UCED-Recycling-Community-Development-Guide by liamei12345

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									Community
Toolkit

 [RECYCLING COMMUNITY
 DEVELOPMENT GUIDE]
 By Daniel Marbury




 Recycling programs can be established anywhere. Additionally, with good
 management practices and sound business considerations, they can turn waste
 into revenue and produce local jobs which cannot be outsourced. However,
 every community has different opportunities and needs. By following this guide,
 you will gather the necessary information to custom-fit a program for the
 specific opportunities and challenges that face your own community




                                                                               0
                       Community Development Guide:
        Economic Assessment and Implementation of a Recycling Program
Starting Questions:
Your efforts will be most effective if a few committed individuals do some initial investigation regarding
key considerations. The answers to the following questions will provide necessary information and
beginning considerations to assist you in developing a recycling plan.

 1.    Is there anyone in the community you know that already collects, processes, or sells recycling?
             Local Businesses (offices, manufacturers, big retailers)
             Government Buildings (Hospitals, Courts, Schools)
             Community Groups (Churches, Clubs, Non-Profits)
       Just quickly brainstorm and inquire with a few main entities in your community to see if they can
       provide any information. If the answer seems to be “No” continue on with the rest of this guide, it
       will be your role to get things started!

 2.    What are the current logistics, scale, and cost the current city/county solid waste program?
       Answer questions such as:
            Who is the current waste collector?
            What is the total volume of waste collected monthly/ annually in tons?
            Where is the disposal site-transfer station or landfill?
            How much does current waste disposal method cost (including collection costs and landfill
              fees)?
       Your city/county office should be able to direct you to the appropriate government official or
       waste management business employee to give you this information.

 3.    From your own perspective what will be accomplished by establishing a recycling program?
       Possible Goals Include:
            Reducing the cost and quantity of waste sent to landfill
            Creating Jobs and revenue from what was waste
            Promoting community environmental responsibility, education, and awareness

 4.    What avenues could you use to fund recycling as a solid waste program improvement?
       Savings on landfill fees, Revenue for materials, Recycling grant funds, illegal dumping grants,
       construction industry loans, other loans
            Alabama Department of Environmental Management Recycling Grant Applications are
                generally due every year on March 1st




                                                                                                         1
                  The Recycling Planning Process - Step Two: Evaluate the Recycling Market

The Recycling Planning Process
It is important to recognize that recycling does not consist solely of the collection of materials, but is
instead a process which begins with manufacturing and storing products for use, involves the purchase and
use of products, and ends with the recovery of the materials which were used to make and store the
products. Recovered materials are then processed and returned to the market as raw materials which can be
used to produce new products again.

Similarly, the planning for a recycling program must proceed through three steps in order to involve the
various people and processes necessary to implement recycling in your community.

These planning steps should include:

    1. Gaining the Support of Community Stakeholders that can contribute their resources and expertise

    2. Evaluating the Recycling Market to find out what materials you can provide, who could buy them,
       and finally who will buy recyclables at the most benefit to your community

    3. Educating and Informing the Community once you have negotiated business arrangements for
       selling recyclable materials education and information

Step One: Gaining Support from Recycling Stakeholders
After conducting some initial research with your interest group you should expand membership to includes
diverse partners who can contribute to the planning process. Your committee need not involve everyone
listed below, but it will be a good idea to involve all the following individuals at some point and provide
everyone with information and updates as you proceed.

       Government Financial Officials – Include in your planning process someone who can provide
        information regarding the current costs of solid waste management and budgetary opportunities
        for funding recycling.
       Public Works Officials (Especially Solid Waste Management) – Include someone who can
        describe the current waste collection and disposal process and who will have access to research the
        type and quantity of materials that your community discards.
       Local Business Owners/ Managers – Businesses discard materials in much higher quantities than
        individual households, therefore collaboration with business owners can significantly improve your
        collection quantities. Additionally, some large businesses have the equipment necessary for
        processing recyclables such as a baler and may consider an agreement to share equipment use as you
        are starting out.
       School Administrators (Superintendent/ Principals) – Schools also present an opportunity for
        high quantity collection, as well as a means of sharing education and information about recycling
        collection.
       Community Leaders – Include leaders from clubs, churches, nonprofits, and other organizations
        who you know will be supportive of recycling.



