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					  Use Resources and Project Advantages to
 Promote Sound Development of Sustainable
          Agriculture in Xinjiang

      Xinjiang Department of Agriculture and Department of Animal Husbandry

                                (December 6, 2005)

Xinjiang is a major agriculture- and husbandry-based province. Over the past 50 years,
with the kind attention and full support of the Central Party Committee and State
Council and based on its rich natural resources, Xinjiang has vigorously developed
advantageous and specialized agriculture and actively promoted modern animal
husbandry. Great achievements have been made in agricultural and animal husbandry
production in terms of technology introduction, good strain extension, increase of unit
output and quality improvement. Now at the moment of training program of the
China-Canada Sustainable Agriculture Development Project, I would like to present you
a brief report on the development of Xinjiang agriculture and our measures and methods
for the sustainable agriculture development in future.

I. Natural Resources and Climate Conditions in Xinjiang

The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is located in northwestern China. Largest in
area in all the province-level administrative regions of China, the Xinjiang Uygur
Autonomous Region covers an area of 1.6 million sq. km, one sixth of Chinese
territory. Situated in the hinterland of Eurasian continent, Xinjiang of China borders
eight countries such as Russia, Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Mongolia,
India and Afghanistan. The geographic position of Xinjiang makes it very important in
strategy. In history, Xinjiang served as the key controlling section of the well-known
Silk Road, while now it is an unavoidable part of the railway leading to the second
Eurasia Continental Bridge.

Characteristics of landform of Xinjiang are described as mountains and basins
alternating with each other and basins caught in mountains’ embrace. Local people
simply describe this characteristic as “three mountains with a basin between each two”.
In the north lies Altai Mountains, in the south is Kunlun Mountains, while Tianshan
Mountains lay along the middle dividing Xinjiang into two parts: in the southern part
stretches Tarim Basin and in the northern part Jungar Basin. In climate, Xinjiang is
under the control of a typical extratropical belt continental climate. The annual
precipitation amount of Xinjiang only stands at around 155 mm. In mountains of
Xinjiang, there are many rivers resulting from snow broth on mountains. Oases lie on
the edges of basins and in river valleys. With oasis taking up 5% its total area, the
eco-system of Xinjiang is characteristic of oasis eco-system. With advantages such as
long sunshine time, high cumulative temperature, big day-night temperature difference
and long frost-free period, Xinjiang is only second to Tibet in solar total radiation which
is favorable to the growth of crops. At present, there is 60.38 million mu of cultivated
land in Xinjiang, 3.12 mu per capita, 2.1 times the figure of the country. As one of the
five major pastoral areas of China, Xinjiang has an area of about 860 million mu pasture
land, ranking No. 3 in China. Water resources account for 3% of the total. There is
abundant amount of exploitable underground water in Xinjiang, but some localities
suffer the shortage of water resources because water resources are distributed
imbalanced in terms of season and location and the evaporation discharge here is very

Presently, there are 14 prefectures (including prefectures, autonomous prefectures and
prefecture-level cities) and 88 counties (including cities and cities at county level) under
the government of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The Xinjiang Production
and Construction Corps (XPCC) is an important component part of Xinjiang and has
174 regimental agricultural and stockbreeding farms under it. By the end of 2004, the
population of Xinjiang had reached 19.6311 million, of which urban population is
6.9011 million, accounting for 35.15%, and rural population is 12.73 million, 64.85% of
the total. There are 47 ethnic groups here, including 13 indigenous groups, of which the
population of ethnic minority groups accounts for 60.5%. Among the ethnic groups,
people of Han and Uygur ethnic groups take up 45.73% and 39.75% respectively.

In 2004, the GNP of the entire region reached 220.015 billion RMB, up 11.1% over the
previous year, of which agricultural gross production is 82.58 billion RMB. Per capita
net income of farmers in the entire region has exceeded 2200 RMB. The industrial

structure is being optimized and adjusted continuously; the proportional pattern of the
primary, secondary and tertiary industry is 20.2:45.9:33.9.

II. Major Achievements in Agriculture and Existing Problems

1. Major Achievements

In the past 50 years, restructuring of agriculture and animal husbandry in Xinjiang has
been progressing steadily; competitive and specialized agriculture has been developing
rapidly; and modern animal husbandry has been going smoothly. Comprehensive
agricultural production capacity has been enhanced dramatically and some competitive
leading industries like cotton, grain, beet, fruits and animal husbandry have been
established, making important contributions to economic development and social
stability in Xinjiang.

