VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 23 CATEGORY: Fitness POSTED ON: 10/25/2011
German doctors found that some often eat pumpkin seeds in the nation, there is no prostate disease. This is because the pumpkin seeds contains a male hormone can affect the mysterious substance. In addition, wheat, corn, sesame, sunflower seeds, walnuts, almonds, peanuts, pine nuts, also good for sexual function.
Revised 3/10 FRUITS AND NUTS Foreword This section contains the information outlined in the table of contents below. The home fruit section is a reprint of PB 1622, Disease and Insect Control in Home Fruit Plantings. Pest control information for commercial small fruit crops is available from the Southeast regional integrated pest management guides (blueberries, brambles, bunch grapes, muscadines, and strawberries) is available from the Southeast regional integrated pest management guides at http://www.smallfruits.org/ Print copies are not available. The Southeastern Peach, Nectarine and Plum Pest Management and Culture Guide is available for downloading from http://www.ent.uga.edu/peach/PeachGuide.pdf A very limited supply of print copies are available at county Extension offices. Integrated Orchard Management Guide for Commercial Apples in the Southeast is available for downloading at http://ipm.ncsu.edu/apple/orchardguide/orchard-management-guide.pdf A very limited supply of print copies are available at county Extension offices. Additional crop production apple information is available at: http://ipm.ncsu.edu/ Table of Contents Home fruit disease and insect control (includes spray guide). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Imported Fire Ant Baits in home fruit plantings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Tree fruit diseases (descriptions and control). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Small fruit diseases (descriptions and control). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Commercial Pecan Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Homeowner Pecan Spray Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Revised 3/10 Disease and Insect Control in Home Fruit Plantings Growing fruit in the hom e garden can be an Rates of product application are not provided in interesting, fun and rewarding hobby. Many novices these charts, because of the diversity of product dream of plucking perfect fruit off trees in their yards. concentrations offered. The product labels give the This does not happen without a great deal of work. rates; follow them. The label rates are expressed as Control of pests (insects and diseases) is an integral am ount per gallon of water. The following table can be part of the care necessary to achieve good results. used to determ ine the am ount of spray m ixture needed. This publication provides guidelines for spraying hom e fruit plantings, but good pest control is not Amount of spray needed for each application possible if spraying is the only action taken. Cultural Spread in Gallon per tree practices such as pruning, sanitation, variety selection Height in feet feet per application and selecting open, sunny sites for planting are 5 to 8 3 to 6 ½ to 1 necessary for good pest control. Specific cultural practices for each type of fruit are provided with the 8 to 10 4 to 8 1 to 2 spray charts. 10 to 15 8 to 15 3 to 5 How to Use the Spray Schedules Protect Pollinating Insects Most fungicide (disease control product) and som e Honey bees and other pollinating insects m ust be insecticide (insect control product) applications are protected from insecticides, which will kill them . Do not effective only if applied preventatively, because it is not spray fruit plants w ith insecticides w hile the plants possible to control the pest satisfactorily after the fact. are in bloom. The tim ing of these preventive sprays is based on the growth stage of the plant and form s the foundation of Pesticide Safety the spray charts that follow. Most of the pesticides suggested for use in this In very rainy seasons, sprays m ay need to be publication are low-toxicity m aterials; however, som e applied m ore frequently than the schedule given in the precautions are still needed. following charts. W et weather favors developm ent of the C Keep pesticides in the original, labeled container. disease-causing organism s; thus, m ore chem ical C Keep pesticides in a locked storage cabinet, away protection is needed. Also, rains can wash off the from children or pets. pesticides (fungicides and insecticides). W hen rain C Read the label each tim e before you use the product. occurs before a spray has dried or if rainfall totals m ore C W ear rubber gloves, goggles, a long-sleeved shirt, than 1 inch within 24 hours, the spray should be re- long pants and a hat when m ixing and applying applied. Fungicides provide m ore benefit when applied pesticides. Refer to the label for required protective before a rain than after, because protection from gear. infection by disease-causing organism s is needed when C Handle the pesticide carefully when m ixing. Avoid plant surfaces are wet. breathing dust or vapors. W ash any chem icals off the skin im m ediately with plenty of water. Additional Spray Tips C Never apply insecticides or fungicides with a sprayer Thorough coverage of all above-ground plant parts that has been used for weed killers. is needed for good pest control. One of the biggest C Do not spray if it is windy. m istakes hom e fruit growers m ake is to allow their trees C Mix only as m uch as you need. Do not store diluted to grow too tall. If trees are m aintained at a m anageable spray m ixtures from one application to the next. They height, it is easier to spray them properly, as well as to will lose effectiveness and are unsafe. harvest the fruit. Proper pruning practices reduce the C Observe the harvest intervals and reentry am ount of spray needed and perm it better coverage. requirem ents given in the following table and on the The type of sprayer used depends on the size of the product label. fruit planting. For m ost plantings of sm all fruits or for a few sm all fruit trees, pum p-up sprayers are adequate. Multipurpose Fruit Spray Trom bone-type sprayers are helpful for taller trees. For Multipurpose fruit tree spray products are m ixtures the increased spray volum es required by larger hom e containing a fungicide (captan) and either one orchards, power sprayers are recom m ended. (m alathion) or two (m alathion and carbaryl) insecticides. Mixing a detergent or com m ercial spreader-sticker Multipurpose sprays are convenient and are with the spray solution is recom m ended. This provides effective against som e, but not all, pests. Suggestions better coverage of slick surfaces such as apple fruit or for their use are provided in this spray guide. Mixtures blackberry stem s. containing carbaryl should not be applied to apple or pear until 21 days after petal fall, as it causes the fruit to drop. 2 Revised 3/10 Harvest Restrictions The following tables contain the m ost readily available hom e fruit pesticides, the crops on which they can be used and the harvest restrictions. If any inform ation in the tables disagrees with the product label, FOLLOW THE INFORM ATION ON THE LABEL. Harvest Restrictions for Common Fruit Fungicides W aiting period in days betw een final spray and harvest Common Example Brand Blackberry Straw - a Names Names Apple Pear Peach Cherry Plum Raspberry berry Grape Blueberry captan Captan 0 nr 0 0 0 nr 0 0 0 chlorothalonil Daconil, Fung-onil, nr nr * * * nr nr nr nr Garden Disease Control copper Bordeaux Mix, 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Copper Fungicide lim e sulfur Lim e Sulfur 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 m ancozeb Manzate, Dithane nr nr nr nr nr nr nr 66 nr m aneb Maneb nr nr nr nr nr nr nr 66 nr b m yclobutanil Im m unox 14 nr 0 0 0 nr nr 14 nr propiconazole Infuse, Liquid nr nr 0 0 0 nr nr nr nr System ic Fungicide streptom ycin Agri-m ycin, Fire 50 30 nr nr nr nr nr nr nr Blight Spray sulfur Sulfur 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 thiophanate- Halt, Thiom