Sheep and Goat Industry

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					Sheep and Goat
Industry
Animal Science Level 2
 Unit Map: Follow Along in your packet

           WHAT ARE YOU LEARNING?

• AS.06.02(Basic): Recognize, identify, and evaluate
  the effects of diseases and parasites on animals.

• AS.03: Identify breeds of economically important
  animal species.
          Know Understand Do!
      Know
                       Understand
• Types of sheep    Use and variation             Do
• Basic              in sheep breeds       Identify common
  Management        Importance of          sheep breeds
  practices          management in         Research disease
• Basic              relation to            prevention
  terminology        industry and
                                           Define and
                     health
                                            utilize basic
                    Use of                 sheep vocabulary
                     terminology in the
                     industry
          Key Learning: Sheep and Goat Industry

              • Unit EQ: Why are sheep and goats rising in
                economic importance ?

Concept :
                       Concept :                 Concept :
Sheep/ Goat Industry
                       Sheep/Goat Breeds and     Care and Management
Lesson EQ:
                         Uses                    Lesson EQ:
  How are sheep and
                       Lesson EQ:                   How does
  goats utilized in
  the animal science      What characteristics     management effect
  industry?              define sheep/goat         the sheep/goat
                         breed uses?               industry?
Vocab
                       Vocab                     Vocab
  Lamb, Mutton,
                       Meat, Dairy, Textiles     Drenching, Shearing,
  Wool
                                                   Lambing
History of sheep
• Today’s sheep descend from wild
  sheep (Mouflon) of Asia and
  Europe                            Corel Photo


• Sheep are a source of fiber and
  meat
• Sheep were first domesticated
  about 10,000 years ago
• People used wool as much as
  20,000 years ago
Introducing sheep to the world
• Columbus and other Europeans carried sheep to the
  New World
• Spanish missionaries introduced to sheep to Native
  Americans in Mexico
• Sheep are an important part of Navajo culture
Introducing sheep to the world
• The Navajo word for sheep translates to “that
  by which we live”
• Merino sheep were imported to New England in
  1793
• During the next 20 years, demand for the
  Merino spread across the Northeastern U.S.
Sheep in the U.S.
• With the development of synthetic fibers in the 20th
  century, the sheep industry has declined
• Sheep and lamb population peaked at 56.2 million in
  1942
• In 1996, the sheep and lamb population had declined to
  8.4 million
• In 2001, 66,000 sheep producers in the U.S. were
  raising 6.9 million sheep and lambs
Wool
• Sheep have been bred to produce finer wool fiber
• People in Iran began selective breeding of sheep for
  finer wool 6,000 years ago
• Fine wool sheep breeds of today originated with the
  Spanish Merino, developed more than 1,200 years ago
Main areas in the Sheep and Goat
Industry
• Dairy
   • Milk Production
• Meat

