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									Our G-enealogy

   Brough Turner
       Founder & CTO
    Ashtonbrooke.com
  broughturner@gmail.com
 http://blogs.broughturner.com
                  Our G-enealogy
       How the history of cellular technology helps us
      understand 4G technology and business models
        and their likely impact on wireless broadband

    • Brief history of cellular wireless telephony
       – Radio technology: TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA
       – Mobile core network architectures
                                                       Google
    • Demographics & market trends today             “3G Tutorial”
       – 3.5G, WiMAX, LTE & 4G migration paths       “4G Tutorial”

    • Implications for the next 2-5 years


2
                Outrageous ideas
    • 5 GHz spectrum better than 700 MHz
    • 2020: LTE* >80%; WiMAX* <15%
      – * i.e. LTE family of networks vs WiMAX evolution

    • Should ask: Wi-Fi vs LTE + WiMAX
      – e.g. user owned versus service provider owned

    • Value of TV white spaces: Secondary access
    • Open 3 GHz – 10 GHz to all
      – License exempt on secondary access basis
3
    Mobiles overtake fixed




                Source: ITU World ICT Indicators, June 2008


4
                     Mobile Generations
    G              Summary                       Data Rates
    1     Analog                      Typical 2.4 Kbps; max 22 Kbps

    2     Digital – TDMA, CDMA        9.6 - 14.4 Kbps (circuit data)

          GPRS – mux packets in
    2.5   voice timeslots
                                      15 - 40 Kbps

                                      50 – 144 Kbps (1xRTT);
          Improved modulation,
    3                                 200 – 384 Kbps (UMTS);
          using CDMA variants
                                      500 Kbps – 2.4 Mbps (EVDO)
                                      2–14 Mbps (HSPA), then 28 Mbps
    3.5   More modulation tweaks
                                      & 42/84 Mbps future evolution
          New modulation (OFDMA);     LTE: potentially >100 Mbps with
    4     Multi-path (MIMO); All IP   adequate spectrum (20 MHz)

5
       Enormous technology change

                   but
    commercial issues trump technology
                   and
       legal-regulatory trumps all



6
    Origins of Wireless Communications
    • 1864: James Clark Maxwell
      – Predicts existence of radio waves
    • 1886: Heinrich Rudolph Hertz
      – Demonstrates radio waves
    • 1895-1901: Guglielmo Marconi
      – Demonstrates wireless communications over
        increasing distances
    • Also in the 1890s
      – Nikola Tesla, Alexander Stepanovich Popov,
        Jagdish Chandra Bose and others, demonstrate
        forms of wireless communications
8
    First Mobile Radio Telephone, 1924




                         Courtesy of Rich Howard



9
            Cellular Mobile Telephony
        Antenna diversity
        Cellular concept
         ● Bell Labs (1957 & 1960)           2       7
                                         3       5       2
        Frequency reuse             1       6       3
                                         4       1       6
         ● typically every 7 cells   2       7       4
                                         5       2       7
        Handoff as caller moves             3       5
                                         1       6       3
        Modified CO switch                  4       1
                                         2       7
         ● HLR, paging, handoffs             5
        Sectors improve reuse
         ● every 3 cells possible


10
      First Generation (nearly all retired)
     • Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)
       – US trials 1978; deployed in Japan (’79) & US (’83)
       – 800 MHz; two 20 MHz bands; TIA-553
     • Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT)
       – Sweden, Norway, Demark & Finland
       – Launched 1981
       – 450 MHz; later at 900 MHz (NMT900)
     • Total Access Communications System (TACS)
       – British design; similar to AMPS; deployed 1985

11
       2nd Generation – digital systems
     • Leverage technology to increase capacity
       – Speech compression; digital signal processing
     • Utilize/extend ―Intelligent Network‖ concepts
       – Improve fraud prevention; Add new services
     • Wide diversity of 2G systems
       –   IS-54/ IS-136 Digital AMPS; PDC (Japan)
       –   DECT and PHS; iDEN
       –   IS-95 CDMA (cdmaOne)
       –   GSM