yl 1 nr 1 1 1 nr nr nr nr m ethyl nr = Not registered for this use. * Chlorothalonil cannot be applied to peach, plum or cherry between shuck split and harvest. a List of brand nam es is not com plete and does not im ply any preference or discrim ination to other products of sim ilar, suitable com position. b Im m unox is labeled for use on the indicated fruits. Im m unox Plus, which contains an insecticide as well as m yclobutanil, is labeled only for ornam entals. Harvest Restrictions for Common Fruit Insecticides/M iticides W aiting period in days betw een final spray and harvest Common Example Brand Blackberry Straw - Names Names* Apple Pear Peach Cherry Plum Raspberry berry Grape Blueberry carbaryl Sevin 3 3 3 3 3 7 7 7 7 esfenvalerate Ortho BugBGon 21 28 14 14 14 21 nr nr nr Multi-Purpose Insect Killer gam m a- Spectracide 21 21 14 14 14 nr nr nr nr cyhalothrin Triazide Insect Killer Once & Done Conc. insecticidal Insecticidal Soap 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 soap m alathion Malathion 3 1 7 3 nr 1 3 3 1 a a a a perm ethrin Eight, Total Pest ** 14 7 nr nr 14 14 nr 14 Control nr = Not registered for this use. * List of brand nam es is not com plete and does not im ply any preference or discrim ination to other products of sim ilar, suitable com position. ** Do not apply after petal fall. a Blackberry not on Total Pest Control or Eight label. Raspberry, strawberry, and blueberry not on Total Pest Control label. 3 Revised 3/10 APPLE AND PEAR Apple and pear trees are subject to serious dam age possible. Rem oval of the galls caused by the fungus from pests and, as a result, a preventive spray program on cedar trees is helpful. is needed. The following practices will im prove the C Pruning trees according to recom m endations effectiveness of the pesticides and m ay lessen the im proves control of all above-ground diseases. In need for sprays. well-pruned trees, air circulation and sunlight penetration are im proved. This helps control diseases Sanitation and Cultural Practices by prom oting rapid drying after rains and dew, and by C Plant disease-resistant varieties. This m ethod of aiding penetration of sprays into the canopy. disease control is especially im portant for fire blight, • Prune out and destroy all dead or diseased shoots where chem ical control options are lim ited. Varieties and lim bs during the dorm ant season. This helps resistant to cedar-apple rust, scab and powdery reduce fire blight, fruit rots and certain leaf spots, as m ildew are also available. See Extension publication the organism s that cause these diseases overwinter PB746 for tree fruit variety recom m endations. in the wood. Rem oving m um m ified (dark, shriveled, C Rake and destroy leaves in the fall, if apple scab, dry) fruit helps prevent the overwintering of the fruit pear scab or pear leaf spot are problem s. The rot organism s. organism s that cause these diseases overwinter in C Pruning out fire blight-affected shoots and blossom infected leaves. clusters during the growing season is warranted if it is C For cedar-apple rust control, elim ination of the source done just as sym ptom s are appearing. Otherwise it is of spores — cedar trees — is effective but not always best to let the disease run its course. APPLE Time to spray M aterial to use* Remarks Delayed dormant: W hen buds Oil em ulsion Oil for aphids, m ites and scales. swell plus Use copper if a history of fire copper product blight. Bud break: From ½ inch long Captan For scab control. green leaves to tight cluster (when blossom buds are just visible) Pink: Just before bloom s open Captan or Im m unox If cedar-apple rust has been a plus problem in past, use Im m unox in m alathion this and the petal fall and first cover spray. Insecticides for plant bugs, or aphids. Bloom: Begin at early bloom , Streptom ycin Only for fire blight control. USE repeat at 3- to 5-day intervals Note: To protect bees, do not apply ONLY IF NECESSARY. insecticides during bloom ! Petal fall: W hen m ost of petals Captan or Im m unox Insecticide for plum curculio, have fallen plus codling m oth, plant bugs, aphids, m alathion or leafroller. First cover: 7 to 10 days after Captan or Im m unox Insecticide for plum curculio, petal fall spray plus codling m oth, plant bugs, leafroller, m alathion leafhoppers or Oriental fruit m oth. Remaining covers: Apply at Captan For fruit rots and sooty blotch. 2-week intervals until harvest plus restriction date m alathion * See pesticide labels for rates. Insecticides listed m ay not be effective against all insects listed. ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTS: (1) Multipurpose spray (see discussion) can be substituted for all of the above sprays except the dorm ant and bloom sprays. Note: Multipurpose sprays will not control cedar-apple rust. (2) For im proved disease control, thiophanate-m ethyl m ay be m ixed with captan. PEAR - See page 6 4 Revised 3/10 PEACH, PLUM AND CHERRY Peach, plum , cherry and other stone fruits are C Rem ove the overwintering structure for the brown rot com m only affected by serious pest problem s and, as a fungus, old m um m ified fruit left hanging in the tree or result, a conscientious spray program is needed. The on the ground. following sanitation and cultural practices will im prove C Control of black knot of plum and cherry is dependent the chances of success and m ay lessen the need for on rem oval of the knots before they begin to produce sprays. spores. In late winter, prune out and destroy these rough, black swellings or tum ors that develop on Sanitation and Cultural Practices lim bs and twigs. C Prune trees according to recom m endations, to allow C Rake and destroy fallen cherry leaves, the better air circulation and sunlight penetration. This overwintering site of the cherry leaf spot organism . helps control diseases by prom oting rapid drying after C Avoid planting peach varieties that are highly rains and dew. Penetration of sprays into the canopy susceptible to bacterial leaf spot. Exam ples are is also better if the trees are well-pruned. Elberta, Halehaven, Rio-Oso-Gem and Sunhigh. Chem ical control of this disease is very lim ited. Time to spray or name of spray M aterial to use Remarks Delayed dormant: W hen buds Oil em ulsion For aphids, scales and m ites swell Bloom Captan Captan not needed on peach at this tim e if good sanitation is used to control Note: To protect bees, do not brown rot. Needed on plum and cherry if apply insecticides during bloom ! black knot is a problem , but sanitation is required for good control. Petal fall: W hen m ost of petals Captan or sulfur or chlorothalonil Insecticides for control of plum curculio, have fallen plus m alathion oriental fruit m oth, plant bugs and stink bugs. Shuck split: W hen flower shucks Captan or sulfur or chlorothalonil begin to split, or 7 days after petal plus m alathion fall Cover sprays: Apply at 10- to 14- Captan or sulfur Carbaryl is good for beetle and oriental day intervals plus fruit m oth control and can be used m alathion beginning at second cover spray. Early cover sprays are key for oriental fruit m oth control. Perm ethrin is very effective, but can cause m ite problem s. Trunk and main scaffolds esfenvalerate For control of peachtree borer and lesser sprays: Direct the spray to the peachtree borer bark on May 31, June 30, July 15 (but not within 14 days of harvest). A final application can be applied after harvest. Preharvest sprays: 2-3 weeks Captan plus either thiophanate- CRITICAL SPRAYS FOR BROW N ROT before harvest and within 1 week m ethyl, Im m unox or CONTROL. of harvest propiconazole Early dormant: Late fall, after Copper or chlorothalonil or lim e- Needed on peach for leaf curl and on leaf drop sulfur plum if plum pockets has been a problem . Notes: • Multipurpose spray (see discussion) can be substituted for all of the above sprays except the dorm ant, bloom , and preharvest sprays. • Read the pesticide label for the proper rates of chem ical to use. Insecticides listed m ay not be effective against all insects listed. Malathion m ay not be labeled for plum . Substitute gam m a cyhalothrin for plum curculio control. 