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					               PERIODIC PROGRESS REPORT (12 MONTHS)
Proposal n°: SERD-2000-00039
Contract n°: HPSE-CT2001-00096


Title:

  The Rationale of Motherhood Choices: Influence of Employment Conditions and of Public
                                         Policies


Project coordinators:

1. Belgium :         Danièle Meulders
                     Université Libre de Bruxelles
                     Département d’Economie Appliquée (DULBEA)
                     Unité de recherche : Economie du Travail et de l’Emploi
                     CP 140
                     Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50
                     B-1050 Bruxelles
                     dmeulder@ulb.ac.be
                     tel : 32 2 650 41 12
                     fax : 32 2 650 38 25

2. The Netherlands : Siv Gustafsson
                     Universiteit van Amsterdam
                     Department of Economics and Econometrics
                     Roetersstraat 11
                     1018 WB Amsterdam
                     siv@fee.uva.nl
                     tel : 31 20 525 41 40
                     fax : 31 20 525 4254

Partners:

Italy :        Daniela Del Boca
               University of Torino
Greece :       Haris Symeonidou
               National Centre for Social Research
France :       Jacques Le Cacheux
               Observatoire Français des Conjonctures Economiques

Reference period: from 01/10/2001 to 30/09/2002
Starting date: 01/10/2001         Duration: 36 months (01/10/2001 to 30/09/2004)

Date of issue of this report: 30th of September 2002

Project financed within the Key Action Improving the Socio-economic Knowledge Base
Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                     30/09/2002



Table of Contents

    1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                                                         1
1.1. Scientific overview                                                                         1
         1.1.1. Summary of the specific objectives for the period from October 1st, 2001 to
                   October 1st, 2002                                                             1
                                                     st
         PHASE 1 (October 1st, 2001 - March 31 , 2002)                                           1
                   1.1.1.1. WP1, WP6, WP12 : Review and Data: Motherhood, Labour market
                   and motherhood, Public policies and motherhood                                1
                   1.1.1.2. DL1, DL7, DL12: Review and Data: Actual progress made during the
                   first six months                                                              1
                   1.1.1.3. The MOCHO web site                                                   1
         PHASE 2 (April 1st, 2002 - March 31st, 2003)                                            2
                   1.1.1.4. WP2 : Data base on motherhood                                        2
                   1.1.1.5. WP3: Parenthood: socio-economic and demographic factors affecting
                   fertility                                                                     2
                   1.1.1.6. WP7: Motherhood and time allocation                                  2
                   1.1.1.7. WP8: Motherhood and work status                                      2
                   1.1.1.8. WP13: Public policies and motherhood: classification and indicators 3
         1.1.2. Proposed revisions to the Work Programme                                         3
1.2. Exploitation and dissemination of results                                                   3
1.3. Management and coordination aspects                                                         3


    2. SCIENTIFIC REPORT                                                                         4
2.1. Scientific overview                                                                         4
         2.1.1. Summary of the specific objectives for the period from October 1st, 2001 to
         October 1st, 2002                                                                       4
         PHASE 1(October 1st, 2001 – March 31st, 2002)                                           4
                   2.1.1.1. WP1: Review and Data: Motherhood                                     4
                   2.1.1.2. WP6: Review and Data: Labour Market and Motherhood                   4
                   2.1.1.3. WP12: Review and Data: Public Policies and Motherhood                5
         PHASE 2 (April 1st, 2002 - March 31st, 2003)                                            5
                   2.1.1.4. WP2 : Data base on motherhood                                        5
Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                     30/09/2002



                   2.1.1.5. WP3: Parenthood: socio-economic and demographic factors affecting
                   fertility                                                                     6
                   2.1.1.6. WP7: Motherhood and time allocation                                  7
                   2.1.1.7. WP8: Motherhood and work status                                      7
                   2.1.1.8. WP13: Public policies and motherhood: classification and indicators 8
         2.1.2. Overview of the technical progress and its main results                          8
                   2.1.2.1. The first MOCHO meeting                                              8
                   2.1.2.2. WP1, WP6, WP12: Review and Data: Actual progress made during the
                   first twelve months                                                         10
                   2.1.2.3. The second MOCHO meeting                                           12
                   2.1.2.4. The MOCHO web site                                                 13
         2.1.3. Deviations from the planned work progress                                      13
         2.1.4. Proposed revisions to the Work Programme and planned activities for the next
         period                                                                                13
2.2. List of project deliverables                                                              14
2.3. Exploitation and dissemination of results                                                 15
         2.3.1. Proposal for the publication of a textbook                                     15
         2.3.2. The publication of a special issue of TRANSFER                                 15


    3. MANAGERIAL REPORT                                                                       16
3.1. Management and coordination aspects                                                       16
         3.1.1. The next MOCHO meeting                                                         16
         3.1.2. Joint conference: MOCHO, DynSoc, FENICs                                        16
         3.1.3. Seminar on “Education and Postponement of Maternity”                           17
         3.1.4. Gender-related projects of the DULBEA                                          18
         3.1.5. The most recent activities of the Greek team relevant to the MOCHO
         Programme.                                                                            22
         3.1.6. The Italian team: CHILD activities in the near future                          23
         3.1.7. Updated list of coordinators, partners and collaborators                       24
                   3.1.7.1. The MOCHO project coordinators                                     24
                   3.1.7.2. The MOCHO project’s partners and collaborators                     25
Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                              30/09/2002



    1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1.1. Scientific overview

1.1.1. Summary of the specific objectives for the period from October 1st, 2001 to October 1st, 2002

PHASE 1 (October 1st, 2001 – March 31st, 2002)

1.1.1.1. WP1, WP6, WP12 : Review and Data: Motherhood, Labour market and motherhood, Public
policies and motherhood

The objectives of the three work packages covering the first phase of the MOCHO project were
fourfold. First, the aim was to identify and collect in the different countries all qualitative and
quantitative studies related to the three topics of Motherhood, Labour market and motherhood and
Public policies and motherhood. Second and equally important was the partners’ attempt to identify all
useful existing data sets. In the case of panel data, the partners were to identify those variables relevant
to the analysis of the three themes. Besides panel data, the partners were also asked to look out for
case studies, interviews and individual data sets. Third, the work package foresaw in the identification
of all relevant organisations and social agencies which would benefit from being informed about the
development of the MOCHO project and its policy implications. Finally, the first steps towards
constructing a web site proper to the project were to be made.

1.1.1.2. DL1, DL7, DL12: Review and Data: Actual progress made during the first six months

The first phase of the MOCHO project has been extremely successful. A very rich set of studies and
data bases were identified on each of the three topics that were subject to the bibliographical research:
Motherhood, Labour market and motherhood, and Public policies and motherhood. Indeed, the
number of studies we found was so big that we decided something needed to be done for the whole set
to be easily consulted. Therefore, we decided at our second MOCHO meeting in Amsterdam on the
24th of May 2002 that we would try to bring all partners’ contributions together into one document and
try to somehow structure the whole. The references gathered by each of the partners were all presented
in a similar way thanks to the format table we decided to use during the first MOCHO meeting in
Brussels (19th of November 2001). In Amsterdam, we decided that each team would review its literary
review and suggest a key word for each of its references to be categorised by. Before the summer, all
the completed contributions to the review of the literature, that is to say the original tables but with
keywords added to each study, were sent to Brussels. During the summer, the Brussels team worked
on the classification of the literature review. First, a coherent list of keywords was established. Then, a
hyperlink was created from each of the keywords to the first reference in the review of the literature
that treated of that specific topic. Finally, in the reference table, we have repeated the keyword and
have made it possible to click on it in order to jump to the next item in the literary review that deals
with the subject. It is possible to continue in this way to run through the whole document viewing only
those studies that are relevant to a topic of one’s choice. We have also accounted for the fact that,
sometimes, it might be useful to browse the review of the literature not by keyword but by country.
Therefore, besides a list of keywords, a list of countries was set up. Suppose one were interested in the
Netherlands, then he/she could click on the Netherlands in the list of countries in order to jump to the
first reference in the literary review that has studied the Netherlands. Within that reference’s table, it is
possible to click on the Netherlands to jump to the next relevant study, and so on. We have also added
a users’ guide to the electronic version of the literary review in which we explain the way we have
structured and organised the review and how we recommend to use it.

