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FRUITS AND NUTS

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 23

German doctors found that some often eat pumpkin seeds in the nation, there is no prostate disease. This is because the pumpkin seeds contains a male hormone can affect the mysterious substance. In addition, wheat, corn, sesame, sunflower seeds, walnuts, almonds, peanuts, pine nuts, also good for sexual function.

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									                                                                                                        Revised 3/10




                                     FRUITS AND NUTS

                                                  Foreword

This section contains the information outlined in the table of contents below. The home fruit
section is a reprint of PB 1622, Disease and Insect Control in Home Fruit Plantings. Pest
control information for commercial small fruit crops is available from the Southeast regional
integrated pest management guides (blueberries, brambles, bunch grapes,
muscadines, and strawberries) is available from the Southeast regional integrated pest
management guides at http://www.smallfruits.org/        Print copies are not available.

The Southeastern Peach, Nectarine and Plum Pest Management and Culture Guide is
available for downloading from http://www.ent.uga.edu/peach/PeachGuide.pdf A very limited
supply of print copies are available at county Extension offices.

Integrated Orchard Management Guide for Commercial Apples in the Southeast is available
for downloading at http://ipm.ncsu.edu/apple/orchardguide/orchard-management-guide.pdf
A very limited supply of print copies are available at county Extension offices. Additional crop
production apple information is available at: http://ipm.ncsu.edu/


                                             Table of Contents

      Home fruit disease and insect control (includes spray guide). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

      Imported Fire Ant Baits in home fruit plantings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

      Tree fruit diseases (descriptions and control). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

      Small fruit diseases (descriptions and control). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

      Commercial Pecan Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

      Homeowner Pecan Spray Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
                                                                                                                   Revised 3/10

        Disease and Insect Control in Home Fruit Plantings

    Growing fruit in the hom e garden can be an                         Rates of product application are not provided in
interesting, fun and rewarding hobby. Many novices                  these charts, because of the diversity of product
dream of plucking perfect fruit off trees in their yards.           concentrations offered. The product labels give the
This does not happen without a great deal of work.                  rates; follow them. The label rates are expressed as
Control of pests (insects and diseases) is an integral              am ount per gallon of water. The following table can be
part of the care necessary to achieve good results.                 used to determ ine the am ount of spray m ixture needed.
    This publication provides guidelines for spraying
hom e fruit plantings, but good pest control is not                    Amount of spray needed for each application
possible if spraying is the only action taken. Cultural                                Spread in     Gallon per tree
practices such as pruning, sanitation, variety selection              Height in feet     feet        per application
and selecting open, sunny sites for planting are
                                                                          5 to 8               3 to 6              ½ to 1
necessary for good pest control. Specific cultural
practices for each type of fruit are provided with the                    8 to 10              4 to 8              1 to 2
spray charts.                                                            10 to 15             8 to 15              3 to 5

How to Use the Spray Schedules                                      Protect Pollinating Insects
     Most fungicide (disease control product) and som e                 Honey bees and other pollinating insects m ust be
insecticide (insect control product) applications are               protected from insecticides, which will kill them . Do not
effective only if applied preventatively, because it is not         spray fruit plants w ith insecticides w hile the plants
possible to control the pest satisfactorily after the fact.         are in bloom.
The tim ing of these preventive sprays is based on the
growth stage of the plant and form s the foundation of              Pesticide Safety
the spray charts that follow.                                           Most of the pesticides suggested for use in this
     In very rainy seasons, sprays m ay need to be                  publication are low-toxicity m aterials; however, som e
applied m ore frequently than the schedule given in the             precautions are still needed.
following charts. W et weather favors developm ent of the           C Keep pesticides in the original, labeled container.
disease-causing organism s; thus, m ore chem ical                   C Keep pesticides in a locked storage cabinet, away
protection is needed. Also, rains can wash off the                    from children or pets.
pesticides (fungicides and insecticides). W hen rain                C Read the label each tim e before you use the product.
occurs before a spray has dried or if rainfall totals m ore         C W ear rubber gloves, goggles, a long-sleeved shirt,
than 1 inch within 24 hours, the spray should be re-                  long pants and a hat when m ixing and applying
applied. Fungicides provide m ore benefit when applied                pesticides. Refer to the label for required protective
before a rain than after, because protection from                     gear.
infection by disease-causing organism s is needed when              C Handle the pesticide carefully when m ixing. Avoid
plant surfaces are wet.                                               breathing dust or vapors. W ash any chem icals off the
                                                                      skin im m ediately with plenty of water.
Additional Spray Tips                                               C Never apply insecticides or fungicides with a sprayer
     Thorough coverage of all above-ground plant parts                that has been used for weed killers.
is needed for good pest control. One of the biggest                 C Do not spray if it is windy.
m istakes hom e fruit growers m ake is to allow their trees         C Mix only as m uch as you need. Do not store diluted
to grow too tall. If trees are m aintained at a m anageable           spray m ixtures from one application to the next. They
height, it is easier to spray them properly, as well as to            will lose effectiveness and are unsafe.
harvest the fruit. Proper pruning practices reduce the              C Observe the harvest intervals and reentry
am ount of spray needed and perm it better coverage.                  requirem ents given in the following table and on the
     The type of sprayer used depends on the size of the              product label.
fruit planting. For m ost plantings of sm all fruits or for a
few sm all fruit trees, pum p-up sprayers are adequate.             Multipurpose Fruit Spray
Trom bone-type sprayers are helpful for taller trees. For                Multipurpose fruit tree spray products are m ixtures
the increased spray volum es required by larger hom e               containing a fungicide (captan) and either one
orchards, power sprayers are recom m ended.                         (m alathion) or two (m alathion and carbaryl) insecticides.
     Mixing a detergent or com m ercial spreader-sticker                 Multipurpose sprays are convenient and are
with the spray solution is recom m ended. This provides             effective against som e, but not all, pests. Suggestions
better coverage of slick surfaces such as apple fruit or            for their use are provided in this spray guide. Mixtures
blackberry stem s.                                                  containing carbaryl should not be applied to apple or
                                                                    pear until 21 days after petal fall, as it causes the fruit to
                                                                    drop.


                                                                2
                                                                                                               Revised 3/10
Harvest Restrictions
   The following tables contain the m ost readily available hom e fruit pesticides, the crops on which they can be
used and the harvest restrictions. If any inform ation in the tables disagrees with the product label, FOLLOW THE
INFORM ATION ON THE LABEL.
                               Harvest Restrictions for Common Fruit Fungicides
                                                  W aiting period in days betw een final spray and harvest
Common            Example Brand                                                     Blackberry Straw -
                           a
Names                Names             Apple     Pear    Peach Cherry Plum          Raspberry berry Grape Blueberry
captan                 Captan             0       nr        0        0        0          nr          0        0          0
chlorothalonil   Daconil, Fung-onil,      nr       nr       *        *        *          nr         nr       nr         nr
                  Garden Disease
                      Control
copper            Bordeaux Mix,           0        0        0        0        0          0           0        0          0
                 Copper Fungicide
lim e sulfur         Lim e Sulfur         0        0        0        0        0          0           0        0          0
m ancozeb        Manzate, Dithane         nr      nr       nr        nr       nr         nr         nr       66         nr
m aneb                 Maneb              nr       nr      nr        nr       nr         nr         nr       66         nr
                                 b
m yclobutanil        Im m unox           14       nr        0        0        0          nr         nr       14         nr
propiconazole      Infuse, Liquid         nr       nr       0        0        0          nr         nr       nr         nr
                 System ic Fungicide
streptom ycin     Agri-m ycin, Fire      50       30       nr        nr       nr         nr         nr       nr         nr
                   Blight Spray
sulfur                  Sulfur            0        0        0        0        0          0           0        0          0
thiophanate-          Halt, Thiom yl       1      nr        1        1      1           nr          nr      nr         nr
m ethyl
 nr = Not registered for this use.
 * Chlorothalonil cannot be applied to peach, plum or cherry between shuck split and harvest.
a
   List of brand nam es is not com plete and does not im ply any preference or discrim ination to other products of sim ilar,
 suitable com position.
b
   Im m unox is labeled for use on the indicated fruits. Im m unox Plus, which contains an insecticide as well as
 m yclobutanil, is labeled only for ornam entals.