                                                                                                         2
                    The Recycling Planning Process - Step Two: Evaluate the Recycling Market

Recycling Stakeholders Continued . . .
       Representatives from neighboring communities – By partnering with a neighboring community
        and collecting more recyclables, your community will have better sales potential for its collected
        materials. Additionally, a partner with a system already in place can help guide the planning
        process
       Elected Officials – Additionally include elected officials early on if you think they will be initially
        supportive, otherwise, wait until later meetings when you will be able to support the case for
        recycling with an economic analysis and tentative recycling plan

Will recycling be established as a Government Service, Private Business, or Non-Profit?


Step Two: Evaluating the Recycling Market (first meeting with Stakeholders)
Before you begin planning your collection system for recyclable materials, it is essential to have a good idea
what your community is currently throwing away. By identifying significant quantities of materials which
can be recycled you can tailor your collection to maximize efficiency.

Evaluate your Waste Stream
A Waste Stream is “the type and quantities of materials that your community throws away”. Different
types of materials have different values and marketability. The types of materials typically found in a waste
stream which can be recycled include:

Inorganic                                                   Metals
Televisions                                                 Steel Cans
Computers                                                   Aluminum Cans
Other Electronics
Tires                                                       Glass
                                                            Differentiated by color: Clear, Green, Amber
Paper
Newspaper                                                   Organics
Corrugated Cardboard                                        Yard Waste
Office Paper                                                Wood
Magazine Paper                                              Food Waste
Paperboard                                                  Textiles

Plastic                                                    Construction & Demolition Debris
#1 PET Bottles                                              (C&D)
#2 HDPE Bottles                                             Drywall
#3 - #7 Bottles                                             Wood
                                                            Carpet

* See appendix A for more detailed material definitions



                                                                                                             3
                  The Recycling Planning Process - Step Two: Evaluate the Recycling Market

Evaluate your Waste Stream Continued. . .
An extensive study of the proportion of different materials in the waste stream conducted by the State of
Georgia in 2005 produced the following results:


                                                                    Figure 4-1 presents the aggregate
                                                                    composition of major material groups
                                                                    in Georgia’s disposed municipal solid
                                                                    waste stream. As shown, paper and
                                                                    organics make up the largest fractions
                                                                    of the waste stream, followed by
                                                                    plastics. Metals and C&D made up the
                                                                    fourth and fifth largest fractions of the
                                                                    waste stream, with glass and inorganics
                                                                    making up the smallest portion of the
                                                                    waste stream.




For More Information from this Study Visit:
http://www.dca.state.ga.us/development/EnvironmentalManagement/publications/GeorgiaM
SWCharacterizationStudy.pdf

Using Georgia’s figures as a base for your own, think about what makes your community unique. Consider
questions such as:

       What manufacturing operations are in town? What do they produce? What wastes do they
        generate?
       What types of agriculture are in the area? What programs exists to help those farmers manage their
        bio-wastes?
       Is my community rural or urban? What’s the economy like in my part of town?
       Are there business parks with easy access to lots of paper?
       What’s going on at the local schools? Would there be a partnering option there?
       Are residents used to hauling their trash? Could a drop-off center be expanded to include
        recycling?
       How close is a major transportation corridor? For instance, those communities along the routes to
        major cities may be able to leverage partnerships with other communities.

Using your answers to these questions you can estimate slight changes in percentages as compared to the
percentage rates of materials from the Georgia study. Additionally, you can conduct more detailed forms of
Waste Stream Analysis included in part B of the Appendix.




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                   The Recycling Planning Process - Step Two: Evaluate the Recycling Market

Recycling Estimates for Economic Assessment
Now that you have considered a reasonable estimate for the proportion of materials in your waste stream
multiply each percentage by the total weight of waste collected in your community in order to approximate
the maximum quantity of materials which may be recycled.

Example Estimate
Here is an example of the calculations you will make to find a materials estimate:
In your community due to the lack of significant construction or office parks you estimate that, compared
to the Georgia Waste Study, household organic waste will increase in percentage slightly while paper and
C&D will slightly decrease. Overall you estimate the following percentages:

3% Inorganic
6% Construction & Demolition
6% Metal
4% Glass
16% Plastic
30% Organic
35% Paper

If you community sends 7,000 tons to landfill every year. Then your yearly waste breakdown is
approximately:

7000 x 0.03 = 210 tons Inorganic
7000 x 0.06 = 420 tons Construction and Demolition
7000 x 0.06 = 420 tons Metal
7000 x 0.04 = 280 tons Glass
7000 x 0.16 = 1120 tons Plastic
7000 x 0.30 = 2100 tons Organic
7000 x 0.35 = 2450 tons Paper

Set a Collection Goal
After completing your material you should set a reasonable collection percentage that you could initially
achieve, understanding that it will require education of the public, practice managing a recycling collection
system, and adjustments in collection methods and locations in order to maximize the materials that you
acquire.