1.1.1.3. The MOCHO web site

A first version of the MOCHO web site has been accomplished. It has been operational for some time
now. However, we are still working on improving it.



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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                              30/09/2002



Under the heading "MOCHO in brief" on this web site, one can learn all there is to know about the
project's content, objectives, partners, timetable, etc. In the section "reports" one can find information
on the progress of our work and gradually more and more results will be available in the form of these
reports. On a regular basis (every 6 months), a newsletter is published providing a richness of
announcements and information on a wide range of topics. At present, two newsletters are available.
All relevant past and future events are announced in a separate window. A click on "links" opens a
world of links to universities, research teams and centres, social organisations and agencies and
statistical institutes, all of which are involved directly or indirectly in the field of motherhood choices.
Finally, the "What's new?" box informs about all the latest updates and changes to any of the items of
our MOCHO web site. The site’s address is: http://www.ulb.ac.be/soco/mocho.

PHASE 2 (April 1st, 2002 – March 31st, 2003)

1.1.1.4. WP2 : Data base on motherhood

The data base which we intend to construct for our own specific purposes in the framework of the
MOCHO project will be a set of comparative panel data on the individual’s level. Five countries will
be integrated on the basis of their national panel data sets: Germany (GSOEP), Great Britain (BHPS),
the Netherlands (OSA), Sweden (HUS), and Italy (Bank of Italy).
We are also conducting a profound investigation as to the possible use of the hybrid sets of data that
were retrieved during the first phase of the MOCHO project, on the one hand, and the ECHP, on the
other. We will reorganise the household panel data according to month and year of birth. We will also
create new variables such as the number of months spent at home after having given birth or time of
transition into full-time or part-time work.

1.1.1.5. WP3: Parenthood: socio-economic and demographic factors affecting fertility

Starting out from a broad set of data, including not only national fertility surveys but also ECHP
outcomes and Eurostat demographic and labour force statistics, we want to do a comparative analysis
of factors affecting fertility across Europe.
The previous cross-country analysis should allow us to construct a typology of countries according to
their level of fertility, on the one hand, and to the factors that are most relevant in explaining fertility
behaviour, on the other. Although the work involved in constructing this typology will be focused on
fertility levels, other demographic and socio-economic characteristics of each country will be
considered, such as household size, partnership rate, marriage rate, divorce rate, lone parenthood,
relative welfare provisions, social networks, and family solidarity.
Finally, a qualitative study will serve to illustrate the quantitative analysis. It might allow for a better
understanding of the quantitative results. We have opted for the method of interviewing to conduct this
qualitative analysis.

1.1.1.6. WP7: Motherhood and time allocation

We intend to review the literature as to the possible implications of motherhood in terms of time
allocation. We expect to find, be it smaller or larger, cross-country differences which we will then try
to explain by differing institutional factors or employment policies. After having subjected the existing
qualitative studies to a close scrutiny, we will use panel data to identify changes in paid and unpaid
working time that are induced by maternity. To get a more detailed picture, we will use individual data
sets or case studies, wherever they exist, to show how changes in time allocation follow from changes
in the number or age of the children, or how time seems to be allocated differently by people with
different levels of educational attainment, etc.

1.1.1.7. WP8: Motherhood and work status

We intend to review the literature as to the possible implications of motherhood in terms of work
status. We expect to find, be it smaller or larger, cross-country differences which we will then try to


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explain by differing institutional factors or employment policies.
First, we will extract all possible information from the qualitative studies and the panel data in order to
identify changes in work status that are induced by maternity. To get a more detailed picture, we will
use individual data sets or case studies, wherever they exist, to show how changes in work status
follow from changes in the number or age of the children, or how people with different levels of
educational attainment seem to have a different status at work, etc. We expect to find a deterioration in
work status as a result of motherhood in some countries and a better protection of mothers on the
labour market in others. Institutional factors and specific employment policies will, once again, turn
out to be essential in explaining cross-country differences in the effects of motherhood on work status.

1.1.1.8. WP13: Public policies and motherhood: classification and indicators

The objective of this work package is to build classifications and indices that give insight as to how
supportive public policies are of the work/life balance across Europe. These indices and classifications
can then be used to quantify relevant public policies. Such a policy quantification is required if one
wants to engage in econometric estimations and effects simulations.
To summarise, the major outcomes of this work package will be first, a data base of policies relevant
to the issue of motherhood and second, a clustering of countries according to differences in their
policies’ objectives.

1.1.2. Proposed revisions to the Work Programme

At last May’s MOCHO meeting in Amsterdam, we decided to change the persons responsible for
work packages 8 and 9.
Work package 8 concerns ‘Motherhood and work status’. Originally, Danièle Meulders was
responsible for this WP but Daniela Del Boca will take over this responsibility since the subject is
very much in line with some of her previous work as well as with her present occupations. Work
package 8 is supposed to give rise to deliverable 9 due for April 2003.
Work package 9 concerns ‘Motherhood and earnings’. Originally, Daniela Del Boca was responsible
but Cécile Wetzels will take over. Work package 9 is supposed to give rise to deliverable 10 due for
September 2003.

1.2. Exploitation and dissemination of results

The Dutch coordinator of the MOCHO project, Siv Gustafsson, intends to write a book styled as a
textbook during the project using both ‘State of the Art’ materials and new research from the MOCHO
project. Siv Gustafsson also intends the book to be very result-oriented to satisfy the needs of
politicians. In other words, a different methodology will be used for the book than the mainly method-
oriented approach underlying the MOCHO project. Throughout the book boxes will be used. They
illuminate a topic treated in the text or provide an interesting example of some statement or theory
elaborated in the text. The book will target a broader readers’ forum including people working in the
juridical branch, politicians, students and persons who do not have specialist knowledge.
In addition to this textbook, we will also make a publication catering to other academics. This
publication will be edited by Siv Gustafsson and Danièle Meulders and will either be a special issue of
a scientific journal or an edited book published by one of the major academic publishers, e.g. Mac
Millan, Edgar Elgar or Kluwer.
The Belgian coordinator of the MOCHO project, Danièle Meulders, has accepted to coordinate the
edition of a special issue of the journal TRANSFER on the subject of "Work and the Family". The
issue is due for the beginning of 2004. Danièle Meulders is now in the process of finding authors
interested in contributing to this issue. Her proposal to involve MOCHO’s national teams by asking
them to each write an article, was already enthusiastically welcomed by some of the partners.

1.3. Management and coordination aspects

The next MOCHO meeting will be held in Paris on the 22nd and the 23rd of November, 2002.


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    2. SCIENTIFIC REPORT

2.1. Scientific overview

2.1.1. Summary of the specific objectives for the period from October 1st, 2001 to October
1st, 2002

PHASE 1(October 1st, 2001 – March 31st, 2002)

The first six months of the MOCHO project involved three work packages, each resulting in a
corresponding deliverable.

2.1.1.1. WP1: Review and Data: Motherhood

The objectives of this first work package were fourfold. First, the aim was to identify and
collect in the different countries all qualitative and quantitative studies related to motherhood
choices. Second and equally important was the partners’ attempt to identify all useful existing
data sets. In the case of panel data, the partners were to identify those variables relevant to the
analysis of motherhood choices. Besides panel data, the partners were also asked to look out
for case studies and individual data sets. Third, the work package foresaw in the identification
of all relevant organisations and social agencies which would benefit from being informed
about the development of the MOCHO project and its policy implications. Finally, the first
steps towards constructing a web site proper to the project were to be made.
The deliverable corresponding to this first work package is the DL1. The DL1 is made up of
the internal reports submitted by the partners to the project coordinator in Brussels and which
describe what each partner has found in his/her country that could meet the objectives of the
work package.