12
             2G “CDMA” (cdmaOne)
     • Code Division Multiple Access
       – all users share same frequency band
       – discussed in detail later as CDMA is basis for 3G
     • Qualcomm demo in 1989
       – claimed improved capacity & simplified planning
     • First deployment in Hong Kong late 1994
     • Major success in Korea (1M subs by 1996)
     • Adopted by Verizon and Sprint in US
     • Easy migration to 3G (same modulation)
13
       GSM – Global System for Mobile
     • Originally ―Groupe Spécial Mobile ‖
       – joint European effort beginning 1982
       – Focus: seamless roaming all Europe
     • Services launched 1991
       – time division multiple access (8 users per 200KHz)
       – 900 MHz band; later 1800 MHz; then 850/1900 MHz
     • GSM – dominant world standard today
       – well defined interfaces; many competitors; lowest
         cost to deploy
       – network effect took hold in late 1990s
14
                  GSM Dominant Today
     • GSM+3GSM used by 88% of subscribers worldwide
     • Asia leads with 42% of all mobile subscriptions
        – AT&T and T-Mobile use GSM/3GSM in US today




                                                               GSM Subscribers




             Source: Wireless Intelligence / GSM Association



15
           GSM substantially enhanced
     Widely deployed  significant payback for enhancements
     • HSCSD - high speed circuit-switched data
     • GPRS - general packet radio service
     • Synchronization between cells
        – Minimize interference; help fix mobile’s location
     • AMR vocoder – increase capacity (& fidelity)
     • Frequency hopping (to overcome fading)
     • Discontinuous transmission (more calls/ cell)
     • Cell overlays with reuse partioning
16
     1G, 2G, 3G Multi-Access Technologies




                         Courtesy of Petri Possi, UMTS World



        4G and future wireless systems optimize a
        combination of frequency, time and coding
        e.g. OFDMA & SC-FDMA (discussed later)

17
     2G & 3G – Code Division Multiple Access
     • Spread spectrum modulation
       – originally developed for the military
       – resists jamming and many kinds of interference
       – coded modulation hidden from those w/o the code
     • All users share same (large) block of spectrum
       – one for one frequency reuse
       – soft handoffs possible
     • All 3G radio standards based on CDMA
       – CDMA2000, W-CDMA and TD-SCDMA

18
     Courtesy of Suresh Goyal & Rich Howard

19
                        The 3G Vision
     • Universal global roaming
        – Sought 1 standard (not 7), (but got 3:
          3GSM, CDMA 2000 & TD-SCDMA)
     • Increased data rates
     • Multimedia (voice, data & video)
     • Increased capacity (more spectrally efficient)
     • Data-centric architecture (ATM at first, later IP)
     • But deployment took much longer than expected
        – No killer data app; new spectrum costly; telecom bubble
          burst; much of the vision was vendor-driven


20
           3G Radio technology today
     • CDMA 2000 – Multi Carrier CDMA
       – Evolution of IS-95 CDMA; but now a dead end
     • UMTS (W-CDMA, HSPA) – Direct Spread CDMA
       – Defined by 3GPP Paired spectrum bands
     • TD-SCDMA – Time Division Synchronous CDMA
       – Defined by Chinese Academy of Telecommunications
         Technology under the Ministry of Information Industry
             Single spectral band with time division duplexing




21
            Why CDMA 2000 lost out
     • Had better migration story from 2G to 3G
       – Evolution from original Qualcomm CDMA (IS-95)
       – cdmaOne operators didn’t need additional spectrum
     • Higher data rates than UMTS, at least at first
     • Couldn’t compete with GSM’s critical mass
       – Last straw when Verizon Wireless selected 3GPP’s
         Long Term Evolution (LTE) for their 4G network
       – Verizon selection 11/07
       – Qualcomm abandons further development 11/08


22
     3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project)



                                    Japan

                                                     USA




     • Partnership of 6 regional standards groups, which
       translate 3GPP specifications to regional standards
     • Controls evolution of GSM, 3GSM (UMTS, WCDMA, HSPA) & LTE