                           Harvest Restrictions for Common Fruit Insecticides/M iticides
                                                W aiting period in days betw een final spray and harvest
 Common             Example Brand                                                   Blackberry Straw -
 Names                 Names*          Apple     Pear    Peach Cherry Plum          Raspberry berry Grape Blueberry
 carbaryl                Sevin            3        3        3        3        3          7           7        7          7
 esfenvalerate      Ortho BugBGon        21       28       14        14      14         21          nr       nr         nr
                     Multi-Purpose
                      Insect Killer
 gam m a-             Spectracide        21       21       14        14      14          nr         nr       nr         nr
 cyhalothrin         Triazide Insect
                      Killer Once &
                      Done Conc.
 insecticidal      Insecticidal Soap      0        0        0        0        0          0           0        0          0
 soap
 m alathion            Malathion          3        1        7        3        nr         1           3        3          1
                                                                                             a           a        a          a
 perm ethrin       Eight, Total Pest     **      14        7        nr     nr         14          14       nr         14
                         Control
nr = Not registered for this use.
*
  List of brand nam es is not com plete and does not im ply any preference or discrim ination to other products of sim ilar,
suitable com position.
** Do not apply after petal fall.
a
  Blackberry not on Total Pest Control or Eight label. Raspberry, strawberry, and blueberry not on Total Pest Control
label.


                                                                3
                                                                                                                Revised 3/10
                                              APPLE AND PEAR
  Apple and pear trees are subject to serious dam age               possible. Rem oval of the galls caused by the fungus
from pests and, as a result, a preventive spray program             on cedar trees is helpful.
is needed. The following practices will im prove the              C Pruning trees according to recom m endations
effectiveness of the pesticides and m ay lessen the                 im proves control of all above-ground diseases. In
need for sprays.                                                    well-pruned trees, air circulation and sunlight
                                                                    penetration are im proved. This helps control diseases
Sanitation and Cultural Practices                                   by prom oting rapid drying after rains and dew, and by
C Plant disease-resistant varieties. This m ethod of                aiding penetration of sprays into the canopy.
  disease control is especially im portant for fire blight,       • Prune out and destroy all dead or diseased shoots
  where chem ical control options are lim ited. Varieties           and lim bs during the dorm ant season. This helps
  resistant to cedar-apple rust, scab and powdery                   reduce fire blight, fruit rots and certain leaf spots, as
  m ildew are also available. See Extension publication             the organism s that cause these diseases overwinter
  PB746 for tree fruit variety recom m endations.                   in the wood. Rem oving m um m ified (dark, shriveled,
C Rake and destroy leaves in the fall, if apple scab,               dry) fruit helps prevent the overwintering of the fruit
  pear scab or pear leaf spot are problem s. The                    rot organism s.
  organism s that cause these diseases overwinter in              C Pruning out fire blight-affected shoots and blossom
  infected leaves.                                                  clusters during the growing season is warranted if it is
C For cedar-apple rust control, elim ination of the source          done just as sym ptom s are appearing. Otherwise it is
  of spores — cedar trees — is effective but not always             best to let the disease run its course.



                                                       APPLE

Time to spray                         M aterial to use*                                 Remarks
Delayed dormant: W hen buds           Oil em ulsion                                     Oil for aphids, m ites and scales.
swell                                 plus                                              Use copper if a history of fire
                                      copper product                                    blight.
Bud break: From ½ inch long         Captan                                              For scab control.
green leaves to tight cluster (when
blossom buds are just visible)
Pink: Just before bloom s open        Captan or Im m unox                               If cedar-apple rust has been a
                                      plus                                              problem in past, use Im m unox in
                                      m alathion                                        this and the petal fall and first
                                                                                        cover spray. Insecticides for plant
                                                                                        bugs, or aphids.
Bloom: Begin at early bloom ,         Streptom ycin                                     Only for fire blight control. USE
repeat at 3- to 5-day intervals       Note: To protect bees, do not apply               ONLY IF NECESSARY.
                                      insecticides during bloom !
Petal fall: W hen m ost of petals     Captan or Im m unox                               Insecticide for plum curculio,
have fallen                           plus                                              codling m oth, plant bugs, aphids,
                                      m alathion                                        or leafroller.
First cover: 7 to 10 days after       Captan or Im m unox                               Insecticide for plum curculio,
petal fall spray                      plus                                              codling m oth, plant bugs, leafroller,
                                      m alathion                                        leafhoppers or Oriental fruit m oth.
Remaining covers: Apply at            Captan                                            For fruit rots and sooty blotch.
2-week intervals until harvest        plus
restriction date                      m alathion
* See pesticide labels for rates. Insecticides listed m ay not be effective against all insects listed.
ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTS: (1) Multipurpose spray (see discussion) can be substituted for all of the above
sprays except the dorm ant and bloom sprays. Note: Multipurpose sprays will not control cedar-apple rust.
(2) For im proved disease control, thiophanate-m ethyl m ay be m ixed with captan.

                                              PEAR - See page 6

                                                              4
                                                                                                               Revised 3/10
                                     PEACH, PLUM AND CHERRY
  Peach, plum , cherry and other stone fruits are               C Rem ove the overwintering structure for the brown rot
com m only affected by serious pest problem s and, as a           fungus, old m um m ified fruit left hanging in the tree or
result, a conscientious spray program is needed. The              on the ground.
following sanitation and cultural practices will im prove       C Control of black knot of plum and cherry is dependent
the chances of success and m ay lessen the need for               on rem oval of the knots before they begin to produce
sprays.                                                           spores. In late winter, prune out and destroy these
                                                                  rough, black swellings or tum ors that develop on
Sanitation and Cultural Practices                                 lim bs and twigs.
C Prune trees according to recom m endations, to allow          C Rake and destroy fallen cherry leaves, the
  better air circulation and sunlight penetration. This           overwintering site of the cherry leaf spot organism .
  helps control diseases by prom oting rapid drying after       C Avoid planting peach varieties that are highly
  rains and dew. Penetration of sprays into the canopy            susceptible to bacterial leaf spot. Exam ples are
  is also better if the trees are well-pruned.                    Elberta, Halehaven, Rio-Oso-Gem and Sunhigh.
                                                                  Chem ical control of this disease is very lim ited.

 Time to spray or name of spray          M aterial to use                      Remarks
 Delayed dormant: W hen buds             Oil em ulsion                         For aphids, scales and m ites
 swell
 Bloom                                   Captan                                Captan not needed on peach at this tim e
                                                                               if good sanitation is used to control
                                         Note: To protect bees, do not         brown rot. Needed on plum and cherry if
                                         apply insecticides during bloom !     black knot is a problem , but sanitation is
                                                                               required for good control.
 Petal fall: W hen m ost of petals       Captan or sulfur or chlorothalonil Insecticides for control of plum curculio,
 have fallen                             plus m alathion                    oriental fruit m oth, plant bugs and stink
                                                                            bugs.
 Shuck split: W hen flower shucks        Captan or sulfur or chlorothalonil
 begin to split, or 7 days after petal   plus m alathion
 fall
 Cover sprays: Apply at 10- to 14-       Captan or sulfur                      Carbaryl is good for beetle and oriental
 day intervals                           plus                                  fruit m oth control and can be used
                                         m alathion                            beginning at second cover spray. Early
                                                                               cover sprays are key for oriental fruit
                                                                               m oth control. Perm ethrin is very
                                                                               effective, but can cause m ite problem s.

 Trunk and main scaffolds                esfenvalerate                         For control of peachtree borer and lesser
 sprays: Direct the spray to the                                               peachtree borer
 bark on May 31, June 30, July 15
 (but not within 14 days of harvest).
 A final application can be applied
 after harvest.
 Preharvest sprays: 2-3 weeks            Captan plus either thiophanate-       CRITICAL SPRAYS FOR BROW N ROT
 before harvest and within 1 week        m ethyl, Im m unox or                 CONTROL.
 of harvest                              propiconazole
 Early dormant: Late fall, after         Copper or chlorothalonil or lim e-    Needed on peach for leaf curl and on
 leaf drop                               sulfur                                plum if plum pockets has been a
                                                                               problem .
Notes:
• Multipurpose spray (see discussion) can be substituted for all of the above sprays except the dorm ant, bloom ,
  and preharvest sprays.
• Read the pesticide label for the proper rates of chem ical to use. Insecticides listed m ay not be effective against
  all insects listed. Malathion m ay not be labeled for plum . Substitute gam m a cyhalothrin for plum curculio control.



                                                            5
                                                                                                             Revised 3/10
                                                     GRAPE

  Most hom e grape plantings will require a preventive          C Rem ove m um m ified berries (shriveled, dry, raisin-
schedule of pesticides, since certain pests such as               like), as they provide an overwintering site for the
black rot can com pletely destroy a crop of fruit.                fungus that causes black rot. Clusters on the vines as
However, the following sanitation and cultural practices          well as those that have fallen to the ground should be
will reduce the need for pesticides.                              rem oved. Also, destroy infected canes that have
                                                                  been pruned off.
Sanitation and Cultural Practices                               C For control of grape root borer, m ounding soil m akes
C Keep vines well-pruned according to                             it difficult for larvae to reach the roots or adults to
  recom m endations, to prevent overgrowth of vines               em erge. Mound som e soil 1 foot high for 1½ feet
  and dense canopy. Pruning prom otes air circulation             around each vine between early and m id-June.
  and sunlight penetration, thus m ore rapid drying after         Rem ove the m ounds around Thanksgiving.
  rains and dew. Penetration of sprays into the foliar
  canopy is also better if the vines are well-pruned.