2.1.1.2. WP6: Review and Data: Labour Market and Motherhood

The objectives of the sixth work package were threefold. First, the aim was to identify and
collect in the different countries all qualitative and quantitative studies related to the issue of
‘labour market and motherhood’. Second and equally important was the partners’ attempt to
identify all useful existing data sets. In the case of panel data, the partners were to identify
those variables relevant to the analysis of the issue of ‘labour market and motherhood’.
Besides panel data, the partners were also asked to look out for case studies, interviews and
individual data sets. Third, the work package foresaw in the identification of all relevant
organisations and social agencies which would benefit from being informed about the
development of the MOCHO project and its policy implications.
The deliverable corresponding to this sixth work package is the DL7. The DL7 is made up of
the internal reports submitted by the partners to the project coordinator in Brussels and which
describe what each partner has found in his/her country that could meet the objectives of the
work package. In practice, DL1 and DL7 are two distinct parts of a sole internal report
submitted by each partner.




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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                     30/09/2002



2.1.1.3. WP12: Review and Data: Public Policies and Motherhood

The objectives of the twelfth work package were threefold. First, the aim was to identify and
collect in the different countries all qualitative and quantitative studies related to the issue of
‘public policies and motherhood’. Second and equally important was the partners’ attempt to
identify all useful existing data sets. In the case of panel data, the partners were to identify
those variables relevant to the analysis of the issue of ‘public policies and motherhood’.
Besides panel data, the partners were also asked to look out for case studies, interviews and
individual data sets. Third, the work package foresaw in the identification and collection of
both qualitative and quantitative information on public policies such as the categories of
beneficiaries, the amount of the various allowances, etc.
The deliverable corresponding to this twelfth work package is the DL12. The DL12 is made
up of the internal reports submitted by the partners to the project coordinator in Brussels and
which describe what each partner has found in his/her country that could meet the objectives
of the work package. In practice, DL1, DL7 and DL12 are three distinct parts of a sole
internal report submitted by each partner.


PHASE 2 (April 1st, 2002 – March 31st, 2003)

The second phase of the MOCHO project covers the period from April 2002 until March
2003. In April 2002, the MOCHO team started working on four new work packages (WP2,
WP3, WP7, WP13). Three of these four new work packages will cover the whole period of
the second phase. Only WP7 is a nine-month work package and will therefore end in
December 2002. As from last August, the MOCHO team started working on a fifth work
package, that is WP8. This is also a nine-month work package and will thus extend until the
end of the second phase, that is to say until the end of March 2003.
The next paragraphs will briefly describe the contents of each of these work packages.

2.1.1.4. WP2: Data base on motherhood

The work package’s title already reveals quite a lot about its content. This work package
encompasses the work involved in building our own data base on motherhood. This work
package can be considered as the follow-up of WP1. Indeed, the first work package involved
the review of the literature on motherhood. A whole range of qualitative and quantitative
studies related to motherhood choices were collected in the different countries. More
importantly, existing data sets were analysed in terms of their use for the MOCHO project. In
the case of panel data, those variables relevant to the analysis of motherhood choices were
identified. Besides panel data, the partners also gathered a series of case studies and
individual data sets.
The data base which we intend to construct for our own specific purposes in the framework of
the MOCHO project will be a set of comparative panel data on the individual’s level. Five
countries will be integrated on the basis of their national panel data sets. For Germany, data
will be extracted from the GSOEP (German Socio-Economic Panel); for Great Britain, from
the BHPS (British Household Panel Study); for the Netherlands, data will be collected from
the OSA (Organisatie voor Strategisch Arbeidsmarktonderzoek) data base; for Sweden, we


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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                      30/09/2002



will use the HUS (Household Market and Non-Market Activities); and for Italy, data will be
mainly gathered through the Bank of Italy’s panel. While the previous national panels of data
will serve as the basis from which to start collecting data in order to set up our own data base,
this does not mean that the other data sources that were identified in the first work package
will be neglected. On the contrary, the time schedule of the second work package allows for a
profound investigation as to the possible use of the hybrid sets of data that were retrieved
during the first phase. Finally, the ECHP (European Community Panel of households) will
also be analysed further with respect to its possible contribution to our own data base.
However, it will only be valuable for analyses for which a shorter panel is sufficient.
The above section has explained where we plan to collect the data to build our own data base.
Now, we will explain how we want to go about in doing so. Our aim is to use a programming
method to reorganise the household panel data according to month and year of birth. All
available waves of the panel data sets will be searched and information will be added where
needed by matching data from work already accomplished. We will also create new variables
such as the number of months spent at home after having given birth or time of transition into
full-time or part-time work. The ultimate goal of the work package is to give rise to a data
base that is suitable for micro-econometric estimations on the connection between fertility and
employment in Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Italy. Other countries
may be added if data availability allows for it.

2.1.1.5. WP3: Parenthood: socio-economic and demographic factors affecting fertility

This 12-month work package (until April 2003) encompasses the analysis of qualitative and
quantitative studies and other empirical material in the existing wealth of literature on the
issue in order to identify the common socio-economic and demographic factors that affect
fertility levels and choices in Europe as well as their cross-national differences. The work to
be done in this work package can, thus, also fall back on some of the results obtained during
the first work package.
At this stage, the references concerning fertility that were found in the earlier bibliographical
research receive some closer investigation.
The research teams involved in the topic of fertility that were identified earlier will now be
contacted.
The data from the national fertility surveys that we identified in different countries will be
used to analyse the relationship between the life histories and employment histories of both
women and men. In other words, this study will subject the relevant data to a method of event
history analysis.
Starting out from a broader set of data including not only national fertility surveys but also
ECHP outcomes and Eurostat demographic and labour force statistics, we want to do a
comparative analysis of factors affecting fertility across Europe.
The previous cross-country analysis should allow us to construct a typology of countries
according to their level of fertility, on the one hand, and to the factors that are most relevant in
explaining fertility behaviour, on the other. Although the work involved in constructing this
typology will be focused on fertility levels, other demographic and socio-economic
characteristics of each country will be considered, such as household size, partnership rate,
marriage rate, divorce rate, lone parenthood, relative welfare provisions, social networks, and
family solidarity.


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Finally, it was also intended for this work package to include a qualitative approach to the
issue of fertility and fertility behaviour in Europe. Such a qualitative study might be very
interesting from the point of view of illustrating the quantitative analysis. It might allow for a
better understanding of the quantitative results. As is often the case, we have opted for the
method of interviewing to conduct this qualitative analysis. Therefore, we will carry out an in-
depth interview session among a relatively small number of women and men. This should be
sufficient to enlighten the quantitative picture.
To sum up, WP3 will involve an in-depth description and typology of countries according to
their level of fertility and the main factors affecting fertility behaviour. This detailed analysis
of the matter should also make it possible to shed some light on why different countries have
taken different measures in the field of demographic policy to respond to developments in the
level of fertility or fertility behaviour within their national boundaries.

2.1.1.6. WP7: Motherhood and time allocation

This somewhat shorter work package (9 months between April and December 2002) can also
be considered a follow-up of the first phase in that, once again, the point of departure will be
the bibliographical research carried out in work packages 1 and 6. The qualitative studies and
data sets that were identified as relevant to the issues of motherhood, on the one hand, and
motherhood and labour market, on the other hand, will now be studied so as to gather some
insight in the implications of motherhood in terms of time allocation. We expect to find, be it
smaller or larger, cross-country differences which we will then try to explain by differing
institutional factors or employment policies.
How exactly will the work in this work package be organised? After having subjected the
existing qualitative studies to a close scrutiny, we will use panel data to identify changes in
paid and unpaid working time that are induced by maternity. To get a more detailed picture,
we will use individual data sets or case studies, wherever they exist, to show how changes in
time allocation follow from changes in the number or age of the children, or how time seems
to be allocated differently by people with different levels of educational attainment, etc. As
far as the specific topic of motherhood and labour market is concerned, we guess that the
analysis of the studies retrieved within WP6 will reveal some interesting and important
differences between countries in women’s working time profiles depending on the incentives
they are given by the government to reduce working time. Therefore, we should be able to
explain these cross-country differences on the basis of institutional factors or specific
employment policies.

2.1.1.7. WP8: Motherhood and work status

Just as the previous work package, WP8 covers a period of nine months between August 2002
and April 2003. The work to be accomplished in WP8, once again, starts out from what was
achieved in work packages 1 and 6. The qualitative studies, quantitative analyses, and data
sets that were identified as being relevant to the issues of motherhood, on the one hand, and
motherhood and labour market, on the other hand, will now be studied so as to gather some
insight in the implications of motherhood in terms of work status. We expect to find, be it
smaller or larger, cross-country differences which we will then try to explain by differing
institutional factors or employment policies.