5 Revised 3/10 GRAPE Most hom e grape plantings will require a preventive C Rem ove m um m ified berries (shriveled, dry, raisin- schedule of pesticides, since certain pests such as like), as they provide an overwintering site for the black rot can com pletely destroy a crop of fruit. fungus that causes black rot. Clusters on the vines as However, the following sanitation and cultural practices well as those that have fallen to the ground should be will reduce the need for pesticides. rem oved. Also, destroy infected canes that have been pruned off. Sanitation and Cultural Practices C For control of grape root borer, m ounding soil m akes C Keep vines well-pruned according to it difficult for larvae to reach the roots or adults to recom m endations, to prevent overgrowth of vines em erge. Mound som e soil 1 foot high for 1½ feet and dense canopy. Pruning prom otes air circulation around each vine between early and m id-June. and sunlight penetration, thus m ore rapid drying after Rem ove the m ounds around Thanksgiving. rains and dew. Penetration of sprays into the foliar canopy is also better if the vines are well-pruned. Time to spray M aterial to use Remarks New shoot sprays: Begin when Captan, m aneb or m ancozeb Fungicides for black rot and shoots are 4 to 6 inches long, and plus Phom opsis cane and leaf spot. repeat every 7 to 10 days until pre- m alathion Insecticides for grape berry m oth, bloom flea beetle, plant bugs and grape phylloxera. Pre-bloom: W hen first blossom s Captan, m aneb, m ancozeb or Most dam age from black rot occurs open Im m unox from pre-bloom through 4 weeks plus after bloom . Maneb, m ancozeb, and m alathion Im m unox are the m ost effective. Post-bloom: W hen m ost bloom Captan or Im m unox Fungicides for black rot, downy caps have fallen plus m ildew and powdery m ildew. m alathion Insecticides for grape berry m oth, flea beetle, leafhopper and rose chafer. Cover sprays: 7 to 10 days later, Captan or Im m unox Fungicides for black rot, downy then at 2-week intervals until plus m ildew and powdery m ildew. harvest restriction date m alathion or carbaryl Insecticides for leaf hopper, berry m oth, Japanese beetle, grape root borer. Carbaryl m ost effective for Japanese beetle. Notes: C Multipurpose spray (see discussion) can be substituted for all of the above sprays . C Malathion EC m ay cause injury to Ribier, Italia, Cardinal and Alm eria varieties. C Read the pesticide label for the proper rates of chemical to use. Insecticides listed may not be effective against all insects listed. PEAR The only disease-control products labeled for use on hom e pears are copper, sulfur and streptom ycin. Apply a copper product at delayed dorm ant (for control of fire blight) and at pre-bloom , petal fall and the cover sprays (for control of fungal diseases). The streptom ycin bloom sprays for fire blight control and the insecticide sprays m ay be applied as indicated in the apple schedule. 6 Revised 3/10 STRAWBERRY An intensive, preventive spray program is generally C Plant varieties with resistance to red stele and leaf not needed on strawberry. Treatm ents can usually be spot. See Extension publication PB746, Tree Fruit, m ade on an as-needed basis. The following sanitation Tree Nut and Small Fruit Cultivar Recommendations and cultural practices will reduce the need for or SP284-A, Recommended Varieties for Home pesticides. Gardens. W here anthracnose is a problem , consider the resistant varieties Delm arvel, Sweet Charlie, Bish Sanitation and Cultural Practices and Idea. C Bed renovation im m ediately after harvest is crucial to C Control weeds throughout the growing season. m anaging pest problem s. Renovation involves W eeds increase disease by shading the plants and narrowing rows, m owing leaves, rem oving weeds and by interfering with air circulation. W eeds also harbor fertilization. Rake and destroy cut-off leaves and m any insect and m ite pests. stem s after renovation. C Mulch with straw before berries begin to lie on the C Maintain narrow rows throughout the growing season ground, to reduce gray m old and leather rot (fruit (m axim um 18 inches wide), to m aintain good sunlight rots). and air penetration of the canopy. This provides good C Keep fruit picked to avoid attracting sap beetles. berry form ation and rapid drying after rains and dew. Time to spray M aterial to use Remarks Pre-bloom: W hen blossom buds Carbaryl or m alathion Use as needed for crown borer, appear in the spring strawberry weevil, strawberry leafroller and catfacing insects Bloom: At early bloom and again Captan Needed for gray m old control if at full bloom Note: To protect bees, do not apply weather is rainy during bloom . insecticides during bloom ! Post-bloom to harvest: Every 7 m alathion Insecticides for spittlebugs, aphids, to 10 days as needed. Observe plus strawberry rootworm , whiteflies, harvest restrictions. captan tarnished plant bugs and leafrollers. Captan not needed until berries plus, if needed for spider m ites: begin to ripen, and then only if insecticidal soap weather is rainy. Miticides should be plus, if needed for slugs: applied 5 to 7 days apart. m etaldehyde bait Post-harvest: Every 10 to 14 Malathion or carbaryl Insecticides for root weevils, days as needed. plus, if needed for leaf blight or leafrollers and rootworm . anthracnose: captan Notes: • Multipurpose spray (see discussion) can be substituted for all of the above sprays except the bloom spray. • Read the pesticide label for the proper rates of chemical to use. Insecticides listed may not be effective against all insects listed. BLUEBERRY As a rule, blueberry plants require the least am ount of Sanitation Practices pesticides of all fruit crops. Treatm ents can usually be C If m um m y berry disease has been a problem , rake the m ade on an as-needed basis. If diseases have been a area beneath and around plants to collect or bury any problem in the planting in past years, captan can be m um m ified fruits from the previous year’s crop. used at 7- to 10-day intervals from bud break to harvest. C To reduce dieback diseases, prune out and destroy Malathion or carbaryl can be used for occasional insect dead twigs and branches. pests, but should not be used during bloom . Repeated use of carbaryl can lead to m ite buildup. 7 Revised 3/10 BLACKBERRY AND RASPBERRY An intensive, preventive spray program is generally C Destroy canes of cultivated or wild host plants with not needed on raspberry or blackberry. Treatm ents can gall-like enlargem ents (red-necked cane borer) or usually be m ade on an as-needed basis. The following wilting canes (raspberry crown borer) in June-July. sanitation and cultural practices will reduce the need for C Prune wilted plants 2 or m ore inches below where the pesticides. cane is girdled due to raspberry cane borer. C To control the spread of orange rust of blackberry Sanitation and Cultural Practices and black raspberry, rem ove and destroy infected C To reduce a source of pests, rem ove and destroy canes as soon as sym ptom s appear in the spring. nearby wild bram bles. Orange rust is recognized by a thin, willowy growth of C Rem ove and destroy fruiting canes im m ediately after new shoots, and the presence of orange spore harvest. pustules on the undersides of leaves. C Prom ote rapid drying conditions and good air C To control the spread of rosette of blackberry, rem ove circulation in the canopy by controlling weeds, and destroy infected canes before bloom s begin to keeping the planting properly thinned and not open. Rosette is recognized by the presence of allowing the row width to exceed 2 feet. clusters of stem s on fruiting canes, producing a bunchy appearance. Sepals are extended and C Pick berries regularly during the harvest period so pinkish in color. that overripe fruit do not accum ulate. This will reduce problem s with fruit rots, sap beetles, wasps and fruit C Mow everbearing raspberry varieties after fall harvest flies. to reduce disease carryover. This m ethod produces a single, fall crop the following year. Time to spray M aterial to use Remarks Early to