 Time to spray                           M aterial to use                           Remarks

 New shoot sprays: Begin when            Captan, m aneb or m ancozeb                Fungicides for black rot and
 shoots are 4 to 6 inches long, and      plus                                       Phom opsis cane and leaf spot.
 repeat every 7 to 10 days until pre-    m alathion                                 Insecticides for grape berry m oth,
 bloom                                                                              flea beetle, plant bugs and grape
                                                                                    phylloxera.

 Pre-bloom: W hen first blossom s        Captan, m aneb, m ancozeb or               Most dam age from black rot occurs
 open                                    Im m unox                                  from pre-bloom through 4 weeks
                                         plus                                       after bloom . Maneb, m ancozeb, and
                                         m alathion                                 Im m unox are the m ost effective.

 Post-bloom: W hen m ost bloom           Captan or Im m unox                        Fungicides for black rot, downy
 caps have fallen                        plus                                       m ildew and powdery m ildew.
                                         m alathion                                 Insecticides for grape berry m oth,
                                                                                    flea beetle, leafhopper and rose
                                                                                    chafer.

 Cover sprays: 7 to 10 days later,       Captan or Im m unox                        Fungicides for black rot, downy
 then at 2-week intervals until          plus                                       m ildew and powdery m ildew.
 harvest restriction date                m alathion or carbaryl                     Insecticides for leaf hopper, berry
                                                                                    m oth, Japanese beetle, grape root
                                                                                    borer. Carbaryl m ost effective for
                                                                                    Japanese beetle.
Notes:
C Multipurpose spray (see discussion) can be substituted for all of the above sprays .
C Malathion EC m ay cause injury to Ribier, Italia, Cardinal and Alm eria varieties.
C Read the pesticide label for the proper rates of chemical to use. Insecticides listed may not be effective
  against all insects listed.



                                                       PEAR

The only disease-control products labeled for use on hom e pears are copper, sulfur and streptom ycin. Apply a
copper product at delayed dorm ant (for control of fire blight) and at pre-bloom , petal fall and the cover sprays (for
control of fungal diseases). The streptom ycin bloom sprays for fire blight control and the insecticide sprays m ay be
applied as indicated in the apple schedule.




                                                            6
                                                                                                              Revised 3/10
                                                STRAWBERRY

  An intensive, preventive spray program is generally            C Plant varieties with resistance to red stele and leaf
not needed on strawberry. Treatm ents can usually be               spot. See Extension publication PB746, Tree Fruit,
m ade on an as-needed basis. The following sanitation              Tree Nut and Small Fruit Cultivar Recommendations
and cultural practices will reduce the need for                    or SP284-A, Recommended Varieties for Home
pesticides.                                                        Gardens. W here anthracnose is a problem , consider
                                                                   the resistant varieties Delm arvel, Sweet Charlie, Bish
Sanitation and Cultural Practices                                  and Idea.
C Bed renovation im m ediately after harvest is crucial to       C Control weeds throughout the growing season.
  m anaging pest problem s. Renovation involves                    W eeds increase disease by shading the plants and
  narrowing rows, m owing leaves, rem oving weeds and              by interfering with air circulation. W eeds also harbor
  fertilization. Rake and destroy cut-off leaves and               m any insect and m ite pests.
  stem s after renovation.                                       C Mulch with straw before berries begin to lie on the
C Maintain narrow rows throughout the growing season               ground, to reduce gray m old and leather rot (fruit
  (m axim um 18 inches wide), to m aintain good sunlight           rots).
  and air penetration of the canopy. This provides good          C Keep fruit picked to avoid attracting sap beetles.
  berry form ation and rapid drying after rains and dew.


 Time to spray                            M aterial to use                           Remarks

 Pre-bloom: W hen blossom buds            Carbaryl or m alathion                     Use as needed for crown borer,
 appear in the spring                                                                strawberry weevil, strawberry
                                                                                     leafroller and catfacing insects

 Bloom: At early bloom and again          Captan                                     Needed for gray m old control if
 at full bloom                            Note: To protect bees, do not apply        weather is rainy during bloom .
                                          insecticides during bloom !

 Post-bloom to harvest: Every 7           m alathion                                 Insecticides for spittlebugs, aphids,
 to 10 days as needed. Observe            plus                                       strawberry rootworm , whiteflies,
 harvest restrictions.                    captan                                     tarnished plant bugs and leafrollers.
                                                                                     Captan not needed until berries
                                          plus, if needed for spider m ites:
                                                                                     begin to ripen, and then only if
                                          insecticidal soap                          weather is rainy. Miticides should be
                                          plus, if needed for slugs:                 applied 5 to 7 days apart.
                                          m etaldehyde bait

 Post-harvest: Every 10 to 14             Malathion or carbaryl                      Insecticides for root weevils,
 days as needed.                          plus, if needed for leaf blight or         leafrollers and rootworm .
                                          anthracnose:
                                          captan
Notes:
• Multipurpose spray (see discussion) can be substituted for all of the above sprays except the bloom spray.
• Read the pesticide label for the proper rates of chemical to use. Insecticides listed may not be effective
  against all insects listed.


                                                  BLUEBERRY

  As a rule, blueberry plants require the least am ount of        Sanitation Practices
pesticides of all fruit crops. Treatm ents can usually be         C If m um m y berry disease has been a problem , rake the
m ade on an as-needed basis. If diseases have been a                area beneath and around plants to collect or bury any
problem in the planting in past years, captan can be                m um m ified fruits from the previous year’s crop.
used at 7- to 10-day intervals from bud break to harvest.         C To reduce dieback diseases, prune out and destroy
Malathion or carbaryl can be used for occasional insect             dead twigs and branches.
pests, but should not be used during bloom . Repeated
use of carbaryl can lead to m ite buildup.


                                                             7
                                                                                                              Revised 3/10
                                  BLACKBERRY AND RASPBERRY

  An intensive, preventive spray program is generally            C Destroy canes of cultivated or wild host plants with
not needed on raspberry or blackberry. Treatm ents can             gall-like enlargem ents (red-necked cane borer) or
usually be m ade on an as-needed basis. The following              wilting canes (raspberry crown borer) in June-July.
sanitation and cultural practices will reduce the need for       C Prune wilted plants 2 or m ore inches below where the
pesticides.                                                        cane is girdled due to raspberry cane borer.
                                                                 C To control the spread of orange rust of blackberry
Sanitation and Cultural Practices                                  and black raspberry, rem ove and destroy infected
C To reduce a source of pests, rem ove and destroy                 canes as soon as sym ptom s appear in the spring.
  nearby wild bram bles.                                           Orange rust is recognized by a thin, willowy growth of
C Rem ove and destroy fruiting canes im m ediately after           new shoots, and the presence of orange spore
  harvest.                                                         pustules on the undersides of leaves.
C Prom ote rapid drying conditions and good air                  C To control the spread of rosette of blackberry, rem ove
  circulation in the canopy by controlling weeds,                  and destroy infected canes before bloom s begin to
  keeping the planting properly thinned and not                    open. Rosette is recognized by the presence of
  allowing the row width to exceed 2 feet.                         clusters of stem s on fruiting canes, producing a
                                                                   bunchy appearance. Sepals are extended and
C Pick berries regularly during the harvest period so
                                                                   pinkish in color.
  that overripe fruit do not accum ulate. This will reduce
  problem s with fruit rots, sap beetles, wasps and fruit        C Mow everbearing raspberry varieties after fall harvest
  flies.                                                           to reduce disease carryover. This m ethod produces a
                                                                   single, fall crop the following year.


 Time to spray                        M aterial to use                        Remarks

 Early to mid-bloom                   Copper                                  Copper needed only on blackberry where
                                      Note: To protect bees, do not           rosette or anthracnose has been a
                                      apply insecticides during bloom ,       problem , or on raspberry where leafspot
                                      if possible.                            has been a problem . Insecticide can be
                                      Malathion                               applied if necessary, but keep it off
                                                                              bloom s.

 Post-bloom: 3 to 4 additional        Copper                                  Sam e as above.
 applications at 2-week
 intervals. Observe harvest
 restrictions.




