                    on pasture in a rack such
                                                     as the one shown here.
                                                      When good pasture isn't
                                                    available, feed both hay
                                                    and silage or other succu-
                                                    lent feed.       The       cow's total
                                                    hay and succulent intake
                                                    should approach 5 lbs. per
     100    lbs.   of   body weight. Cows may be fed 2        lbs.   or more of hay,
     plus    up    to 3 lbs. of succulent feed to reach this goal of 5 lbs.
     roughage daily per 100  lbs. body weight.
        During the first 10 days after freshening, feed Ful-O-Pep Fit-
     ting Feed as outlined on page 19. Then switch the cow to Ful-O-
     Pep Dairy Feed or Milking Feed. (If you have an abundance of
     grain, you may want to use Ful-O-Pep 32% Dairy Concentrate
     to make a good dairy feed. More about this on page

     • Gradually          increase Dairy Feed after      1   Oth day
     After switching the cow to Dairy Feed 10 days after freshening,
     gradually increase the  amount you feed each day so that by 40
     or 50 days after the cow freshens, you are feeding approximately
     the    amount indicated on           the chart on the opposite page to go
     with the pasture or harvested roughage the cow                   is   getting.
                                            Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan
  The feeding rates shown in this chart are based on feeding
Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feed, Ful-O-Pep Milking Feed or a dairy feed
that you mix containing about 16% protein, using Ful-O-Pep
Dairy Concentrate with your ground grain.

  Feed   1   pound of Dairy Feed   to       pounds of milk:
22   Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan

       Always bear in mind when following the Ful-O-Pep Feeding
     Plan for the milking herd, that "the eye of the master" is im-
     portant. In other words, you must always use your best judgment
                          Animals are not all alike in their capacity,
     in feeding Dairy Feed.
     feeding habits, productive ability,temperament, and over-all
     performance. So feed each cow as an individual, using the sug-
     gested feeding rates as a general guide.
        When         milking
                        is finished, inspect the feeding trough to see

     if allcows have cleaned up their feed. Also check the condition
     of the manure. Then adjust the amount of Ful-O-Pep Dairy
     Feed if necessary to keep the cow from getting too fat or too thin.

     • Provide plenty          of clean, fresh water

     The   dairy cow in milk, more than any other farm animal, must
     have access to an ample water supply. When she doesn't drink
     all the water her body needs— because it's too unhandy to get to,

     it's   dirty,                 some other reason— her health may
                      too cold, or for
     suffer.   And,     too, she             all the milk possible from
                                   won't produce
     the feed she eats. Needless to say, you won't get as efficient use of
     feed. This is especially true for hay. Recent research work has
     shown the importance of water for efficient digestion of hay.
       During cold winter weather, it often pays to take the chill off
     of the water. Simple management practices such as this often
     mean the difference between profit and loss.

                                                            Highest profit over feed cost

                                                            "We      hove been feeding our herd
                                                       of    23 purebred Jersey cows Ful-O-
                                                       Pep     32%        Dairy     Concentrate           with
                                                       home-grown grains. We had high
                                                       herd for 1949 in the Jackson County
I                                                      DH(A with a production per cow of
                                                       9,309 lbs. milk and 507.6 fat 2x
                                                       milking. This was an increase in fat
                                                       production      of 31.6           lbs.   over     1948.
                                                       Our herd showed             the      highest profit
                                                       over    feed    cost,      too.     This    to    us   is

                                                       proof    of    Fut-O-Pep's           high    feeding
                                                       value."       W.    G.      Mongold,         La    Pine
                                                       Jerseys, Eagle Point,             Ore.

                                                       4— Design       Golden Shirley 1316241
                                                                         Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan            23

      mixing grain                               & concentrate
Throughout heavy grain-producing                              areas,    many dairymen find
it   practical to         make      dairy feeds by grinding their            own grain and
mixing in Ful-O-Pep 32% Dairy Concentrate.
  It provides in one bag the proteins, vitamins and minerals

usually lacking in most grains but which cows need. By supply-
ing these important nutrients, Ful-O-Pep 32% Dairy Concen-
trate helps you get more feeding value out of your grain.

