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Chemistry Midterm Study Guide (THIS PROVIDES AN OUTLINE OF TOPICS THAT HAVE BEEN CO VERED!!!) *General Study Tip: Study vocabulary terms, notes, section and chapter review questions for Ch. 1-6. ALSO: Study the Standardized Test Prep questions on pgs. 25, 63, 93, 129, 171, 1. Math Review/Ch. 2 Measurements and Calculations 1. Metric-Metric Conversions using dimensional analysis o Convert each measurement to the desired unit: a) 40 mL = ____L b) 8 g = ______kg 2. English-Metric Conversions using dimensional analysis o Convert each measurement to the desired unit: A) 9.8 lb = ______g B) 14 cm = _____ in C) 49 fl. oz = _____ L 3. What are the steps of the Scientific Method? 4. How do hypotheses and theories differ? 5. What is a quantity? 6. What is the measuring system used by scientists around the world? 7. Review the SI Base Units. 8. Review the SI Prefixes 9. Explain the difference between mass and weight. 10. Review derived SI units 11. How are the terms mass, volume, and density related? Be able to solve for any variable using the formula. 12. Be able to apply use conversion factors. Complete practice problems on p. 42 #3. 13. Explain the difference between accuracy and precision. 14. How do you calculate percentage error? 15. Review the rules for adding/subtracting with sig figs and multiplying/dividing with sig figs. 16. Complete p. 57 #2-4 17. Know how to write your answers in scientific notation. Complete p. 57 #6. 18. Explain the difference between direct proportions and inverse proportions. B. Ch. 1 Matter and Change 1. Define chemistry. 2. List and define the 6 branches of chemistry. 3. How do basic research, applied research, and technological development differ? 4. Explain how mass and matter differ. 5. Name an example of an element, compound, mixture. 6. Define atom. 7. Compare and contrast extensive and intensive properties. 8. Define physical property and list examples. 9. Explain the four states of matter. 10. Define chemical property and list examples. 11. Explain the difference between a chemical change and physical change. 12. Write an example of a chemical reaction and label the reactants, products, and yields sign. 13. Study the classification of matter chart on p.11 14. Differentiate between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures vs. pure substances. 15. How is the periodic table organized? (Ch. 1 Section 3) 16. Explain how metals, nonmetals, metalloids differ and list examples of each type. C. Ch. 3 Atoms the Building Blocks of Matter 1. Explain the history behind the atom. Include contributions of Democritus, Aristotle, Dalton. 2. What is the law of conservation of mass? 3. What is the law of definite proportions? 4. What is the law of multiple proportions? 5. List the 5 statements in Dalton’s Atomic Theory? 6. Which statements in Dalton’s Theory have been changed or corrected? (What do we know now about atoms?) 7. Explain what an atom is and how the subatomic particles are arranged within an atom. 8. Explain the major contributions of J.J. Thompson, Robert A. Milikan, and Ernest Rutherford related to the atom. Be able to explain the experiment each scientist conducted during their discoveries. 9. Define atomic number 10. Define isotope. 11. Define mass number 12. How many protons, electrons, and neutrons are in an atom of chlorine-37? 13. Define atomic mass unit. 14. Be able to calculate average atomic mass. Write out the example of an average atomic mass calculation from p. 82. D. Ch. 4 Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms 1. Define electromagnetic radiation. 2. Define electromagnetic spectrum. 3. Explain the difference between wavelength and frequency. 4. Be able to use the speed of light formula and the energy formula. Look at p. 99 5. Write the speed of light constant. C=? 6. Write Planck’s constant. H=? 7. Explain the photoelectric effect. 8. What is a photon? 9. Explain the difference between the ground state and excited state of an atom. 10. Explain the difference between absorption and emission. Use the terms electron, light, and energy levels in your explanation. Be able to draw a picture of both examples. 11. What was the major contribution of De Broglie? 12. Explain the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. 13. What is quantum theory? 14. Determine the four quantum numbers for Be, P, Ag, and U. 15. Define each type of quantum number. 16. What is the electron configuration? 17. Explain the Aufbau principle. 18. Explain the Pauli exclusion principle. 19. Explain Hund’s rule 20. Write the electron configuration, noble gas configuration, AND orbital notation for the following: a. B b. Mg c. Ni d. W E. Ch. 5 The Periodic Law 1. How did Mendeleev’s periodic table differ from that of Moseley? 2. In general, how is the periodic table organized? 3. Explain the periodic law. 4. Make a chart outlining the major characteristics of the following a. The alkali metals b. The alkaline-earth metals c. The transition metals d. The halogens e. The noble gases f. The lanthanides g. The actinides 5. Sketch a picture of the location of the s-, p-, d- and f- blocks on the periodic table. 6. How are hydrogen and helium unique elements? Look at p. 142-143. 7. Draw a rectangle representing the periodic table and use arrows to show the direction of increase for the following periodic properties along a period and a group: a. Atomic radii b. Ionization energy c. Electron affinity d. Ionic radii e. Electronegativity 8. What are valence electrons? F. Ch. 6 Chemical Bonding 1. Definition of a chemical bond. Why do some atoms tend to form chemical bonds? In other words, what are they trying to achieve? 2. Ionic bonding vs. Covalent bonding- Know characteristics and types of elements involved in each type of bonding. 3. Calculate electronegativity difference between to bonded atoms. Determine bond type based on electronegativity difference. 4. What is the smallest unit of a covalent compound called? What is the smallest unit for an ionic compound called? 5. Define bond energy and bond length. What is the relationship between these to terms? 6 Explain what the octet rule regarding chemical bonding. 7. Know some exceptions to the octet rule. i.e. H, B, S, P 8. Be able to draw Lewis Dot structures for individual atoms and molecules. 9. Be able to calculate the number of bonds needed to form a particular molecule. 10. Compare and contrast single, double, and triple bonds. 11. Define resonance structures. 12. Explain what lattice energy is. 13. Be able to identify/define polyatomic ions. 14. Describe the characteristics/properties of metallic bonding.- malleability, ductility, good conductors, sea of electrons, etc. 15. Know what each letter of the VSEPR theory stands for and be able to explain the theory. 16. Identify the geometry and bond angles for molecules. 17. What is an intermolecular force? Describe and provide examples of the three main types of intermolecular forces.
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