                                       IMPORTED FIRE ANT BAITS

There are two approaches to m anaging fire ants in hom e fruit plantings. Two insect growth regulator baits,
Extinguish Professional Fire Ant Bait and Esteem Ant Bait, are labeled for use within the fruit planting. Esteem is
not labeled for caneberries such as blackberry and raspberry. Fertilom e Com e and Get It Fire Ant Killer (spinosad)
lists m ost crops including, but not lim ited to, tree nuts, stone fruit, tree fruits, etc. Am dro Pro fire ant bait can be
used in grapes and blueberries when applied in bait stations. Other fire ants baits, such as Advion, Am dro,
Ascend, Award, Distance, Extinguish Plus and others, can be applied to hom e lawns adjacent to the planting.
Fresh bait should be applied when the ground is dry and rain is not expected, preferably for the next 24 hours.
Apply baits when fire ants are actively foraging, preferably when the tem ps are in the 70s and 80s.

See Fire Ants in Tennessee web site, http://fireants.utk.edu or the eXtension web site at
http://www.extension.org/fire+ants for m ore inform ation on fire ant m anagem ent.




                                                             8
                                                                                                               Revised 3/10

                                   DISEASES OF TREE FRUITS

Refer to the m anufacturer’s label and to the spray guides in this publication for inform ation on chem ical rates, tim ing
of sprays, resistance m anagem ent strategies, preharvest intervals, and other restrictions.


                                               Apple Diseases

 Disease, Symptoms                                                 Control

 Apple Scab                                                    Chem ical*: The m ost effective m aterials are captan,
   Velvety, olive-green leaf spots that later becom e          Flint, Indar, Inspire Super MP, Rally, Rubigan, Procure,
 m etallic black and m ay be puckered; leaves fall from        Sovran, and Vangard. Early-season sprays are m ost
 tree. Fruit are scabby, deform ed and cracked.                im portant.

                                                               Cultural: Fungus overwinters on fallen leaves and fruit.
                                                               Rake up and destroy them . Plant scab-im m une
                                                               varieties.

 Bitter Rot                                                    Chem ical*: The m ost effective m aterials are captan,
   Sm all brown spots on the fruit enlarge rapidly             Flint, and Ziram . Sum m ertim e sprays are m ost
 becom ing darkened and alm ost black. Concentric              im portant.
 rings of spores are som etim es present. The fruit
 lesion appears "V" shaped in a cross-section cut.             Cultural: Rem ove m um m ified fruit, dead wood and fire-
                                                               blighted twigs. Rem oval of newly-infected fruit from
                                                               trees will aid in control.

 Black Rot (Frogeye Leaf Spot)                                 Chem ical*: Captan is the m ost effective m aterial. Tank-
   Leaf spots are purple with tan centers. The 1/8 inch        m ixing with Topsin M im proves effectiveness.
 spots are referred to as frogeye leaf spot. On the fruit,     Sum m ertim e sprays are the m ost im portant.
 the lesions are dark, often black, firm and not sunken.
 Infected fruit m um m ify and often rem ain attached to the   Cultural: Rem ove m um m ies, dead wood and fire-
 tree.                                                         blighted twigs. Destroy these prunings.

 Cedar-Apple Rust                                              Chem ical*: The m ost effective m aterials are Indar,
   Sm all, yellow spots develop on leaves in spring.           Inspire Super MP, m ancozeb, Rally, Rubigan, Procure,
 These spots gradually enlarge and turn orange. Later,         and Ziram . Needed in springtim e, between early April
 black dots appear in the spots on the upper surface,          and m id-May.
 and tube-like protuberances on the lower surface.
 Severe infection results in heavy defoliation. Fruit          Cultural: Overwinters on cedar trees. Rem oval of
 lesions appear near the calyx end and are sim ilar to         nearby cedar trees is helpful, but not always possible.
 the leaf lesions.                                             Consider resistant varieties.

 Collar Rot                                                    Chem ical*: Ridom il Gold EC applied to the soil will
   Dark coloration of wood at or below the ground line in      protect healthy trees and provide som e relief to lightly-
 the root-crown area, som etim es extending up the trunk.      infected trees.
 Leaves m ay be sm all and yellow in sum m er.
 Sym ptom s are sam e for other root problem s, and            Cultural: Fungus is soil-borne. Select well-drained soil
 isolation of fungus often required for positive diagnosis.    for planting and request rootstocks with resistance if
                                                               collar rot is anticipated. Avoid MM 106.




                                                               9
                                                                                                              Revised 3/10

Disease, Symptoms                                             Control

Fire Blight                                                   Chem ical*: Apply streptom ycin sulfate during bloom
  Shoots blight from tip downward; leaves turn brown          period only, every 3 to 5 days. A late dorm ant
(apple) or black (pear). Shoot tip bends, resem bling         application of a fixed copper spray or Bordeaux m ixture
shepherd's crook. Blossom s wilt suddenly and turn            is helpful. Streptom ycin sprays are not effective in
brown. Lim b and trunk blight occur when the infection        controlling fire blight after the bloom period. Fixed
m oves downward from infected shoots or fruit spurs           copper sprays are helpful, but are not recom m ended if
into larger branches on the trunk.                            fruit are present because of the risk of russet.

                                                              Cultural: Plant resistant varieties (refer to SP277R,
                                                              "Fire Blight"). Avoid excessive nitrogen fertilizer
                                                              applications. Cankers and blighted shoots should be
                                                              pruned out before the growing season begins. Refer to
                                                              SP277R for pruning procedures.

Pow dery M ildew                                              Chem ical*: The m ost effective m aterials are Flint, Indar,
  On leaves, the fungus appears as whitish, felt-like         Inspire Super MP, Rally, Procure, Rubigan, and Sovran.
patches that spread and engulf the entire leaf. Infected      Topsin M and sulfur are also effective. The m ost
leaves are narrower than norm al, folded and stiff.           im portant sprays are the springtim e sprays, beginning at
Infected fruit have a netlike russeting.                      tight cluster.

                                                              Cultural: The fungus overwinters on buds infected the
                                                              previous sum m er. Many varieties are resistant.

Sooty Blotch and Fly Speck                                    Chem ical*: The m ost effective m aterials are Flint,
 This condition does not harm the fruit, but is unsightly.    Sovran, Pristine, Topsin M, and Ziram . Captan is also
Sooty blotch appears as superficial sooty or cloudy           effective. Sprays are needed during the sum m ertim e.
blotches on the surface of the fruit. Fly speck appears
on fruit as sharply defined, black, shiny dots in groups      Cultural: Both fungi overwinter on twigs of m any woody
of a few to 100 or m ore.                                     plants. Apple fruit infections are m ost num erous during
                                                              the sum m er. Follow spray schedule and good pruning
                                                              practices to allow air, sunlight and spray penetration of
                                                              the canopy.

W hite Rot (Bot Rot)                                          Chem ical*: Captan is the m ost effective m aterial. Tank-
  Fruit rots show up late but develop rapidly, beginning      m ixing with Topsin M im proves effectiveness.
as tan or red spots. In cross section, the rot is             Sum m ertim e sprays are the m ost im portant.
cylindrically shaped, extending to the core. The rot
m ay involve the entire fruit and, on green varieties, is     Cultural: The fungus overwinters in bark and in lim b
tan in color with concentric rings. Branch cankers            cankers. Fire-blighted branches can be readily
becom e tan to orange and papery.                             colonized by this fungus. Rem ove and destroy all dead
                                                              branches and twigs. Practice proper pruning.




                                                             10
                                                                                                            Revised 3/10

                                Peach and Nectarine Diseases

Disease, Symptoms                                            Control
Brow n Rot, Blossom Blight                                   Chem ical*: The preharvest and harvest periods are
  The m ost noticeable phase is the fruit rot phase.         critical. Beginning at two to three weeks prior to harvest,
Sm all, circular, brown spots enlarge rapidly and            use a sterol inhibitor (Elite, Indar, or Orbit/PropiMax)
becom e covered with ash-gray tufts or spores. Fruit         alternated with a strobilurin (Abound, Flint, or Pristine).
shrivel and m um m ify. Shoots can som etim es becom e       Captan tank m ixes help prevent fungal resistance
infected and die. Infected blossom s wilt and turn           developm ent. Hom eowners can use Im m unox plus
brown.                                                       captan.