• Mixtures            for the milking herd             — about           1   6   %   protein

Grains used in these mixtures should be coarsely ground or crimped.
Crimping  is preferable, for it makes the grain more palatable than

does grinding. Oats or barley, however,                   may be         steam-rolled.

Oats*           400                   Oats*                450               Oats*          400
Corn & Cob Meal 325                   Cornf                300               Barley         250
Ful-O-Pep 32%                         Ful-O-Pep       32%. 250               Cornf          100
  Dairy Cone.  .275   .                                                      Ful-O-Pep 32%. 250

Oats*                         375     Oats*                       400        Oats*                275
Cornf                         200     Milof                       350        Milof                350
Wheat Bran                    200     Ful-O-Pep       32%     .   250        Rice Bran            1 50

Ful-O-Pep      32%        .   225                                            Ful-O-Pep   32%      225

• Mixtures            for the milking herd              — about 20 %                  protein

Oats*               325                Oats*                      300        Oats*            325
Cornf               250                Cornf                      100        Milof            250
Ful-O-Pep      32%. 425                Barley*                    175        Ful-O-Pep   32%. 425
                                       Ful-O-Pep      32%. 425

Quaker High Sweet Blend may replace up                            to   15%   of farm grains.
 •   Barley   may     replace oats up to         400   lbs.

f Sorghum grains and corn                may     be interchanged         in   these mixtures.

     When     using   West Coast grains and            mill feeds,      use 50 to 75      lbs.   addi-
 tional Ful-O-Pep             32%   Dairy Concentrate         in   the mixture.

   For mixtures containing               14%     or    18%        protein, see   mixing charts      at
 your Ful-O-Pep dealer's.
24   Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan

              feeding test cows

     The Ful-O-Pep Plan for feeding test cows is designed to help
     you get top milk production from a cow for a high record. At the
     same time, it is designed to help you avoid some of the undesir-
                                           up with test cows.
     able after-effects that frequently show
        This plan is based on feeding roughage according to body
     weight and feeding Ful-O-Pep according to milk production.
     When body weight goes down, roughage is lowered automati-
     cally. As milk production goes up, Dairy Feed is increased.

     • Suggested feeding program
     We       recommend
                     a total roughage and succulent intake of 5 lbs.
     per 100     body weight, or as much as the cow will consume.

     Then feed 1 lb. of Ful-O-Pep Dairy Feed per 4 to 5 lbs. of milk
     produced. (See previous recommendation on hay and succulent
     feeding on page 20.)
       To help keep test cows' appetites sharp, roughage intake high,
     and to promote bacterial activity needed for efficient digestion
     of roughage,          we   suggest incorporating into the roughage $/ lb.
     to   1  molasses per cow each day. In most areas, your Ful-O-Pep

     Dealer will have a high molasses feed well suited for this purpose
                                                  Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan

      how       to feed dry           cows

The   dairy   cow should have approximately 2 months'      rest   before
calving so that she can build   up her body.   For, during the past
lactation her   body has been taxed by milk production. The dry
period enables her to nourish her unborn calf properly.           And   it

gives heran opportunity to build up reserve of body tissue and
bony structure upon which she may draw during her lactation.

• Feed dry cows Ful-O-Pep        Fitting   Feed
For the dry period, we recommend Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed. It is
properly fortified with essential vitamins, proteins and minerals
needed to help develop a healthy, vigorous calf and to build
back the cow's condition for the next lactation. It helps put her
in good, sound flesh, without getting fat.
  We recommend that the cow be dried off about 2 months be-
fore she is due to freshen. Five days after the last milking, ex-
amine all quarters for flaky or thick milk. If the condition of all
quarters appears normal on the 5th day, just examine the udder
once a week after that— until the cow is about to freshen.
   Should flaky or thick milk develop during this drying-off
period, milk out all quarters. Examine the udder after a 5-day
interval, and if flaky milk is still present, we suggest you treat
all quarters by the method your veterinarian recommends.