• Wool/Textiles



There are specific breeds that perform well in each
  area. There are also dual purpose breeds
What are the leading states and nations in sheep
and goat production, and what are the major
export and import markets for the United States?
• D. The United States exports
  only about 2 percent of its lamb
  and mutton production.
   • Most U.S. mutton exports are
     to Mexico.
• E. The United States imports
  more than 50 percent of the
  dairy goat cheese products it
  uses and consumes.
   • Most dairy goat cheese
     imports come from France.
How does the sheep and goat industry
affect the U.S. economy?
• Compared with the beef, dairy, and swine industries,
  the sheep and goat industry is relatively small in
  terms of production numbers and overall impact on the
  economy.
• On the other hand, the sheep and goat industry tries
  to increase sales in specialty markets.
• A. The sheep industry
• 1. The sheep industry has significantly changed over
  the past several years from wool to meat production.
• 2. The demand for lamb and mutton remains steady
  and shows little change in preferences.
   • Americans have not traditionally consumed lamb regularly, the
     way they have beef, pork, and poultry products.
How does the sheep and goat industry
affect the U.S. economy?
• 3. The wool industry in the United States has changed
  as many wool mills have either closed or moved to
  other                      countries.
   • This allows for export markets to
     increase slightly for wool and wool
     products.
• 4. The challenges for the sheep industry and American
  lamb products depend on the adoption of new
  technologies by producers, marketing improvements,
  research development, and perfection of efficiency at
  every stage of sheep production.
 How does the sheep and goat industry
 affect the U.S. economy?
• B. The goat industry
• 1. Dairy goat milk and cheese see a steady growth in
  consumer demand as people become more aware of the
  higher protein and lower cholesterol levels in goat products
  versus dairy cow products.
   • Dairy goat producers market their products primarily through direct
     markets, farmers’ markets, or Internet sales, or they sell them
     directly to retail stores and restaurants.
   • Goat milk can be used to make cheese known as chevre.
• 2. Meat goats are marketed through harvest facilities,
  auctions, or on-farm sites to private buyers.
   • Meat goats are sold based on their size and age.
   • An Easter kid is a noncastrated meat goat weighing 16 to 40 pounds
     that is usually sold seasonally to ethnic markets.
   • Cabrito is the meat from a noncastrated milk-raised kid weighing 25
     to 40 pounds.
   • Technically, chevon is the meat from a goat of any age or size.
How does the sheep and goat industry
affect the U.S. economy?
• 3. As Hispanic and Asian populations continue to rise in the
  United States, so will the preference for goat meat.
   • Historically, these populations have preferred goat meat in their
     diets.
   • Faith-based populations have also increased in the United States,
     creating a greater demand for related food preferences.
   • Goat meat is not generally available at grocery stores or
     supermarkets.
   • It is sold at ethnic markets and specialty stores.
• 4. Great potential exists for the goat industry in the United
  States as ethnic populations continue to grow.
   • Small goat farms have the greatest opportunity for growth as the
     demand in metropolitan areas increases.
   • Goat meat also offers a healthy choice to meet the demands of
     health-conscious Americans.
   • Industry groups must educate consumers and producers and increase
     marketing strategies.
   • Other challenges of the goat industry relate to the price and
     availability of the meat.
What food and non-food products
are produced by sheep and goats?
• Sheep and goats are very versatile and offer many
  products for human use.
• These animals provide both food and non-food
  products.
• Many of the non-food products are used in the
  manufacturing of items that are used every day.
• For example, baseballs are stuffed with wool and sewn
  with wool thread, the rubber lining is prepared from
  stearic acid, and the center cork contains processed
  blood.
What food and non-food products
are produced by sheep and goats?
• A. Meat that comes from a sheep under
  one year old (young sheep) is referred
  to as lamb.