Going back to the previous example, let us use 40% of recyclables as a reasonable initial goal.
Additionally, of all the different materials which can be recycled, we will only focus on Metal, Plastic, and
Paper collection to begin. Adjusting for our goal collection percentage the quantity we hope to collect is
now:

420 x 0.40 = 168 tons Metal
1120 x 0.40 = 448 tons Plastic
2450 x 0.40 = 980 tons Paper



                                                                                                                5
                     The Recycling Planning Process - Step Two: Evaluate the Recycling Market

Research Buyers for Recyclables
Before you start collecting recyclable materials, it is important to find a market for them. While, some
markets will pay for recyclables, others will require you to pay a small fee, but it is often more cost effective
to pay recycling fees than to pay landfill disposal fees for the materials. Once you have determined your
own waste stream and the approximate goods and quantities you could potentially recycle, contact one of
the following commodity groups for a listing of processors in your area:
     Association of Postconsumer Plastic Recyclers (APR):
         http://www.plasticsrecycling.org/market-development/materials-buyers-and-sellers-list
     American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA): www.afandpa.org
     Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI): www.isri.org
     Steel Recycling Institute (SRI): www.recycle-steel.org
     Glass Packaging Institute (GPI): www.gpi.org

Once you have a list processors contact each and record their responses to the following questions for
comparison purposes.

EPA WasteWise1 suggests that recycling programs ask potential buyers of recyclables the following
questions:
     What types of recyclables will the company accept, and how must they be prepared?
     Are there minimum quantity requirements?
     Who will provide collection containers for recyclables?
     Who provides transportation?
     Where will the waste be weighed for pricing and reporting?
     What is the schedule of collections?
     What type of contract will be required?
     What contract terms will the buyer require?
     What are the maximum allowable levels for food, chemicals, or other contaminants?
     What is the procedure for dealing with rejected loads?
     Can "escape clauses" be included in the contract?
     Who are a few references that can be contacted for their opinions on your services?

Be sure to check references! Obtain and thoroughly check the buyer's references with existing contract
holders, asking these organizations specifically whether their buyer is fulfilling all contract specifications.

Additional considerations for the previous questions are available at:
http://wastewise.tms.icfi.com/plan/questions.htm

Note: Many buyers of commodities will work with you to help your program increase efficiency, co-op (or
partner) with neighboring communities, or improve collection technique. Always ask them what they can
do to HELP you. Remember, they are making a profitable business out of recycling. Therefore, consider
each recycling processor as a business which is providing you a service.



1
    EPA WasteWise: www.epa.gov/epawaste/partnerships/wastewise/index.htm

                                                                                                                  6
                  The Recycling Planning Process - Step Two: Evaluate the Recycling Market

Reconnect with the Committee and Share Economic Assessment
At this point almost all necessary information has been collected to give an accurate picture of the costs
and benefits that recycling can offer to your community. Hold a meeting with all of the committee
members and invite other important decision makers such as elected officials to present the results of your
findings.

As preparation for your presentation you might consider using the following tools

       Recy-culator : Looking to justify your recycling program? Maybe the Recy-culator from Curbside
        Value Partnership can help! Just type in some basic collection and community information (or
        even goals!), and this free tool can help estimate: money saved, landfill space, reserved, trees not
        harvested, energy conserved, and gas reserved. Put this free tool to work for your program by
        visiting: www.recyclecurbside.org/content/u/recy-culator

       Feasibility Spreadsheet - Additionally you may choose to complete a more detailed spreadsheet
        provided by EPA WasteWise for calculating program feasibility at
        http://wastewise.tms.icfi.com/pubs/feasibility.xls


Your presentation should highlight the findings of your research including:
    The current logistics of solid waste management: quantity of waste annually, typical landfill and
       collection fee
    The approximate percentages of materials in your waste stream
    How these percentages breakdown into annual quantity of recyclables
    Approximate yearly revenue which could be achieved for different materials at your initial
       collection percentage goal
    Profiles of some of the most attractive recycling markets and appealing contract proposals

Negotiate Contracts with Recyclers
Your committee and the necessary elected officials should come to a consensus upon the recycling
processors which offer the most appealing contracts from a logistical perspective, which will maximize ease
and efficiency of collection
     The committee should meet with multiple recycling processors at least once before settling on your
         contracts.
     Always strive to negotiate “Yellow Sheet” Prices which are the current market rates for materials
     In order to maximize the return on your investment be flexible and be willing to make contracts
         for the highest price based on individual materials




                                                                                                               7
               The Recycling Planning Process - Step Three: Community Involvement




Step Three: Educate and Inform Your Community
Once you have negotiated a contract, visit the toolkit on our website at
www.uced.ua.edu for another guide on Recycling Education and community
awareness.