In 2004, the total yield of grain in the entire Region hit 8.8 million tons, an increase of
8.8%; the proportion of grains, cash crops and forage grass planting was adjusted to
27:50:23. The output of cotton reached 1.89 million tons, increased by 26%,
consolidating its position as the national largest basis for commercial cotton; it has been
on the top for 13 consecutive years in terms of cotton planting area, total output,
purchase amount and marketing amount. The output of beet was 3.95 million tons,
increased by 35%. The yield of melons reached 1.94 million tons, increased by 430
thousand tons. The output of industrial tomatoes was 3.3 million tons and 550 thousand
tons of tomato products were processed, which accounted for more than 90% of the
national output of tomato products and about 15% of the world total, making Xinjiang
the national production base that enjoyed the largest planting area for processed tomato,
the largest processing scale and the highest export volume. The aggregate agricultural
mechanic power exceeded 8.5 million kilowatts, ranking among the front in the country.
By the end of 2004, the number of animals in stock reached 52.0637 million, an
increase of 3.6% over the previous year. Total output of meat was 1.2813 million tons,
increased by 11.4%. Milk output totaled 1.3973 million tons, up 17.98%. Xinjiang has
also established 12 national-level grain base counties, 38 national quality cotton
production bases and 5 national beet bases. It has become the largest production base
for commercial cotton, hops and tomato juice, as well as an important production base
for animal husbandry and beet sugar.

Now the region has 1062 agro-product processing enterprises, of which 120 are
nominated as regional key flagship enterprises of agricultural industrialization and 24 as
national key flagship enterprises, covering 65% of farmer households in the entire
region. The number of specialized farmer cooperative economic organizations has
grown to 1323. And 241 pollution-free agro-product production bases have been
approved, covering an area of 12.32 million mu. The pollution-free agro-products total
347, and 126 products from 56 enterprises have passed “Green Food” certification and
acquired the Green Food label. 27 products out of 24 enterprises have received organic
food label. Xinjiang agricultural famous products have numbered 65 in total.

2. Main Existing Problems

Despite the great achievements made in Xinjiang agricultural development, it is still
lagging far behind other hinterland provinces and there are many difficulties and
problems that need to be addressed.

Firstly, the agricultural economic growth mode mainly features by quantitative and
extensive type; the development is not sustainable; strategic adjustment of agricultural
structure is not well placed; conflict between industrial structure and market demand has
not been solved radically; advantageous and specialized industries haven’t been formed
in scale; and market competitiveness is still low. Secondly, the agricultural
infrastructure is relatively weak; agricultural supportive and guaranteeing system is yet
to be perfected; technological content is relatively low; the input in agricultural
technological advocacy is not sufficient; comprehensive servicing capability and means
are backward so it is very difficult to realize a whole process service including pre-, in-
and post-production. Thirdly, agro-products processing industry is not strong enough;
standardized and commercialized construction of industrialization production base is
still lagging behind; distribution of flagship enterprises is geographically imbalanced
and the benefit-bonding system is not perfect; specialized farmer cooperative economic
organizations and trade unions are developing slowly; and farmers organization level is
low. Fourthly, modern animal husbandry develops slowly; the technological content of
intensive animal rearing and breeding is still low; conflict between pastureland and
animals are conspicuous; grassland degradation and ecological deterioration are yet to
be controlled. And fifthly, the agricultural and animal husbandry technological service
system is relatively weak; the overall quality is low; there is a lot to do in terms of

technological service advocacy system reform, institutional innovation and socialized
service system construction.