mid-bloom Copper Copper needed only on blackberry where Note: To protect bees, do not rosette or anthracnose has been a apply insecticides during bloom , problem , or on raspberry where leafspot if possible. has been a problem . Insecticide can be Malathion applied if necessary, but keep it off bloom s. Post-bloom: 3 to 4 additional Copper Sam e as above. applications at 2-week intervals. Observe harvest restrictions. IMPORTED FIRE ANT BAITS There are two approaches to m anaging fire ants in hom e fruit plantings. Two insect growth regulator baits, Extinguish Professional Fire Ant Bait and Esteem Ant Bait, are labeled for use within the fruit planting. Esteem is not labeled for caneberries such as blackberry and raspberry. Fertilom e Com e and Get It Fire Ant Killer (spinosad) lists m ost crops including, but not lim ited to, tree nuts, stone fruit, tree fruits, etc. Am dro Pro fire ant bait can be used in grapes and blueberries when applied in bait stations. Other fire ants baits, such as Advion, Am dro, Ascend, Award, Distance, Extinguish Plus and others, can be applied to hom e lawns adjacent to the planting. Fresh bait should be applied when the ground is dry and rain is not expected, preferably for the next 24 hours. Apply baits when fire ants are actively foraging, preferably when the tem ps are in the 70s and 80s. See Fire Ants in Tennessee web site, http://fireants.utk.edu or the eXtension web site at http://www.extension.org/fire+ants for m ore inform ation on fire ant m anagem ent. 8 Revised 3/10 DISEASES OF TREE FRUITS Refer to the m anufacturer’s label and to the spray guides in this publication for inform ation on chem ical rates, tim ing of sprays, resistance m anagem ent strategies, preharvest intervals, and other restrictions. Apple Diseases Disease, Symptoms Control Apple Scab Chem ical*: The m ost effective m aterials are captan, Velvety, olive-green leaf spots that later becom e Flint, Indar, Inspire Super MP, Rally, Rubigan, Procure, m etallic black and m ay be puckered; leaves fall from Sovran, and Vangard. Early-season sprays are m ost tree. Fruit are scabby, deform ed and cracked. im portant. Cultural: Fungus overwinters on fallen leaves and fruit. Rake up and destroy them . Plant scab-im m une varieties. Bitter Rot Chem ical*: The m ost effective m aterials are captan, Sm all brown spots on the fruit enlarge rapidly Flint, and Ziram . Sum m ertim e sprays are m ost becom ing darkened and alm ost black. Concentric im portant. rings of spores are som etim es present. The fruit lesion appears "V" shaped in a cross-section cut. Cultural: Rem ove m um m ified fruit, dead wood and fire- blighted twigs. Rem oval of newly-infected fruit from trees will aid in control. Black Rot (Frogeye Leaf Spot) Chem ical*: Captan is the m ost effective m aterial. Tank- Leaf spots are purple with tan centers. The 1/8 inch m ixing with Topsin M im proves effectiveness. spots are referred to as frogeye leaf spot. On the fruit, Sum m ertim e sprays are the m ost im portant. the lesions are dark, often black, firm and not sunken. Infected fruit m um m ify and often rem ain attached to the Cultural: Rem ove m um m ies, dead wood and fire- tree. blighted twigs. Destroy these prunings. Cedar-Apple Rust Chem ical*: The m ost effective m aterials are Indar, Sm all, yellow spots develop on leaves in spring. Inspire Super MP, m ancozeb, Rally, Rubigan, Procure, These spots gradually enlarge and turn orange. Later, and Ziram . Needed in springtim e, between early April black dots appear in the spots on the upper surface, and m id-May. and tube-like protuberances on the lower surface. Severe infection results in heavy defoliation. Fruit Cultural: Overwinters on cedar trees. Rem oval of lesions appear near the calyx end and are sim ilar to nearby cedar trees is helpful, but not always possible. the leaf lesions. Consider resistant varieties. Collar Rot Chem ical*: Ridom il Gold EC applied to the soil will Dark coloration of wood at or below the ground line in protect healthy trees and provide som e relief to lightly- the root-crown area, som etim es extending up the trunk. infected trees. Leaves m ay be sm all and yellow in sum m er. Sym ptom s are sam e for other root problem s, and Cultural: Fungus is soil-borne. Select well-drained soil isolation of fungus often required for positive diagnosis. for planting and request rootstocks with resistance if collar rot is anticipated. Avoid MM 106. 9 Revised 3/10 Disease, Symptoms Control Fire Blight Chem ical*: Apply streptom ycin sulfate during bloom Shoots blight from tip downward; leaves turn brown period only, every 3 to 5 days. A late dorm ant (apple) or black (pear). Shoot tip bends, resem bling application of a fixed copper spray or Bordeaux m ixture shepherd's crook. Blossom s wilt suddenly and turn is helpful. Streptom ycin sprays are not effective in brown. Lim b and trunk blight occur when the infection controlling fire blight after the bloom period. Fixed m oves downward from infected shoots or fruit spurs copper sprays are helpful, but are not recom m ended if into larger branches on the trunk. fruit are present because of the risk of russet. Cultural: Plant resistant varieties (refer to SP277R, "Fire Blight"). Avoid excessive nitrogen fertilizer applications. Cankers and blighted shoots should be pruned out before the growing season begins. Refer to SP277R for pruning procedures. Pow dery M ildew Chem ical*: The m ost effective m aterials are Flint, Indar, On leaves, the fungus appears as whitish, felt-like Inspire Super MP, Rally, Procure, Rubigan, and Sovran. patches that spread and engulf the entire leaf. Infected Topsin M and sulfur are also effective. The m ost leaves are narrower than norm al, folded and stiff. im portant sprays are the springtim e sprays, beginning at Infected fruit have a netlike russeting. tight cluster. Cultural: The fungus overwinters on buds infected the previous sum m er. Many varieties are resistant. Sooty Blotch and Fly Speck Chem ical*: The m ost effective m aterials are Flint, This condition does not harm the fruit, but is unsightly. Sovran, Pristine, Topsin M, and Ziram . Captan is also Sooty blotch appears as superficial sooty or cloudy effective. Sprays are needed during the sum m ertim e. blotches on the surface of the fruit. Fly speck appears on fruit as sharply defined, black, shiny dots in groups Cultural: Both fungi overwinter on twigs of m any woody of a few to 100 or m ore. plants. Apple fruit infections are m ost num erous during the sum m er. Follow spray schedule and good pruning practices to allow air, sunlight and spray penetration of the canopy. W hite Rot (Bot Rot) Chem ical*: Captan is the m ost effective m aterial. Tank- Fruit rots show up late but develop rapidly, beginning m ixing with Topsin M im proves effectiveness. as tan or red spots. In cross section, the rot is Sum m ertim e sprays are the m ost im portant. cylindrically shaped, extending to the core. The rot m ay involve the entire fruit and, on green varieties, is Cultural: The fungus overwinters in bark and in lim b tan in color with concentric rings. Branch cankers cankers. Fire-blighted branches can be readily becom e tan to orange and papery. colonized by this fungus. Rem ove and destroy all dead branches and twigs. Practice proper pruning. 