Good Luck starting recycling collection and sales in your community!
Do not hesitate to contact our office if we can be of assistance throughout the
process.

The University of Alabama Center for Economic Development (UCED)
Box 870138
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0138
Tel: 205-348-7058




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                             Appendix A – Materials Definitions
The following table shows the material definitions approved by the Georgia Department of Community Affairs
and used in conducting their Municipal Solid Waste Characterization study. The entire report from this study
can be seen at
http://www.dca.state.ga.us/development/EnvironmentalManagement/publications/GeorgiaMSWCharacterization
Study.pdf




Material Group          Material Category          Material Definition
Paper             1     Newspaper                  Printed and unprinted ground wood newsprint. This category includes
                                                   glossy paper inserts included with the newspaper.
                  2     Corrugated Cardboard       Old Corrugated Cardboard (OCC) and Kraft Paper - Kraft linerboard
                                                   and containerboard cartons and shipping boxes with corrugated paper
                                                   medium (excludes wax or plastic coated boxes). Includes Kraft paper
                                                   bags.
                  3     Office                     High-grade paper. Bond, rag-content, manila, or stationery grade
                                                   paper with or without color. Includes ledger, photocopy paper,
                                                   computer printouts, manila folders, index cards, and envelopes (with
                                                   and without windows or gummed labels).
                  4     Magazine/ Glossy           Magazines and catalogs printed on glossy, coated paper stock.

                  5     Paperboard                 Paperboard and boxboard such as that used for cereal and tissue
                                                   boxes
                  6     Mixed (Other Recyclable)   Low grade recyclable paper. Includes phone books, text books, other
                                                   books and catalogs with groundwood paper; construction paper, junk
                                                   mail, polycoated cartons and aseptic packages, blue prints, and
                                                   glossy, coated paper (except magazines and catalogs).

                   7    Other (Non-recyclable)     Low-grade non-recyclable paper. Includes tissue paper, napkins,
                                                   paper towels, paper plates, paper food cartons, cigarette packages,
                                                   waxed paper, wax or plastic coated corrugated boxes, coated FAX
                                                   paper, and carbon paper, whether or not they are contaminated with
                                                   fluids or food. Includes all other grades of paper if substantially
                                                   contaminated with fluids or food waste, including pizza boxes.
Plastic           8     #1 PET Bottles             Blow molded plastic bottles and jars labeled #1 PET
                  9     #2 HDPE Bottles            Blow molded plastic bottles and jars (both natural and pigmented)
                                                   labeled #2 HDPE
                  10    #3-#7 Bottles              Blow molded plastic bottles and jars labeled #3, #4, #5 #6 or #7

                  11    Expanded Polystyrene       Food service polystyrene, polystyrene packaging, and "peanuts". Any
                                                   expanded foam product labeled #6.
                  12    Film Plastic               Any film plastic including garbage bags, retail bags, cereal bags,
                                                   sheet plastic, shrink wrap, tarping, and other nonrigid plastic.
                  13    Other Rigid Plastic        Includes other thermoformed or injection-molded rigid plastic not
                                                   captured in the above categories. Includes tubs, trays and containers
                                                   labeled #1, #2, #3, #4, #5, #6 and #7. Includes all non-container rigid
                                                   plastics such as plastic pipe, electrical components, automotive
                                                   components, toys, and foamed plastics.


                                                                                                                        9
                           Appendix A – Materials Definitions



Material Group        Material Category         Material Definition
Glass            14   Clear                     Recyclable clear beverage and food bottles and jars
                 15   Green                     Recyclable green beverage and food bottles and jars
                 16   Amber                     Recyclable amber beverage and food bottles and jars
                 17   Other Glass               Flat, pressed and blown glass products such as light bulbs, mirrors,
                                                decorative items and fixtures, windows, safety glass, and cooking
                                                ware.

Metal            18   Steel Cans                All coated and tin-free ferrous food and beverage cans. Includes bi-
                                                metal cans and non-aerosol spray cans
                 19   Aluminum Cans             All aluminum food and beverage containers
                 20   Other Ferrous (non-C&D)   Ferrous and alloyed ferrous scrap metals from any source except
                                                intact white goods and C&D material defined below.