III. Development Goals in the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan” for Xinjiang

1. Farming Development Goals

By the year of 2010, the area of quality cotton base will be 18 million mu, with 125
kg/mu for average unit production and 2.5 million tons for production capacity. Grain
planting area will be 2.5 million mu, with 450 kg/mu for average unit production and
11-12 million tons for production capacity. The production capacity for oil-bearing
crops will be 550-600 thousand tons, for beet 5-5.5 million tons and for vegetables 15.5
million tons. And the competitive agro-products like melons, watermelons, processed
tomatoes and safflowers will be further developed. The area of agricultural standardized
production will account for 70-80% of the total planted area of this region; and the area
for pollution-free grain and oil-bearing crops, vegetables and melons will take up over
90% respectively. The number of enterprises using green food label will reach 150, and
200 green products and 60 organic food products will be certified. The number of
industrialized agricultural organizations will grow to 10000, helping farmers to increase
income by 800-1200 RMB on average. We will cultivate and develop 300 regional-level
key flagship enterprises, including 20 with more than 1 billion RMB of annual sales
income; and farm produces processing rate will reach over 50% at that time. The quality
strain dissemination rate for major crops will be maintained at more than 90%; the
highly efficient water-saving irrigation area will increase by 7 million mu. The
aggregate power of agricultural machinery will reach 11 million kilo watts. There will
be 100 thousand large and medium-sized tractors, 300 thousand large and medium-sized
complete-set farm machines and tools and 27.5 million combine harvesters. The
comprehensive mechanization rate of farming work will reach 80%.

2. Animal Husbandry Development Goals

By 2010, the added value of animal husbandry and relevant industries will account for
more than 15% of the regional total output; output of animal husbandry will take up
over 40% of the agricultural output and its proportion in key prefectures and counties

will reach more than 50%. Over 30% of farmers and herdsmen’s income will come from
animal husbandry. Livestock quality and market share will be improved dramatically
and some domestic famous brands will be established. We will basically meet the
objectives of good strain of livestock, rational structure of animal species and stocks,
industrialized production, epidemic prevention and treatment networks and
market-oriented product sales. We will make “Three Industrial Bases”, namely the milk,
quality beef & mutton and fine-wool sheep industrial bases, bigger and stronger, build
Xinjiang into a important base for livestock products like beef, mutton and milk and a
national key fine-wool sheep production base. We will expedite transformation from
traditional to modern animal husbandry, display advantages of geographic location and
specialized industries, strengthen construction of “Three Industrial Bases” for livestock
products and use policy support, project promotion, market leading to realize regional
distribution, scale operation and specialized production of key livestock products like
milk, beef, mutton and fine-wool sheep, so as to promote industrialization and enhance
comprehensive production capability of animal husbandry in an all-round way.

IV. Sustainable Development of Xinjiang Grass industry

Xinjiang is one of our key national pastoral areas. With vast natural grassland, it ranks
No.3 in China. The gross area of Xinjiang natural grassland is 57.2588 million hectares,
accounting for 34.44% of the total land area of this region, including 48.0068 hectares
of usable grassland. In recent years, with the development of eco-system theory, market
economy mentality and industrial operation, pasture production is not confined to a
process of vegetable production by use of natural resources or a process of logistic
conversion of the natural eco-system, but a sustainable industrial system which
integrates resources, environment and business, possess functions like environmental
protection, scenery conditions and goods production, and is formed through
combination of the primary, secondary and tertiary industries. Therefore, grass industry
plays an irreplaceable role in economic development and maintenance and construction
of ecological environment.

Governments at various levels in Xinjiang have been committed to protecting and
constructing the grassland, comprehensively implementing grassland contracting
responsibility system, persistently transforming pastoral animal husbandry with
herdsmen settlement at its center, and carrying out the production mode of breeding
livestock in shed during winter and early spring. Grassland construction and pastoral

animal husbandry have developed greatly; the number of anmials has increased by a
large margin; construction of fodder base has been strengthened; the effect of herdsmen
settlement has been noticeable; ecological environment protection has been emphasized;
and the pace of transition from traditional to modern animal husbandry has been
accelerated. But at the same time, due to irrational human economic activities, such
problems as overgrazing, backward infrastructure development in pastoral areas,
grassland degradation, deterioration of ecological environment and slow economic
development of pastoral areas are still very prominent.

To ensure sustainable development of Xinjiang’s grass industry, we must rationalize
thinking approaches to development, define goals, reasonably make planning and
arrangements, and formulate strategic measures. First of all, we must tap the resource
advantages and develop eco-economic grass industry. Xinjiang has a unique
mountain-basin landform; rainfall in mountain areas has changed water content greatly;
the plain has rich resources like light, heat, water and soil. It has formed a multi-layered
mountain-desert-oasis complex system and an ecological pattern consisting of desert,
natural oasis and artificial oasis, enjoying a unique advantageous combination of region,
environment and resources. We must also tap and highlight the resource advantage,
break regional concept and industrial boundaries and realize systematic integration of
grassland husbandry in pastoral areas and planting system in farming areas, so as to
build Xinjiang into the most potential grass industry area in China and the most
characteristic animal husbandry production base in the world.