10 Revised 3/10 Peach and Nectarine Diseases Disease, Symptoms Control Brow n Rot, Blossom Blight Chem ical*: The preharvest and harvest periods are The m ost noticeable phase is the fruit rot phase. critical. Beginning at two to three weeks prior to harvest, Sm all, circular, brown spots enlarge rapidly and use a sterol inhibitor (Elite, Indar, or Orbit/PropiMax) becom e covered with ash-gray tufts or spores. Fruit alternated with a strobilurin (Abound, Flint, or Pristine). shrivel and m um m ify. Shoots can som etim es becom e Captan tank m ixes help prevent fungal resistance infected and die. Infected blossom s wilt and turn developm ent. Hom eowners can use Im m unox plus brown. captan. Cultural: The fungus overwinters in m um m ified fruit and in cankers. Rem ove all m um m ies and blighted twigs from trees after last picking. Follow spray schedule with em phasis on the preharvest period. Control insects that injure the fruit. Keep fruit cool after picking. Bacterial Spot Chem ical*: The m ost effective m aterials are fixed Leaf spots are sm all and brown, black or red, m ore coppers and Mycoshield/Flam eout/FireLine. Chem ical num erous at the leaf tips. The centers of the leaf spots control is lim ited. The use of coppers after petal fall fall out, creating a "shothole" effect. Infected leaves may cause burn. m ay turn yellow and fall to the ground. Fruit som etim es develop dark pits in the skin. Cultural: Use of resistant varieties is the prim ary m ethod of control, and is highly recom m ended. Adequate fertility is im portant in m inim izing the effects of this disease. Peach Leaf Curl Chem ical*: A single spray, using the correct m aterial, Infected leaves are thickened, curled and puckered will provide nearly perfect control, if applied before bud and often flushed with red or purple. Affected leaves swell. After bud swell, the disease cannot be controlled. appear in spring and drop from tree. The m ost effective m aterials are chlorothalonil, thiram , and Ziram . Peach Scab Chem ical*: The m ost effective m aterials are Abound, Spots on the fruit are sm all, dark and circular. These captan, chlorothalonil, Gem , and Topsin M. Begin spots usually do not begin to appear until the fruit are sprays at shuck split and repeat every 10 to 14 days until well grown, and tend to be concentrated at the stem 40 days before harvest. The fungus overwinters in twig end. The skin m ay toughen and crack. Forty to 70 lesions. Spores are m ost abundant two to six weeks days elapse from the tim e the spore lands on the fruit after the shuck split stage of developm ent. until the spots appear. 11 Revised 3/10 Cherry Diseases Cherry Leaf Spot Chem ical*: Apply captan, Gem , Indar, Pristine, Rally, or Sm all, circular, purple spots on leaves. Only a few Rubigan, beginning at petal fall and repeating at 10-to lesions per leaf can cause the leaves to turn yellow 14-day intervals until harvest. Rotate classes. and fall. The fruit on trees severely defoliated by leaf Hom eowners can use captan or Im m unox. spot fail to m ature properly and are soft and watery. Cultural: The fungus overwinters in infected leaves on the ground. Rake and destroy fallen leaves. Black Knot Chem ical*: Apply captan, beginning at pink and Elongated swellings or knots on lim bs twigs or trunk. repeating at 10- to 14-day intervals until term inal growth The swellings m ay be less than an inch to over a foot stops. Chem ical control is only a supplem ent to the long. Newly form ed knots are greenish and soft but pruning practices below. becom e hard and black with age. Affected lim bs die. Cultural: The fungus overwinters in the knots, and spores are discharged from the pink stage of blossom bud growth until term inal growth stops. Prune out knots and destroy. Since the fungus m ay have extended beyond the swelling, m ake cuts well below visible infection. Brow n Rot, Blossom Blight See "Peach." See "Peach." 12 Revised 3/10 Pear Diseases Disease, Symptoms Control Fire Blight See "Apple." Also see SP277R, and avoid planting See “Apple.” highly susceptible varieties. Pear Scab Chem ical*: Ferbam , Flint, Sovran, Pristine, Inspire Caused by a different fungus from apple scab Super MP, Scala, Topsin M, Vangard and Ziram can be fungus. Sym ptom s are sim ilar, but twig infections can used on pear, and a regular spray schedule, as for also occur. apple, is needed for control. Mancozeb can also be used, but not within 77 days of harvest. NOTE: Captan is not labeled for use on pears. HOMEOW NERS: Neither m ancozeb nor 3336 can be used on residential pear trees. Copper and sulfur products are the only fungicides labeled for use on residential pears. Cultural: Rake and destroy fallen leaves, on which the fungus overwinters. Fabraea (Entomosporium) Leaf Spot Chem ical*: The fungus overwinters on twig cankers and Spots can occur on leaves, shoots and fruit spots are on fallen leaves. Mancozeb is the m ost effective at first purplish-black dots, becom ing circular, brown fungicide, but has a 77-day preharvest interval. Ferbam , lesions about 1/8 inch in diam eter. Flint, Sovran, Pristine, Topsin M, and Ziram are also effective. Cultural: Rake and destroy fallen leaves. Plum Diseases Black Knot See "Cherry." Avoid planting highly susceptible See "Cherry." varieties such as Dam son, Stanley, Bluefree and Shropshire. Brow n Rot, Blossom Blight See "Peach." See "Peach." Bacterial Spot See "Peach." Avoid planting highly susceptible varieties Can be a severe problem on Japanese plum s; such as AU Frontier, AU Rosa, AU Rubrum , Frontier, Am erican and European plum s are less susceptible. Methley and Santa Rosa. Som e Japanese plum See "Peach" for sym ptom s. varieties are resistant. *Refer to the m anufacturer’s label and to the spray guides in this publication for inform ation on chem ical rates, tim ing of sprays, resistance m anagem ent strategies, preharvest intervals, and other restrictions. 13 Revised 3/10 DISEASES OF SMALL FRUITS Refer to the m anufacturer’s label and to the spray guides in this publication for inform ation on chem ical rates, tim ing of sprays, resistance m anagem ent strategies, preharvest intervals, and other restrictions. Blackberry Diseases Disease, Pathogen, Symptoms Control Anthracnose (Elsinoe veneta) Chem ical*: Apply Abound, Cabrio, Pristine, or captan This disease can be severe on thorned before bloom and repeat at 7- to 14-day intervals through blackberries grown in Tennessee. Leaf spots are harvest. Make no m ore than two consecutive roughly circular with a light gray center and a applications of Abound, Cabrio, or Pristine before rotating reddish-purple m argin. On the berry, individual to a non-related fungicide such as captan or copper. drupelets becom e purplish brown and sunken after infection. They eventually becom e dry and scabby. Cultural: Destroy nearby wild bram bles. Plant in well- The m ost dam aging phase of anthracnose in drained site and allow good air circulation by spacing Tennessee is the berry phase. plants and controlling weeds. Rem ove and destroy fruiting canes im m ediately after harvest. Cane Blight (Leptosphaeria coniothyrium) Chem ical: No fungicides have been identified for this Cane blight appears only on fruiting canes; purpose, but late-season applications of basic copper infection occurs on prim ocanes near the end of the sulfate m ay be helpful. See label for directions. growing season. It seem s to be m ost severe when drought stress occurs after widespread infections Cultural: See anthracnose. take place. Cankers form on the cane, often at the nodes, and extend down or encircle it, causing lateral shoots to wilt and die. Crow n Gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) Chem ical: None is effective after infection takes place. W artlike growths (galls) appear on the roots or crowns of infected plants. Gall m ay range in size Cultural: Obtain clean planting stock from a reputable from that of a pinhead to several inches in diam eter. nursery and inspect the roots and crowns for galls. Do Plants are weakened and yield dry, poorly developed not plant in fields with a history of crown gall. Avoid berries. Galls are caused by bacteria present either fields previously planted with bram bles, grapes, tree in the soil or on planting stock. The bacteria enter fruits or other highly susceptible hosts. The practice of the plant only through wounds or growth cracks. m owing black-berry plants after harvest can cause crown gall problem s because of dam age to the roots and crowns. Orange Rust (Kunkelia nitens) Chem ical: Apply Abound, Cabrio, Pristine, or Rally Orange rust can be a destructive disease trailing beginning in early spring and continue at 10- to 14-day blackberries and purple and black raspberries. Most intervals until early sum m er. Hom eowners m ay use of the erect blackberry varieties grown in Tennessee sulfur. These fungicides will not help system ically- are resistant. This disease is caused by a fungus infected plants. that grows system ically through the plant. The new leaves on infected plants are weak, spindly, and Cultural: Careful inspection in spring and im m ediate yellowish. Later, the undersides of the leaves show rem oval of infected plants is the m ost im portant practice visible orange, blisterlike pustles, which release for controlling orange rust. Dig up infected plants, roots spores. Canes appear to recover in late sum m er, but and all, and burn them . Once the spores are produced, are still diseased and will not bear fruit the following they can cause new infections that m ay not appear until year. the following spring. Rem ove and destroy all nearby wild bram bles. Plant resistant varieties. 