                 21   Other Non-Ferrous (non-   Aluminum tins, foils; copper; brass; stainless steel; etc. as long as the
                      C&D)                      nonferrous is not from C&D
Organics         22   Yard Waste                Yard waste including grass clippings, leaves, garden trimmings, and
                                                brush up to 4 inches in diameter
                 23   Wood (Non-C&D)            Any painted or unpainted wood product not from construction,
                                                demolition, or renovation. Includes furniture, toys, pencils, chopsticks,
                                                other misc items.

                 24   Food Waste                Putrescible food waste.
                 25   Textiles                  Fabric materials including natural and man-made textile materials
                                                made from cottons, wools, silks, nylon, rayon, polyesters, and other
                                                materials. This category includes clothing rags, curtains, and other
                                                fabric materials. Leather and leather goods are also included such as
                                                belts and wallets. Includes all shoes.
                 26   Diapers                   Diapers and adult sanitary products

                 27   Fines                     All particles capable of passing through a 2-inch screen if
                                                encountered loose, regardless of material type. Includes small pieces
                                                of paper, plastic, broken glass, metal, loose soil, food scraps, bottle
                                                caps, and grass clippings.
                 28   Other Organics            Organic materials not otherwise categorized, such as natural fibers,
                                                manure, cork, hemp rope, wicker products, sawdust, and lint.
C&D              29   Drywall                   Gypsum-based wallboard, including blueboard for use in the drywall
                                                or plaster trades
                 30   Wood                      May include painted and unpainted, or could be two separate
                                                categories
                 31   Inerts                    Concrete, brick, rock, dirt
                 32   Carpet                    Carpet
                 33   Other C&D                 C&D not otherwise classified.




                                                                                                                     10
                          Appendix A – Materials Definitions



Material Group        Material Category   Material Definition
Inorganics       34   Televisions         Televisions
                 35   Computers           Computers
                 36   Other Electronics   Electronic or electrically powered household products not otherwise
                                          classified, such as hair dryers, radios, stereos, microwave ovens, and
                                          telephones.
                 37   Tires               Tires
                 38   HHW                 Wastes resulting from products purchased by the general public for
                                          household use or similar commercial use which, because of their
                                          quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical, or infections
                                          characteristics, may pose a hazard to human health. Examples
                                          include paints, solvents, flammable liquids, toxics, corrosives,
                                          pesticides and herbicides, batteries, syringes, reactives and
                                          explosives. Empty HHW containers are not considered HHW.




                 39   Other Inorganics    Inorganic material not otherwise classified, such as rock, dirt, sand,
                                          and certain manufactured products composed of entirely inorganic
                                          materials




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                 Appendix B – Waste Stream Evaluation Methods
The following techniques are described by the EPA in their materials for the WasteWise program.
WasteWise is a free, voluntary EPA program through which organizations eliminate costly municipal solid
waste and select industrial wastes, benefiting their bottom line and the environment. WasteWise members
can join as partners, endorsers, or both. WasteWise helps its partners meet goals to reduce and recycle
municipal solid waste and selected industrial wastes.

For more information regarding the program visit the following link:
http://www.epa.gov/osw/partnerships/wastewise/index.htm


                           How to Conduct a Waste Sort
      Accompanying Worksheet: http://www.epa.gov/osw/partnerships/wastewise/pubs/wast_sort.xls

A.      Assemble the waste sample to be sorted, using either one day’s worth of waste or an
        otherwise representative sample of waste from your organization.

B.      Obtain containers for holding the sorted wastes and a scale for weighing the samples.
        The size of the containers depends on the amount of waste to be sorted. Office
        wastebaskets might work well for small sorts. For lager sorts, 30- to 50-gallon plastic
        containers, garbage cans, or large corrugated cardboard boxes will be needed.

C.      Weigh the empty containers that the sorted wastes will be placed into and record these
        weights on a label on each container.

D.      Sort the waste sample by major component (paper, plastics, glass, metal,
        compostable organics, other),

E.      Further sort each major waste component into more specific component
        subcategories (e.g., glass into clear, green, and; or paper into high grade,
        newspaper, and magazines).

F.      Place the sorted materials into separate labeled containers.


Calculations

A.      Weigh each filled waste container and subtract the weight of the container to obtain the
        net component weight. Use the worksheet to record the findings of your waste sort by
        filling in the white spaces only. All other colored spaces will be automatically populated.