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How exactly will the work in this work package be organised? First, we will extract all
possible information from the qualitative studies and the panel data in order to identify
changes in work status that are induced by maternity. To get a more detailed picture, we will
use individual data sets or case studies, wherever they exist, to show how changes in work
status follow from changes in the number or age of the children, or how people with different
levels of educational attainment seem to have a different status at work, etc. We expect to find
a deterioration in work status as a result of motherhood in some countries and a better
protection of mothers on the labour market in others. Nevertheless, our results will be
compared to those of the qualitative studies that we identified and summarised in the
framework of the 6th work package (Review and data: Labour market and Motherhood).
Institutional factors and specific employment policies will, once again, turn out to be essential
in explaining cross-country differences in the effects of motherhood on work status.

2.1.1.8. WP13: Public policies and motherhood: classification and indicators

This work package will cover the whole second and third phase of the MOCHO project. It
will extend over 21 months from April 2002 until December 2003. The objective of this work
package is to build classifications and indices that give insight as to how supportive public
policies are of the work/life balance across Europe. Indices and classifications revealing the
different ways in which the combination of work and family life is promoted through public
policy can then be used to express those policies in numbers or to quantify relevant public
policies. Such a policy quantification is required if one wants to engage in econometric
estimations and effects simulations. In the construction of indices we will let ourselves be
guided by the work performed by the research group headed by Janet Gornick at Baruch
College, City University of New York. Her group has constructed such synthetic indices for
14 OECD countries and could thus help us in the organisation of our own work and could
comment on which method it is best to use. The MOCHO team, therefore, highly values a
close cooperation with Gornick’s team. Siv Gustafsson had a meeting with Janet Gornick in
New York in July 2002. A second source of information and help to guide us through the
work of establishing indicators and classifications is the collection by the European Union
(Bardasi) of the policies implemented in each of its member states. Finally, we will attempt to
quantify policies based on the work already done as well as on the micro-simulation results.
To summarise, the major outcomes of this work package will be first, a data base on policies
relevant to the issue of motherhood and second, a clustering of countries according to
differences in their policies’ objectives.


2.1.2. Overview of the technical progress and its main results

2.1.2.1. The first MOCHO meeting

On the 19th of November 2001, a first MOCHO meeting was held in Brussels. All partners
were present.
The work for the first six months of the project was discussed and organised. It was decided
that in the process of gathering all existing literature and data in the field of motherhood,
labour market and motherhood and public policies and motherhood, each partner was to focus


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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                     30/09/2002



on his/her own country without being blind to studies and data treating the subject in third
countries. With regard to the task of gathering the relevant information for the European
countries that are not represented in the MOCHO project, it was not strictly decided which
partner should take which third countries for his/her account. Instead, the partners preferred a
system where each partner mentions all information sources for third countries that he/she is
aware of. However, while everybody agrees on the importance of being as inclusive as
possible in policy matters, it was also stressed that the in-depth data base analysis should be
limited to the countries present in the MOCHO project.
With respect to the format of the internal reports that were scheduled for submission by the
end of March 2002, it was decided to use separate tables similar to the one below for each
reference to a study, analysis, article, etc.

(MIMEO/BOOK/ARTICLE)
Bibliographical reference
Number author title                                        institution   year    country data

Methodology

Results



Another important part of the morning session of the first meeting was the discussion of
financial matters. The organisers in Brussels invited Madame Cacheux who works as an
accountant for the ULB (Université Libre de Bruxelles) to guide all MOCHO partners
through the labyrinth of cost statements and other financial matters.

After having resolved the major practical issues during the morning session, the afternoon
session was devoted to the more interesting matter of the partners’ scientific contributions and
plans for the project.
Siv Gustafsson started the afternoon session with a presentation of what she would like to
contribute to the MOCHO project. She talked about how education plays a significant role in
the postponement of maternity, presenting first results for Britain, Germany, the Netherlands
and Sweden. She also suggested two main reasons for this postponement: consumption
smoothing and career planning. The former reason has a financial dimension: if one expects
income to be higher next year then this could favour postponement. The latter reason has a
time dimension: if one thinks that it will be easier to take time off for care tasks next year then
this could in turn favour postponement. Currently she has extended the analysis of
determinants of postponement to include the woman’s decision to move together with a man
and also the man’s decision to form a union. It may very well be that what is delayed is not so
much a couple’s decision to have a child but individual men’s and women’s search on the
‘marriage market’ resulting in the postponement of maternity.
Daniela Del Boca suggested some ways in which the MOCHO project could add to the
existing knowledge base: analysis of the impact childbearing has on earnings instead of on
labour market participation, a cross-country analysis of the effect of legislation (nature of
national legislation, firm behaviour,..), link between wage parity and fertility behaviour,
“glass ceiling”, … To conclude, she showed us what kind of data are available for Italy: Bank



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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                     30/09/2002



of Italy data, cross-section data, panel data 1991-1998, SHIW variables, ISTAT variables
(regional level).
As a third element in the afternoon session, Haris Symeonidou clarified which socio-
economic and demographic factors influence fertility, stressing the similarities and
dissimilarities between Mediterranean countries. She presented the different data sets and
surveys that are available for Greece and that she would like to exploit during the project.
Haris Symeonidou also mentioned the large effort of the United Nations in collecting
retrospective fertility and work information.
Jacques Le Cacheux and Danièle Meulders introduced some possible classifications of the
European welfare states. The classification established in some of Jacques Le Cacheux and
Danièle Meulders’s earlier work through a principal component analysis distinguished 4
groups of countries. Their objective is to introduce more detailed family policies and
institutional variables in this analysis.
Finally, Danièle Meulders presented information about the possible use of the labour force
survey data. The Belgian team promised to contact Eurostat in order to collect relevant data,
the usefulness of ECHP data was also promised to be investigated.


2.1.2.2. WP1, WP6, WP12: Review and Data: Actual progress made during the first twelve
months

The first phase of the MOCHO project has been extremely successful. A very rich set of
studies and data sets were identified on each of the three topics that were subject to the
bibliographical research: Motherhood, Labour market and motherhood, and Public policies
and motherhood. Indeed, the number of studies we found was so big that we decided
something needed to be done for the whole set to be easily consulted. Therefore, we decided
at our second MOCHO meeting in Amsterdam on the 24th of May 2002 that we would try to
bring all partners’ contributions together into one document and try to somehow structure the
whole. As we already mentioned, the references gathered by each of the partners were all
presented in a similar way thanks to the format table we decided to use during the first
MOCHO meeting in Brussels and of which we have showed an example in the previous
section of this report. In Amsterdam, we decided that each team would review its literary
review and suggest a key word for each of its references to be categorised by. Before the
summer, all the completed contributions to the review of the literature, that is to say the
original tables but with keywords added to each study, were sent to Brussels. During the
summer, the Brussels team worked on the classification of the literature review. First, a
coherent list of keywords was established, as it figures below. Then, a hyperlink was created
from each of the keywords to the first reference in the review of the literature that treated of
that specific topic. Finally, in the reference table, we have repeated the keyword and have
made it possible to click on it in order to jump to the next item in the literary review that deals
with the subject. It is possible to continue in this way to run through the whole document
viewing only those studies that are relevant to a topic of one’s choice. We have also
accounted for the fact that, sometimes, it might be useful to browse the review of the literature
not by keyword but by country. Therefore, besides a list of keywords, a list of countries was
set up. Suppose one were interested in the Netherlands, then he/she could click on the
Netherlands in the list of countries in order to jump to the first reference in the literary review


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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                  30/09/2002



that has studied the Netherlands. Within that reference’s table, it is possible to click on the
Netherlands to jump to the next relevant study, and so on. We have also added a users’ guide
to the electronic version of the literary review in which we explain the way we have
structured and organised the review and how we recommend to use it.