                                                             Cultural: The fungus overwinters in m um m ified fruit and
                                                             in cankers. Rem ove all m um m ies and blighted twigs
                                                             from trees after last picking. Follow spray schedule with
                                                             em phasis on the preharvest period. Control insects that
                                                             injure the fruit. Keep fruit cool after picking.
Bacterial Spot                                               Chem ical*: The m ost effective m aterials are fixed
 Leaf spots are sm all and brown, black or red, m ore        coppers and Mycoshield/Flam eout/FireLine. Chem ical
num erous at the leaf tips. The centers of the leaf spots    control is lim ited. The use of coppers after petal fall
fall out, creating a "shothole" effect. Infected leaves      may cause burn.
m ay turn yellow and fall to the ground. Fruit
som etim es develop dark pits in the skin.                   Cultural: Use of resistant varieties is the prim ary m ethod
                                                             of control, and is highly recom m ended. Adequate fertility
                                                             is im portant in m inim izing the effects of this disease.
Peach Leaf Curl                                              Chem ical*: A single spray, using the correct m aterial,
 Infected leaves are thickened, curled and puckered          will provide nearly perfect control, if applied before bud
and often flushed with red or purple. Affected leaves        swell. After bud swell, the disease cannot be controlled.
appear in spring and drop from tree.                         The m ost effective m aterials are chlorothalonil, thiram ,
                                                             and Ziram .
Peach Scab                                                   Chem ical*: The m ost effective m aterials are Abound,
 Spots on the fruit are sm all, dark and circular. These     captan, chlorothalonil, Gem , and Topsin M. Begin
spots usually do not begin to appear until the fruit are     sprays at shuck split and repeat every 10 to 14 days until
well grown, and tend to be concentrated at the stem          40 days before harvest. The fungus overwinters in twig
end. The skin m ay toughen and crack. Forty to 70            lesions. Spores are m ost abundant two to six weeks
days elapse from the tim e the spore lands on the fruit      after the shuck split stage of developm ent.
until the spots appear.




                                                            11
                                                                                                           Revised 3/10

                                             Cherry Diseases

Cherry Leaf Spot                                            Chem ical*: Apply captan, Gem , Indar, Pristine, Rally, or
  Sm all, circular, purple spots on leaves. Only a few      Rubigan, beginning at petal fall and repeating at 10-to
lesions per leaf can cause the leaves to turn yellow        14-day intervals until harvest. Rotate classes.
and fall. The fruit on trees severely defoliated by leaf    Hom eowners can use captan or Im m unox.
spot fail to m ature properly and are soft and watery.
                                                            Cultural: The fungus overwinters in infected leaves on
                                                            the ground. Rake and destroy fallen leaves.
Black Knot                                                  Chem ical*: Apply captan, beginning at pink and
  Elongated swellings or knots on lim bs twigs or trunk.    repeating at 10- to 14-day intervals until term inal growth
The swellings m ay be less than an inch to over a foot      stops. Chem ical control is only a supplem ent to the
long. Newly form ed knots are greenish and soft but         pruning practices below.
becom e hard and black with age. Affected lim bs die.
                                                            Cultural: The fungus overwinters in the knots, and
                                                            spores are discharged from the pink stage of blossom
                                                            bud growth until term inal growth stops. Prune out knots
                                                            and destroy. Since the fungus m ay have extended
                                                            beyond the swelling, m ake cuts well below visible
                                                            infection.
Brow n Rot, Blossom Blight                                  See "Peach."
 See "Peach."




                                                           12
                                                                                                              Revised 3/10

                                                 Pear Diseases

 Disease, Symptoms                                            Control
 Fire Blight                                                  See "Apple." Also see SP277R, and avoid planting
   See “Apple.”                                               highly susceptible varieties.

 Pear Scab                                                    Chem ical*: Ferbam , Flint, Sovran, Pristine, Inspire
  Caused by a different fungus from apple scab                Super MP, Scala, Topsin M, Vangard and Ziram can be
 fungus. Sym ptom s are sim ilar, but twig infections can     used on pear, and a regular spray schedule, as for
 also occur.                                                  apple, is needed for control. Mancozeb can also be
                                                              used, but not within 77 days of harvest.
                                                              NOTE: Captan is not labeled for use on pears.
                                                              HOMEOW NERS: Neither m ancozeb nor 3336 can be
                                                              used on residential pear trees. Copper and sulfur
                                                              products are the only fungicides labeled for use on
                                                              residential pears.

                                                              Cultural: Rake and destroy fallen leaves, on which the
                                                              fungus overwinters.

 Fabraea (Entomosporium) Leaf Spot                            Chem ical*: The fungus overwinters on twig cankers and
   Spots can occur on leaves, shoots and fruit spots are      on fallen leaves. Mancozeb is the m ost effective
 at first purplish-black dots, becom ing circular, brown      fungicide, but has a 77-day preharvest interval. Ferbam ,
 lesions about 1/8 inch in diam eter.                         Flint, Sovran, Pristine, Topsin M, and Ziram are also
                                                              effective.

                                                              Cultural: Rake and destroy fallen leaves.


                                                Plum Diseases

 Black Knot                                                   See "Cherry." Avoid planting highly susceptible
  See "Cherry."                                               varieties such as Dam son, Stanley, Bluefree and
                                                              Shropshire.

 Brow n Rot, Blossom Blight                                   See "Peach."
  See "Peach."

 Bacterial Spot                                               See "Peach." Avoid planting highly susceptible varieties
  Can be a severe problem on Japanese plum s;                 such as AU Frontier, AU Rosa, AU Rubrum , Frontier,
 Am erican and European plum s are less susceptible.          Methley and Santa Rosa. Som e Japanese plum
 See "Peach" for sym ptom s.                                  varieties are resistant.


*Refer to the m anufacturer’s label and to the spray guides in this publication for inform ation on chem ical rates, tim ing
of sprays, resistance m anagem ent strategies, preharvest intervals, and other restrictions.




                                                            13
                                                                                                              Revised 3/10


                                  DISEASES OF SMALL FRUITS
Refer to the m anufacturer’s label and to the spray guides in this publication for inform ation on chem ical rates, tim ing
of sprays, resistance m anagem ent strategies, preharvest intervals, and other restrictions.


                                           Blackberry Diseases

 Disease, Pathogen, Symptoms                                 Control

 Anthracnose (Elsinoe veneta)                                Chem ical*: Apply Abound, Cabrio, Pristine, or captan
     This disease can be severe on thorned                   before bloom and repeat at 7- to 14-day intervals through
 blackberries grown in Tennessee. Leaf spots are             harvest. Make no m ore than two consecutive
 roughly circular with a light gray center and a             applications of Abound, Cabrio, or Pristine before rotating
 reddish-purple m argin. On the berry, individual            to a non-related fungicide such as captan or copper.
 drupelets becom e purplish brown and sunken after
 infection. They eventually becom e dry and scabby.          Cultural: Destroy nearby wild bram bles. Plant in well-
 The m ost dam aging phase of anthracnose in                 drained site and allow good air circulation by spacing
 Tennessee is the berry phase.                               plants and controlling weeds. Rem ove and destroy
                                                             fruiting canes im m ediately after harvest.

 Cane Blight (Leptosphaeria coniothyrium)                    Chem ical: No fungicides have been identified for this
     Cane blight appears only on fruiting canes;             purpose, but late-season applications of basic copper
 infection occurs on prim ocanes near the end of the         sulfate m ay be helpful. See label for directions.
 growing season. It seem s to be m ost severe when
 drought stress occurs after widespread infections           Cultural: See anthracnose.
 take place. Cankers form on the cane, often at the
 nodes, and extend down or encircle it, causing lateral
 shoots to wilt and die.

 Crow n Gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens)                     Chem ical: None is effective after infection takes place.
     W artlike growths (galls) appear on the roots or
 crowns of infected plants. Gall m ay range in size          Cultural: Obtain clean planting stock from a reputable
 from that of a pinhead to several inches in diam eter.      nursery and inspect the roots and crowns for galls. Do
 Plants are weakened and yield dry, poorly developed         not plant in fields with a history of crown gall. Avoid
 berries. Galls are caused by bacteria present either        fields previously planted with bram bles, grapes, tree
 in the soil or on planting stock. The bacteria enter        fruits or other highly susceptible hosts. The practice of
 the plant only through wounds or growth cracks.             m owing black-berry plants after harvest can cause crown
                                                             gall problem s because of dam age to the roots and
                                                             crowns.

 Orange Rust (Kunkelia nitens)                               Chem ical: Apply Abound, Cabrio, Pristine, or Rally
     Orange rust can be a destructive disease trailing       beginning in early spring and continue at 10- to 14-day
 blackberries and purple and black raspberries. Most         intervals until early sum m er. Hom eowners m ay use
 of the erect blackberry varieties grown in Tennessee        sulfur. These fungicides will not help system ically-
 are resistant. This disease is caused by a fungus           infected plants.
 that grows system ically through the plant. The new
 leaves on infected plants are weak, spindly, and            Cultural: Careful inspection in spring and im m ediate
 yellowish. Later, the undersides of the leaves show         rem oval of infected plants is the m ost im portant practice
 visible orange, blisterlike pustles, which release          for controlling orange rust. Dig up infected plants, roots
 spores. Canes appear to recover in late sum m er, but       and all, and burn them . Once the spores are produced,
 are still diseased and will not bear fruit the following    they can cause new infections that m ay not appear until
 year.                                                       the following spring. Rem ove and destroy all nearby wild
                                                             bram bles. Plant resistant varieties.




