US Industrial Revolution Slide Lecture Notes modified by nuhman10

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									                           US Industrial Revolution Slide Lecture Notes

I.     The Rise of Industrialism – a change in production from hand craftsmanship to machine
       manufacturing
        Toward the end of the 19th Century and the beginning of the 20th Century, the US became
          industrialized almost a hundred years after England.
        More goods began to be produced by machines.
        By 1880 the value of industrially manufactured goods exceeded that of farm production.
        By 1900 the US ranked 1st in the world for industrial goods.
        Sweeping technological developments brought about major societal changes, ushering American
          society into the modern age and the realm of international relations.

II.    Key Factors
        Abundant supply of natural resources
          * Coal in Pennsylvania and the West
          * Oil reserves in Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas and California
          * Iron Ore near Lake Superior and across Minnesota.
        Improved transportation
          * Approx. 150,000 miles of railroad tracks were laid from 1865 to 1900
          * Opened trade coast to coast and internationally
        Abundant Labor Supply
          * Between 1865 and 1910 the number of people living in urban areas increased from less than
       25% to over 50%
          * Moved for economic opportunity / get away from the isolation of farm life
          * New immigrants, mostly from southern and eastern Europe with others coming from Mexico
       and China poured into cities in the late 19th Century.

III.   Government Support for Industrialism
        Provided loans and minimally regulated industry
         Maintained laissez-faire – hands off – approach, imposing few regulations on private enterprise.
        Viewed labor organizations with suspicion – there were few regulations requiring businesses to
         protect worker safety, and employers paid no Social Security or unemployment compensation.
        Taxes on personal incomes earned by the businessmen were not required until 1913, and tariffs
         on imports were held high to protect domestic industry from foreign goods.
        Imposed no environmental controls on industries, allowing timber cutting, land grabbing, coal
         mining and cattle grazing on public domain.
        Governments approach allowed unimpeded industrial growth, but workers and the environment
         often suffered as a result.

IV.    The Spirit of Innovation
        Between 1860 and 1900, the US Patent Office granted over 676,000 patents to inventors of
          machines, techniques and tools.
        Urban centers and universities such as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology became
          magnets for scientists, engineers, wealthy business entrepreneurs and skills artisans, many of
          whom were filled with enterprising optimism.
        inventors hoped to improve the life for individual Americans through better communication and
          transportation methods.

V.     Steel is King
        No single innovation affected technological change more
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             Henry Bessemer (Englishman) perfected the cold air pressure method for transforming iron ore
              into steel, making steel both easy and cost-effective to produce. By the end of the 19th century
              steel replaced iron as the master building material.
             Railroads now had durable steel rails to carry heavier cars and powerful steel locomotives to
              travel faster.
             As cities became crowded there was need for more space – thus the skyscraper was born. Steel
              girders in beams supported buildings many dozens of stories high.
             Bridges resting on steel rather than iron, held greater and greater loads..

VI.       Electricity Becomes Widespread
           The introduction of electricity for widespread commercial and domestic use spurred innovation
             in technology.
           Samuel F. B. Morse’s telegraph and Alexander G. Bell’s telephone successfully transmitted
             speech across electrical wires
           Businesses installed the newest electrical technology – escalators, elevators, doors with electrical
             “eyes” and central heating appeared in many cities’ department stores.
           Thomas A. Edison’s work with electrical lighting systems led to other inventions – incandescent
             lamp filaments, generators and underground conductors that allowed city life to operate round
             the clock.

VII.      Machines Increase Production
         Elias Howe patented a sewing machine in 1846 that made it possible for seamstresses and tailors to
          greatly increase garment production. Leading the mass production of “ready to wear” clothing.
         Bicycle and automobile manufacturers took mass production a step further, using the assembly line
          technique to speed up production even more. Machines such as those at Henry Ford’s automobile
          production plants made single-task assembly lines a profitable production method.

VIII. Industrial Giants – changed concept that wealth was a               birth status.
    John D. Rockefeller and Oil

         Andrew Carnegie and Steel

       Other Industry Leaders
           * Cornelius “Commodore” Vanderbilt = railroads
           * Swift and Armour = meat-packing industry
           * Guggenheim = copper
           * McCormick = International Harvest Company
           * Duke = Tobacco
           * J. Pierpont Morgan = banking
IX.     “The Gilded Age” 1890 – 1918
           *Name given (by Mark Twain) to this era because of the extravagant lifestyle that the newly rich
lived. To him it seemed that the open displays of wealth among American elite society seemed like a cheap
picture frame              – golden on the outside, but rotting on the inside.

X.        Trusts and Government Corruption
       The Rise of Industrial Trusts
       By 1904, 319 industrial trusts had swallowed 5,300 previously independent manufacturers. 127 utility
      trusts had taken over 2,400 small companies.

         Trusts Influence Government Affairs
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         City Government Corruption

XI.       Criticism and Defense of Big Business
         Wide gap between the wealth and power of industrialists and average Americans
         A few individuals controlled the majority of America’s natural resources, industries and utilities.
         In 1900 the material worth of 1% of the population was greater than that of the 99% combined.

         Industrialists Defend Big Business
         Taken the greatest risks and entitled to profits
         Carnegie’s “The Gospel of Wealth” – wealth was a sign of divine approval, but the wealthy should
          be a “trustee for his poorer brethren”.