• Feed ample roughage         to dry cows

Reduce grain feeding during the drying-off period. Then after
the cow is dry, feed about % lb. Fitting Feed daily per 100 lbs.
body weight during the dry period, or 3 to 5 lbs. per cow daily.
Give access to pasture and good-quality hay during the dry
period. If the dry cow isn't on pasture, it is desirable to feed her
a moderate amount of a succulent, such as molasses-soaked hay
as described on page 11, in addition to all the hay she will eat.
Be sure that dry cows get ample exercise.
   As freshening time approaches, handle and feed the dry cow
as outlined for the bred heifer on page 19.
26   Fu'-o- Pe P Dair y p,an

            care and feeding                                            off        the bull

     The bull is a vital factor in your herd. So be sure that he has
     good breeding, backed up with substantial production records
     on both sides of his family.
       After picking a promising individual with good breeding,
     handle and feed him properly to get him in safe breeding con-
     dition. Otherwise, if he fails to settle cows or if it takes several
     services for each settling, he causes                        you   to lose several            months of
     production from cows.                And       that cuts your profits seriously.
         The    bull should be fed so that he stays in healthy, vigorous
     condition.        Overfeeding makes a bull heavy, indolent and in-
     terferes    with his breeding   ability. Underfeeding is dangerous,
     too. He should be kept in healthy condition but not fat.
        Feed good, bright mixed hay to the bull. But do not give him
     all the hay he will eat, as heavy hay consumption develops a

     paunch that         is   undesirable.          Do      not ever feed silage to the bull.

     •   Fitting     Feed      is   recommended               for bulls

     Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed               is      a nutritious feed designed for feeding
     as the entire grain ration to                  supplement hay.                    It is    built    around
     crimped      oats, plus a       balance of important proteins, vitamins and
     minerals.       It is    very palatable and easy to digest. Bulls fed on                                     it

     generally produce              semen      that   is    rich in live, active                sperm        cells.

         We    recommend             that you          feed       bulls       a    limited        amount          of
     Fitting Feed. Usually about                      i/£    to   ys    lb.       per 100       lbs.    of    body
     weight     isenough for mature bulls. Of course, the exact amount
     to feed    depends on the kind and quality of hay fed, the size and
     condition of the bull, and the                         amount      of exercise he             is   getting.
     A young bull that is             still   growing, of course, requires more grain
     than a mature bull.

     • Management suggestions
     The    bull should not be allowed to run with the herd.                                             Prefer-
     ably do not use a bull for service until he                                  is   at least   1     year old
     and not more than once                   a   week      until he      is   about       15   months         old.
                                                                                                  Ful-O-Pep Dairy Plan
             Normally do not use                                    a mature bull for more than about four
             services per week,                                 with no more than two services in one day.
                   Provide the bull with a large box                                      stall   connected to an ex-
             ercise run, preferably                                  long and narrow in shape and about             i/
             acre in size.
                   Ample                     needed by the bull to keep him in healthy
                                           exercise             is

             breeding condition.             A good way to encourage him to exercise
             is    to         have the water supply at the far end of the run, away from
             the shelter.
                   Keep               the bull's quarters clean                  and well bedded. Some dairy-
             men              prefer to use                     wood   shavings forbedding because bulls some-
             times eat straw.
                   Watch                   the bull's feet             and keep them trimmed          to avoid serious
             leg ailments. Occasionally trim feet so the bull stands well                                       on
             his toes.                     Shorten toes of the rear                  feet   by rasping them so the
             feet         fit       the ground.

             # Some safety suggestions
             For              safety,            be sure that the            stall   is   sturdily built with heavy
             materials.                     And
                              arrange feed mangers and the water supply so
             the attendant can feed and water the bull without getting into
             the stall or exercise run. Also, arrange gates and breeding racks
              to eliminate                         dangerous contact with the bull at time of                  service.

             Never                 trust          even the gentle bull.

 Feeds Fining Feed                         all    the   way
     "Since        deciding           to    feed        my    en-
tire    herd Ful-O-Pep Fitting Feed,                           my
herd average increased from                          430 lbs.
per     cow       to    560        lbs.    This    is one of

the finest             herd averages ever                    made
In     the    State           of    Oklahoma.            I    feel
that the continued feeding of Ful-O-
Pep Fitting Feed throughout the year
both to dry and fresh cows had a                               lot

to     do with          it.    We     have had almost
no calving difficulties or sickness                             In

the herd." Robert                   W. Adams, Adams
Acres,       Broken Arrow, Okla,
          see us


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