   • Mutton is meat from a sheep that is over
     one year old.
   • Mutton has a very different taste than
     lamb.
   • Lamb is considered a delicacy.
   • Mutton has a strong flavor and is not as
     popular as lamb.
   • Meat from goats is referred to as chevon,
     depending on the age of the animal.
What food and non-food products
are produced by sheep and goats?
• B. The hide of sheep is used for
  leather.
   • The wool is used for clothing and
     other products, such as rugs,
     insulation, and artist brushes.
   • The wool also contains lanolin.
   • Lanolin is the grease found in
     the wool and is used in ointments
     and cosmetics.
What food and non-food products
are produced by sheep and goats?
• 1. The fats and fatty acids from
  the carcass are used in
  products such as floor wax, candles, crayons, brake
  fluid,                       tanning lotion, cosmetics,
  and glycerol that helps asphalt stick.
• 2. The manure from sheep and goats can be used as
  fertilizer and contains nitrogen, phosphorus,
  potassium, and other various minerals.
What food and non-food products
are produced by sheep and goats?
• 3. The horns, hooves, and bones are used in a wide
  variety of products, such as shampoos/ conditioners,
  bone china, marshmallows, piano keys,
  and gelatin desserts.
• 4. The products manufactured from the intestines can
  be the casings for foods such as sausages and hot
  dogs.
   • The intestines also provide materials used to make
     instrument strings.
What food and non-food products
are produced by sheep and goats?
• C. Goat milk can be used to make a cheese known as
  chevre.
   • Dairy goat producers market
     their products primarily
     through direct markets,
     farmers’ markets,
     Internet sales, or direct to
     retail stores and restaurants.
   • Goat cheese is one of the fastest-growing cheeses
     in the specialty cheese market.
   • It is considered a gourmet food, and restaurants
     use it in dishes such as pizza, salads, and desserts.
What food and non-food products
are produced by sheep and goats?
• D. Meat goats are marketed through slaughter facilities,
  auctions, or on-farm sites to private buyers.
• Meat goats are sold based on their size and age.
• 1. An easter kid is a meat goat weighing 16 to 40 pounds.
   • It should not be castrated and is usually sold seasonally to ethnic
     markets.
• 2. A cabrito is the meat from a milk-raised kid that weighs 25 to
  40 pounds and is not castrated.
   • Chevon is the meat from goats of any age or size.
   • Generally, chevon meat is from goats weighing over 60 pounds.
• 3. The price of goats is typically higher before major ethnic
  holidays.
   • There is an increasing interest in goat meat in gourmet restaurants.
   • Goat meat is often found on the menu and usually comes with a high
     price tag.
What are the advantages and
disadvantages of sheep and goat
production?
• Sheep and goat production has several advantages and
  disadvantages.
• A. The advantages of raising sheep and
  goats are:
   • 1. Sheep and goats are good grazers, and
     some do well on range environments.
   • 2. Compared with beef animals, sheep and
     goats are efficient eaters of forage.
   • 3. Sheep and goats are used for more than one purpose.
   • 4. Lambs and goats have a fast growing rate, and return on
     investment can be seen in a short time.
   • 5. Sheep and goats can be raised together.
   • 6. Sheep are used in public and private areas to control plants
     like poison ivy and honeysuckle.
   • 7. Sheep and goats are very popular for young children to
     raise as 4-H and FFA projects.
 What are the advantages and
 disadvantages of sheep and goat
 production?
• B. The disadvantages of                         raising
  sheep and goats are:
   • 1. The price of wool is very low.
   • 2. The popularity of lamb and
     mutton is low.
      • Interest has lacked in lamb for the diet;
        however, some improvements have been made in
        promoting the eating of lamb.
   • 3. Disease and parasite presence is very high in the
     production of sheep and goats.
   • 4. Predators, such as dogs, wolves, and coyotes,
     typically attack sheep and goats.
   • 5. Animals used for more than one purpose can
     cause an increase in labor.
Activities
• Picture’s worth a thousand words
   • Draw the history of the sheep up to today.
   • Begin with where sheep came from, and end with a
     product sheep are used to produce