14 Revised 3/10 Blackberry Diseases Disease, Pathogen, Symptoms Control Rosette (Cercosporella rubi) Chem ical*: Alternate Pristine with Switch every 10 to 14 Rosette, or double blossom , can be the m ost days from early bloom through harvest. If rosette bloom s destructive disease of blackberries if allowed to are still present after harvest, fixed copper or Bordeaux increase after its initial appearance in a planting. m ixture can be used, but can cause plant dam age in hot "W itches' broom s," broom like clusters of foliage, weather. arise from buds infected the previous year. Blossom s borne on the bunchy growth fail to bear Cultural: Rem ove rosettes (infected blossom clusters) fruit. Infected blossom s have elongated sepals and before they open. Use only roots, not plants for planting wrinkled petals. These blossom s are the sole stock. Rem ove and destroy nearby wild bram bles. Plant source of inoculum , which infects new canes. resistant varieties. Heavily infected plants are weakened and m ay die. Sterility Chem ical: None. The cause of blackberry sterility is not fully understood, but m ay be a virus. Affected plants grow Cultural: Rem ove and destroy plants that fail to set fruit. vigorously, but they either fail to set fruit or produce Plant only certified, disease-free planting stock. Destroy few-seeded berries. nearby wild bram bles. Blueberry Diseases Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes) Chem ical: The spray schedule used for m um m y berry Also called "ripe rot." Infected berries rem ain control will help in controlling anthracnose. Include sym ptom less until m aturity, when the infected area Abound, Cabrio, Pristine, or Switch where anthracnose becom es slightly sunken. Masses of salm on-colored problem s are expected. Captan can also be used. spores are exuded to the surface. Cultural: Prune out and destroy blighted twigs, on which the fungus overwinters. M ummy Berry (Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosil) Chem ical*: Orbit, Tilt, Pristine, and Indar are the m ost As berries approach m aturity, they becom e light effective m aterials. Indar should be tank m ixed with pinkish to cream colored and drop to the ground as captan to prevent rots. Make up to four applications, m um m ified fruit. Blighting of leaves, shoots, and beginning at green tip and repeat at 7- to 10-day intervals flowers can occur. The fungus overwinters on the through petal fall. Do not apply Pristine m ore than twice ground in m um m ified berries. consecutively. Cultural: W here m um m y berry is a problem , early spring cultivation will aid in control by covering the overwintered berries. Stem Blight (Botryosphaeria dothidea) Chem ical: None. One or m ore branches exhibit yellowed or reddened leaves, followed by death of the branch. Stem s show Cultural: Pruning during coldest and driest winter m onths brown discoloration of woody tissue, often only on m ay reduce infections, since inoculum is at lowest levels one side of the stem . Penetration into the plant is during the winter. Avoid nitrogen applications after June, prim arily through wounds. to allow shoots to harden before winter. Tw ig Blight (Phomopsis vaccinii) Chem ical: The spray schedule recom m ended for Infection occurs in flower buds, and advances down m um m y berry would help in controlling twig blight. Indar the stem 2 to 6 inches, causing a dieback of the (plus captan), Cabrio, Pristine, and ziram are the m ost flower bearing stem s. The fungus overwinters in effective m aterials. twigs infected the previous year. Cultural: Prune and destroy discolored twigs during dorm ant pruning and sum m er. 15 Revised 3/10 Grape Diseases Disease, Pathogen, Symptoms Control Anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina) Chem ical*: On anthracnose-susceptible varieties, liquid Also known as "bird-eye rot" because of the dark lim e-sulfur applied during dorm ant season is helpful. m argin around the gray-colored spot on the fruit, this During growing season, apply Pristine alternated with disease is usually confined to certain highly captan. Other fungicides m ay be needed for other susceptible varieties such as Vidal blanc. Num erous diseases. spots m ay occur on shoots, leaves, tendrils, petioles and fruit stem s. Cultural: Destroy pruned canes and clusters during dorm ancy. Bitter Rot (Greeneria uvicola) Chem ical*: Include captan, Abound, Flint, Pristine, or Can be severe on certain varieties, such as Sovran in late-season sprays. Control is needed in the Catawba. The fungus enters the berry from the weeks before harvest, but heed preharvest intervals for stem , and a grayish discoloration of the berry begins the fungicides. on the stem side. The appearance of tiny black fungal fruiting bodies and a shriveling of the berry Cultural: Destroy prunings and m um m ified berries. into a hard, dry m um m y can cause this disease to be m istaken for black rot. Black Rot (Guignardia bidwellii) Chem ical*: The m ost effective fungicides are Abound, Very com m on and highly destructive. Berry Elite, Flint, ferbam , m ancozeb, Nova, Sovran, and Ziram . sym ptom s begin as light brown, circular spots which Captan is also effective. The key spray tim es are rapidly discolor the entire berry. The berries shrivel im m ediately before bloom , at post-bloom , and 10 days to hard, black wrinkled m um m ies. Leaf spots are later. Sprays prior to or after that period are also helpful. reddish-brown with dark m argins. Dark spots form on green stem s and tendrils. Cultural: Destroy prunings and m um m ified berries. Crow n Gall (Agrobacterium vitis) Chem ical: None. Knots form on roots, crowns and som etim es, on canes. These galls m ay grow to several inches in Cultural: Plant winter-hardy varieties, avoid sites with a diam eter. The am ount of dam age to the plant varies history of crown gall and avoid injuries to the canes. from none to death of the plant. W inter-injured vines frequently becom e infected. Eutypa Dieback (Dead Arm) (Eutypa lata) Chem ical: No registered products protect pruning Occurs only in older grapevines because infections wounds from infection. develop slowly. Sym ptom s consist of dying arm s and yellowed, cupped leaves on new growth in the spring. Cultural: Avoid pruning during and before wet weather, Leaves develop sm all necrotic spots and tattered and m ake clean, close cuts to encourage callusing. m argins. Infection occurs on trunk and m ain Identify infected plants in spring and rem ove and burn branches through pruning wounds. Spores are infected canes when weather is not rainy. present throughout the year. Dow ny M ildew (Plasmopara viticola) Chem ical*: Abound, captan, copper plus lim e, Presidio, Light yellow spots form on upper sides of leaves, Pristine, Ranm an, Ridom il Gold Copper, Flint, Sovran, and a white, m oldy growth is very noticeable on the and Tanos are the effective m aterials that can be applied undersides of the leaves. The affected leaves in m id- to late-season, when downy m ildew is active. eventually becom e dry, brown and crum pled, and fall. Defoliation can be severe on som e varieties in wet seasons. 