Secondly, we will implement ecological replacement project and establish new
eco-economic productivity. We will ensure ecological safety of grassland through
improving grass business system, integrate the natural and cultivated grassland, carry
out sound configuration and scientific operation, replace the seriously degraded natural
grassland with efficient cultivated grassland, optimize resource allocation, and promote
positive ecological cycle and optimal industrial structure.

Thirdly, we must attach equal importance to utilization and protection and strengthen
sustainability of grass industry. It is necessary to carry out the strategy of enlarging the
pastoral area and increasing the number of animals, implement basic grassland
protection system, grass-animal balance system and the system of grazing prohibition
and resting and rotational grazing, maintain the guideline of attaching equal importance
to resources utilization and protection, embark on the road of resources-saving

economic development, and strengthen sustainability of grass industry to promote its
sound development.

Fourthly, we must rely on technological progress and change of production mode in
pastoral areas to expedite change of growth mode of the grass industry. Compared with
agriculture, the contribution rate made by technological progress to the operation and
development of grass industry is very limited. To develop grass industry, it is necessary
to realize continuous and stable economic growth, to emphasize problem solution
through science and technology, technology development and introduction and
conversion of existing technological fruits, to actively conduct research in the
mechanism of degraded grassland, application of zero-tillage improvement technology,
as well as research and advocacy of biological de-weeding and pest-killing technology,
and to increase application efficiency of technological fruits. At the same time, we must
continue to change the traditional production and operation mode in pastoral areas
transforming nomadic tradition into combination of shed breeding in cold season and
grazing in warm season, stabilize the number of animals, improve their quality,
restructure livestock pattern, increase the number of marketable animals, and expedite
change of growth mode of the grass industry.

V. Learn from and Draw on Canadian Successful Experience in
Sustainable Agriculture Development

After the study tour in Canada, we deeply feel that Canada has a lot of experience on
sustainable agriculture development worth our learning. The experience is reflected in
the following aspects: first is stress on practicability of knowledge. Either in forage
grass production or in the development of animal husbandry, the research that Canadian
experts are engaged in is specific to the hot problems frequently occurring in practice,
and they don’t care about leading the research in the world. Second is the diversity of
training. The Canadian training activities are not confined in form, of which
participatory training is very popular and has exerted far-reaching impact on sustainable
development of Canadian agriculture. The systematic theories drawn from the training
not only have achieved good results in some projects assisted by Canada, but the
concept has been spread in agricultural practice. The Government sets up exclusive
agency to handle risks of the farm produces market and has administrative methods to
help farmers respond to natural disasters. Third is wide participation. Canada pays great
attention to women’s participation in sustainable agriculture development and displays

the positive role played by various kinds of trade unions and farmers associations.
Fourth is advanced agricultural technology, mainly reflected in zero-tillage planting and
its management techniques, integration of herbage seed sowing, production and
processing, efficient breeding of cows, sheep and other ruminant animals, as well as
fatten techniques.

In learning from and drawing on Canadian successful experience, we should mainly do
the following work:

1. In light of China-Canada Sustainable Agriculture Development Project to be started
    in Xinjiang and with the guidance of Canadian experts, Chinese and Canadian
    experts will jointly hold TOT, which mainly involves training of training methods,
    and then decide farmers training program.

2. Due to its emphasis on software construction, this project may be bonded with key
    projects in terms of choice of project pilot sites and way of project implementation.
    In Xinjiang, China-Canada Sustainable Agriculture Development Project will link
    with projects sponsored by World Bank loans and choose 2-3 counties where the
    project is well implemented to conduct activities. Through demonstration of pilot
    counties, we will fully display impact and returns of the project. The China-Canada
    Project can also work along with MOA projects like agro-science and technology
    entering household demonstration project, grassland protection and improvement
    project and state strain improvement demonstration project so as to promote
    sustainable development of Xinjiang agriculture.