• Sheep are Better
   • Draw an advertisement for a sheep product. In
     your advertisement, include WHY your product
     containing sheep is better than a similar/related
     product that does not include sheep products.
Sheep and Goat Terminology
Animal Science Level 2
Review Activity
• Worksheet One
  • Intro to Sheep and Goat Industry

  • Use the internet to answer the questions on your
    worksheet.
  • You can work in pairs on the computers.
  • You have 30 minutes to complete this activity
Terms: Follow Along with your
Worksheet
• buck             •   Easter kid
• cabrito
• cashmere         •   ewe
• chammy           •   kid
• chevon
                   •   kidding
• chevre
• doe              •   lamb
• mutton           •   lambing
• ram
• wether           •   mohair
• wool
• yearling
What are the proper terms used in
describing sheep and goats, and what are
the parts of sheep and goats?
• Knowing basic sheep and goat
  terminology is important.
• A. The following are common
  names and terminology used in
  describing sheep and goats.
   • 1. A ewe is a female sheep.
   • 2. A ram is a male sheep used for
     breeding purposes.
   • 3. A doe is a female goat at any age.
   • 4. A buck is a male goat at any age.
   • 5. A kid is a goat of either sex under
     one year of age.
What are the proper terms used in
describing sheep and goats, and what are
the parts of sheep and goats?
  • 6. A yearling is a goat of either sex one year old or
    older but less than two years old.
  • 7. A wether is a male sheep or goat castrated when
    it was young.
  • 8. Lambing is the process of a sheep giving birth.
  • 9. Kidding is the process of a goat giving birth.
  • 10. Wool is a sheep’s coat used as a fiber for
    products such as clothing.
  • 11. Chammy is leather made from sheep or goats.
What are the proper terms used in
describing sheep and goats, and what are
the parts of sheep and goats?
• B. When the main purpose of a
  sheep or goat is meat consumption,
  we look at it not only to identify
  its basic external parts but also to
  identify the meat cuts on the
  animal.
• 1. Many external parts of sheep
  and goats must be known to “speak
  the language” when judging or
  selecting one animal over another.
What are the proper terms used in
describing sheep and goats, and what are
the parts of sheep and goats?
What are the proper terms used in
describing sheep and goats, and what are
the parts of sheep and goats?
What are the proper terms used in
describing sheep and goats, and what are
the parts of sheep and goats?
• 2. Many other terms should be
  known in reference to meat cuts
  taken from sheep and goats.
   • a. Lamb is meat from a sheep
     under one year old (young
     sheep).
      • Mutton is meat from a sheep
        one year old or older.
      • Lamb is considered a
        delicacy.
   • b. Meat from a goat is referred
     to as chevon.
Breeds
Breeds of sheep
• 1,000 distinct breeds of sheep, with 50 breeds in
  North America
• Many of these breeds are rare and some are in danger
  of extinction
• In the U.S., four breeds account for more than two-
  thirds of the sheep population
Breeds of sheep
• Sheep are raised for wool and meat; some provide
  milk for cheese-making
• Breeds can be classified according the type of
  wool they produce:
   • Fine wool                                       www.damaras.com

   • Medium wool
   • Long wool
   • Crossbred wool
   • Hair sheep
Southdown

•   Medium- to small-sized breed
•   Polled, medium-wool breed raised primarily for meat
•   Early maturing breed
•   Ewes have good lambing ability and average milk
    production
Southdown




            American Sheep Industry Association
Hampshire

• Large medium-wool breed
• Mild disposition and polled
• Rapid growth and efficient feed conversion
Hampshire




            American Sheep Industry Association
Suffolk

• Most common breed in the U.S. (40 percent of sheep
  population
• Medium-wool polled breed
• Raised primarily for meat
Suffolk




          American Sheep Industry Association
Shropshire


• Heaviest wool producers among medium-wool
  breeds
• Medium-sized
• Dual purpose breed suitable for both meat and wool
Shropshire




             American Sheep Industry Association
Dorset

• Medium-sized medium-wool breed
• Both horned and polled varieties (polled is more
  common)
• Ewes are good mothers and good milkers
• Second most common breed in the U.S.
Dorset




         American Sheep Industry Association
Delaine Merino


• Medium-sized fine-wool breed
• Originated in Spain 1,200 years ago
• Noted for producing the best wool in the world
Delaine Merino




             American Sheep Industry Association
Rambouillet

•   Fine-wool breed; medium size
•   Good carcass characteristics; dual-purpose breed
•   French in origin and descends from Spanish Merino
•   Produce some of the finest wool in the world
Rambouillet




              American Sheep Industry Association
Montadale


• Medium-wool, dual-purpose breed
• Produce high quality carcasses and excellent wool that
  is very white in color
Montadale




            American Sheep Industry Association
Columbia

• Crossbred wool breed developed by the USDA in
  1912
• Produce large ewes with large lambs and good wool
  yield
• Survive well on range conditions of the western
  U.S.
Columbia




           American Sheep Industry Association
Barbado


• Hair sheep originated in Texas
• Males are horned and females are polled
• Color is usually tan, tan with pale or black belly, or
  “pied” (has two or more colors in large spots or
  blotches
Barbado




          American Sheep Industry Association
Cheviot

• Small-sized, medium-wool
• Polled
• Raised primarily for meat; produces a high-quality lamb
  carcass
• Hardy sheep developed in Scotland and England