                                                                                                     12
                Appendix B – Waste Stream Evaluation Methods

                How-to Conduct a Facility Walk-Through
                                     Accompanying Worksheet:
                http://www.epa.gov/osw/partnerships/wastewise/pubs/walk_through.xls

A walk-through provides an opportunity to observe the connection between the types of waste
generated and the actual waste-generating activities or processes. The team should be careful
during the walk-through not only to record the types of waste observed and how waste is
generated, but also to consider the potential waste reduction opportunities for increasing the
efficiency of these operations.

If possible, schedule the walk-through just before trash pickups to allow a sufficient amount
of waste to accumulate. Avoid scheduling it on or around holidays, company parties, or
other special events that would produce wastes not representative of a normal workday.

Before conducting the walk-through, the team should inform the function area or department
managers of the assessment and arrange interviews with employees. The interviews offer
important additional detail on waste generation and removal practices. Moreover, interviews
help keep employees informed and interested in the evolving waste reduction program, and
offer an opportunity to ask questions. Employees also can be a valuable source of ideas for
reducing waste.

During the walk-through, ask questions about variations in daily waste generation. For
example, periodic deliveries might result in more discards on the delivery day. In addition, ask
about any recent or upcoming changes within the function area or department, such as new
equipment or procedures that could alter the types or amount of waste generated. The
worksheet is formatted so that you can print it out and use it to record you findings as you walk
through your facility.

Be sure to pay close attention to areas and operations that tend to generate the largest amounts
of waste, such as shipping and receiving departments, copying areas, cafeterias, assembly
lines, and offices. Remember to include a review of the grounds maintenance operations. While
conducting the walk-through, watch closely for activities and equipment that generate
unnecessary waste, as well as waste reduction efforts that are already in place.

Use the worksheet to record the findings of your walk-through by filling in the white spaces
only. All other colored spaces will be automatically populated. Organizations assessing
multiple function areas or departments might wish to complete a worksheet for each function
area or department.




                                                                                                13
                Appendix B – Waste Stream Evaluation Methods

                 How to Conduct a Records Examination
     Accompanying Worksheet: http://www.epa.gov/osw/partnerships/wastewise/pubs/rec_exam.xls

Use the worksheet to record information on how solid waste is removed from your facility and
to estimate the total amount paid for waste removal services by filling in the white spaces
only. All other colored spaces will be automatically populated. If waste removal practices vary
significantly among departments or function areas, or if different waste contractors are used,
record the information separately for each, copying this worksheet as needed.

Step-to-Step Guide to Completing the Worksheet

Waste Generation

   A. Examine records to determine the amount of waste removed annually. The team will
      need to compile the data for an annual total. Record the annual total in the
      worksheet.

   B. Examine records to determine the amount of recyclables collected annually. The team
      will need to compile information on products and materials recycled in a year. Record
      the annual total for each product or material in the worksheet.

Costs of Waste Collection, Removal, and Disposal

Waste Collection Labor Costs

1. If waste collection is performed by a maintenance contractor, examine records to determine
the annual total of payments made to the maintenance contractor for waste collection. Record
the annual total in the worksheet.
2. If waste collection is performed by internal staff, examine records to determine the following:
a. Employee hours. Determine the amount of employee hours used to collect waste per week
and record it in the worksheet. Use separate rows for employee hours at different hourly pay
rates.
b. Hourly rates. Determine the hourly rates of employees collecting waste. When determining
hourly rates, be sure to include the wage plus overhead costs such as benefits. Many
organizations use a factor of 1.3 to calculate the hourly rate including overhead costs. For
example, for an employee earning $10.00 and hour, you would use an hourly rate of $13.00 an
hour to include the overhead costs. Record the rates in the worksheet.

Waste Container Costs

Examine records to determine the cost of renting waste containers or Dumpsters per week.
Record the rental fee in the worksheet.




                                                                                                  14
                Appendix B – Waste Stream Evaluation Methods
                   How to Conduct a Records Examination- Continued
Waste Removal Costs

1       If your organization pays a flat fee for removal, examine records to determine the weekly
fee. A flat fee is a rate charged for waste removal services that remains constant over a specific
period of time regardless of fluctuations in the amount of waste generated. Record the fee in the
worksheet.
2      If your organization pays a removal charge per weight or volume of waste generated,
examine records to determine the fee per unit of weight or volume and record the fee in the
worksheet, along with the specified unit (i.e., pounds, tons, cubic yards). Record the annual total
of waste disposed in the worksheet.
3      If your organization pays a fee per pull, examine records to determine the fee. A pull
charge is a fee paid each time waste is hauled from an organization. Record the fee per pull and
the annual total of pulls in the worksheet.