Fertility
         Fertility intentions
         Fertility and household wealth
         Fertility and education
         Fertility and family policy
         Fertility and cultural norms and values
         Fertility and labour market flexibility
         Timing of births

Employment
         polarisation
         standard/non-standard work arrangements
                  telework and telecommuting
         maternal employment
                  Wage
                  Education
                  Hours of work
                  Labour market attachment
                  Working-time preferences
                  Employment continuity
                  Negative job/home spill-over
         Female employment
                  Female employment and household wealth
                  Labour market attachment and fertility
         Paternal employment
         Men’s marriage wage premium
         Family-friendly firms

Public policies and motherhood
         Child support and care policies
                  Care provisions and labour market participation
                  Care provisions and fertility
         Parental leave provisions
                  Parental leave provisions and labour market participation
                  Parental leave provisions and fertility

         Tax and transfer systems
         Positive action/Mainstreaming
         Welfare state and gender regime: typology and reform

Family types
        Dual-earner
        Male breadwinner/female carer
Reproduction and domestic work
        public/market/private (families) balance
        within-household division
        the cost of children



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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                    30/09/2002


Purely theoretical articles:
         Household strategies
         Social participation
         Gender (in)equalities



2.1.2.3. The second MOCHO meeting

On the 24th of May 2002, a second MOCHO meeting was held in Amsterdam. All original
partners were present, except for Haris Symeonidou of the Greek team, and we even had the
pleasure of welcoming a few new collaborators to the MOCHO project. Our Dutch
coordinator, Siv Gustafsson, introduced us to three of her assistants: Cécile Wetzels, Seble
Worku and Eiko Kenjoh. Our Italian partner, Daniela Del Boca, assisted the Amsterdam
meeting with two other people of her team, Daniela Vuri and Marilena Locatelli. Tryfonas
Spyridos represented Haris Symeonidou from Greece.
The morning session was devoted to the discussion of practical issues, to making
arrangements and to coming to an understanding about dates, reports, etc.
We first discussed the issue of the book that our Dutch project coordinator Siv Gustafsson is
preparing and which will be entitled “The economics of the family in Europe and the
rationality of motherhood choices”. Below, we have devoted a separate section to this plan for
publication.
Second, we discussed our commitments to the European Commission, or in other words, the
underlying periodic progress report and, more importantly, the state of the art. We decided on
the chapters and their contents, divided the work and set a date by which all chapters were to
be sent to Brussels.
Third, we decided to reorganise our MOCHO work schedule but this point will also be treated
in a separate section below.
Fourth, we discussed on how to build and follow up our MOCHO web site (see further).
Fifth, we discussed ways to disseminate MOCHO results and all partners promised to contact
journals that would possibly be interested in publishing some of our results.
The afternoon session included presentations of each team’s members on a topic worked on in
the previous six months. The three members of the Italian team who were present at the
meeting each did a presentation. Daniela Del Boca put forward some of the results she
obtained in analysing the effect of the cost of child care on mothers’ labour market
participation and the phenomenon of rationing. Daniela Vuri provided us with some insights
as to the nature of the relationship between fertility and divorce. Is it a causal relationship or
rather a kind of correlation? Marilena Locatelli explored the issue of fiscal decentralisation
and this with respect to child care.
Tryfonas Spyridos presented a proposal for future work to be accomplished by the Greek
team on two topics of interest: first, the topic of motherhood and its effects on time allocation
and second, the topic of the socio-economic and demographic factors affecting fertility.
Síle O’Dorchai spoke on behalf of the Belgian team. She tried to critically review the existing
set of typologies of welfare state regimes.
Hélène Périvier talked about her own country and, in particular, about the ways in which
French family policies influence female employment on the French labour market.




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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                     30/09/2002



To conclude, Cécile Wetzels of the Dutch team shared some of the results of a very recent
study of hers on the topic of Dutch women’s efforts on the labour market. She presented an
answer to the following question: Is there a double selection into motherhood and type of
jobs?
Cécile Wetzels thus concluded the meeting. It had been a great success.

2.1.2.4. The MOCHO web site

A first version of the MOCHO web site has been accomplished. It has been operational for
some time now. However, we are still working on improving it.
Under the heading "MOCHO in brief" on this web site, one can learn all there is to know
about the project's content, objectives, partners, timetable, etc. In the section "reports" one can
find information on the progress of our work and gradually more and more results will be
available in the form of these reports. On a regular basis (every 6 months), a newsletter is
published providing a richness of announcements and information on a wide range of topics.
At present, two newsletters are available. All relevant past and future events are announced in
a separate window. A click on "links" opens a world of links to universities, research teams
and centres, social organisations and agencies and statistical institutes, all of which are
involved directly or indirectly in the field of motherhood choices. Finally, the "What's new?"
box informs about all the latest updates and changes to any of the items of our MOCHO web
site. The site’s address is: http://www.ulb.ac.be/soco/mocho.

2.1.3. Deviations from the planned work progress

The first three deliverables were prepared in time. We had some problems with the
construction of the web site resulting in a small delay but they have been solved successfully
and the MOCHO web site has been operational for quite some time now. For the near future,
we expect no delays whatsoever. There is no reason to believe we will have to deviate from
the work schedule as it is fixed in the Technical Annex to this project.

2.1.4. Proposed revisions to the Work Programme and planned activities for the next period

At last May’s MOCHO meeting in Amsterdam, we decided to change the persons responsible
for work packages 8 and 9.
Work package 8 concerns ‘Motherhood and work status’. Originally, Danièle Meulders was
responsible for this WP but Daniela Del Boca will take over this responsibility since the
subject is very much in line with some of her previous work as well as with her present
occupations. Work package 8 is supposed to give rise to deliverable 9 due for April 2003.
Work package 9 concerns ‘Motherhood and earnings’. Originally, Daniela Del Boca was
responsible but Cécile Wetzels will take over. Danièle Meulders will send Cécile Wetzels
some of Maria Jepsen’s previous work on the subject to help her in this work package. Work
package 9 is supposed to give rise to deliverable 10 due for September 2003.
As far as the planned activities for the next period are concerned, we would like to refer to the
list of work packages presented in the first section of this scientific report. The submission
date of this periodic progress report does not correspond to a closure date of any of the four
phases in the MOCHO project. In fact, we are in the middle of the second phase which covers


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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                30/09/2002



the months between April 1st, 2002 and March 31st, 2003. We have begun working on the
work packages WP2, WP3, WP7, WP8, and WP13. The content of these work packages was
presented at the beginning of this scientific report. Our planned activities until March 2003
thus correspond to what is scheduled in those work packages.


2.2. List of project deliverables

·   Work package WP1: Review and data: Motherhood: October 1st, 2001 – March 31st, 2002
      → Deliverable DL1 : March 31st, 2002 : report within the MOCHO team and available
      on the MOCHO web site

·   Work package WP6: Review and data: Labour market and motherhood: October 1st, 2001
    – March 31st, 2002
       → Deliverable DL7 : March 31st, 2002 : report within the MOCHO team and available
       on the MOCHO web site

·   Work package WP12: Review and data: Public policies and motherhood: October 1st,
    2001 – March 31st, 2002
       → Deliverable DL12 : March 31st, 2002 : report within the MOCHO team and
       available on the MOCHO web site


These three deliverables were integrated into one sole document which appears on the
MOCHO web site under the heading « reports ».