 Objective 3: Evaluated on Assignment Sheet 1
Cheviot




          American Sheep Industry Association
  What are common types of goats,
  and how do they differ?
• There are more than 300 breeds of
  domestic goats.
• Selection of a specific breed for
  production depends on the grower’s
  personal needs and goals.
• Goats are typically classified into types.
• A. Angora goats originated in Turkey and are well
  adapted to areas not fit for other livestock.
   • Angoras are almost totally white at maturity and produce up
     to 7 pounds of mohair each year.
   • Angora goats are horned, with long, droopy ears.
   • At maturity a buck weighs between 125 and 175 pounds, and a
     doe weighs between 80 and 90 pounds.
Goats: Angora
 What are common types of goats,
 and how do they differ?
• B. Dairy goats can produce 5 pounds of milk per day.
   • They supply 1.8 percent of the milk supply in the world.
   • Goat milk has more minerals than cow milk and is easier for
     small children and elderly people to digest.
   • The most common breeds raised in the United States, in
     order of their popularity, are French Alpine, LaMancha,
     Nubian, Saanen, and Toggenburg.
• 1. French Alpine goats are known as good milkers and
  have no distinct color.
   • However, they are commonly shades of fawn, gray, brown,
     red, and black, or combinations of these colors.
   • This breed has short hair. French Alpines are larger-sized
     goats with a rangy look.
What are common types of goats,
and how do they differ?
• 2. LaMancha goats are known for their external ears.
   • Two types—the “gopher ear” and the “elf ear”—are
     distinctive breed characteristics.
   • This breed has high milk production.
• 3. Nubian goats are all-purpose
  goats, useful for meat, milk, and hide production.
   • They are not heavy milk producers, but their milk
     has a high-average butterfat content.
   • Nubian goats have long ears.
What are common types of goats,
and how do they differ?
• 4. Saanen goats originated in Switzerland.
   • They are known as heavy milk producers.
   • Saanen goats are white or light cream in color, with white
     preferred.
   • The hair should be short and fine.
   • Saanens perform best in cooler conditions.
• 5. Toggenburg goats are a medium-sized
  breed from Switzerland.
   • They are known to be the oldest credited dairy
     goat breed.
   • Toggenburg goats have excellent udder development and high
     milk production.
   • The color is solid, varying from light fawn to dark chocolate.
   • Toggenburgs have erect ears.
Dairy Goats
What are common types of goats,
and how do they differ?
• C. Meat goats are also known as Spanish goats and are
  used for both milk and meat.
• 1. Boer goats came from South Africa and made their
  first appearance to the United States in 1993.
   • Boer goats are known for their rapid growth rate,
      excellent carcass qualities, and adaptability.
   • They have white bodies with red heads.
   • This breed has grown in popularity among FFA and
      4-H projects, as well as in the show ring.
Meat Goat: Boer (“boar”)
What are common types of goats,
and how do they differ?
• D. Cashmere goats have been developed by selective
  breeding.
   • Cashmere is the soft undercoat of fine down produced by
     goats.
   • There is usually a large demand for cashmere since it is in
     short supply.
   • Solid-colored goats are preferred in cashmere production,
     but multicolored goats are also used.
• E. Pygmy goats were originally imported from Africa.
   • They are only 16 to 23 inches tall at the withers and have
     horns.
   • They can be any color or combination of colors.
   • The main uses of pygmy goats are for research, as pets, as 4-
     H and FFA projects, and in zoo exhibits.
Cashmere and Pygmy
Fainting Goats !
Activity
• Iowa FFA CDE
• Live Stock Judging: Sheep

• Have out paper!
Sheep and Goat Industry
Disease, Management, Feeding
Animal Science Level 2
What are common parasites and diseases that
affect sheep and goats, and what are
appropriate prevention and treatment methods?

• Several common parasites and diseases
  can affect sheep and goats.
• Good management systems and
  prevention programs can control these.
• A. External parasites attack sheep and goats.
   • Lice, horn flies, stable flies, ticks, blowflies, mange mites, and
     mosquitoes are common external parasites.
   • Symptoms include bites, scabs, and sores on the hide.
   • Pesticides sprayed around the pen or directly on the animal
     can serve as a treatment.
   • Good sanitation and sound management practices are
     preventives.
What are common parasites and diseases that
affect sheep and goats, and what are
appropriate prevention and treatment methods?