16 Revised 3/10 Grape Diseases Disease, Pathogen, Symptoms Control Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot (Phomopsis Chem ical*: Captan, m ancozeb, and Pristine are the viticola) m ost effective m aterials. Applications should begin Infected leaves have tiny, dark spots and are shortly after bud break and continue through fruit set. often puckered. Stem s also show dark lesions. Infected berries form tiny pim ple-like structures on Cultural: Destroy prunings during dorm ant period. the surface. These structures also form on the stem s, which often turn light gray to white in winter. Pow dery M ildew (Uncinula necator) Chem ical*: Abound, Elite, Flint, Nova, Pristine, Procure, This disease usually does not significantly dam age Rubigan, Sovran, sulfur, and Topsin M are the m ost the Am erican varieties. However, m any of the effective m aterials. vinifera varieties show a high degree of susceptibility. It appears as a white powdery growth on the leaves and berry clusters. Severely affected leaves turn brown and fall. Raspberry Diseases Crow n Gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) Sam e as for blackberry. Refer to crown gall of blackberries. Gray M old (Botrytis cinerea) Chem ical*: Apply Elevate, Pristine, Switch, Rovral or In wet seasons, gray m old can cause a significant Ronilan at early bloom and full to late bloom . Additional loss of flowers and fruit. Blossom s m ay show a applications m ay be m ade, as allowed by the label. blasting that m ay extend down the pedicel. Infected berries becom e covered with a gray, dusty fungal Cultural: See Septoria leaf spot, below. Also, avoid growth. Mature berries are m ore susceptible than excessive nitrogen fertilizer applications. Pick fruit young ones. Berries som etim es do not show gray frequently and early in the day as soon as plants are dry. m old until after harvest; they can quickly becom e a Handle berries with care to avoid bruising. rotted m ass in storage. Late Leaf Rust (Pucciniastrum americanum) Chem ical: Nova, Abound, Pristine, or Cabrio m ay be This disease can occasionally be dam aging to helpful. som e varieties of red raspberries, although it occurs late in the season. This rust does not occur on black Cultural: The single-crop system of producing raspberries or blackberries. Sm all pustules filled with everbearing varieties should help control, because this powdery yellow spores (not waxy like orange rust fungus is thought to overwinter on raspberry canes. pustules) form on the underside of leaves. These spore m asses can also occur on petioles, canes and berries. Badly infected leaves drop prem aturely. 17 Revised 3/10 Raspberry Diseases Disease, Pathogen, Symptoms Control Septoria Leaf Spot (Septoria darrowii) Chem ical*: Apply Abound, Cabrio, Pristine, Rally, This is one of the m ost destructive raspberry captan, Tanos, or fixed copper. A 10- to 14-day diseases in Tennessee. Septoria can cause alm ost schedule m ay be needed throughout the growing total leaf loss, especially on highly susceptible season, if weather conditions rem ain favorable for varieties such as Bababerry. Heritage seem s to disease (warm , wet). have som e tolerance. Leaf spots have a tan to gray center surrounded by a thin, brown to purple border. Cultural: Rem ove and destroy fruiting canes im m ediately The spots are circular and about 1/8 inch in diam eter. after harvest. Keep the planting properly thinned and Leaf spots caused by Septoria are sim ilar to control tall weeds. anthracnose leaf spots on raspberry or blackberry. Septoria leaf spots have tiny, black fruiting bodies in the center. Phytophthora Root Rot (Phytophthora spp.) Chem ical*: Ridom il Gold EC can be applied to the soil in This disease is usually associate with heavy soils the spring and fall, and Aliette can be applied to the or portions of the planting that are the slowest to foliage up to 4 tim es per year. These chem ical controls drain. Affected plants m ay show a general lack of are not very effective if the cultural controls below are not vigor, or they m ay decline and die. The tissue followed. underneath the epiderm is on the m ain roots and crown is a brick red (later turning brown), rather than Cultural: Plant only on well-drained sites. Planting on a norm al white. raised beds is helpful, and is im portant if drainage is occasionally inadequate. Avoid planting highly susceptible varieties. Viral Diseases (Tomato Ringspot Virus, M osaic, Chem ical: None Leaf Curl) Virus diseases are a m ajor problem in raspberries Cultural: Plant only certified, virus-indexed stock. in the northern United States, but are relatively m inor Destroy nearby wild or neglected bram bles. Do not plant in Tennessee, presum ably because of a lack of the black or purple raspberries near red raspberries, proper vectors (carriers). The viruses seen in because reds can tolerate m osaic and act as a reservoir Tennessee are probably m osaic (a virus com plex) of inoculum which will spread to the black raspberries, if and tom ato ringspot. the proper aphid species are present. 18 Revised 3/10 Strawberry Diseases Disease, Pathogen, Symptoms Control Gray M old (Botrytis cinerea) Chem ical*: To avoid resistance problem s, choose any 3 A com m on fruit rot disease that can be very of the following 4 fungicides and apply them in any order destructive in wet seasons. Gray m old often starts at weekly intervals during bloom : Elevate, Switch, Scala, as a blossom blight and continues as a rot of green or Pristine. Another choice would be captan or thiram and ripe fruit. Many fruit infections begin when the (no resistance m anagem ent needed). Since thiram fungus enters blossom s and rem ain latent until fruit provides deer and rabbit repellence, it would be begin to m ature. In wet weather, diseased plant preferable over captan where these pests are a problem . parts are covered with fuzzy brown to gray m asses of Effective control of the berry phase depends on a good fungal spores. Berries becom e m ore susceptible as spray program during bloom . they m ature, and gray m old m ay continue to develop after harvest, becom ing a rotted m ass. Cultural: Select a well-drained planting site. Renovate m atted-row planting properly to thin plants. Avoid excessive nitrogen fertilizer rates. Mulch to reduce fruit contact with soil. In plasticulture plantings, rem ove winter-killed leaves before bloom period. Pick berries frequently and refrigerate prom ptly. Common Leaf Spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae) Chem ical*: Apply Topsin M plus captan or thiram on The m ost com m on strawberry leaf disease in susceptible varieties, beginning in early spring. Repeat Tennessee; leaf spot can be severe on certain at 10- to 14- day intervals until sum m er. Also needed in varieties. Most varieties show som e leaf spot, but no fall. Nova (Rally) is very effective, but is not as broad real dam age. Lesions are circular, 1/8 to 1/4 inch in spectrum . diam eter, and are purple with a white, gray or tan center. Favored by cool, wet weather. Cultural: Plant resistant varieties. Use certified plants and select a well-drained site. Renovate properly to avoid overly-dense plantings, and do not over-fertilize. Leaf Scorch (Diplocarpon earliana) Chem ical: Sam e m aterials as for leaf spot. Control Round to irregular, purple spots up to 1/4 inch in needed during sum m er. diam eter form on the leaf surface. If the spots becom e num erous, large areas of the leaf becom e Cultural: Sam e as for leaf spot. reddish-purple to brown and the entire leaf m ay turn brown and die. Not often seen in Tennessee. Leaf Blight (Phomopsis obscurans) Chem ical: Sam e as leaf scorch. Spots are often irregular in shape, brown with a purple border, becom ing large, V-shaped areas. Cultural: Sam e as for leaf spot. Leaf blight is a hot-weather diseasel. Older leaves m ay becom e blighted and die in large num bers. Leather Rot (Phytophthora cactorum) Chem ical*: Apply Ridom il Gold EC at fruit set, or Aliette, This fruit rot occurs sporadically, but can Cabrio, or Quadris at 7-14 day intervals, beginning at occasionally cause econom ic losses. Disease bloom . Captan, applied as for gray m old control, is developm ent is very dependent on wet weather. adequate for light cases of leather rot. Infected berries are light to dark brown, becom ing tough and leathery. In early stages of disease Cultural: Select a well-drained planting