Waste Disposal Costs

       1. If your organization is charged a tipping fee, a fee charged per unit of waste
            disposed at a landfill, examine records to identify the fee. Record the fee, specify
            the unit (i.e., pounds, tons, cubic yards), and record it in the worksheet. Determine
            the annual total of waste sent to the landfill in the specified units and record in the
            worksheet.


Costs of Recycling Collection, Removal, and Disposal

Recycling Collection Labor Costs

1. If recycling collection is performed by a maintenance contractor, examine records to
determine the annual total of payments made to the maintenance contractor for recycling
collection. Record the annual total in the worksheet.
2. If recycling collection is performed by internal staff, examine records to determine the
following:
a. Employee hours. Determine the amount of employee hours per week used to collect
recyclables, and record the number of hours in the worksheet. Use separate rows for employee
hours at different hourly pay rates.
b. Hourly rates. Determine the hourly rates of employees collecting recyclables. When
determining hourly rates, be sure to include the wage plus overhead costs such as benefits.
Many organizations use a factor of 1.3 to calculate the hourly rate including overhead costs. For
example, for an employee earning $10.00 and hour, you would use an hourly rate of $13.00 an
hour to include the overhead costs. Record the rates in the worksheet.

Recycling Container Costs

       1. Examine records to determine the cost of renting recycling containers or
           dumpsters per week and record the rental fee in the worksheet.




                                                                                                      15
                Appendix B – Waste Stream Evaluation Methods
                     How to Conduct a Records Examination- Continued

   Recycling Removal Costs

1      If your organization pays a flat fee for removal, examine records to determine the weekly
fee and record it in the worksheet. A flat fee is a rate charged for waste removal services that
remains constant over a specific period of time regardless of fluctuations in the amount of
recyclables generated.
2       If your organization pays a removal charge per weight or volume of recyclables
generated, examine records to determine the fee per unit of weight or volume and record the
fee in the worksheet, along with the specified unit, i.e., pounds, tons, cubic yards. Record the
annual total of waste disposed in the worksheet.
3       If your organization pays a fee per pull, examine records to determine the fee. A pull
charge is a fee paid each time recyclables are hauled from an organization. Record the fee per
pull and the annual total of pulls in the worksheet.

   Recycling Revenues

       1. If your organization receives revenues from recyclables, record the annual revenues
            for each product or material into the worksheet. Add rows as necessary to capture
            all revenues received.


Buy Recycled

   Examine records to determine what recycled-content products your organization purchased.
   Record the product or material, its recycled-content, and the weight purchased in the
   worksheet.




                                                                                                   16
                       Appendix C – List of Alabama Recycling Contacts
Baldwin County Transfer          Recycle America of           Wesson Recycling
Station                          Birmingham                   3196 Notasulga Road
1071 N. Holly St.                Notes 9 S. 41st St.          Tallassee, AL 36078
Loxley, AL 36551                 Birmingham, AL 35222         (334) 283-8238
(251) 988-8125                   (205) 591-8201

Smith Center                     Valley Recycling             S P Recycling Corporation
926 Selma Highway                PO Box 774                   200 7th St. West
Prattville, AL 36067             Valley, AL 36854             Birmingham, AL 35204
(334) 365-4054                   (334) 756-9199               (205) 788-323

National Gypsum Company          Clanton Recycling Center     Wetumpka Recycling Center
4811 US Highway 78 West          810 Furniture Ave.           205 E. Charles Ave.
Oxford, AL 36203                 Clanton, AL 35046            Wetumpka, AL 36092
(256) 831-6900                   (205) 755-8769               (334) 567-1334
Paper products only
                                 Clay County Recycling        Giant Resource Recovery
Red Hot Recycling                Center                       1229 Valley Drive
6989 US Highway 78 East          86838 Highway 9              Attalla, AL 35954
Anniston, AL 36207               Lineville, AL 36266          (800) 637-4023
(256) 831-0310                   (256) 276-0297
Metal and car parts only                                      Fayette County Recycling
                                 Tennessee Valley Recycling   Center
Specialty Recycling Service      700 W. 20th Court            511 6th St. Southeast
PO Box 587                       Sheffield, AL 35660          Fayette, AL 35555
Bynum, AL 36253                  (256) 381-7145               (205) 932-7461
(Southeast)
(256) 831-7530