• B. Internal parasites can live in sheep and goats for a
  long time and interfere with nutrients, cause diarrhea,
  and result in poor performance.
   • Common internal parasites
     are lungworms, stomach and                      intestinal
     worms, liver flukes,                                    and
     coccidia.
   • A good, sound worming program
     is necessary for successful
     production.
• C. Diseases can drastically affect sheep and goats.
   • Veterinarians help producers manage flock or herd health in
     the presence of diseases.
What are common parasites and diseases that
affect sheep and goats, and what are
appropriate prevention and treatment methods?

• 1. Enterotoxemia, or overeating disease, is very
  common among growing lambs and kids.
   • Because large amounts of feed are ingested, intestinal
     bacteria undergo rapid growth and release a toxin.
   • Sudden death is usual in sheep and goats.
   • Single lambs are more frequently affected than twins.
   • Feeder lambs can also be susceptible once they are placed on
     heavy rations of grain or pasture.
   • A common treatment is to remove all concentrates from the
     ration and feed solely roughage.
   • The animals should be vaccinated, and the all-roughage ration
     should be continued until they have fully recovered.
   • Preventive practices include a vaccination program, good
     management, and proper feeding.
What are common parasites and diseases that
affect sheep and goats, and what are
appropriate prevention and treatment methods?
• 2. Foot rot thrives in muddy areas where air is                   poorly
  circulated.
   • Foot rot is caused by bacteria.
   • Signs include a foul odor and a grayish, cheesy
     discharge, with lameness and intense pain.
   • Vaccination is available to treat foot rot, or the
     rotten area can be trimmed away and the foot
     treated with 10 to 30 percent copper sulfate.
   • Prevention of foot rot includes proper trimming of feet, keeping
     muddy pastures drained, and using a foot bath.
• 3. Contagious ecthyma, or sore mouth, is a highly contagious
  disease.
   • Sores/scabs appear on the lips and mouth.
   • Humans are also susceptible to this disease.
   • When applying antibiotic ointments as a treatment, the producer
     should wear gloves.
   • Treatment should be applied until all sores are dried up.
   • A vaccination program is a valuable tool in preventing the disease.
What are common parasites and diseases that
affect sheep and goats, and what are
appropriate prevention and treatment methods?

• 4. Bluetongue is caused by a virus and is transmitted
  by gnats.
   • Commonly, gnats will infect sheared sheep during
     warm weather.
   • Signs of bluetongue are fever, depression, nasal
     discharge, and loss of appetite.
   • The lips become swollen.
   • There is no treatment for the bluetongue virus.
   • Prevention should include vaccination at shearing
     time.
What are common parasites and diseases that
affect sheep and goats, and what are
appropriate prevention and treatment methods?