23
                                                23
        UMTS (3GSM) is market leader
     • GSM evolution: W-CDMA, HSDPA, HSPA, +…
       – leverages GSM’s dominant position
     • Legally mandated in Europe and elsewhere
     • Requires substantial new spectrum
       – 5 MHz each way (symmetric) at a minimum
     • Slow start (was behind CDMA 2000), but now the
       accepted leader
       – Network effect built on GSM’s >80% market share
       – Surely LTE will benefit in the same fashion…

24
                    TD-SCDMA
        (Time division synchronous CDMA)

     • Chinese development
       – IPR bargaining tool with West? Late to market, but
         big deployment plans
     • Single spectral band
       – unpaired spectrum; as little as 1.6 MHz; time
         division duplex (TDD) with high spectral efficiency;
         good match for asymmetrical traffic!
     • Power amplifiers must be very linear
       – relatively hard to meet specifications

25
                         China 3G
     • Largest mobile market in world (630 M subs)
       – Largest population in world (1.3 billion)
     • Home-brew 3G standard: TD-SCDMA
       – 3G licenses were delayed until TD-SCDMA worked
       – 2008 trials: 10 cities, 15K BSs & 60K handsets
     • 3G granted January 2009
       – China Mobile: TD-SCDMA
       – China Unicom: 3GSM (UMTS)
       – China Telecom: CDMA 2000

26
     3G Adoption – DoCoMo Japan

                             2G: mova


                             3G: FOMA


                             Potential to
                             discontinue
                             2G services
                             in 2010 …




27
                    3G Subscribers (2Q 2008)
       • 18% on 3G; 82% on 2G; 0.01% on 1G
       • EU & US 3G penetration approaching 30%
       • US penetration rate soaring

       3-month averages
       ending June 2008
         & June 2007

           All mobile
          subscribers
           ages 13+



     Source: comScore MobiLens




28
            3G data-only subscribers
     • Soaring adoption of 3G ―USB Data Modems‖
       – 92% of all 3G data bytes in Finland in 2H07
     • Informa on EU 3G devices, May 2008
       – 101.5M 3G devices:
              64 M handsets, 37M 3G data modems
     • In-Stat/ ABI Research
       – In-Stat: 5M cellular modems in 2006
       – ABI Research 300% growth in 2007, i.e. 20M?
        Enormous growth, from a relatively small base…

29
     Diverse Mobile Wireless Spectrum




30
     Wireless Migration




31
                                                                              OFDM
                                                                              →OFDMA
                                                                                MIMO

                                                                                     4G
     Wireless capacity / throughput



                                                                                           LTE
                                                                         3G        WiMAX
                                                                              Wi-Fi
                                                                 2G
                                                                         UMTS/HSPA

                                             First cell                CDMA
                                             phones              GSM


                                                          AMPS



                                      1970                1980   1990         2000          2010

32
     ITU-T Framework




                             Pervasive connectivity
                             WLAN - WMAN - WWAN


           ITU-T – United Nations         3GPP – WWAN (wireless wide
     telecommunications standards         area network)
                        organization      IEEE 802.16 – WMAN (wireless
         Accepts detailed standards       metropolitan area network)
     contributions from 3GPP, IEEE        IEEE 802.11 – WLAN (wireless
                  and other groups        local area network)

33
       ITU Mobile Telecommunications

     • IMT-2000
       – Global standard for third generation (3G) wireless
       – Detailed specifications from 3GPP, 3GPP2, ETSI and others
     • IMT-Advanced
       – New communications framework: deployment ~2010 to 2015
       – Data rates to reach around 100 Mbps for high mobility and
         1 Gbps for nomadic networks (i.e. WLANs)
       – High mobility case via either or both evolved LTE & WiMAX
       – 802.11ac and 802.11ad
         addressing the nomadic case