XII.       The Impact of Industrialism
         Industrialization Benefits the Middle Class
         National wealth and income grew significantly between the late 1800s and the 1920s
         New jobs for managers and technical workers, clerical and sales positions (mostly filled by women)
         Some skilled workers were able to save money, move to better locations, buy property or send their
          children to college.

         Life for the Average Americans – Turn of the Century
         Majority = candlepower, no indoor plumbing or heating, cooked on wood-fed stoves and could not
          afford a telephone.
         ¼ of the population owned property
         7% of Americans had a high school diploma -0 93% = No Diplomas
         Did not enjoy the modern social organizations – country clubs, university alumni networks and other
          exclusive social clubs

         Industrial Working Conditions
         10-12 hours, 6 days a weeks
         Carnegie’s mills operated 24 hours a day, so there were 2 shifts – once a month laborers worked 24
          hours when they exchanged hours.
         Steel mill floors were so hot water sizzled, the furnace room belched fire and sparks – 100s of men
          were killed working with the molten steel.
         Garment industry
         Repetitious work evoked the feeling of becoming a machine – very dehumanizing and demoralizing
          – dreaded their destiny - to “become a hand – not a brain – not a soul – deadened into a part of a
          machine.”
         Take home pay = $5 a week or $.8 an hour. Steel workers were paid $.16 an hour – keeping 1000s
          of families at poverty levels.

         Low Pay and Reasons to Stay
         Despite hardships most workers grateful for employment
         Having left extreme poverty in rural America, southern and eastern Europe, China and Mexico, most
          workers sought to keep jobs long enough to return home richer, rejoin a wife or husband or buy land
          in the US.
         Job competition – new immigrants, soldiers returning from war

XIII. Change and Discrimination in the Work Force
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      Industrialism and Women
      Secretarial and sales positions in city department stores and “white collar” offices.
      Immigrant women (Jews in NY and Chicanos in LA) – gainful employment was crucial to families
       economic stability. By 1910 over 70% of all Jewish girls 16 and older were working.
      Women were paid less than men in comparable positions
      Child Labor
      1.75 million Child laborers joined the work force in the late 1800s.
      Ages = 10-15, some were as young as 6
      15 hour days in coal mines, canning factories, tobacco plants and garment factories.
      Injury or death common Poorly ventilated and dimly lit workrooms
      Minority and Immigrant Laborers
      Mostly unskilled labor which paid low wages
      Blacks entered the work force after the Civil War – unskilled factory workers or domestic servants.
       Competed with Mexicans and Chinese for menial jobs
      Accepted the lowest pay and the toughest jobs often working 7 days a week.
      1889 - 92% of the cigar workers were Chinese in SF making $287 a year. White laborers = 91% of
       SF’s jobs as seamstresses and tailors making $588 a year. The Chinese became motivated to set up
       their own businesses such as laundries and restaurants.
      Business managers recruited various ethnic labor groups and then pitted them against each other –
       mainly to bust unions

XIV.   Organized Labor
      Labor Unions Emerge
      a collective group they could influence big business
      1897 – 400,000 union members / 1904 – 2 million
      The Knights of Labor, leader - Terence Powderly,
      American Federation of Labor (AFL), leader – Samuel Gompers, founded in 1886,
      Industrial Workers of the World “Wobblies” – founded after the Knights of Labor dissolved. Led by
       Daniel De Leon and Eugene Debs, socialist agenda.

      Business Response to Labor
      Fought the unions fight for more money and power
      Government sided with the owners
      Spread rumors about the unions
      Strikes and Violence
      1877 Pittsburgh – railway workers
      1879 Chicago - Pullman
      Union Victories
      Succeeded in raising the morale of workers and commanding the respect and attention from big
       business.
      Most industries set maximum work hours and provided workers’ compensation for injuries
      By 1912 38 states had child labor laws in place as well as health standards

XV.    Food Contamination and Muckrackers
      Consumer Fraud
      Food and Drug companies were not regulated and there was no safeguard against poor-quality
       products or misleading advertising. “Snake oil” drugs – containing dangerous ingredients. Canned
       foods – dangerous chemical additives

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      The Meatpacking Industry
      Upton Sinclair – writes “The Jungle” Went for their minds and landed in their stomachs. Meat
       inspection laws passed after US soldiers died from tainted meat during the Spanish-American War.
      Muckrackers

XVI.   The Toll on the Environment
      Environmental Impact
      Non-renewable or polluting fuels
      Horded natural resources
      Abused land-use laws
      Mining and Deforestation
      Native American lands
      Hydraulic mining
      Timber and Stone Act 1878
      Corrupt government officials
      Clear-cutting = deforestation
      Cattle and sheep ranchers overgrazed their livestock – reducing the land’s vegetation.
      Air and Water Pollution
      San Francisco and LA manipulated natural water sources through CA deserts and even the entire
       Yosemite Valley to supply their own cities.
      The water of the Chicago River near meatpacking plants was “a great open sewer a hundred or two
       feet wide”.
      Industrial waste also contributed to cities smog levels and air pollution.

      Environmental Reformers – Gifford Pinchot – American Conservation Movement = scientific
       forest management, John Muir = total preservation




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