3. Training of farmers and herdsmen is the key to project implementation. The reason
    for our low transformation rate of technological results is that we haven’t radically
    finished the last “One Kilometer” of technological extension. Implementation of
    MOA Science and Technology Entering Household Project in various provinces is to
    solve this problem. Canada has advanced and systematic theories on farmers and
    herdsmen training; at the same time it also has scientific and effective methods,
    particularly the participatory training and formulation of bottom-up training plan,
    which can benefit us a lot. Effective training of farmers and herdsmen should be the
    focus of the project.

4. We should make full use of various media to cover the project, including printing and
    distributing various kinds of brochures and disseminating the project at all meetings.
    Technicians or other professionals who have been trained in Canada will be asked to
    give lectures and introduce instances of Canadian sustainable agriculture, which will
    be more persuasive.

5. Canadian practice of how to integrate universities, agriculture research and advocacy
    institutes in sustainable agriculture development also has high research and
    application values for Xinjiang reference.

VI. Countermeasures to Promote Xinjiang Sustainable Agriculture

1. Do More Research in Sustainable agriculture development Strategy

In face of the requirement of building modern agriculture and according to China’s
existing rural production system, governments at various levels must strengthen
research in sustainable agriculture strategy, double magnitude of policy support, and
priority should be given to ensuring good condition of agricultural ecological
environment and positive cycle of agricultural resources in drafting sustainable
agriculture strategy and plan. Insist on people-centered, and emphasize increasing
farmer’s income and improvement of their livelihood.

2. Strengthen Legal Construction and Management of Sustainable Agriculture

Laws and regulations are the basis and foundation of effective management of resources,
so legislative management should be the major means of strengthening rational use of
resources. In today’s sustainable development, with deepened understanding of
agricultural resource system and demand of practice, we should comprehensively
review China’s existing laws, regulations and administrative systems concerning
agricultural resources, propose revising and supplementary measures, formulate
corresponding enforcement by-laws, regulations and administrative methods to specify
the principles made by law and to make them operational, and pay attention to
coherence and coordination of relevant regulations.

3. Implement the Strategy of Developing Agriculture through Science and
Technology and Increase Technological Content in Agriculture and Animal

Technology content in farming and animal husbandry in this region is relatively low;
input in scientific research cannot meet the demand of development; and technological
services are not well delivered in time; therefore it is imperative to accelerate the pace
of sustainable development. Firstly, we must integrate research resources and establish
perfect research system. During the training in Canada, we know that there is good
bonding relations and a research mechanism from between provinces, from research
institutes to universities, and from farms, farmers to social groups. Now Xinjiang has
many research resources in agricultural research institutes and agriculture colleges, so
we must fully make use of and pool these technological forces together and try to avoid
overlapped research, so as to promote rapid and sound development of agricultural
research. Secondly, we must identify key development goals. The farming focus should
be placed on researching and extending good strains, conducting quality breeding and
improving quality and quantity of farm produces. We must also prevent degradation of
quality strains and strengthen research in soil structure performance and in farming
system, because all these are very realistic and urgently required. Research focus of
animal husbandry should be placed on construction and protection of various kinds of
grassland, breeding of quality grass seeds, grassland pest prevention and control
technology, grassland degradation and regulation mechanism, and improvement of
animal strains. We must be far-sighted, accelerate the pace of changing the current
grazing mode from traditional grazing to scientific rearing, and enrich research in
sustainable animal husbandry. Thirdly, it is necessary to build up a technological
expertise contingent, make the technological force stronger, increase input in research
work, develop various kinds of education, and improve the overall quality of farmers
and herdsmen. We must also intensify vocational skills training education, improve
farmers’ technical knowledge and basic skills, and use education modernization to
promote agriculture modernization. We must conduct various training courses for
science and technology dissemination, guide farmers and herdsmen to farm and breed in
a scientific way, support development of various kinds of agricultural specialized
associations and societies, display social groups’ self-education function, and provide
full support and encouragement to such organizations as Sheep Association, Cow
Association and Vegetables Association.