                                                            14
                                                                                                       Revised 3/10
                                         Blackberry Diseases

Disease, Pathogen, Symptoms                                Control

Rosette (Cercosporella rubi)                               Chem ical*: Alternate Pristine with Switch every 10 to 14
    Rosette, or double blossom , can be the m ost          days from early bloom through harvest. If rosette bloom s
destructive disease of blackberries if allowed to          are still present after harvest, fixed copper or Bordeaux
increase after its initial appearance in a planting.       m ixture can be used, but can cause plant dam age in hot
"W itches' broom s," broom like clusters of foliage,       weather.
arise from buds infected the previous year.
Blossom s borne on the bunchy growth fail to bear          Cultural: Rem ove rosettes (infected blossom clusters)
fruit. Infected blossom s have elongated sepals and        before they open. Use only roots, not plants for planting
wrinkled petals. These blossom s are the sole              stock. Rem ove and destroy nearby wild bram bles. Plant
source of inoculum , which infects new canes.              resistant varieties.
Heavily infected plants are weakened and m ay die.

Sterility                                                  Chem ical: None.
   The cause of blackberry sterility is not fully
understood, but m ay be a virus. Affected plants grow      Cultural: Rem ove and destroy plants that fail to set fruit.
vigorously, but they either fail to set fruit or produce   Plant only certified, disease-free planting stock. Destroy
few-seeded berries.                                        nearby wild bram bles.




                                          Blueberry Diseases

Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes)                Chem ical: The spray schedule used for m um m y berry
 Also called "ripe rot." Infected berries rem ain          control will help in controlling anthracnose. Include
sym ptom less until m aturity, when the infected area      Abound, Cabrio, Pristine, or Switch where anthracnose
becom es slightly sunken. Masses of salm on-colored        problem s are expected. Captan can also be used.
spores are exuded to the surface.
                                                           Cultural: Prune out and destroy blighted twigs, on which
                                                           the fungus overwinters.

M ummy Berry (Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosil)               Chem ical*: Orbit, Tilt, Pristine, and Indar are the m ost
  As berries approach m aturity, they becom e light        effective m aterials. Indar should be tank m ixed with
pinkish to cream colored and drop to the ground as         captan to prevent rots. Make up to four applications,
m um m ified fruit. Blighting of leaves, shoots, and       beginning at green tip and repeat at 7- to 10-day intervals
flowers can occur. The fungus overwinters on the           through petal fall. Do not apply Pristine m ore than twice
ground in m um m ified berries.                            consecutively.

                                                           Cultural: W here m um m y berry is a problem , early spring
                                                           cultivation will aid in control by covering the overwintered
                                                           berries.

Stem Blight (Botryosphaeria dothidea)                      Chem ical: None.
  One or m ore branches exhibit yellowed or reddened
leaves, followed by death of the branch. Stem s show       Cultural: Pruning during coldest and driest winter m onths
brown discoloration of woody tissue, often only on         m ay reduce infections, since inoculum is at lowest levels
one side of the stem . Penetration into the plant is       during the winter. Avoid nitrogen applications after June,
prim arily through wounds.                                 to allow shoots to harden before winter.

Tw ig Blight (Phomopsis vaccinii)                          Chem ical: The spray schedule recom m ended for
  Infection occurs in flower buds, and advances down       m um m y berry would help in controlling twig blight. Indar
the stem 2 to 6 inches, causing a dieback of the           (plus captan), Cabrio, Pristine, and ziram are the m ost
flower bearing stem s. The fungus overwinters in           effective m aterials.
twigs infected the previous year.                          Cultural: Prune and destroy discolored twigs during
                                                           dorm ant pruning and sum m er.


                                                           15
                                                                                                      Revised 3/10



                                             Grape Diseases
Disease, Pathogen, Symptoms                               Control

Anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina)                            Chem ical*: On anthracnose-susceptible varieties, liquid
  Also known as "bird-eye rot" because of the dark        lim e-sulfur applied during dorm ant season is helpful.
m argin around the gray-colored spot on the fruit, this   During growing season, apply Pristine alternated with
disease is usually confined to certain highly             captan. Other fungicides m ay be needed for other
susceptible varieties such as Vidal blanc. Num erous      diseases.
spots m ay occur on shoots, leaves, tendrils, petioles
and fruit stem s.                                         Cultural: Destroy pruned canes and clusters during
                                                          dorm ancy.

Bitter Rot (Greeneria uvicola)                            Chem ical*: Include captan, Abound, Flint, Pristine, or
  Can be severe on certain varieties, such as             Sovran in late-season sprays. Control is needed in the
Catawba. The fungus enters the berry from the             weeks before harvest, but heed preharvest intervals for
stem , and a grayish discoloration of the berry begins    the fungicides.
on the stem side. The appearance of tiny black
fungal fruiting bodies and a shriveling of the berry      Cultural: Destroy prunings and m um m ified berries.
into a hard, dry m um m y can cause this disease to be
m istaken for black rot.

Black Rot (Guignardia bidwellii)                          Chem ical*: The m ost effective fungicides are Abound,
  Very com m on and highly destructive. Berry             Elite, Flint, ferbam , m ancozeb, Nova, Sovran, and Ziram .
sym ptom s begin as light brown, circular spots which     Captan is also effective. The key spray tim es are
rapidly discolor the entire berry. The berries shrivel    im m ediately before bloom , at post-bloom , and 10 days
to hard, black wrinkled m um m ies. Leaf spots are        later. Sprays prior to or after that period are also helpful.
reddish-brown with dark m argins. Dark spots form
on green stem s and tendrils.                             Cultural: Destroy prunings and m um m ified berries.

Crow n Gall (Agrobacterium vitis)                         Chem ical: None.
  Knots form on roots, crowns and som etim es, on
canes. These galls m ay grow to several inches in         Cultural: Plant winter-hardy varieties, avoid sites with a
diam eter. The am ount of dam age to the plant varies     history of crown gall and avoid injuries to the canes.
from none to death of the plant. W inter-injured vines
frequently becom e infected.

Eutypa Dieback (Dead Arm) (Eutypa lata)                   Chem ical: No registered products protect pruning
  Occurs only in older grapevines because infections      wounds from infection.
develop slowly. Sym ptom s consist of dying arm s and
yellowed, cupped leaves on new growth in the spring.      Cultural: Avoid pruning during and before wet weather,
Leaves develop sm all necrotic spots and tattered         and m ake clean, close cuts to encourage callusing.
m argins. Infection occurs on trunk and m ain             Identify infected plants in spring and rem ove and burn
branches through pruning wounds. Spores are               infected canes when weather is not rainy.
present throughout the year.

Dow ny M ildew (Plasmopara viticola)                      Chem ical*: Abound, captan, copper plus lim e, Presidio,
 Light yellow spots form on upper sides of leaves,        Pristine, Ranm an, Ridom il Gold Copper, Flint, Sovran,
and a white, m oldy growth is very noticeable on the      and Tanos are the effective m aterials that can be applied
undersides of the leaves. The affected leaves             in m id- to late-season, when downy m ildew is active.
eventually becom e dry, brown and crum pled, and fall.
Defoliation can be severe on som e varieties in wet
seasons.




                                                          16
                                                                                                      Revised 3/10
                                              Grape Diseases


Disease, Pathogen, Symptoms                                Control

Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot (Phomopsis                    Chem ical*: Captan, m ancozeb, and Pristine are the
viticola)                                                  m ost effective m aterials. Applications should begin
    Infected leaves have tiny, dark spots and are          shortly after bud break and continue through fruit set.
often puckered. Stem s also show dark lesions.
Infected berries form tiny pim ple-like structures on      Cultural: Destroy prunings during dorm ant period.
the surface. These structures also form on the
stem s, which often turn light gray to white in winter.

Pow dery M ildew (Uncinula necator)                        Chem ical*: Abound, Elite, Flint, Nova, Pristine, Procure,
  This disease usually does not significantly dam age      Rubigan, Sovran, sulfur, and Topsin M are the m ost
the Am erican varieties. However, m any of the             effective m aterials.
vinifera varieties show a high degree of susceptibility.
It appears as a white powdery growth on the leaves
and berry clusters. Severely affected leaves turn
brown and fall.