34
                     LTE highlights
     • Sophisticated multiple access schemes
       – DL: OFDMA with Cyclic Prefix (CP)
       – UL: Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) with CP
     • Adaptive modulation and coding
       – QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM
       – 1/3 coding rate, two 8-state constituent encoders,
         and a contention-free internal interleaver
     • Advanced MIMO spatial multiplexing
       – (2 or 4) x (2 or 4) downlink and uplink


35
            4G Technology – OFDMA
     • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
       – Supercedes CDMA used in all 3G variants
     • OFDMA = Orthogonal Frequency Division
       Multiplexing (OFDM) plus statistical multiplexing
       – Optimization of time, frequency & code multiplexing
     • OFDM already deployed in 802.11a & 802.11g
       – Took Wi-Fi from 11 Mbps to 54 Mbps & beyond




36
        Orthogonal Frequency Division
                Multiplexing
     – Many closely-spaced sub-carriers, chosen to be orthogonal,
       thus eliminating inter-carrier interference
     – Varies bits per sub-carrier based on instantaneous received
       power




37
     Statistical Multiplexing (in OFDMA)
     • Dynamically allocate user data to sub-carriers based
       on instantaneous data rates and varying sub-carrier
       capacities
     • Highly efficient use of spectrum
     • Robust against fading, e.g. for mobile operation




38
                   FDMA vs. OFDMA
     • OFDMA more frequency efficient
     • Dynamically map traffic to frequencies
       based on their instantaneous
       throughput
        Guard      Channel
        band




                   FDMA                 OFDMA
39
                 4G Technology - MIMO
        Multiple Input Multiple Output smart antenna technology
        Multiple paths improve link reliability and increase
         spectral efficiency (bps per Hz), range and directionality




40
     Municipal Multipath Environment




41
       SDMA = Smart Antenna Technologies
     • Beamforming
         – Use multiple-antennas to
           spatially shape the beam
     • Spatial Multiplexing a.k.a.
       Collaborative MIMO
         – Multiple streams transmitted
         – Multi-antenna receivers
           separate the streams to
           achieve higher throughput
         – On uplink, multiple single-
           antenna stations can transmit
           simultaneously                  2x2 Collaborative MIMO
                                           give 2x peak data rate by
     • Space-Time Codes                    transmitting two data
         – Transmit diversity such as      streams
           Alamouti code reduces fading


42
         4G Technology – SC-FDMA
     • Single carrier multiple access
       – Used for LTE uplinks
       – Being considered for 802.16m uplink
     • Similar structure and performance to OFDMA
       – Single carrier modulation with DFT-spread
         orthogonal frequency multiplexing and FD
         equalization
     • Lower Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR)
       – Improves cell-edge performance
       – Transmit efficiency conserves handset battery life
43
         Key Features of WiMAX and LTE
     •   OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)
     •   Users are allocated a slice in time and frequency
     •   Flexible, dynamic per user resource allocation
     •   Base station scheduler for uplink and downlink resource allocation
          – Resource allocation information conveyed on a frame‐by frame basis
     •   Support for TDD (time division duplex) and FDD (frequency division
         duplex)
                   TDD: single frequency channel for uplink and downlink
                                                 DL
                                     UL

                                                 DL
                                                                     FDD
                                       UL                            Paired channels


44
                       3G/4G Comparison
                                      Peak Data Rate (Mbps)    Access time
                                                                 (msec)
                                    Downlink    Uplink

     HSPA (today)                   14 Mbps     2 Mbps        50-250 msec
     HSPA (Release 7) MIMO 2x2      28 Mbps     11.6 Mbps     50-250 msec
     HSPA + (MIMO, 64QAM            42 Mbps     11.6 Mbps     50-250 msec
     Downlink)

     WiMAX Release 1.0 TDD (2:1     40 Mbps     10 Mbps       40 msec
     UL/DL ratio), 10 MHz channel

     LTE (Release 8), 5+5 MHz       43.2 Mbps   21.6 Mbps     30 msec
     channel




45
                     WiMAX vs. LTE
     • Commonalities
       – IP-based
       – OFDMA and MIMO
       – Similar data rates and channel widths