site, and m ulch developm ent, infected ripe fruit are softer than to prevent fruit contact with soil. healthy ones. 19 Revised 3/10 Strawberry Diseases Disease, Pathogen, Symptoms Control Pow dery M ildew (Sphaerotheca macularis) Chem ical*: On susceptible varieties in perennial culture, Particularly severe in greenhouses and in tunnel applications m ay be needed throughout the growing production. Leaf edges curl upward, with reddish- season, beginning at early bloom . For plasticulture, begin purplish discoloration. Patches of white, powdery shortly after planting in fall. Rally, Procure, Quintec, or fungus m ycelium m ay appear on leaves. Fruit set sulfur m ay be used at 14- to 21-day intervals. m ay be poor and im m ature fruit becom es hard and fails to ripen norm ally. Red Stele (Phytophthora fragariae) Chem ical*: Apply Ridom il Gold EC before bloom and Red stele is not as com m on as it once was, again in the fall. Aliette can be applied when growth because m any of today's varieties are resistant to it. begins and repeated at 30-60 day intervals. It is caused by a soil-borne fungus that is m ost dam aging in heavy, wet-natured soils. Plants first Cultural: Avoid sites having low-lying, clay soils. Plant appear stunted and dull in color, then wilt and on raised beds. Purchase certified disease-free plants of eventually die. Roots decay and show reddish or resistant varieties. Do not plant in fields with a history of brown cores (steles). Roots becom e devoid of lateral red stele. The causal fungus can rem ain in the soil up to rootlets, giving them a rat-tailed appearance. 13 years. Verticillium W ilt (Verticillium albo-atrum) Chem ical: Preplant fum igation. This disease does not occur frequently on strawberries in Tennessee. Most of the varieties Cultural: Adequate control can be obtained without grown are resistant to it. This disease is favored by fum igation by planting resistant varieties and avoiding cool weather. The sym ptom s are sim ilar to those for sites planted to susceptible crops such as tom ato, potato, red stele, except Verticillium does not cause red eggplant, okra and pepper. discoloration in the roots. *Refer to the m anufacturer’s label and to the spray guides in this publication for inform ation on chem ical rates, tim ing of sprays, resistance m anagem ent strategies, preharvest intervals, and other restrictions. 20 Revised 3/10 Commercial Pecan Disease Control Guide Time of Application Disease Product Choices Rate/acre Remarks First Prepollination Scab, downy Abound 2F 12 fl oz/acre Do not m ake m ore than 2 W hen first buds have spot or Enable 2F 8 fl oz/acre consecutive applications of opened. or Headline 2F 6-7 fl oz/acre Abound, Headline, Stratego, or Sovran before alternating to or Orbit 3.6F 4-8 fl oz a non-strobilurin fungicide. or Quash 50W G 2.5-3.5 oz Topsin M should be alternated or Sovran 50W G 2.4-3.2 oz/acre with other fungicides. or Stratego 2F 10 fl oz/acre Note: No dodine products are or Super Tin 80W P 5-7.5 oz/acre currently registered in or tebuconazole 3.6F 4-8 fl oz/acre Tennessee. or Topsin M 70W P 1 lb/acre Second Scab, downy Sam e fungicides as The first two sprays are very Prepollination spot above. im portant for scab control. 14 days after First Prepollination spray First Cover Spray Scab, downy Sam e fungicides as If using Sovran, the rate W hen young nuts first spot above. increases to 3.2-4.8 oz. appear. Second Cover Spray Scab, leaf Sam e fungicides as Sulfur (3 lb per acre) can be 2 to 3 weeks after first blotch, brown above. added to m ost fungicides for cover spray. leaf spot, im proved powdery m ildew powdery m ildew control. Third Cover Spray Scab, leaf Sam e fungicides as Apply cover sprays at 2-week 2 to 3 weeks after blotch, brown above. intervals in rainy weather, 3- second cover spray. leaf spot, week intervals if dry conditions powdery m ildew exist. Fourth Cover Spray Sam e as third Sam e fungicides as 2 to 3 weeks after cover spray. above. third cover spray. Fifth Cover Spray Sam e as third Sam e fungicides as 2 to 3 weeks after cover spray. above. fourth cover spray. Sixth Cover Spray Sam e as third Sam e fungicides as Do not apply fungicides after 2 to 3 weeks after fifth cover spray. above. shucks have started to open. cover spray. 21 Revised 3/10 Homeowner Pecan Spray Guide Time of Application Pest Controlled Pesticide Remarks 1 s t Spray - Budbreak Scab Halt or Thiom yl 1 s t Spray is key for Phylloxera m alathion, Merit 75W P, or Phylloxera control. Merit 2F 2nd Spray - 14 days later Sam e as 1s t Spray Sam e as 1 s t Spray Early sprays are key for scab control. 3rd Spray - 3 weeks later Scab Sam e as 1s t Spray Use insecticide only if the Pecan nut casebearers, stated insects are present. aphids and spittlebugs Merit not for pecan nut casebearers. 4 th Spray - 3 weeks later Scab and other leaf & Sam e as 1s t Spray Use insecticide only if the nut diseases stated insects are present. Aphids, spittlebugs 5 th Spray - 3 weeks later Scab and other leaf & Sam e as 1 s t Spray. Om it Use insecticide only if the nut diseases fungicides if no nuts present. stated insects are present. Aphids, spittlebugs 6th Spray - 3 weeks later Sam e as for 5 th Spray Halt or Thiom yl if nuts Do not apply 3336 after plus fall webworm , present shucks have started to shuckworm , & pecan m alathion open. weevil* carbaryl if history of pecan *For weevil control, m ake weevil* an additional application of carbaryl between the 6 th and 7 th sprays. 7 th Spray - 3 weeks later Fall webworm , black m alathion Merit can be used for aphid, and pecan weevil carbaryl if history of pecan black aphid only. weevil 22 EPP 227 (3/10) Fungicides and Bactericides for Home Fruits, Vegetables, and Ornamentals Steve Bost, Professor, Entomology & Plant Pathology Material Most Common Uses Example Brand Names captan fruits, ornamentals Bonide Captan Bonide Fruit Tree Spray* Captan Fungicide (Southern Ag) Ferti-lome Liquid Fruit Tree Spray* Hi-Yield Captan chlorothalonil vegetables, ornamentals, turf Bonide Fung-onil Ferti-lome Broad Spectrum Landscape & Garden Fungicide Gardentech Daconil Liquid Ornamental and Vegetable Fungicide (Southern Ag) Ortho Garden Disease Control copper** fruits, vegetables Fixed copper: Various brand names. Look for “basic copper sulfate” or “copper hydroxide” as active ingredient. Bordeaux mixture: Sold as Bordeaux Mixture, or you can mix spray lime with bluestone copper (copper sulfate pentahydrate). lime sulfur fruits Hi-Yield Lime Sulfur Spray mancozeb vegetables Bonide Mancozeb Flowable Dithane Manzate maneb vegetables Hi-Yield Maneb Lawn & Garden Fungicide myclobutanil ornamentals, fruits Immunox (ornamentals, fruits) Immunox Plus (ornamentals only) PCNB vegetables Hi-Yield PCNB Granular Terraclor 75WP propiconazole ornamentals, turf Bonide Infuse Ferti-lome Liquid Systemic Fungicide sulfur** fruits, vegetables, ornamentals Sulfur and other brand names streptomycin** fruits, ornamentals Agri-mycin 17 Agricultural Streptomycin Ferti-lome Fire Blight Spray thiophanate methyl ornamentals Ferti-lome Halt Thiomyl (Southern Ag) triforine ornamentals only Ortho Rosepride Funginex *Fruit tree combination products contain insecticides. **Qualifies for organic production. Disclaimer Statement Pesticides recommended in this publication were registered for the prescribed uses when printed. Pesticides registrations are continuously reviewed. Should registration of a recommended pesticide be canceled, it would no longer be recommended by the University of Tennessee. Use of trade or brand names in this publication is for clarity and information; it does not imply approval of the product to the exclusion of others which may be of similar, suitable composition, nor does it guarantee or warrant the standard of the product. Programs in agriculture and natural resources, 4-H youth development, family and consumer sciences, and resource development. University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture and county governments cooperating. UT Extension provides equal opportunities in programs and employment.
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