                                          Raspberry Diseases

Crow n Gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens)                    Sam e as for blackberry.
 Refer to crown gall of blackberries.

Gray M old (Botrytis cinerea)                              Chem ical*: Apply Elevate, Pristine, Switch, Rovral or
  In wet seasons, gray m old can cause a significant       Ronilan at early bloom and full to late bloom . Additional
loss of flowers and fruit. Blossom s m ay show a           applications m ay be m ade, as allowed by the label.
blasting that m ay extend down the pedicel. Infected
berries becom e covered with a gray, dusty fungal          Cultural: See Septoria leaf spot, below. Also, avoid
growth. Mature berries are m ore susceptible than          excessive nitrogen fertilizer applications. Pick fruit
young ones. Berries som etim es do not show gray           frequently and early in the day as soon as plants are dry.
m old until after harvest; they can quickly becom e a      Handle berries with care to avoid bruising.
rotted m ass in storage.

Late Leaf Rust (Pucciniastrum americanum)                  Chem ical: Nova, Abound, Pristine, or Cabrio m ay be
  This disease can occasionally be dam aging to            helpful.
som e varieties of red raspberries, although it occurs
late in the season. This rust does not occur on black      Cultural: The single-crop system of producing
raspberries or blackberries. Sm all pustules filled with   everbearing varieties should help control, because this
powdery yellow spores (not waxy like orange rust           fungus is thought to overwinter on raspberry canes.
pustules) form on the underside of leaves. These
spore m asses can also occur on petioles, canes and
berries. Badly infected leaves drop prem aturely.




                                                           17
                                                                                                       Revised 3/10
                                          Raspberry Diseases

Disease, Pathogen, Symptoms                                Control

Septoria Leaf Spot (Septoria darrowii)                     Chem ical*: Apply Abound, Cabrio, Pristine, Rally,
  This is one of the m ost destructive raspberry           captan, Tanos, or fixed copper. A 10- to 14-day
diseases in Tennessee. Septoria can cause alm ost          schedule m ay be needed throughout the growing
total leaf loss, especially on highly susceptible          season, if weather conditions rem ain favorable for
varieties such as Bababerry. Heritage seem s to            disease (warm , wet).
have som e tolerance. Leaf spots have a tan to gray
center surrounded by a thin, brown to purple border.       Cultural: Rem ove and destroy fruiting canes im m ediately
The spots are circular and about 1/8 inch in diam eter.    after harvest. Keep the planting properly thinned and
Leaf spots caused by Septoria are sim ilar to              control tall weeds.
anthracnose leaf spots on raspberry or blackberry.
Septoria leaf spots have tiny, black fruiting bodies in
the center.

Phytophthora Root Rot (Phytophthora spp.)                  Chem ical*: Ridom il Gold EC can be applied to the soil in
  This disease is usually associate with heavy soils       the spring and fall, and Aliette can be applied to the
or portions of the planting that are the slowest to        foliage up to 4 tim es per year. These chem ical controls
drain. Affected plants m ay show a general lack of         are not very effective if the cultural controls below are not
vigor, or they m ay decline and die. The tissue            followed.
underneath the epiderm is on the m ain roots and
crown is a brick red (later turning brown), rather than    Cultural: Plant only on well-drained sites. Planting on
a norm al white.                                           raised beds is helpful, and is im portant if drainage is
                                                           occasionally inadequate. Avoid planting highly
                                                           susceptible varieties.

Viral Diseases (Tomato Ringspot Virus, M osaic,            Chem ical: None
Leaf Curl)
  Virus diseases are a m ajor problem in raspberries       Cultural: Plant only certified, virus-indexed stock.
in the northern United States, but are relatively m inor   Destroy nearby wild or neglected bram bles. Do not plant
in Tennessee, presum ably because of a lack of the         black or purple raspberries near red raspberries,
proper vectors (carriers). The viruses seen in             because reds can tolerate m osaic and act as a reservoir
Tennessee are probably m osaic (a virus com plex)          of inoculum which will spread to the black raspberries, if
and tom ato ringspot.                                      the proper aphid species are present.




                                                           18
                                                                                                     Revised 3/10
                                        Strawberry Diseases

Disease, Pathogen, Symptoms                              Control

Gray M old (Botrytis cinerea)                            Chem ical*: To avoid resistance problem s, choose any 3
  A com m on fruit rot disease that can be very          of the following 4 fungicides and apply them in any order
destructive in wet seasons. Gray m old often starts      at weekly intervals during bloom : Elevate, Switch, Scala,
as a blossom blight and continues as a rot of green      or Pristine. Another choice would be captan or thiram
and ripe fruit. Many fruit infections begin when the     (no resistance m anagem ent needed). Since thiram
fungus enters blossom s and rem ain latent until fruit   provides deer and rabbit repellence, it would be
begin to m ature. In wet weather, diseased plant         preferable over captan where these pests are a problem .
parts are covered with fuzzy brown to gray m asses of    Effective control of the berry phase depends on a good
fungal spores. Berries becom e m ore susceptible as      spray program during bloom .
they m ature, and gray m old m ay continue to develop
after harvest, becom ing a rotted m ass.                 Cultural: Select a well-drained planting site. Renovate
                                                         m atted-row planting properly to thin plants. Avoid
                                                         excessive nitrogen fertilizer rates. Mulch to reduce fruit
                                                         contact with soil. In plasticulture plantings, rem ove
                                                         winter-killed leaves before bloom period. Pick berries
                                                         frequently and refrigerate prom ptly.

Common Leaf Spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae)              Chem ical*: Apply Topsin M plus captan or thiram on
  The m ost com m on strawberry leaf disease in          susceptible varieties, beginning in early spring. Repeat
Tennessee; leaf spot can be severe on certain            at 10- to 14- day intervals until sum m er. Also needed in
varieties. Most varieties show som e leaf spot, but no   fall. Nova (Rally) is very effective, but is not as broad
real dam age. Lesions are circular, 1/8 to 1/4 inch in   spectrum .
diam eter, and are purple with a white, gray or tan
center. Favored by cool, wet weather.                    Cultural: Plant resistant varieties. Use certified plants
                                                         and select a well-drained site. Renovate properly to
                                                         avoid overly-dense plantings, and do not over-fertilize.

Leaf Scorch (Diplocarpon earliana)                       Chem ical: Sam e m aterials as for leaf spot. Control
  Round to irregular, purple spots up to 1/4 inch in     needed during sum m er.
diam eter form on the leaf surface. If the spots
becom e num erous, large areas of the leaf becom e       Cultural: Sam e as for leaf spot.
reddish-purple to brown and the entire leaf m ay turn
brown and die. Not often seen in Tennessee.

Leaf Blight (Phomopsis obscurans)                        Chem ical: Sam e as leaf scorch.
  Spots are often irregular in shape, brown with a
purple border, becom ing large, V-shaped areas.          Cultural: Sam e as for leaf spot.
Leaf blight is a hot-weather diseasel. Older leaves
m ay becom e blighted and die in large num bers.

Leather Rot (Phytophthora cactorum)                      Chem ical*: Apply Ridom il Gold EC at fruit set, or Aliette,
  This fruit rot occurs sporadically, but can            Cabrio, or Quadris at 7-14 day intervals, beginning at
occasionally cause econom ic losses. Disease             bloom . Captan, applied as for gray m old control, is
developm ent is very dependent on wet weather.           adequate for light cases of leather rot.
Infected berries are light to dark brown, becom ing
tough and leathery. In early stages of disease           Cultural: Select a well-drained planting site, and m ulch
developm ent, infected ripe fruit are softer than        to prevent fruit contact with soil.
healthy ones.




                                                         19
                                                                                                          Revised 3/10
                                           Strawberry Diseases
 Disease, Pathogen, Symptoms                                 Control

 Pow dery M ildew (Sphaerotheca macularis)                   Chem ical*: On susceptible varieties in perennial culture,
  Particularly severe in greenhouses and in tunnel           applications m ay be needed throughout the growing
 production. Leaf edges curl upward, with reddish-           season, beginning at early bloom . For plasticulture, begin
 purplish discoloration. Patches of white, powdery           shortly after planting in fall. Rally, Procure, Quintec, or
 fungus m ycelium m ay appear on leaves. Fruit set           sulfur m ay be used at 14- to 21-day intervals.
 m ay be poor and im m ature fruit becom es hard and
 fails to ripen norm ally.