     • Differences
       – Carriers are able to set requirements for LTE
         through organizations like NGMN and LSTI, but
         cannot do this as easily at the IEEE-based 802.16
       – LTE backhaul is, at least partially, designed to
         support legacy services while WiMAX assumes
         greenfield deployments

46
                  Commercial Issues

                LTE                         WiMAX
     • Deployments likely         • 2-3 year lead, likely
       slower than projected        maintained for years
     But                          • Dedicated spectrum in
     • Eventual migration path      many countries
       for GSM/3GSM, i.e. for >   But
       80% share                  • Likely < 15% share by
     • Will be lowest cost &        2020 & thus more costly
       dominant in 2020


47
                  3G Partnership Project
     Defines migration GSM to UMTS/ 3GSM to LTE
                  Specs          First
     Release     complete      deployed Major new features defined
        98          1998                    Last purely 2G GSM release
        99        1Q 2000        2003       W-CDMA air interface
         4        2Q 2001        2004       Softswitching IP in core network
         5        1Q 2002        2006       HSDPA & IP Multimedia System (IMS)
         6        4Q 2004        2007       HSUPA, MBMS, GAN, PoC & WLAN integration
         7        4Q 2007        future     HSPA+, Better latency & QoS for VoIP
         8        4Q 2008 *      future     LTE, All-IP

     W-CDMA – Wideband CDMA modulation                                 * Rush job?
     HSxPA – High Speed (Download/Upload) Packet Access
     MBMS – Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service
     GAN – Generic Access Network
     PoC – Push-to-talk over Cellular
     LTE – Long Term Evolution, a new air interface based on OFDM modulation


48
            Core Network Architectures
     • Two widely deployed architectures today
     • 3GPP evolved from GSM-MAP
        – Used by GSM & 3GSM operators (88% of subs globally)
        – ―Mobile Application Part‖ defines signaling for mobility,
          authentication, etc.
     • 3GPP2 evolved from ANSI-41 MAP
        – ANSI-41 used with AMPS, TDMA & CDMA 2000
        – GAIT (GSM ANSI Interoperability Team) allowed
          interoperation, i.e., roaming
     • Evolving to common ―all IP‖ vision based on 3GPP


49
      Typical 2G Mobile Architecture
                                              PSDN
                                                               BSC
          BTS

                  BSC            HLR      SMS-SC

                                                                     BSC
                                                     MSC/VLR
                                  PLMN
                      MSC/VLR
                BSC
                                                                      BTS Base Transceiver Station
                                                                      BSC Base Station Controller
                                   GMSC




                        Tandem         PSTN           Tandem
     CO                                                                    CO


                 CO                                                  MSC Mobile Switching Center
                                                                     VLR Visitor Location Register
                                                                     HLR Home Location Register



50
      Separation of Signaling & Transport
     • Like PSTN, 2G mobile networks have one network
       plane for voice circuits and another network plane for
       signaling
     • Some elements reside only in the signaling plane
        – HLR, VLR, SMS Center, …



                       HLR   SMS-SC
          MSC                                   Signaling Plane (SS7)
                                      VLR MSC
                 MSC

                                                Transport Plane (Voice)




51
           Signaling in Core Network
     • Based on SS7
       – ISUP and specific Application Parts
     • GSM MAP and ANSI-41 services
       – mobility, call-handling, O&M, authentication,
         supplementary services, SMS, …
     • Location registers for mobility management
       – HLR: home location register has permanent data
       – VLR: visitor location register – local copy for
         roamers


52
                                PSTN-to-Mobile Call

                          PLMN                          PLMN                                             PSTN
                          (Visitor)                    (Home)


                                              (SCP) HLR
     Signaling                                                                                  SCP

     over SS7                                                 Where is the subscriber?