Next deliverables due :

·   Work package WP7: Motherhood and time allocation: April 1st, 2002 – December 31st,
    2002
       → Deliverable DL8 : December 31st, 2002 : report within the MOCHO team and
       available on the MOCHO web site

·   Work package WP2: Data base on motherhood: April 1st, 2002 – March 31st, 2003
      → Deliverable DL2 : March 31st, 2003 : report within the MOCHO team and available
      on the MOCHO web site

·   Work package WP3: Motherhood and parenthood: Socio-economic and demographic
    factors affecting fertility: April 1st, 2002 – March 31st, 2003
        → Deliverable DL3 : March 31st, 2003 : report within the MOCHO team and available
        on the MOCHO web site




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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                   30/09/2002



2.3. Exploitation and dissemination of results

2.3.1. Proposal for the publication of a textbook

The Dutch coordinator of the MOCHO project, Siv Gustafsson, has been preparing a book
which will be entitled “The economics of the family in Europe and the rationality of
motherhood choices”. She presented a preliminary outline of this book at our second meeting
last May in Amsterdam. She intends the book to be made up of the following six chapters.
§ Chapter 1: European family formation in the recent past
§ Chapter 2: Why do people have children?
§ Chapter 3: Labour market and motherhood
§ Chapter 4: Motherhood and earnings
§ Chapter 5: Public policies and motherhood
§ Chapter 6: Conclusions and contributions of the MOCHO project
The sixth chapter’s contents may also be spread across the book in such a way that
conclusions and contributions directly follow the theme they refer to.
Siv Gustafsson suggests the book to be very result-oriented to satisfy the needs of politicians,
students and other people interested who have no previous knowledge of the field. In other
words, a different methodology will be used for the book than the mainly method-oriented
approach underlying the MOCHO project.
Siv Gustafsson pointed out the use of boxes throughout the book. They illuminate a topic
treated in the text or provide an interesting example of some statement or theory elaborated in
the text. She invited the MOCHO partners to write one or two boxes.
Originally, Siv Gustafsson wanted this MOCHO book to be the state of the art that we have
submitted together with this report. However, the other partners did not agree on this and
suggested to let the book serve as a kind of structure for the final report on the MOCHO
project. This suggestion is also more in step with the project’s timetable.
However, ideas regarding this book have developed since our last meeting. At present, it is
suggested to let the book be based on the contents of the state of the art but to make it
available to a broader readers’ forum including people working in the juridical branch,
politicians, students and persons who do not have specialist knowledge. If we are to target
such a wide spectre of readers then we should be careful to adequately adjust our writing
style. Siv Gustafsson has given a lot of attention to the writing style in the first chapter she
has already prepared for this book.
It has been decided to take one and a half day instead of one day for the November meeting in
Paris.

2.3.2. The publication of a special issue of TRANSFER

TRANSFER is a publication of the European Trade Union Institute (ETUI). The aims and
scope of the journal are the following:
· It stimulates dialogue between the European trade union movement and the academic and
   research community;
· It helps to foster understanding of significant developments in the field of European trade
   union policy and industrial relations;



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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                   30/09/2002



·   It contributes research findings of practical relevance to the trade unions. At the same
    time, it enables the academic research community to gain access to the world of industrial
    relations;
· It contains contributions from a wide range of disciplines (sociology, economics, politics,
    law and history).
The Belgian coordinator of the MOCHO project, Danièle Meulders, has accepted to
coordinate the edition of a special issue of this journal on the subject of "Work and the
Family". The issue is due for the beginning of 2004. It is important to know that TRANSFER
is a journal with contributions from a wide range of disciplines (sociology, politics,
economics, etc.). Contributions should, therefore, be written in a language that is
understandable to a very wide range of readers. In other words, articles should not be too
technical.
Danièle Meulders is now in the process of finding authors interested in contributing to this
issue. Her proposal to involve the MOCHO teams by asking them to each write an article, was
already enthusiastically welcomed by some of the partners. However, the publication of this
special TRANSFER issue will be discussed more profoundly during our upcoming meeting in
Paris.


    3. MANAGERIAL REPORT

3.1. Management and coordination aspects

3.1.1. The next MOCHO meeting

The next MOCHO meeting will be our third one and it is scheduled to take place on the 22nd
and the 23rd of November in Paris. The agenda for the Paris meeting is being prepared. It was
already felt in Amsterdam that one day was too short.

3.1.2. Joint Conference: MOCHO, DynSoc, FENICs

In October 2001, we received a message from Richard Berthoud (DynSoc) in which he
informed us about a proposal he submitted to the Research Directorate General of the
European Commission to organise a working conference on families, employment and
welfare. The starting point for the proposal was that several of the research projects
commissioned under Improving the Socio-Economic Knowledge Base have been studying
closely related issues within the broad areas of family, employment and welfare. Richard
Berthoud had identified one such grouping within the theme labelled ‘Family and Welfare’.
Three projects, DynSoc, FENICs and MOCHO, were all using quantitative analysis of
existing large-scale data sets to investigate a series of linked issues around family formation,
men’s and women’s employment, poverty and deprivation, and so on. Therefore, he came up
with the idea of organising a working conference for the research teams working on those
projects, at which:

·   All the national teams associated with the projects would be directly involved, and meet
    each other;


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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                   30/09/2002



·   Detailed results and work in progress would be exchanged, rather than reporting high-
    level summaries of the different teams’ aims and approaches;
·   A certain amount of technical discussion would be appropriate.

The aim is to hold an academic discussion, learn from each others’ findings (and mistakes),
reinterpret our own work in the light of other analysts’ experience, avoid duplication of effort
and form new partnerships.
With the MOCHO team we responded very positively to this proposed initiative. However, it
seems that the organisers have had a great deal of trouble in trying to fix a date for the
conference. As a result, at many occasions, dates were first set and then cancelled again. At
present, we have reason to believe that the conference will actually take place in Spring 2003.
The MOCHO team will, of course, try to be as well represented as possible at this conference
because for us this seems to be a very interesting way of improving our research in terms of
both its content and its methodology.

3.1.3. Seminar on “Education and Postponement of Maternity”

The Dutch coordinator of the MOCHO project, Siv Gustafsson, is organising a scholar
seminar entitled “Education and Postponement of Maternity” in Amsterdam on the 25th and
the 26th of October 2002. All the details including a preliminary program can be found on the
MOCHO web site under the heading ‘Events’.
The preliminary program looks very attractive with scheduled presentations of the following
kind:
· Educational Attainment and First Births: East Germany Before and After Unification
    (Michaela Kreyenfeld)
· Explaining Fertility Decline in Ireland: The Role of Education (Cathal O' Donoghe and
    Eamon O'Shea)
· Education, Motherhood Motivation and Child-timing Decision Making in the Netherlands
    (Cecile Wijsen and Clara Mulder)
· On Education and Fertility: Effects of Education of Husband and Wife in Norway
    (Ghazala Naz, Ovind Anti Nilsen and Steinar Vagstad)
· Do College Educated Women in the US Delay Fertility as a Means of Reducing
    Motherhood Wage Penalty? (Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes and Jean Kimmel)
· The Effect of Educational Expansion, Assortative Mating on Education and Postponement
    of Maternity (Siv Gustafsson, Eiko Kenjoh and Seble Worku)
· The Effect of Education on Household Consumption and Savings Around the Time of
    Births in the Netherlands (Adriaan Kalwij)
· The Role of Education on Entry into Motherhood in the Czech Republic (Vladimira
    Kantorova)
· Postponement of Maternity in Spain: The Role of Education and Labour Market
    Uncertainty (Sara de la Rica and Amaia Iza)
· Labour Force Participation and Marital Fertility of Italian Women: The Role of Education
    (Massimiliano Bratti)




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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                   30/09/2002



·   The Marginal Effect of the School Leaving Age on the Demographic Events in Early and
    Late Adulthood: Causal Experiments Based on a Birth Month Experiment in Sweden
    (Vegard Skirbekk, Hans-Peter Kohler and Alexia Prskawetz)


3.1.4. Gender-related projects of the DULBEA

The Department of Applied Economics at the Free University of Brussels is headed by
Danièle Meulders and Robert Plasman. Both are very implied in gender-related projects.
Below figures a short list of the most interesting and recent ones.

1. Conference on “Gender Issues and Labour Market in the Maghreb Countries:
Particularities, Commonalities and Synergies with Europe”, organised by Danièle
Meulders

The Conference on “Gender Issues and Labour Market in the Maghreb Countries” will be
held in Rabat (Morocco) on the 11th and the 12th of April 2003. It is a multidisciplinary
conference organised by three different institutes:

1. MAGE, Marché du Travail et Genre – CNRS – Iresco – Paris - France
2. INSEA, Institut National de Statistique et d’Economie Appliquée – Rabat – Morocco
3. DULBEA, Department of Applied Economics – Free University of Brussels – Belgium

The main objective of this conference is to bring together experts from Maghreb countries and
from all over Europe who are active in a wide range of disciplines (sociology, economics,
management, statistics, history, demography, law, ethnology, etc.) to discuss and share ideas
in order to come to a better understanding and analysis of the various aspects determining the
relative place of men and women at work.
Among the suggested themes, figure the following:

    ·    Gendered analysis of the education system, women in science and labour market
         integration;
    ·    The situation on the labour market: employment, segregation and discrimination,
         wages, working time, job trainings, qualifications and job opportunities,
         entrepreneurship, self-employment, etc.;
    ·    Impact of family and labour legislation;
    ·    The work/life balance: difficulties faced by women, role of cultural ideas and beliefs;
    ·    Geographical mobility: migrations and occupational trajectories in Maghreb countries
         and Europe;
    ·    Equal opportunities policies, employment policies towards women and the role of
         institutions regarding the situation of women in the labour market.