• 5. Mastitis is an inflammation of the udder.
   • Signs include fever, depression, decreased milk production,
     abnormal milk, hardening or sensitivity of the udder, and loss
     of appetite.
   • Sometimes signs are not visible.
   • Bacteria can spread through dirty                          lots
     and bedding.
   • Several types of bacteria can                              cause
     mastitis.
   • Controlling mastitis requires cleaning and controlling the
     environment.
   • Treatments are sensitive to the severity of each case and
     may include antibiotics.
   • Ewes or does should be moved to individual pens, and a
     veterinarian should be contacted.
What different types of production
systems are used for sheep and goats?
• Goats and sheep can be raised together.
• They complement each other’s eating likes and
  dislikes.
• There are five types of sheep production systems.
• Goats can be raised in similar situations.
What different types of production
systems are used for sheep and goats?
• A. The farm flock method of
  sheep
  production describes
  the farm flocks that can
  have one sheep or thousands of
  sheep.
   • The farms are located in the
     midwestern, eastern, and
     southern United States.
   • The purpose of farm flocks is to
     produce market lambs and wool.
   • Many dairy goats are also raised
     with this type of production
     method and are popular
     throughout the country.
What different types of production
systems are used for sheep and goats?
• B. A purebred flock is one that sells rams and ewes of
  an ideal type.
   • The management requirements are high, and
     knowledge of genetics is helpful.
   • Many people starting a 4-H or FFA project will go
     to a purebred flock for their first purchases.
   • Many dairy and meat goat breeds are raised in a
     purebred flock.
   • These flocks express highly valuable genetics and
     are seen in the show ring.
What different types of production
systems are used for sheep and goats?
• C. The range band method of sheep
  production involves large bands of
  sheep (between 1,000 and 1,500)
  that are managed over a large area
  by a herder.
   • In high vegetation areas, sheep are used for meat.
   • In low vegetation areas, sheep are used for wool
     because the feed is not suitable to produce a
     market-quality lamb.
What different types of production
systems are used for sheep and goats?
• D. Some producers use
  confinement methods.
   • Confinement means raising                               animals
     completely indoors.
   • This method is popular because
     of the need for less land, fewer
     parasite problems, the increased
     ability to monitor animals, and the success of raising other
     animals in confinement.
   • Some disadvantages include increased building costs, higher
     feed costs, and the increased need for intense management.
• E. Lamb feeding production involves weaning lambs
  and selling them to feedlots where the lambs are fed
  out to slaughter weight.
   • Meat goats are commonly raised in this type of
     situation.
What production practices are involved
in the reproductive management of
sheep and goats?
• All types of producers must
  maintain efficient production
  practices to raise sheep and
  goats in a healthy and
  productive environment.
• These production practices
  start with well-managed breeding management
  systems.
• A. Kidding is the process of a goat giving birth.
   •   Lambing is the process of a sheep giving birth.
   •   The gestation period for goats is about five months.
   •   The gestation period for a sheep is about 150 days.
   •   The gestation period can vary in both sheep and goat breeds.
What production practices are involved
in the reproductive management of
sheep and goats?
• B. Sheep and goats are both seasonal breeders.
   • They are typically bred in late summer and early
     winter.
   • Meat goat breeding season depends on the
     decreasing of daylight.
   • There are no true signs of estrus other than
     acceptance of a ram/buck.
   • The estrus cycle of a ewe will occur every 16 to 17
     days, while that of a goat will occur every 18 to 21
     days.
What production practices are involved
in the reproductive management of
sheep and goats?
• C. The number of lambs or kids a
  female may have will vary among breeds.
   • It is common for dairy goats to have
      twins or triples.
   • Twins or multiples are common in
      some sheep breeds.
   • A good production practice in sheep is to
      calculate the percent lamb crop.
   • The higher the percent lamb crop the more
      that will be ready for market.
   • Another important production practice is to
      maintain the mortality rate below 25
      percent.
What production practices are involved
in the reproductive management of
sheep and goats?
• D. The rams and/or bucks are kept separate from
  ewes until breeding season.
   • Rams should have access to water, pasture, and
     exercise.
   • Rams will require some additional grain feed during
     breeding and cold temperatures.
   • It is important to maintain a ram in good condition
     with low body fat.
What production practices are involved
in the reproductive management of
sheep and goats?
• E. A bred ewe or doe will require
  high-quality hay, pasture, feed, water,
  shelter, and exercise.
   • Supplemental grains are used to
     maintain health and condition during
     pregnancy.