            MAP/ IS41 (over TCAP)
            ISUP                           (STP)

                                               4                      2

                             Provide Roaming       3
                                                               5
                                                       Routing Info

                                    VMSC                 6                GMSC                   1

                                                       IAM                                      IAM
       MS                 BSS         (SSP)                               (SSP)                  (STP)      (SSP)
                                VLR
                                                                                  514 581 ...




53
                                    GSM 2G Architecture
                   BSS                                               NSS

                                                                        E                              PSTN
            Abis
                                    A
                                                                                                                   PSTN
                                                  B
                    BSC                                                           C
MS                                        MSC                                               GMSC
                                                             D
         BTS                                        VLR
                                                                                         SS7
                                                                            H


                                                                    HLR
                                                                                AuC




     BSS Base Station System            NSS Network Sub-System
     BTS Base Transceiver Station       MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller
     BSC Base Station Controller        VLR Visitor Location Register
     MS Mobile Station                  HLR Home Location Register                    GSM Global System for Mobile communication
                                        AuC Authentication Server
                                        GMSC Gateway MSC




54
                                    2.5G Architectural Detail
  2G MS (voice only)


                       BSS                                                NSS

                                                                              E                                     PSTN
                Abis
                                         A
                                                                                                                                 PSTN
                                                       B
                        BSC                                                                C
     MS                                        MSC                                                       GMSC
                                                                  D
             BTS                                        VLR
                                                  Gs
                                                                                                      SS7
                                                                                  H
                                         Gb
2G+ MS (voice&data)
                                                                Gr        HLR
                                                                                      AuC
                                                                                               Gc

                                                                           Gn                                        Gi
                                                                                                                                 PSDN
                                               SGSN                                   IP                 GGSN



          BSS Base Station System             NSS Network Sub-System                                SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
          BTS Base Transceiver Station        MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller               GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
          BSC Base Station Controller         VLR Visitor Location Register
                                              HLR Home Location Register                            GPRS General Packet Radio Service
                                              AuC Authentication Server
                                              GMSC Gateway MSC
   55
                                3G rel99 Architecture (UMTS)
  2G MS (voice only)
                                                                              CN

                          BSS

                                                                              E                                     PSTN
                  Abis
                                          A
                                                                                                                                PSTN
                                                       B
                           BSC                                                              C
                                               MSC                                                        GMSC
                                    Gb                            D
              BTS                                       VLR
                                                  Gs
                                                                                                       SS7
                                                                                   H
2G+ MS (voice & data)
                                    IuCS
                          RNS
                                                                 Gr       HLR
                                                                                       AuC
                                    ATM                                                         Gc
                    Iub
                                    IuPS
                                                                           Gn                                        Gi
                                                                                                                                PSDN
                           RNC                                                         IP
                                               SGSN                                                       GGSN
             Node B
3G UE (voice & data)
          BSS Base Station System             CN Core Network                                        SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
           BTS Base Transceiver Station       MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller                GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
           BSC Base Station Controller        VLR Visitor Location Register
                                              HLR Home Location Register          UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
           RNS Radio Network System
                                              AuC Authentication Server
           RNC Radio Network Controller
                                              GMSC Gateway MSC