Magnolia Landfill                Pugh and Son Inc             Waste Recycling Inc.
15140 County Road 49             County Road 29               PO Box 9821 County Road
Summerdale, AL 36580             Evergreen, AL 36401          10
(251) 988-8125                   (251) 578-4457               Dothan, AL 36304
                                 Metals only                  (334) 983-4522
Waste Recycling Inc of
Anniston                         Andalusia Recycling Center   Amerisouth Recycling Inc
PO Box 2614                      301 Progress Drive           501 6th St. South
Anniston, AL 36202               Andalusia, AL 36420          Birmingham, AL 35233
(256) 236-1991                   (334) 222-0862               (205) 320-1007

Hamby Salvage Inc                Regional Recycling           Corporate Recycling Services
4225 Veterans Memorial           1124 Union St.               PO Box 380174
Parkway                          Selma, AL 36701              Birmingham, AL 35238
Lanett, AL 36863                 (334) 874-9610               (205) 699-2130
(334) 576-211                    Metals only                  Accepts mostly paper
Many types of metals


                                                                                          17
                     Appendix C – List of Alabama Recycling Contacts
Blount Recycling LLC           McInnis Recycling               EPSI - Earth Protection
928 County Line Road           4341 Norman Bridge Road         Services
Trafford, AL 35172             Montgomery, AL 36105            Inc
(205) 647-3200                 (334) 281-6888                  1400 Coliseum Blvd.
Accepts metals & tires                                         Montgomery, AL 36110
                                                               (334) 271-7993
Birmingham Recycling           Childersburg Recycling
PO Box 320205                  Center                          Batteries, CPU, Ballasts, Etc.
Birmingham, AL 35232           118 6th Ave. Southwest          United Plastic Recycling
(205) 326-0005                 Childersburg, AL 35044          PO Box 11671
                               (256) 378-5521                  Montgomery, AL 36111
Tech Birmingham                                                (334) 288-5002
505 20th St. North Suite       Talladega Recycling
230                            242 East St. North              Childersburg Recycling
Birmingham, AL 35203           Talladega, AL 35160             Center
(205) 241-8131                 (256) 315-3848                  118 6th Ave. Southwest
Electronics only                                               Childersburg, AL 35044
                               Farley Recycling Center         (256) 378-5521
Vulcan Recycling               507 W. 20th St.
2520 2nd St. West Bldg 10      Jasper, AL 35501                Tuscaloosa Iron & Metals Co
Birmingham, AL 35204           (205) 221-1222                  2701 31st St.
(205) 323-3400                 Metals Only                     Tuscaloosa, AL 35401
                                                               (205) 758-6711
Evergreen Recycling Center     Florence Recycling Center       Metals Only
PO Box 216                     201 Railroad Ave.
New Hope, AL 35760             Florence, AL 35630              Waste Recycling Inc of
(256) 725-4711                 (256) 760-6463                  Opelika
Huntsville Recycled Fibers                                     PO Box 363
205 Wholesale Ave.             Athens-Limestone Recycling      Opelika, AL 36803
Huntsville, AL 35811           Center                          (334) 845-2921
(256) 533-9888                 15896 Lucas Ferry Road
Paper Only                     Athens, AL                      BFI - Huntsville
                               (256) 233-8746                  1004 A Cleaner Way
Alabama Recycling                                              Huntsville, AL 35805
4040 Northern Blvd.            Guntersville Recycling Center   (256) 881-2347
Montgomery, AL 36110           3450 Wyeth Mt. Road
(334) 277-0032                 Guntersville, AL 35976          BFI - Mobile
                               (256) 571-7598                  3720 Varner Drive
BFI - Montgomery                                               Mobile, AL 36616
1121 Wilbanks                  Newark Group                    (334) 666-5724
Montgomery, AL 36108           1750 9th St. Bldg 44
(334) 834-5580                 Brookley Complex                Mobile, City of - Metro
                               Mobile, AL 36615                Recycling
                               (334) 432-1000                  1451 Government St.
                               Paper Only                      Mobile, AL 36604
                                                               (251) 478-3333


                                                                                            18
                      Appendix C – List of Alabama Recycling Contacts
Montgomery, City of -
Sanitation
934 N Ripley St. PO Box
1111
Montgomery, AL 36101
(334) 241-2925

Southeast Recycling
Corporation
PO Box 4334
Montgomery, AL 36104
(334) 514-2666

Troy Recycling Center
PO Box 549
Troy, AL 36081
(334) 670-6054

Sylacauga Recycling
PO Box 390
Sylacauga, AL 35150
(256) 249-6254

Waste Recycling Inc -
Tuscaloosa
2661 Elm St.
Tuscaloosa, AL 35401
(205) 758-1838




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