All the details regarding the practical side of this conference can be found on the conference’s
web site: http://www.ulb.ac.be/soco/colloquerabat




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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                    30/09/2002



2. Conference on “Quality of work and EU enlargement”
The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working conditions has
organised this conference to take place in Brussels on 18-19 October 2002. It will feature
presentations on the Foundation's work on indicators of quality of work and employment as
well as on the Foundation's First Survey on working conditions in the candidate countries.
Danièle Meulders will speak at this conference as part of a workshop on the combination of
professional and private life. She will elaborate on the topic of ‘gender and working time’.

3. Conference on Feminist Economics
On Friday, the 21st of June, Danièle Meulders, as a member of the Board of Directors of
MAGE (Marché du Travail et Genre – CNRS), presented a paper a Conference on feminist
economics at the Sorbonne University of Paris.

4. Participation in « Université Européenne des Temps de la Ville : Quels apports à la
    conciliation entre vie personnelle et vie professionnelle ? »
Danièle Meulders and Robert Plasman assisted at this Conference that was held at the
International Cultural Centre of Cerisy la Salle from Monday, the 16th of September, 2002
until Sunday, the 22nd of September, 2002. On Wednesday, the 18th of September, Robert
Plasman did a presentation on the socio-economic context to the problem of reconciling
professional and personal life. He also explained the main approaches to this problem at the
European level.

5. The 79th International AEA Conference on the "Econometrics of Wages"
The Department of Applied Economics and the Institute of Labour of the Free University of
Brussels hosted the 79th international conference of the Applied Econometrics Association.
The conference took place on the 28th and the 29th of May, 2002. The aim of the conference
was to provide a forum for experts in economics and econometrics to present recent work on
the "Econometrics of Wages". It also provided an excellent opportunity to meet and network
with fellow researchers and leading academics in the field. A keynote speech was held by
Orley Ashenfelter of Princeton University. Moreover, many sessions and presentations were
devoted to gender-related issues on the labour market (discrimination, wage gap, …).

6. Project “Women in science in the private sector”
On the 17th of February 1999, the European Commission adopted the communication
(COM(1999)76) “Women and Science: mobilising women in order to enrich European
research”. This communication was followed by a resolution of the Council of the European
Union on May 20, 1999 on Women and Sciences. In this resolution the under-representation
of women in science was recognised and Member States were invited to gather existing
statistical information, to collect data and produce indicators, and to take part in the dialogue
proposed by the Commission. The Council also invited the Commission to provide indicators
at the European level, to promote the participation of women in the fifth framework
programme, to suggest initiatives for the promotion of women in research and to report on the
progress made. The under-representation of women in science was acknowledged as a waste
of human resources and reflects a discrepancy between science and society.
In 2000, the ETAN report, “Science Policies in the European Union. Promoting excellence
through mainstreaming gender equality”, put forward evidence about the under-representation


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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                    30/09/2002



of women in science. It illustrated, in particular, the vertical segregation and the leaky
pipeline process or the gradual reduction in the percentage of women up the ladder in
scientific careers (women in Europe occupy less than 10% of the senior grades in research).
However, this report was concerned only with the academic sector. Indeed, a whole lot of
studies exist on the situation of women in research in the academic sector and at universities.
Unfortunately, no similar work seemed to have been done on women in research in the private
sector. The project “Women in science in the private sector” emerged as a response to this gap
in research. A review of literature, at the European and international levels, has been done and
two kinds of analyses have been conducted: a quantitative analysis and a qualitative one.

7. Project “The representation of women in university research in the French
    Community of Belgium”
In most European countries, while female students account for more than half of the entire
university population in the first years of studies, their participation rate decreases as the
educational level rises. This observation formed the basis for the project on women in
university research. The project was launched by the DULBEA (Danièle Meulders) in April
2000 in response to a specific request from the Ministry of Higher Education and Research.
The project will end in December 2002. The purpose of the study is to describe the situation
of women in all research fields of Belgian French-speaking university institutions. The main
factors explaining women’s under-representation in higher tenure positions of the academic
career are put forward. These analyses have already given rise to concrete policy
recommendations.
Below are presented the main conclusions from a quantitative point of view based on the
review of all research fields and types of academic grades and responsibilities, among
researchers, professors and members of boards of decision. While the results can be compared
to other countries, as recent studies on the issue have already pointed out, some particularities
in the Belgian system must be stressed. Harmonised data at French Community level,
providing age, sex, field of research, grade, from 1989 till 2001, has allowed for the
construction of a large range of indicators, and make scenarios on future perspectives.
Results of surveys carried out for this study among full professors and former students have
also allowed for a tackle of qualitative questions, comparing them to explanations suggested
in the existing literature. Such qualitative analysis has deepened insights on how women are
hurdled in their progression, but also on why and how things may be changed. The analysis
has shown that denial of discrimination still persists among men and women faculty. Many
defend the idea of an automatic move to parity. Based on data for the last 12 years, it was
possible to conclude that without changes in structures and processes, it will take 183 years
before parity is reached between male and female Full Professors.

8. EUROMOD
EUROMOD is a 15-country Europe-wide benefit-tax model. It involves a team of researchers
from all 15 member states of the European Union. EUROMOD projects are co-ordinated by
the Microsimulation Unit.
EUROMOD provides estimates of the distributional impact of changes to personal tax and
transfer policy, with (a) the specification of policy changes, (b) the application of revenue
constraints and (c) the evaluation of results each taking place at either the national or the
European Level. Thus, EUROMOD is of value both in assessing the consequences of


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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                   30/09/2002



consolidated social policies and in understanding how different policies in different countries
may contribute to common objectives. It is of as much significance in evaluating national
policies within a European perspective, as in evaluating policies at the level of the European
Union.
A model construction project, which is now complete, was funded by the European
Commission's Targeted Socio-Economic Research (TSER) programme (CT97-3060).
The MICRESA project ("Micro-level analysis of the European Social Agenda") is funded by
the European Community's Improving Human Potential programme (CT2001-0099).
Since 1998, the DULBEA is a partner of the EUROMOD project. After having cooperated
with the Cambridge Microsimulation Unit in the construction phase, the DULBEA is now
implied in the MICRESA project, where the model is used in order to address issues of social
policy reforms and income distribution. In particular, the DULBEA is currently cooperating
on a work package on intra household sharing rules.

9. The Pay Inequalities and Economic Performance (PIEP) project
The Pay Inequalities and Economic Performance (PIEP) project investigates the relationship
between pay stratification and business and employment performance in Europe at the micro
level, using newly available comparative economic data to test a variety of hypotheses
relating to the role that firms' performance management systems play in the macro-economy.
In particular, the project explores the ways in which these systems interact with institutional
features of the labour market to produce different outcomes in different regional and industrial
contexts. At the core of its empirical research programme is the 1995 European Structure of
Earnings Survey (ESES), which provides rich data on key micro-level variables on a
comparable basis across Europe. It is hoped that the project's conclusions will contribute
positively to policy debate and design in the European Union.
The project is conducted by a multidisciplinary team of academic researchers with support
from the European Commission and in close collaboration with Eurostat and the national
statistical institutes. The Centre for Economic Performance at the London School of
Economics is acting as hub for the research network and provider of computing resources to
the academic team. Publication of the team's findings is projected for 2003.
Danièle Meulders, Robert Plasman as well as some other DULBEA researchers are implied in
the following subjects of enquiry: gender inequality, inter-industry inequality and the
interaction between inter-industry and gender effects.