     56
                                    3G rel4 - Soft Switching
  2G MS (voice only)
                                                                              CN
                                                                                                                  CS-MGW
                                                                          Nb
                          BSS
                                                        CS-MGW
                                         A
                  Abis                                                     Nc                                     PSTN       PSTN
                                                                                                           Mc
                                                   Mc
                                                          B
                           BSC                                                           C
                                             MSC Server                                             GMSC server
                                    Gb                            D
              BTS                                         VLR
                                                  Gs                                         SS7
                                                                                   H
2G+ MS (voice & data)
                                    IuCS
                          RNS                                                                       IP/ATM
                                                                 Gr       HLR
                                                                                       AuC
                                    ATM                                                      Gc
                    Iub
                                    IuPS
                                                                           Gn                                       Gi
                                                                                                                             PSDN
                           RNC
                                               SGSN                                                    GGSN
             Node B
3G UE (voice & data)
          BSS Base Station System             CN Core Network                                     SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
           BTS Base Transceiver Station       MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller             GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
           BSC Base Station Controller        VLR Visitor Location Register
                                              HLR Home Location Register
           RNS Radio Network System           AuC Authentication Server
           RNC Radio Network Controller       GMSC Gateway MSC
     57
                                  3GPP rel5 ― IP Multimedia
  2G MS (voice only)
                                                                            CN
                                                                                                                      CS-MGW
                                                                           Nb
                           BSS
                                                           CS-MGW
                                    A/IuCS
                  Abis                                                     Nc                                         PSTN      PSTN
                                                                                                              Mc
                                                      Mc
                                                             B
                            BSC                                                           C
                                                MSC Server                                              GMSC server
                                   Gb/IuPS                           D
               BTS                                           VLR
                                                      Gs                                      SS7
                                                                                 H
2G+ MS (voice & data)                         ATM
                                       IuCS
                           RNS                                                                          IP/ATM
                                                                    Gr    HSS
                                                                                     AuC
                                                                                              Gc
                     Iub
                                    IuPS
                                                                           Gn                                           Gi
                                                                                                                               IP Network
                            RNC
                                                    SGSN                                                  GGSN
             Node B
3G UE (voice & data)                                                                                               IM-MGW
                                                                     IM
    IM IP Multimedia sub-system                                                      Gs                               PSTN
    MRF Media Resource Function                                                                    IP
                                                                                                              Mc
    CSCF Call State Control Function                                                               Mg
                                                                          MRF
    MGCF Media Gateway Control Function (Mc=H248,Mg=SIP)                                                   MGCF

    IM-MGW IP Multimedia-MGW
                                                                                     CSCF

     58
          3GPP2 Defines IS-41 Evolution
     • 3rd Generation Partnership Project ―Two‖
         – Evolution of IS-41 to ―all IP‖ more direct (skips ATM
           stage), but not any faster
         – Goal of ultimate merger (3GPP + 3GPP2) remains
     •   1xRTT – IP packets (like GPRS)
     •   1xEVDO – Evolution data-optimized
     •   1xEVDV – abandoned
     •   3x – Triples radio data rates
     •   Universal Mobile Broadband (UMB) –
         abandoned
59
             NextGen Networks (NGN) Converging
                                                                         3GPP IMS R7
         Following 3GPP lead                                       Packet Cable 2.0
                                                                   ATIS NGN FG
                                                               ITU-T NGN FG
                                                         TISPAN R1
                                           3GPP2 MMD
                                     3GPP IMS R6
                   3GPP IMS R5
         3GPP Release 4
2000            2001         2002        2003         2004         2005       2006
         3GPP2 — CDMA2000 multi-media domain (MMD) based on 3GPP IMS R5
         TISPAN — evolves NGN architecture for fixed networks based on 3GPP IMS
         ITU-T NGN Focus Group — venue to make TISPAN NGN a global spec
         ATIS NGN Focus Group — formally collaborating with ETSI as of April 2005
         PacketCable Release 2.0 — aligning with portions of 3GPP

60
             3GPP R7 / TISPAN IMS
                        OSA-SCS
       3GPP Service                                                                      Online
                                App                                           Charging
          Layer               Server    CCCF                                  Function
                         IM-SSF                             SLF                          Offline
                                                      HSS
       Service Plane        SCIM

                                                  S-CSCF


      3GPP Control             P-CSCF                                I-CSCF
         Layer

                                                                            BGCF             IBCF

                                              MRFC            MGCF
       Control Plane

                        NASS            PDF            RACS

       ETSI TISPAN
        Extension
                               A-BGF          MRFP          T-MGF      SGF         I-BGF            IWF


                                        Internal IP                                  External IP
     Access/Transport                    Networks                    PSTN             Networks
          Plane

      Other Networks



61
                  IMS / NGN Vision
     • One core network for ―any access‖
        – Based on IP, using IETF standards, with extensions
        – Wireline and wireless transparency
     • Access and bandwidth will be commodities;
       services are the differentiator
        – Per-session control supports per-application quality
          of service (QoS) and per-application billing
     • Voice is just application
        – ―Easily‖ integrated with other applications…


