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					Chemistry Regents Review                

Topic 5: The Periodic Table


Family/ group: the vertical columns of the periodic table (have same # of valence electrons)
Period :        a horizontal row of the periodic table (have same # of orbitals)
Electronegativity:       a measure of the attraction of a nucleus for a bonded electron
ionization energy:      the amount of energy needed to remove the most loosely bound electron from a neutral
gaseous atom

Metal:          element tends to lose electrons and become positive ions
metalloid:      an element that has both metallic and nonmetallic properties (B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, and Te)
nonmetal:       element tends to gain electrons and become negative ions
Periodic law:   the properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers

General properties of metal

        All metals are solids, except mercury (Hg), which is liquid.
        Metals are malleable , ductile, luster, good conductors of heat and electricity
        Metals have low ionization energy, and low electronegativity values
        Metals tend to lose electrons to form positive ions with smaller radii
General properties of nonmetals

       Nonmetals are not malleable or ductile, they tend to be brittle in the solid phase
       Nonmetals have high ionization energy, high electronegativity values, and are poor conductors of heat and
     Nonmetals tend to gain electrons to become negative ions with radii larger than their atoms
Transition elements:

    Elements of group 3 through 12, transition elements have multiple oxidation states
    Release Color when reacted
Noble Gases

     Group 18 elements, Unreactive, inactive, inert
     Octet Rule - Have 8 electrons on the outer most energy level, (valence electrons) (orbital)
Alkali metals

     Group 1 elements, Most reactive metals, Like to lose 1 electron and becomes +1 ion
     Francium (Fr) is the most reactive metal
Alkaline earth metals

    Group 2 elements, Second most Reactive metals, Like to lose 2 electrons and becomes +2 ion
    Group 17 elements, Most reactive nonmetals
    Like to gain 1 electron and becomes -1 ion, called halides, Fluorine (F) is the most reactive nonmetal

Gas molecules: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn

Liquid elements: Hg (metal) and Br (nonmetal)

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