   • The ewe or doe should be observed
     very closely as parturition time occurs.
• 1. It is common to shear the ewe’s wool
  around the dock, flank, and udder.
   • The ewe is also directed to a dry,
      sheltered pen.
   • Once the ewe enters an individual pen,
      grain should be reduced.
What production practices are involved
in the reproductive management of
sheep and goats?
• 2. There are many complications that could occur at
  lambing or kidding time.
   • It is very important to observe and help ewes/does
     during the delivery.
   • It is a good production practice to make sure the
     young lamb/kid is in the right position.
   • It is also a good practice to make sure the ewe/doe
     accepts the young animal and allows nursing to
     begin.
What production practices are
involved in the care of lambs and
kids from birth to weaning?
• Several production practices are
  involved in the care of newborn
  lambs and kids.
• A. Newborn lambs and kids                                should
  receive colostrum.
   • Colostrum is the first milk given by the mother.
   • It contains important nutrients for the newborn.
   • Mothers that deliver multiples can show acceptance to either
     one or none.
   • A common practice is to put a little bit of salt on the newborn
     lamb, allowing the ewe to lick and accept the baby.
   • If the mother has had complications during delivery,
     it is important for the producer to have supplemental nursing
     equipment ready.
What production practices are
involved in the care of lambs and
kids from birth to weaning?
• B. The navel on newborn lambs
  and kids should be dipped with
  iodine as soon as possible, and
  the newborn should be kept in a
  clean stall or pen.
• C. The newborn should be identified as soon as
  possible.
   • Applying ear tags is a common method of identification for
     sheep and goats.
   • It is important to maintain good recordkeeping practices.
• D. Lambs and kids should enter immediately into the
  flock’s vaccination schedule.
   • Lambs should be wormed and vaccinated for overeating at an
     older age.
What production practices are
involved in the care of lambs and
kids from birth to weaning?
• E. Lambs should be docked as soon as possible.
   • Docking is the removal or cutting off of part of the tail.
   • Docking is important because later, as the lamb grows, it
     prevents manure from accumulating and parasite infestation
     of the tail.
   • Lambs are typically docked from 3 to 10 days old.
   • Docking can be accomplished with the use of an elastic bank
     or electric docker.
   • Goats are not docked.
• F. Castration of lambs should be conducted during the
  first month.
   • The equipment used is similar to docking.
What are the nutritional
requirements of sheep and goats?
• Sheep and goats are good grazers, and some do well
  in a range environment.
• These animals are known for their scavenging ability.
• Sheep and goats are efficient eaters of forage
  compared to beef animals.
• Sheep will eat short grass and some broadleaf plants.
• Goats will eat leaves off woody and broadleaf plants.
What are the nutritional
requirements of sheep and goats?
• A. Sheep and goats require
  carbohydrates and fats that
  are used for energy.
   • These substances are mainly
     supplied through pasture and hay.
   • Grain is used before and during
     lambing season, as well as during drought,
     overgrazing, and in snow-covered pastures.
   • Grains commonly used in a sheep/goat ration are
     corn, oats, wheat, and grain sorghums.
What are the nutritional
requirements of sheep and goats?
• B. Sheep and goats also require
  high levels of protein.
   • Protein levels are important due to                           the
     production of wool.
   • Legume grasses and plants found in a pasture setting contain
     good sources of protein for sheep and goats.
   • High-quality hay, containing alfalfa and clover, is also a good
     source of protein during the winter months.
   • Protein supplements may be used.
   • Sheep and goats raised in a range situation may develop a
     protein deficiency.
   • The producer should provide supplemental protein to prevent
     and/or control this problem.
What are the nutritional
requirements of sheep and goats?
• C. Sheep and goats need minerals
  and vitamins in their rations.
   • Salt and mineral mixtures are common
     supplements given to these animals.
   • Vitamins A, D, E, and K are important
     and should be maintained in the diet or fed by free choice.
• D. Water is the final component of the sheep and goat
  diet.
   • The average mature sheep will consume up to one gallon of
     water per day.
   • It is important to offer fresh, clean water to sheep and
     goats.
   • However, these animals can find water from other sources,
     such as snow, dew, and lush, green pastures.
Activity
• Feeding and Management reading and worksheet

• You’re the Expert
   • Your friend just purchased a large plot of land and
     they want to raise sheep just like their neighbors.
   • PROBLEM: They know NOTHING about sheep!
      • Explain to your friend (who has never heard of
        sheep before and knows nothing about care) how
        they should set up, care for, and run their sheep
        operation.
      • INCLUDE vocabulary learned in class, and
        UNDERLINE your vocabulary. At least 10 words.
Test Review!

				
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