62
                                         IMS Story: Convergence
                       Traditional Services                                                               IMS Services
                                                                                          TV Caller ID     Phone Tools             Push to Talk
     TV Caller ID                  Phone Tools                Push to Talk




                                                                                           Application      Application             Application


     Application                   Application                 Application




                                                                                                                                                   OSS/ BSS
     Subscriber                                                Subscriber
                                    Subscriber
       Data                                                      Data                                      Subscriber Data




                                                                             OSS/ BSS
                    OSS/ BSS




                                                   OSS/ BSS



                                      Data

      Media                          Media                      Media
     Functions                      Functions                  Functions
                                                                                                          Media Functions
      Access                            Access                  Access
      Delivery                          Delivery                Delivery

                                                                                                     IP Multimedia Subsystem




                               Packet                            Wifi                                    Packet
       Wireline                              Wireless                                   Wireline                       Wireless             Wifi
                               Cable                            WiMax                                    Cable                             WiMax

                                                                                                                  Source: Team Analysis, Lucent


63
         IMS / NGN Value Proposition
     • Generate new revenue from new services
       – Per-session control allows IMS to guarantee QoS
         for each IP session, and enables differential billing
         for applications & content
     • Reduce capital spending
       – Converge all services on common infrastructure
       – Focus limited resources on core competencies

     • To date, mobile operators have had no
       incentive to deploy IMS for voice services

64
                     LTE and IMS
     • LTE is an all-IP network
        – Not compatible with legacy voice services
        – Assumes the use of IP Multimedia System (IMS)
     • Initial LTE networks will be data only
     • Initial LTE handsets will be
       multi-modal, supporting HSPA and
       earlier systems for voice telephony
     • VOLGA Forum working on a fix
        – Voice over LTE via Generic Access

65
         Long Term Parallels: IN & IMS
     Intelligent Network
     • Free operators from equipment provider lock-in
     • Separate applications from basic call control
     • Open protocols and APIs for applications
     Intelligent Network Application Successes
     • FreePhone, Mobile (HLR), Pre-paid, Voice mail, …
     • 15 year summary:
             A few applications, very widely deployed


66
     LTE’s System Architecture Evolution (SAE)




     RAN (Radio access network)
     SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node)
     PCRF (policy and charging function)
     HSS (Home Subscriber Server)          Diagram by Huawei
     MME (Mobility Management Entity)
     SAE (System Architecture Evolution)


67
              Mobile Service Revenues
     • > $800 billion in 2007, growing 6%-7% per year
        – > $1 trillion by 2012
     • Voice services dominate: 81%
     • SMS services: 9.5% ; All other non-voice services: 9.5%




                                     Source: Portio Research

68
     Images courtesy of Jon Stern
69
             Mobile Services Futures
     • Affordable open mobile Internet access coming
       – Five competing 3.5G operators in US by 2010
       – Smart phone penetration soaring


     • Operators’ control of handset software slipping
       – iPhone and Android application stores, initiatives for
         Symbian, WinMobile, Adobe AIR, etc.




70
     The Internet is the killer platform

                        • Mobile Internet access
                          driving 3G data usage

                        • Future business models
                          an open question

                        • Slides from yesterday’s
                          Mobile Broadband
                          discussion, are available


71
        Enormous technology change

                    but
     commercial issues trump technology
                    and
        legal-regulatory trumps all



72
                 Outrageous ideas
     • 5 GHz spectrum better than 700 MHz

     • 2020: LTE* >80%; WiMAX* <15%
       – * i.e. LTE family of networks vs WiMAX evolution

     • Should ask: Wi-Fi vs LTE + WiMAX

     • Value of TV white spaces: Secondary access

     • Open 3 GHz – 10 GHz to all
       – License exempt on secondary access basis

73
 Thank you !
    Brough Turner
 broughturner@gmail.com
http://blogs.broughturner.com

								
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