4. Vigorously Promote Agricultural Industrialization

Agriculture industrialization is market-oriented; through flagship enterprises,
intermediaries and specialized markets, it joins distributed farmer households and
domestic and overseas markets together; all stakeholders share benefits and risks in the
form of contract, cooperation or joint stock; and it is a new business form and operation
mode combining farm produces production, processing and marketing. It is not only an
effective way of promoting scale operation and agriculture modernization, but also an
important leading force to expedite agricultural strategic restructuring. Agriculture
industrialization will be a shining point for farmer’s income increase and sustainable
development. Through accelerating development of industrialization, we can extend
industrial chains, develop highly-processed industries, realize added value of farm
produce processing, improve agricultural efficiency, raise the level of farmers’
organization, reduce production and operation cost, strengthen farmer’s capabilities to
ward off natural and market risks, increase farmer’s income, promote extensive and
intensive development of agricultural production, develop secondary and tertiary
industries in the rural areas, promote urbanization and industrialization, increase farmers
employment, and make rural economy prosperous.

5. Restructure Industries in Rural Areas and Optimize Combination of Resources
and Production Factors

We should further expand pilot sites of ecological and sustainable agriculture, advocate
and apply them in time. We must also actively and steadily restructure agricultural
production, forming a great agricultural pattern that is rational in structure and where
farming, forestry, animal husbandry, sidelines and fishery fully develop, and support,
rely on and complement each other. We must develop agricultural pre- and
post-production extension industries, establish an agricultural industrialized system
where farming-breeding-processing and agriculture-industry-trade are matching each
other, and improve agricultural overall productive capability and agricultural
sustainability so as to ensure sustainable development of Chinese agriculture.

6. Rationally Explore Agricultural Resources and Enhance Policies for Resources
Protection and Utilization

First is to protect arable land. In the future, we must try our best to ensure that
constructions occupy less or non-arable land, stick to the principle of paid use of land
and returning after borrowing, try to use various kinds of idle land and reduce losses

caused by land occupation, and reclaim farming-suitable wasteland in remote areas in a
planned way. Second is to improve agricultural resource environment. We must prevent
damages caused by directly discharging industrial “three wastes” into agricultural
environment, strictly control TVE’s pollution sources, and finally control pollution
source of farming itself, that is, we should reduce quantity of chemical pesticides used,
particularly use of pesticide with high toxic residues, prevent overuse of nitrogenous
fertilizer and avoid agricultural eutrophication.

VII. Implement Suggestions on Sustainable Agriculture Development

Upon learning Canadian experience on sustainable agriculture development, we deeply
feel that only by strengthening administration and education, implementing research
results and technical requirements and putting specific project into practice, can we
realize sustainable development of Xinjiang agriculture in real terms. In the future,
implementation of China-Canada Sustainable Agriculture Development Project will
inevitably promote sustained, coordinated and sound development of agriculture and
animal husbandry. Therefore, we suggest:

1. Establish project leadership team involving agriculture, animal husbandry and
   finance departments as soon as possible, coordinate all relevant departments and
   strengthen management, so as to ensure successful implementation of the project.

2. Conduct advocacy, better inform working staff at various governmental levels,
   science and technology workers, as well as farmers and herdsmen about significance
   and necessity of implementing sustainable agriculture development strategy. Bring
   science & technology workers’ enthusiasm into full play and make technicians,
   farmers and enterprise activities combined closely.

3. Effectively display the government’s organizer role and coordinate and lead
   implementation of sustainable agriculture development strategy.

4. Conduct project advocacy, pay attention to pilot projects and encourage advanced
    ones of the farmers to play a leading role.

5. Promote enterprises’ enthusiasm in participation, explore joining mechanism between

   enterprises and farmer households, and improve the combination form between
   enterprises and households.

6. Closely connect with World Bank projects and other domestic projects, conduct
   activities like market exploration, advocacy and dissemination of relevant farm
   produce and animal husbandry products, and fully display the influence of
   China-Canada project because it is of great significance for promoting Xinjiang
   sustainable agriculture in process.

All in all, it still needs a lot of our efforts to accelerate the development of Xinjiang
sustainable agriculture. In the background where China’s economy is developing
continuously and steadily, opportunities and challenges are co-existing. We are very
happy to see China-Canada Sustainable Agriculture Development Project, Phase II, is
implemented successfully in our region and we will give full support to the project.
Here I’d also like to thank Canadian experts for their efforts in Xinjiang. And I also
hope all of you at present can contribute valuable opinions and suggestions for the
sustainable development of Xinjiang.


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