 Red Stele (Phytophthora fragariae)                          Chem ical*: Apply Ridom il Gold EC before bloom and
    Red stele is not as com m on as it once was,             again in the fall. Aliette can be applied when growth
 because m any of today's varieties are resistant to it.     begins and repeated at 30-60 day intervals.
 It is caused by a soil-borne fungus that is m ost
 dam aging in heavy, wet-natured soils. Plants first         Cultural: Avoid sites having low-lying, clay soils. Plant
 appear stunted and dull in color, then wilt and             on raised beds. Purchase certified disease-free plants of
 eventually die. Roots decay and show reddish or             resistant varieties. Do not plant in fields with a history of
 brown cores (steles). Roots becom e devoid of lateral       red stele. The causal fungus can rem ain in the soil up to
 rootlets, giving them a rat-tailed appearance.              13 years.

 Verticillium W ilt (Verticillium albo-atrum)                Chem ical: Preplant fum igation.
   This disease does not occur frequently on
 strawberries in Tennessee. Most of the varieties            Cultural: Adequate control can be obtained without
 grown are resistant to it. This disease is favored by       fum igation by planting resistant varieties and avoiding
 cool weather. The sym ptom s are sim ilar to those for      sites planted to susceptible crops such as tom ato, potato,
 red stele, except Verticillium does not cause red           eggplant, okra and pepper.
 discoloration in the roots.


*Refer to the m anufacturer’s label and to the spray guides in this publication for inform ation on chem ical rates, tim ing
of sprays, resistance m anagem ent strategies, preharvest intervals, and other restrictions.




                                                            20
                                                                                                   Revised 3/10
                           Commercial Pecan Disease Control Guide

Time of Application         Disease           Product Choices        Rate/acre         Remarks

First Prepollination        Scab, downy       Abound 2F              12 fl oz/acre     Do not m ake m ore than 2
W hen first buds have       spot              or Enable 2F           8 fl oz/acre      consecutive applications of
opened.                                       or Headline 2F         6-7 fl oz/acre    Abound, Headline, Stratego,
                                                                                       or Sovran before alternating to
                                              or Orbit 3.6F          4-8 fl oz
                                                                                       a non-strobilurin fungicide.
                                              or Quash 50W G         2.5-3.5 oz        Topsin M should be alternated
                                              or Sovran 50W G        2.4-3.2 oz/acre   with other fungicides.
                                              or Stratego 2F         10 fl oz/acre     Note: No dodine products are
                                              or Super Tin 80W P     5-7.5 oz/acre     currently registered in
                                              or tebuconazole 3.6F   4-8 fl oz/acre    Tennessee.
                                              or Topsin M 70W P      1 lb/acre

Second                      Scab, downy       Sam e fungicides as                      The first two sprays are very
Prepollination              spot              above.                                   im portant for scab control.
14 days after First
Prepollination spray

First Cover Spray           Scab, downy       Sam e fungicides as                      If using Sovran, the rate
W hen young nuts first      spot              above.                                   increases to 3.2-4.8 oz.
appear.

Second Cover Spray          Scab, leaf        Sam e fungicides as                      Sulfur (3 lb per acre) can be
2 to 3 weeks after first    blotch, brown     above.                                   added to m ost fungicides for
cover spray.                leaf spot,                                                 im proved powdery m ildew
                            powdery m ildew                                            control.

Third Cover Spray           Scab, leaf        Sam e fungicides as                      Apply cover sprays at 2-week
2 to 3 weeks after          blotch, brown     above.                                   intervals in rainy weather, 3-
second cover spray.         leaf spot,                                                 week intervals if dry conditions
                            powdery m ildew                                            exist.

Fourth Cover Spray          Sam e as third    Sam e fungicides as
2 to 3 weeks after          cover spray.      above.
third cover spray.

Fifth Cover Spray           Sam e as third    Sam e fungicides as
2 to 3 weeks after          cover spray.      above.
fourth cover spray.

Sixth Cover Spray           Sam e as third    Sam e fungicides as                      Do not apply fungicides after
2 to 3 weeks after fifth    cover spray.      above.                                   shucks have started to open.
cover spray.




                                                           21
                                                                                                    Revised 3/10
                               Homeowner Pecan Spray Guide

Time of Application          Pest Controlled           Pesticide                        Remarks

1 s t Spray - Budbreak       Scab                      Halt or Thiom yl                 1 s t Spray is key for
                             Phylloxera                m alathion, Merit 75W P, or      Phylloxera control.
                                                       Merit 2F


2nd Spray - 14 days later    Sam e as 1s t Spray       Sam e as 1 s t Spray             Early sprays are key for
                                                                                        scab control.

3rd Spray - 3 weeks later    Scab                      Sam e as 1s t Spray              Use insecticide only if the
                             Pecan nut casebearers,                                     stated insects are present.
                             aphids and spittlebugs                                     Merit not for pecan nut
                                                                                        casebearers.

4 th Spray - 3 weeks later   Scab and other leaf &     Sam e as 1s t Spray              Use insecticide only if the
                             nut diseases                                               stated insects are present.
                             Aphids, spittlebugs

5 th Spray - 3 weeks later   Scab and other leaf &     Sam e as 1 s t Spray. Om it      Use insecticide only if the
                             nut diseases              fungicides if no nuts present.   stated insects are present.
                             Aphids, spittlebugs

6th Spray - 3 weeks later    Sam e as for 5 th Spray   Halt or Thiom yl if nuts         Do not apply 3336 after
                             plus fall webworm ,       present                          shucks have started to
                             shuckworm , & pecan       m alathion                       open.
                             weevil*                   carbaryl if history of pecan     *For weevil control, m ake
                                                          weevil*                       an additional application of
                                                                                        carbaryl between the 6 th
                                                                                        and 7 th sprays.

7 th Spray - 3 weeks later   Fall webworm , black      m alathion                       Merit can be used for
                             aphid, and pecan weevil   carbaryl if history of pecan     black aphid only.
                                                          weevil




                                                       22
                                                                                                                                                                                       EPP 227 (3/10)


      Fungicides and Bactericides for Home Fruits, Vegetables, and Ornamentals
                                                              Steve Bost, Professor, Entomology & Plant Pathology

Material                             Most Common Uses                                          Example Brand Names

captan                               fruits, ornamentals                                       Bonide Captan
                                                                                               Bonide Fruit Tree Spray*
                                                                                               Captan Fungicide (Southern Ag)
                                                                                               Ferti-lome Liquid Fruit Tree Spray*
                                                                                               Hi-Yield Captan

chlorothalonil                       vegetables, ornamentals, turf                             Bonide Fung-onil
                                                                                               Ferti-lome Broad Spectrum Landscape & Garden Fungicide
                                                                                               Gardentech Daconil
                                                                                               Liquid Ornamental and Vegetable Fungicide (Southern Ag)
                                                                                               Ortho Garden Disease Control

copper**                             fruits, vegetables                                        Fixed copper: Various brand names. Look for “basic copper
                                                                                               sulfate” or “copper hydroxide” as active ingredient.
                                                                                               Bordeaux mixture: Sold as Bordeaux Mixture, or you can mix
                                                                                               spray lime with bluestone copper (copper sulfate pentahydrate).

lime sulfur                          fruits                                                    Hi-Yield Lime Sulfur Spray

mancozeb                             vegetables                                                Bonide Mancozeb Flowable
                                                                                               Dithane
                                                                                               Manzate

maneb                                vegetables                                                Hi-Yield Maneb Lawn & Garden Fungicide

myclobutanil                         ornamentals, fruits                                       Immunox (ornamentals, fruits)
                                                                                               Immunox Plus (ornamentals only)

PCNB                                 vegetables                                                Hi-Yield PCNB Granular
                                                                                               Terraclor 75WP

propiconazole                        ornamentals, turf                                         Bonide Infuse
                                                                                               Ferti-lome Liquid Systemic Fungicide

sulfur**                             fruits, vegetables, ornamentals                           Sulfur and other brand names

streptomycin**                       fruits, ornamentals                                       Agri-mycin 17 Agricultural Streptomycin
                                                                                               Ferti-lome Fire Blight Spray

thiophanate methyl                   ornamentals                                               Ferti-lome Halt
                                                                                               Thiomyl (Southern Ag)

triforine               ornamentals only                                                       Ortho Rosepride Funginex
*Fruit tree combination products contain insecticides.
**Qualifies for organic production.

                                                                                               Disclaimer Statement
Pesticides recommended in this publication were registered for the prescribed uses when printed. Pesticides registrations are continuously reviewed. Should registration of a recommended pesticide be
                                                                 canceled, it would no longer be recommended by the University of Tennessee.
 Use of trade or brand names in this publication is for clarity and information; it does not imply approval of the product to the exclusion of others which may be of similar, suitable composition, nor does it
                                                                                guarantee or warrant the standard of the product.


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