10. Special issue on gender of the Cahiers Economiques de Bruxelles
A special issue of the DULBEA’s journal will be completely devoted to gender issues. It will
be entitled “Gender Wage Gaps: A European Perspective”. It will be published before the end
of 2002. The following articles figure in the preliminary table of contents:

European employment strategy and indicators on pay equality (R. Plasman et F. Rycx)

L’évolution de l’écart salarial de genre dans l’Union européenne (A. Plasman, R. Plasman et
M. Rusinek)

Occupational segregation and the male female wage gap in Germany between 1985 and 1995
(K. Mavromaras, H. Rudolph)


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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                  30/09/2002



Labor-market segmentation and the gender wage gap: an analysis of selected industries in
Switzerland (A. Sousa-Poza)

Industry wage differentials and the gender wage gap in Belgium: evidence from matched
employer-employee data (F. Rycx, I. Tojerow)

(fe)male jobs and (fe)male wages – disentangling the effect of personal and job characteristics
on wages by measuring stereotypes (C. Meng)

Women’s career break due to motherhood and the effects on wages (C. Wetzels, K. Tijdens)

How much does a year off cost? Estimating the wage effects of employment breaks and part-
time periods. (M. Beblo, E. Wolf)

Mesure de la discrimination entre hommes et femmes dans les primes salariales en France (S.
Lemière)


3.1.5. The most recent activities of the Greek team relevant to the MOCHO Programme.

Haris Symeonidou

·   Participation in Conferences

Participation in the 23rd IWELMS Conference on Job Quality, 17-20 July 2002, organized by
the Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences, in Spetses. Title of presentation:
“The Division of Paid and Unpaid Work in Southern European Countries”.

Participation in the Symposium entitled “Demographic Dimensions of Family” under the
framework of the National Conference on “Greek Family”, 3-6 October 2002, organized in
the University of Athens, in Athens. Title of presentation: “Fertility Surveys in Greece
1983,1997,1999 ”.

· Coordination of Projects
Coordination of a project entitled: “The Application of an Efficient Demographic Policy in
order to Encounter Low Fertility in Greece” (2001-2003), which is commissioned by the
Greek Ministry of Health and Welfare.

· Collaboration with Institutes
Collaboration with the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research of Japan
(2000-2002). Report entitled: “Demographic Report of Greece”.

Collaboration with researchers of the “Institut National d’Etudes Démographiques (INED)
(1998-2002) in the framework of the Fertility and Family Surveys (FFS).




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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                    30/09/2002



· Teaching
Visiting Professor in the department of European Studies of the “Université Sorbonne
Nouvelle. Paris III”(2000-2001, 2002-2003). Subjects: fertility, employment and gender
equality in Europe.

Spyridon Tryfonas

·   Research Assistant in the IPROSEC Programme-Improving Policy Responses and
    Outcomes to Socio-Economic Challenges: changing family structures, policy and practice.
    (2000-2003).
    Participation in the 3rd Workshop of IPROSEC, Burleigh Court, Loughborough
    University, 19–22 September 2002. Title of presentation: “Cross-national Perspectives on
    Survey and Interview Reports. Cases of Greece and France”.

·   Research Assistant in the project entitled: “The Application of an Efficient Demographic
    Policy in order to Encounter Low Fertility in Greece” (2001-2003), which is
    commissioned by the Greek Ministry of Health and Welfare.

3.1.6. The Italian team: CHILD activities in the near future

CHILD (Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic Economics) is organizing
the seminars for the next academic year.
The purpose is to present studies that analyse the influence of labour market conditions and of
social policies on the fertility and participation decisions in order to contribute to the design
of policies to facilitate the combination of parenthood and work as well as other topics as
family formation and dissolution and wage determination and income distribution. CHILD
seminars series 2002-2003 include presentations of European and US researchers. The
seminars are held at the Department of Economics via Po 53 Turin.

October 21, 2002            CHILD-CIRSDE Seminar, Shoshana Grossbard-Setchman (Columbia
                            and San Diego State) “Laws and Divorce”

November 22, 2002 CHILD Seminar, Alessandra Venturini organizer “Wage Differentials
                  and Trade” with R. Helg , A. Falzoni, P. Manasse .

November 28, 2002 “Child care and Parental Work” Tindara Addabbo (discussants Daniela
                  Del Boca and Chiara Saraceno)

The seminars schedule will be updated at the web page http://www.child-centre.it/




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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                30/09/2002



3.1.7. Updated list of coordinators, partners and collaborators

3.1.7.1. The MOCHO project coordinators

Belgium :          Danièle Meulders
                   Université Libre de Bruxelles
                   Département d’Economie Appliquée (DULBEA)
                   Unité de recherche : Economie du Travail et de l’Emploi
                   CP 140
                   Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50
                   B-1050 Bruxelles
                   dmeulder@ulb.ac.be
                   tel : 32 2 650 41 12
                   fax : 32 2 650 38 25

                   assistants :        Jérôme de Henau
                                       j_dehenau@hotmail.com
                                       jdehenau@ulb.ac.be
                                       tel : 32 2 650 42 55

                                       Síle O’Dorchai
                                       sile_kris@hotmail.com
                                       sile.odorchai@ulb.ac.be
                                       tel : 32 2 650 42 55

The Netherlands :

                   Siv Gustafsson
                   Universiteit van Amsterdam
                   Department of Economics and Econometrics
                   Roetersstraat 11
                   1018 WB Amsterdam
                   siv@fee.uva.nl
                   tel : 31 20 525 41 40
                   fax : 31 20 525 4254

                   assistants :        Cécile Wetzels
                                       wetzels@stb.tno.nl
                                       cwetzels@fee.uva.nl
                                       tel : 31 20 525 4203
                                       tel : 31 20 686 9916 (private, voice mail)

                                       Eiko Kenjoh
                                       eiko@fee.uva.nl
                                       tel : 31 20 525 4367

                                       Seble Worku
                                       sworku@fee.uva.nl




                                                      24
Periodic progress report (12 months)                                 30/09/2002



3.1.7.1. The MOCHO project’s partners and collaborators

Italy :            Daniela del Boca
                   University of Torino
                   Department of Economics
                   Via Po 53
                   10124 Torino
                   daniela.delboca@unito.it
                   tel : (011)-39-11-6702726
                   fax : (011)-39-11-6702762

                                       Daniela Vuri
                                       daniela.vuri@cce.unifi.it
                                       vuri@iue.it
                                       tel: 39 328 8524310
                                       fax: 39 055 4685202

                                       Marilena Locatelli
                                       marilena.locatelli@unito.it
                                       tel: 39 011 6702761
                                       fax: 39 011 6702762

                                       Ugo Colombino
                                       ugo.colombino@unito.it

                                       Silvia Pasqua
                                       silvia.pasqua@unito.it


Greece :           Haris Symeonidou
                   National Centre for Social Research
                   Institute of Social Policy
                   Messoghion Avenue 14-18 (PO Box 142 32)
                   115 10 Athens
                   hsymeonidou@ekke.gr
                   tel : 30 1 7489131 (ext. 418)
                   mobile phone: 0030-944207069
                   phone number at home: 0030-16726166.
                   fax : 30 1 7489120

                                       Spyridos Tryfonas
                                       hsymeonidou@ekke.gr
                                       tel: 0030-936567054

                                       Makis Cavouriaris
                                       cavour@wanadoo.fr.




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Periodic progress report (12 months)                                                        30/09/2002



France :           Jacques Le Cacheux
                   Observatoire Français des Conjonctures Economiques
                   Département des Etudes OFCE
                   Quai D'Orsay 69
                   75340 Paris Cedex 07
                   lecacheux@ofce.sciences-po.fr
                   tel : 33 1 44 18 54 82
                   fax : 33 1 45 56 06 15

                   assistant :         Hélène Périvier
                                       Observatoire Français des Conjonctures Economiques
                                       Département des Etudes OFCE
                                       Quai d'Orsay 69
                                       75340 Paris Cedex 07
                                       helene.perivier@ofce.sciences-po.fr
                                       tel : 33 1 44 18 54 92
                                       fax : 33 6 63 02 67 41


                                          ______________________




                                                    26

				
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